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SHEIKH ZAYED ISLAMIC CENTRE
University of Karachi

“ISLAM & SCIENCE ASSIGNMENT”

Submitted to:
Dr. Umar Hayat Asim
Submitted by:
Ariba Inayet
Roll# 05
Date:
September 10, 2015

Islam:
Islam is one of the largest religions in the world with over 1 billion followers. It is a monotheistic faith based on revelations received by the Prophet Muhammad in 7th-century Saudi Arabia. The Arabic word Islam means “submission” reflecting the faith's central tenet of submitting to the will of God. Followers of Islam are called Muslims.
The sacred text of Islam, the Qur'an, was written in Arabic within 30 years of Muhammad's death. Muslims believe it contains the literal word of God. Also important is the tradition of the sayings and actions of Muhammad and his companions, collected in the Hadith. Islamic practices center on the Five Pillars of Islam—faith; prayer; fasting; pilgrimage to Mecca; and alms
Science:
Science is the system of acquiring knowledge through use of the scientific method — that is, generating hypotheses and theories through observation and testing. Science is intimately linked with technology; technology is developed using scientific discoveries and science is reliant on technology to further its ideas. The goals of science are to learn more about the world and use this knowledge for the betterment of humankind, or for the destruction of mankind, whichever comes first.
The term "science" originally referred to knowledge in general. However, it has been evolved to refer primarily to the natural sciences the study of the natural world and the fundamental laws of nature biology, chemistry, physics, etc. In its original usage, fields such as theology were called 'sciences', which seems strange to people only familiar with its contemporary usage. To make it even more confusing, science was originally derived from "natural philosophy". Science is generally distinguished from the humanities the study of human history and human literature although, the social sciences and psychology straddle the boundary to some extent.
Islam and Science:
The religion Islam has its own world view system including beliefs about "ultimate reality, epistemology, ontology, ethics, purpose, etc."[13] Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the final revelation of God for the guidance of humankind.
Science is the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.[14] It is a system of acquiring knowledge based on empiricism, experimentation and methodological naturalism, as well as to the organized body of knowledge human beings have gained by such research. Scientists maintain that scientific investigation needs to adhere to the scientific method, a process for evaluating empirical knowledge that explains observable events without recourse to supernatural notions.
Muslim Scientists * Abdul Qadeer Khan
Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan is hailed by the masses as a national hero and father of Pakistan’s nuclear bomb. He was born on April 27, 1936 at Bhopal in central India. From paternal side he belonged to the Turkish origin of Ghauri Tribe, who arrived in India in 12th Century A.D. while from maternal side his lineage belonged to the Mughals. His father Abdul Ghafoor Khan, who had graduated from Nagpur University in 1896, was one of the most respectable and honorable members of the community, and his mother Zulekha Begum were known as religious-minded woman. Some of his family members migrated to Pakistan immediately after independence but he migrated exactly after five years on August 15, 1952.
Abdul Qadeer Khan got his primary education in Ginnori Primary School and passed his Middle examination from Jehangiria Middle School. From Alexandria High School later named Hameedia High School, he got his matriculation. Later he got admission in D.J Sindh Government Science College, Karachi. From Karachi University he achieved his B.Sc. degree and the following year he succeeded in the competitive examination. He served as Inspector of Weights and Measures for three years but then he left for West Germany to get higher education. In Berlin he achieved high competence through attending several courses in metallurgical engineering. He obtained the degree of Master of Science (Technology) in 1967 from Delft University of Technology, Belgium and then earned a doctorate in metallurgy from the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) in 1972. He excelled as a metallurgist — an expert at building centrifuges — hollow metal tubes that spin very fast to enrich natural uranium in its rare U – 235 isotopes, which is an excellent bomb fuel.
No sooner had India declared their nuclear designs than Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto opted for the nuclear weapon even earlier.
“For many Pakistanis, however, Khan remains a symbol of pride, a hero whose contribution strengthened Pakistan’s national security against India.” Robert S. Norris
I am proud of my work for my country.
Abdul Qadeer Khan

* Abdus Salam
Mohammad Abdus Salam (1926-1996) was his full name, which may add to the knowledge of those who wish he was either not Ahmadi or Pakistani. The man proudly lived and died as both, and much more, as Pakistan disowned him, in life and in death. The government denied him the honour of a state funeral; the media remained absent from the burial ceremony at Rabwah, which has since been renamed not after Abdus Salam but as Chenab Nagar, just to spite its Ahmadi residents.
The restyled epitaph at his grave near his native Jhang awkwardly reads: “First ------ Nobel Laureate”, from which the word “Muslim” has been deleted under court orders; the court, even in its narrow mindedness could have ordered the replacement of “Muslim” with “Pakistani” but that was not to be. This son of Jhang is less known in his own country today than the terrorist Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, even though he had founded and led an abler lashkar (brigade) of some 500 Pakistani physicists and mathematicians over the years whom he arranged to send to UK and US universities on scholarship for higher studies.
He was the guiding spirit and founder of Pakistan’s nuclear programme as well as Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (Suparco). The pygmies who after him headed the two institutes he was allowed to set up in Pakistan in his pre-non-Muslim years have since been credited with laurels, and honoured more, even in their dishonourable conduct, as father of this and that, while the Godfather remains conspicuous by his absence in official records.
Dr Salam became the victim of rigid social attitudes and state discrimination against his community when Z.A. Bhutto through an act of parliament declared the Ahmadis non-Muslim in 1974. Heartbroken at the humiliation, he left Pakistan in protest to live in Europe where in 1979 he was awarded the Nobel for his groundbreaking research in theoretical physics; soon roads were named after him in Geneva and Trieste, if not in Islamabad or Jhang. The same year, as it happened, Bhutto was hanged by Gen Zia’s kangaroo court, but the Ahmadis’ predicament was Bhutto’s only legacy that Zia embraced wholeheartedly and built on even further. Despite being given the roughshod, Dr Salam from his institute in Italy, continued to patronise bright Pakistani scientists and students through a scholarship programme. His alma mater Government College, Lahore, which has named its mathematics and physics departments after Dr Salam, and Pakistan Post, which issued a two-rupee stamp to honour him, remain the only state institutions to have acknowledged him.
The nascent rock band aptly named as Beghairat Brigade, of Aalu Anday fame, has hit the nail on the spot with their lyrics of the popular song which rightly laments: aithe Abdus Salm noon puchhdai koi nai (nobody values Abdus Salam here) as they point out that murderers Qadri and Qasab have become our heroes. His birth anniversary, January 29, remains a long shot from being celebrated as Dr Abdus Salam Day, even though we invent anomalies like the Yaum-i-Takbir (atomic detonation day) and Sindhi Culture Day, amongst the myriad others, that are officially marked on our calendar. How truly unworthy is Pakistan of its only Nobel laureate.
(Rest in peace, Dr Salam.) * Atta-ur-Rahman
Atta-ur-Rahman (born 22 September 1942), PhD, FRS,FPAS, is a Pakistani organic chemist and a leading scientist in the field ofnatural product chemistry, with approximately 983 important publications in the field of Organic chemistry, including his works referenced in 155 books largely published by publishers in Europe and the United States.
Briefly tenuring as a science adviser, he is also credited for reviving higher education and research practices in Pakistan.
Atta-ur-Rahman was born on 22 September 1942 in Delhi, British India (nowIndia) into an Urdu-speaking academic family. His grandfather, Sir Abdur Rahman, was a vice-chancellor of the University of Delhi (1934–38) who briefly served as a judge at the Madras High Court.
In 1946, Abdur Rehman was appointed as vice-chancellor of the Punjab University in Lahore, eventually relocating his family there, a year before thePartition of India took place. Abdur Rehman eventually ascended as aSenior Justice at the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1949.[4] His father, Jamil-ur-Rahman, was a lawyer who established a textile industry in Karachi,Sindh. Atta-ur-Rehman was a bright student at school.[4] After settling inKarachi in 1952, he excelled in passing the competitive O-Level and A-Levelfrom the Karachi Grammar School and joined Karachi University.
Attending Karachi University in 1960, Rahman graduated with a bachelor's degree (with honors) in Chemistry in 1964, with degree concentration innatural products. He obtained a Master of Science (MSc) in organic chemistry in 1965, and earned a Commonwealth Scholarship for doctoral studies in the United Kingdom.[4] He joined King's College of the Cambridge University and resumed research in natural products under J. Harlon-Mason. In 1968, Rahman received his Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Organic chemistry; his doctoral thesis contained fundamental work on natural products and organic materials. In 1987, Cambridge University also conferred him with the Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) for his contribution for the advancement of the chemical sciences. In 2007, the Coventry University bestowed him with theDoctor of Education (Ed.D.) in recognition of his services to help improve science education in Pakistan.
In addition, Rahman has been conferred with the honoris causa by various institutions including the Bradford University (in 2010); the Asian Institute of Technology (in 2010); and the Universiti Teknologi MARA (in 2011). * Sc.D. from Cambridge University (1987) * DSc. from Sir Syed University (2003) * DSc. from Gomal University (2004) * Sc.D. from Karachi University (2005) * Ed.D. from Coventry University (2007) * Sc.D. from Bradford University (2010) * DSc. from Asian Institute of Technology (2010) * DSc. from Universiti Teknologi (2011)
Prizes and Awards:
Rahman is the most decorated scientist of Pakistan having won four civil awards from successive governments including the highest national Civil Award of Nishan-i-Imtiaz. Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in July 2006 thereby becoming one of the 4 scientists from the Muslim world to have ever won this honor in the last 350 years when the Royal Society was established, and the only scıentıst to be so recognısed for researches carrıed out wıthın a Islamıc country. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been conferred the UNESCO Science Prize in 1999.[30] He has been conferred honorary doctorate degrees by many universities including the degree of Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) by the Cambridge University (UK) (1987) and an Honorary degree of Doctor of Education by Coventry University UK in November 2007. He was elected Honorary Life Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, UK in 2007. Rahman was conferred the TWAS Prize for Institution Building in Durban, South Africa in October 2009 in recognition of his contributions bringing about revolutionary changes in the higher education sector in Pakistan. He was awarded the Engro Excellence Award in Science & Technology 2011 with a prize of Rs. 5 million (US $59,000) for meritorious contributions. He proceeded to use the money, in addition to funds from his private finances, to establish a research center on Genomics in Karachi University named after his father Jamil-ur-Rahman, and to start a TWAS Prize in Chemistry for deserving young researchers from developing countries that has been instituted by TWAS, The World Academy of Sciences, Trieste, Italy.[28]
He is President of Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) and the former Vice-President (Central & South Asia) of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) Council, and Foreign Fellow of Korean Academy of Sciences. Rahman was the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–06), and was again elected President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences in January 2011.
Research activities: * Editor-in-Chief/Executive Editor of following international journals: * Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands) * Current Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands) * Current Pharmaceutical Design (Netherlands)(Founding Editor) * Current Organic Chemistry (Netherlands) * Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening (Netherlands) * Current Organic Synthesis (Netherlands) * Current Nanoscience * Letters in Organic Chemistry (Netherlands) * The Natural Products Journal * Medicinal Chemistry * Nanoscience and Nanotechnology-Asia * Current Organic Chemistry * Natural Product Research (Founding Editor, UK) * Current Pharmaceutical Analysis * Current Analytical Chemistry * Editor of an encyclopedic series of books on natural product chemistry, Studies in Natural Product Chemistry, 43 volumes of which have been published by Elsevier Science Publishers under his Editorship since 1990. * Co-Editor of book series, Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry * Director of H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi * Patron-in-Chief of the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi

* Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari, (born Sept. 12, 1966, Meshed,Iran), Iranian-born American businesswoman who was the first female space tourist, the first person of Iranian descent, and the first Muslim woman to go into space.
Ansari emigrated from Iran to the United States in 1984 as a teenager. She earned a bachelor’s degree in electronics and computer engineering from George Mason University, Fairfax, Va., in 1988 and a master’s degree in electrical engineering from George Washington University, Washington, D.C., while working full-time at MCI Communications. In 1993 Ansari, her husband, Hamid Ansari, and her brother-in-law, Amir Ansari, cofounded Telecom Technologies, Inc. The company was acquired by Sonus Networks, Inc., in 2000 in a deal worth approximately $550 million.
Ansari’s interest in space exploration was in evidence before her spaceflight. In 2002 Ansari and her brother-in-law made a multimillion-dollar contribution to the X Prize Foundation, a nonprofit organization that manages competitions to encourage innovations that benefit humanity. The Ansari family’s gift was used to fund the Ansari X Prize, a cash award of $10 million for the first private company to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks. In 2004 the aerospace development company Scaled Composites of Mojave, Calif., won the Ansari X Prize with SpaceShipOne, a vehicle conceived by American aircraft designer Burt Rutan.
Ansari arranged to participate in a spaceflight through Space Adventures, Ltd., a space-tourism company. Although the exact terms of the deal remained private, Ansari was estimated to have paid around $20 million for her participation in the mission. In early 2006 she began spaceflight training in Star City, Russia, originally as a backup for Enomoto Daisuke, a Japanese businessman. When Enomoto was disqualified from flying on the mission for medical reasons, Ansari replaced him on the flight crew of Soyuz TMA-9.
Ansari lifted off into space on Sept. 18, 2006, with commander Mikhail Tyurin of Russia and flight engineer Michael Lopez-Alegria of the United States. On Sept. 20, 2006, the spacecraft docked to the International Space Station, where Ansari spent eight days. She performed a series of experiments concerning human physiology for the European Space Agency, was interviewed from space for an astronomy show on Iranian national television, and published dispatches and answered questions on her blog while stationed on the ISS (thereby becoming the first person to blog from space). She returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-8, landing in Kazakhstan on Sept. 29, 2006.
After completing her space mission, Ansari continued to work as a businesswoman and entrepreneur. In 2006 she cofounded Prodea Systems, a digital technology company, and served as the company’s first chief executive officer. Prodea announced a partnership with Space Adventures, Ltd., and the Federal Space Agency of Russia to create a fleet of suborbital spacecraft for commercial use.

* Muhammed Faris
Muhammed Faris, in full Muhammed Ahmed Faris (bornMay 26, 1951, Aleppo, Syria), Syrian pilot and air force officer who became the first Syrian citizen to go into space.
After graduating from military pilot school at the Syrian air force academy near Aleppo in 1973, Faris joined the air force and eventually attained the rank of colonel. He also served as an aviation instructor and a specialist in navigation later in his military career. In 1985 he was chosen as one of two Syrian candidates to participate in the Intercosmos spaceflight program, which allowed cosmonauts from allied countries to participate in Soviet space missions. Faris reported to the cosmonaut training centre in Star City, Russia, for training on Sept. 30, 1985.
Faris flew into space as a research cosmonaut on board the Soyuz TM-3 spacecraft on July 22, 1987, as part of the first visiting crew to the Mir orbital space station. The three-man crew included, along with Faris, two Soviet cosmonauts, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr P. Aleksandrov. During the mission, Faris conducted several research experiments with Soviet cosmonauts in the fields of space medicine and materials processing. He returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-2 on July 30, 1987, having spent a total of eight days in space.
After his mission, Faris returned to the Syrian air force and settled in Aleppo. For his accomplishments as a cosmonaut, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and he also received the Order of Lenin, the Soviet Union’s highest civilian decoration. * Mostafa A. El-Sayed
Mostafa A. El-Sayed (born 8 May 1933) is an Egyptian-American chemical physicist, a leading nanoscience researcher, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a US National Medal of Sciencelaureate. He is also known for the spectroscopy rule named after him, the El-Sayed rule.
Research:
he earned his B.Sc. from Ain Shams University Faculty of Science, Cairo in 1953.[3] El-Sayed earned his doctoral degree from Florida State Universityworking with Michael Kasha, the last student of the legendary G. N. Lewis . He spent time as a researcher at Harvard University, Yale University and theCalifornia Institute of Technology before joining the faculty of the University of California at Los Angeles in 1961. He is currently the Julius Brown Chair and Regents Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He heads the Laser Dynamics Lab there.
El-Sayed is a former editor-in-chief of the Journal of Physical Chemistry (1980-2004)
Honors:
For his work in the area of applying laser spectroscopic techniques to study of properties and behavior on the nanoscale, El-Sayed was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1980, and in 2002, he won the Irving Langmuir Award in Chemical Physics. He has been the recipient of the 1990 King Faisal International Prize ("Arabian Nobel Prize") in Sciences, Georgia Tech's highest award, "The Class of 1943 Distinguished Professor", an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the Hebrew University, and several other awards including some from the differentAmerican Chemical Society local sections. He was a Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at the California Institute of Technology and an Alexander von Humboldt Senior U.S. Scientist Awardee. He served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Physical Chemistry from 1980–2004 and has also served as the U.S. editor of the International Reviews in Physical Chemistry. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of theAmerican Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Third World Academy of Science. Mostafa El-Sayed was awarded the 2007 US National Medal of Science "for his seminal and creative contributions to our understanding of the electronic and optical properties of nanomaterials and to their applications in nanocatalysis andnanomedicine, for his humanitarian efforts of exchange among countries and for his role in developing the scientific leadership of tomorrow."[7] Mostafa was also announced to be the recipient of the 2009 Ahmed Zewail prize in molecular sciences. In 2011, he was listed #17 in Thomson-Reuters listing of the Top Chemists of the Past Decade.[8] On June 16, 2015, it was announced that Professor El-Sayed will receive the 2016 Priestley Medal, the American Chemical Society’s highest honor, for his decades-long contributions to chemistry.
“Islamic Research Centers” * khan research laboratories:
The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times asProject-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province. The laboratories are one of the largest science and technology institutions in Pakistan, and conduct multidisciplinary research and development in fields such as national security, space exploration, and supercomputing.
While the laboratories remain highly classified, the KRL is most famous for its research, development, and production of Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU), using gas centrifuge (Zippe-type) technological methods roughly based on the model of the Urenco Group—the technology brought by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who worked there as a senior scientist.[3] Since its inception, there has been a large number of employed technical staff members with majority beingphysicists and mathematicians, assisted by engineers (both army and civilians),chemists, and material scientists.[4] Professional scientists and engineers are also delegated to visit this institute after going under close and strict screening and background check, to participate as visitors in scientific projects.
During the midst of the 1970s, the laboratories were the cornerstone of the first stage of Pakistan' atomic bomb project, being one of the various sites where the classified scientific research on atomic bombs were undertaken.
Extended Researches:
The KRL supports and provides research opportunities program at the Government College University (GCU) in Lahore; it supports its physics program through funding and providing scholarship to physics and engineering students at the Government.
The continuing efforts to make the laboratories more science efficient led the Ministry of Science (MoSci) to grant a three research and fellowship programmes with the Government College University with the support of Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF).[20][21] Since 1980 at present, the KRL continues to develop the research work on computational mathematics, supercomputing and advanced mathematics to the extended applications to natural sciences.[22] In 1999, the KRL established a research institute on computer science at Kahuta, which was later integrated to University of Engineering and Technology in Taxila.
The civilian research on biotechnology, biology and Genetic Engineering is supported by the KRL at the University of Karachi,[24] with the support from Pakistan Science Foundation. The KRL organized a conference on Computational biology in Islamabad to present overview of the scope of computational sciences.
National Security Program:
Apart from researching on uranium and developing the uranium enrichment facilities, the KRL includes a ballistic missile-space research laboratories that competes with the PAEC to produce advanced ballistic missiles ranging for targeting enemy combatant targets and the space exploration. Its space-missile exploration projects based on producing the liquid fuelrockets in comparison to solid fuel rockets projects of the National Development Complex (NDC). The KRL's missile projects are widely believed to be based on North Korean technology; exchanges took place in the late 1990s. The following missiles have been produced by KRL: * Ghauri I (Hatf V) - first tested in 1999. * Ghauri II - has a range of 2,000-2,500 km. * Hatf-I
The KRL performs variety of weapons science and engineering projects for Pakistan Armed Forces. Since the 1980s, the KRL is involved in numerous military equipment and conventional weaponry development projects. The resulting systems have been put into service by the Pakistan's military and exported to other friendly nations. The following is a list of known equipment produced under these projects: * Guided missiles: * Anza series of man-portable air defence systems. * Baktar-Shikan man-portable anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) system. * Modules for the BGM-71 TOW ATGM. * Electrical and electronic equipment: * Power conditioners for the above missile systems. * Switched-mode power supplies for the following air defence systems: * LAADS radar, Skyguard radar, Air Defense Automation System. * Equipment for clearance of anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, including remote control mine exploders (RCME) and mine-sweeping line charges. * Laser equipment: * Laser range-finders, laser warning receivers, laser aiming devices, a laser actuated targeting system for training tankgunners. * Reactive armour kits for armoured vehicles and APFS-DS anti-tank ammunition for main battle tanks. * Digital goniometers.
KRL is said to have entered into an agreement with Malaysian businessman Shah Hakim Zain to export weapons to Malaysia.

* HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry
On the retirement of Professor Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (FRS) as Chairman PCSIR, his services were taken up by the University of Karachi and a "Postgraduate Institute of Chemistry" was established under his Directorship in 1967 in a wing of the Department of Chemistry. PCSIR provided the services of some of its staff (including Dr. Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Dr. Zafar H. Zaidi) and furniture during the initial phase of the establishment of this institute. Dr. Atta ur Rahman joined the Institute in March 1969 after obtaining Ph.D. from the Kings College, Cambridge University, later he accepted a 4-year assignment as a Fellow of Kings College, Cambridge University. He was then sent by Cambridge University to the University of Karachi during 1971-74 to assist in the setting up of a modern postgraduate institute of chemistry, and he brought with him donations of gas chromatograph, balances and a combustion microanalyser from Cambridge University. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman succeeded in obtaining grants to acquire a new mass and NMR spectrometers, both of which were installed in 1973, within a year of his return to Pakistan. He was appointed as the Co-Director in 1977. He succeeded in winning several major projects for the institute from the West, which have transformed the institute into the finest center in Asia and one of the best in the world in the field of Natural Product Chemistry. A generous donation was offered to the University for the Institute by the leading philanthropist/industrialist Mr. Latif Ebrahim Jamal on behalf of the Husein Ebrahim Jamal Foundation in 1976, the largest donation at that time in the history of the country. The Institute was accordingly named as "Husein Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry", in the memory of late Mr. Husein Ebrahim Jamal. The efforts of Professor Dr. W. Voelter of Tuebingen University, Germany, deserve a special praise since the initial grant of 2.3 million DM from the Republic of Germany was largely due to his untiring efforts, and collaborative researches continue with his group till today. Professor Atta-ur-Rahman was appointed as the Director in January 1990, while Professor Viqar Uddin Ahmad took over as Co-Director in 1990. In 2000, Professor Bina S. Siddiqui was appointed as the Co-Director on the retirement of Professor Ahmad, while in 2002 Professor Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary was given the responsibilities of the Director (Acting) of ICCBS and Co-Director of Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research. In September 2008, he was appointed as the Director of the ICCBS institutions. During last ten years, the institute has gone through a rapid and unprecedented expansion, both in terms of infrastructure development and academic programs, while maintaining the highest quality in research and student training. The institute has organized a number of major international conferences and symposia on various aspects of Natural Product Chemistry, Spectroscopy and Protein Chemistry. The institute had the distinction of hosting the 19th IUPAC Symposium on Natural Product Chemistry in January 1994 in which over 500 scientists from 52 countries, including 4 Nobel Laureates participated. Additionally the Institute has also been selected as one of the three library centers of the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS). The H.E.J. Institute has been designated as the W.H.O. Center for Pesticide Analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The institute is also a member of the IUCN-International, WAITRO, and COMSATS. More recently the institute is designated as the OIC Center of Excellence in Chemical Sciences. In 2001, the H.E.J. Research Institute became a constituent institution of the International Center for Chemical Sciences (later named as International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences). In 2004, the H.E.J. Research Institute received the most prestigious IDB (Islamic Development Bank) prize for the best science institution in the entire Islamic world. Recently, the IDB awarded the best science institution again to the H.E.J. Research Institute (second time), an unprecedented honor to any science institution in OIC region. In August 2003, an Industrial Analytical Center was established as the service wing of H. E. J. Institute. Third World Center (TWC) Laboratory complex was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 2005 as an extension of the H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry. The building of TWC was renamed as Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman Laboratories by the Executive Board in 2011, in recognition of the outstanding services of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman (FRS) who is now serving the ICCBS institution as the Patron-in-chief. Molecular medicine is an emerging new field, which deals with the understanding of the molecular basis of diseases and then developing appropriate strategies for their early diagnosis, management and elimination. Knowledge of human biology and disease mechanism at molecular level is the most important step in developing effective disease prevention and treatment. In the year 2004, the Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research (PCMD) was established through a generous donation and patronage of Ms. Nadira Panjwani (Chairperson, Dr. Panjwani Memorial Trust) in the memory of her beloved father, Dr. Mohammad Hussain Panjwani, a leading scholar and philanthropist. The main objective of the center is to train highly qualified manpower in the emerging new fields of molecular medicine and drug development. The academicians, clinicians and pharmaceutical researchers are brought together to translate basic scientific discoveries into new therapies, vaccines and diagnostic tests. Late Mr. Latif Ebrahim Jamal, Chairman Ebrahim Jamal Foundation, continuing his patronage to the Institute, established the Latif Ebrahim Jamal National Science Information Center in 2005. The beautiful building of this one of the largest paperless libraries of the region was constructed under the direct supervision of Mr. Aziz Latif Jamal S.I. (Current Chairman Husein Ebrahim Jamal Foundation), able and committed son of (Late) Mr. Latif Ebrahim Jamal. * Urenco
The Urenco Group is a nuclear fuel company operating several uranium enrichment plants in Germany, the Netherlands, United States, and United Kingdom. It supplies nuclear power stations in about 15 countries, and states that it had a 29% share of the global market for enrichment services in 2011.Urenco uses centrifuge enrichment technology.
In July 2012, it was reported that a sale of the government interests of Urenco was being sought.Urenco, headquartered in Stoke Poges in Buckinghamshire and registered in the UK, is one third owned by the UK government, with the rest split between the Dutch government and two major German utilities, E.ON and RWE.
Urenco is owned in three equal parts by Ultra-Centrifuge Nederland NV (owned by the Government of the Netherlands),Uranit GmbH (owned equally by German energy companies E.ON and RWE) and Enrichment Holdings Ltd (owned by theGovernment of the United Kingdom and managed by the Shareholder Executive).[7] The company was set up in 1971 pursuant to the Treaty of Almelo, which restricts the sale of ownership stakes.[8][9] As of 2012, the owners are considering a potential sale.

Controversies:
Abdul Qadeer Khan
In the 1970s, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan who worked for a subcontractor of URENCO in Almelo, brought the drawings of the centrifuges operated by Urenco to Pakistan by notifying the URENCO administration and the Dutch government. Those blueprints were taken from URENCO administration and they knew about this fact. In the early 1974, Dr. Khan joined theuranium enrichment programme, launched by Munir Ahmad Khan under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime minister that time. Later, he took over the project, and established a facility that produces the HEU based. Within a short span of time established a highly advanced uranium enrichment facility near Islamabad.[12]
Namibia
In May 1985, the United Nations Council for Namibia (UNCN) decided to take legal action against Urenco for breaching UNCN Decree No 1, which prohibited any exploitation of Namibia's natural resources under apartheid South Africa, because Urenco had been importing uranium ore from the Rössing mine in Namibia. The case was expected to be ready by the end of 1985 but was delayed because Urenco argued that, despite having enriched uranium of Namibian origin since 1980, it was impossible to tell where specific consignments came from. When the case finally reached court in July 1986, the Dutch government took Urenco's line, claiming not to have known where the uranium had been mined.[13]
Uranium tails contracts with Russia
According to Greenpeace, Urenco has a standing contract with Russia for the disposal of radioactive waste. In reality, these contracts do not relate to the disposal of waste, but to the sale of depleted uranium tails, which are re-enriched to natural uranium equivalent.[14][15] As the enricher, Russia would be the owner of any radioactive waste that results from this process. In March 2009, there were protests about the largest-ever load of depleted uranium hexafluoride being transported from Germany to the Siberian town Seversk. * Pakistan academy of science
The idea of establishing the Academy was mooted in November 1947 when the first national education conference was organized by the Ministry of Education in Karachi, Sindh, which was inaugurated Muhammad Ali Jinnah– the founder and theGovernor-General of Pakistan. No immediate actions were taken at that time, though the discussion to establish the academy continues between the senior scientists and the Pakistan government.[4] After an extensive discussion took in 1948-53, the academy was established and materialized in a concession reached by the senior scientists and government, with the assistance from the foreign scientists and the foreign learned societies.
Many scholars and scientists emigrated from India to Pakistan in the 1950s that would give foundation to the academy, including Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Nazir Ahmed, and Raziuddin Siddiqui.Eventually, a draft was written by Raziuddin Siddiqui and approved by the council in 1950 After considerable planning and deliberations, the inauguration of the Academy was fixed, and it was established on 16 February 1953 by Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin who was the chief guest at the inauguration.[6] The ceremony took place at the University of the Punjab and was witnessed by a gathering of over 1,000 scientists, including from the Royal Society (United Kingdom), National Academy of Sciences (India), Academy of Science and Letters (Norway), National Academy of Sciences (United States), Academy of Sciences (Iran), and UNESCO. Dr. Nazir Ahmed delivered an honorary message to Prime Minister Nazimuddin for helping the cause of the Academy. At first, the Academy was sited in Lahore and considerations were made to establish the headquarters of the Academy inKarachi—a temporary federal capital at that time. An additional office was established in Dhaka to support scientific activities in East Pakistan
In 1965, the headquarters of the academy was permanently shifted to Islamabad the federal capital and was located near the Quaid-e-Azam University until 1976In 1976, the headquarters was shifted to a rented building in Islamabad, with financial assistance from the Pakistan Science foundation (PSF). The rented building contained the library of the Academy, a committee room, office rooms for the Secretary, the editor and officestaff, and a couple of guest rooms for visiting fellows. Special initiatives taken by senior scientists in 1978, President Zia-ul-Haq granted a federal land for the purpose of Academy's headquarters near the Constitution Avenue by allocating ₨. 700million which commissioned CDA Engineering for designing and constructing the headquarters. In 1979, the headquarters of the academy was inaugurated.
Research:
The Academy has a rich tradition of organizing conferences promoting the work of researchers from multiple fields of science. The Academy's Lahore chapter recently held a National Research Conference in Lahore on 29 and 30 June 2007.
Publications:
The Academy regularly publishes a quarterly journal The Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences since 1963 that is distributed to international scientific organizations and universities by subscription and on exchange basis.

Reference:

* http://www.islam-guide.com/ * http://www.b

ritannica.com/biography/Anousheh-Ansari * http://www.dawn.com/news/674855/salaam-abdus-salam * http://www.britannica.com/biography/Muhammed-Faris * http://www.worldknowledge1.com/fomous-scientists/abdul-qadeer-khan.php * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Qadeer_Khan * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khan_Research_Laboratories * http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/pakistan/missile/3294_3321.html * http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/kahuta.htm * Malaysia Today Article * "Protests as biggest ever nuclear waste load goes to Siberia". russiatoday.com. * "World Nuclear Association: Uranium enrichment - section "Enrichment of depleted uranium tails"". world-nuclear.org. * "Rosatom says uranium tail contracts will not be renewed, citing economic infeasibility". bellona.org. * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan_Academy_of_Sciences * http://www.britannica.com/biography/Anousheh-Ansari…...

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