Premium Essay

Yeoe0O3 S

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By seanodoherty
Words 283
Pages 2
Berlin Wall

Construction of the Wall

Early in the morning of Sunday August 13 1961 the GDR began under the leadership of Erich Honecker to block off East Berlin and the GDR from West Berlin by means of barbed wire and antitank obstacles. Streets were torn up, and barricades of paving stones were erected. Tanks gathered at crucial places. The subway and local railway services between East and West Berlin were interrupted. Inhabitants of East Berlin and the GDR were no longer allowed to enter West Berlin, amongst them 60,000 commuters who had worked in West Berlin so far. In the following days, construction brigades began replacing the provisional barriers by a solid wall.
The reaction of the western allies was moderate, since the three essentials of the American policy regarding Berlin were not affected: presence of allied troops, free access to Berlin and the right of self-determination of the West Berliners.

After 1961-08-23, citizens of West Berlin were no longer allowed to enter East Berlin. On 1961-09-20, the forced evacuation of houses situated immediately at the border to West Berlin began. On 1962-08-17, Peter Fechter, an eighteen years old citizen of East Berlin, bled to death after he was shot down by East Berlin border patrol in an attempt to escape over the wall.

On 1963-06-21, the Minister of National Defense of the GDR gave orders concerning the installation of a border area at the frontier between the GDR and West Berlin. Afterwards inhabitants of East Berlin living within a distance of 100 m to the border had to register.

The GDR propaganda called the wall an Anti-fascist protection…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mormons in the 1830's and 40's

...Justin Dosey Mormons in the 1830’s and 40’s The United States of America is said to be an “International melting pot,” inhabited by a number of culturally diverse people. Each and every distinct group has played their part in the development of nation whether ‘twas good or bad. I believe that the members of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” (otherwise known as Mormons) have proved to be crucial to the growth of the U.S.A. in every aspect. After the establishment of religion in 1827, Mormons have been the target of persecution and discrimination by many. The bulk of this persecution occurred in 1836 when a group of rebel militia attacked Mormon headquarters located in Northern Missouri. This ambush against the Mormons sparked an onslaught of hate crimes to come. After being exiled from Missouri and Illinois, Brigham Young led an intrepid party of immigrants into the Great Salt Lake valley in 1847. The population grew rapidly, and by 1849, the Mormons had managed to form a civil government with Young at the helm. This brief summary has set the stage for this report, where I will evaluate Mormons of the 1830’s and 40’s and enlighten you on their beliefs, culture, and impact throughout American History. Establishment of Religion The establishment of the LDS church is a very interesting story that many people do not understand. “In the spring of 1820, a 14-year-old boy named Joseph Smith went into a grove of trees near his home in Palmyra, New York...

Words: 4385 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

S Plus

...1055 RX Amsterdam, The Netherlands). ISBN 90-804652-2-4 Preface In September 1997 Insightful (formerly known as MathSoft) released S-PLUS 4 for Windows, which added a complete new graphical user interface to the existing S-PLUS programming environment. It allowed non-programming minded users to access the advanced visualization techniques and modern analysis methods of S-PLUS. As a result, S-PLUS has gained enormous popularity over the past years among applied statisticians and data analysts. Over the last three years the content of this book has been used for introductory courses on S-PLUS. This book is aimed at people who are (completely) new to S-PLUS. It covers the graphical user interface of S-PLUS and introduces the underlying S language. The main goal of this book is to get you started and the best way to do that is to use this book interactively during an S-PLUS session. After reading this book you should be able to import data into the system, do some data manipulation and data cleaning. Furthermore, you should be able to visualize your data, apply statistical functions to your data, enter basic S-PLUS commands and write functions. The first edition of this book appeared in 1999, it was aimed at users of S-PLUS 2000. This edition is updated for S-PLUS 6 (see Appendix C for a list of new features). Chapters 8 and 9 about the S language have been restructured and extended. Throughout the book more examples are given, spelling mistakes and other errors have been......

Words: 10252 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Memo for S-S Technologies

...Memo for S-S Technologies a) S-S Technologies’ organizational purpose is for manageable growth, focusing on products within the company’s scope and skills. b) Using the framework in CoCo’s guidance on control to evaluate S-S, in my view, the control system of S-S is not efficient in some area. Firstly, from the aspect of purpose, s-s has its objectives, but as we can know from the consultants’ interviews, few employees were aware of SST’s goals and strategies. SST also don’t have specific policies to support the achievement of its objectives, for instance, there was no policy regarding bonus or merit pay. Secondly, from the aspect of commitment, SST has high commitment and employees loved the work environment. However, as we can know from the consultants’ interviews, the responsibilities are not clear among the managers or workers. Some employee felt cheated because SST could not afford to pay bonus. Thirdly, the employees in SST do have necessary knowledge and skills and knew whom to contact for technical information. However, in terms of performance appraisal, it was not done at regular intervals, people also don’t know whom to contact about benefits and salary ranges. The decisions and actions of different parts of the SST are not coordinated. What’s more, it doesn’t have efficient monitoring processes. SST can’t reassess its related information systems as condition change. c) Example of market: in early 1990, the North American economy was in a......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

S-Socks

...Required Output  Target list (distributors, agents and/or retail chains): -The three largest retailers in the Finnish market for clothing and home textiles are S-Group ,Kesko and Stockmann department stores. In addition to these the clothing market is dominated by Swedish chains H&M, Lindex and KappAhl and Finnish Halonen, Seppälä and Moda. Within home textiles the biggest names are Marimekko and Finlayson. - exhibiting products at tradeshows you should consider showing your collection at Finnish Catwalk which is for clothes or Habitare which is for home products involved in these fairs and travel Finland showing products to smaller stores. - Specialized agents and importing company can be the best and safest option. These companies would first select and buy a few articles for their stock and then sell them to their customers. The commission would be around 15% and the billing would be between the supplier and the importer -The importance of electronic commerce is also growing.According to a survey made by FINATEX (Federation of the Finnish textile and clothing industry) 20 % of the respondents had purchased women’s clothing online and about 15 % had purchased children’s clothing online. It has been estimated that electronic commerce, within the textile industry, will increase to more than 1.4 million Euros in 2016. [ (The Textile and Clothing sector: Business opportunities in Finland, 2014) ]  Target message:All the major chains have strict store concepts......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The 60's

...unauthorized assistance with it. Signed: Michael Raymond, November 30, 2013. “Write an essay interpreting how one rock group or singer's music reflected and/or influenced the 1960s.” Living Dead: The Cultural Impact of the Grateful Dead The decade of the 1960’s saw plenty of musicians become involved in the protest movement. Bob Dylan, Joan Baez and Joni Mitchell, among others, wrote of the injustices of American society. While the Beatles were singing “All You Need Is Love”, the Rolling Stones wrote about the “Street Fighting Man”. Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young sang about the Kent State shootings in “Ohio”. Country Joe McDonald encouraged the burning of draft cards while leading the “Fish Cheer”. However, the degree of influence each had on not just the 1960’s, but ensuing decades waned as burnout, family life, and lifestyle choices took their toll. The act whose music reflected and influenced not just the 60’s, but decades to come, was the Grateful Dead. The music of the Dead reflected the counterculture of the 1960’s, fostered a self-sustaining, traveling multicultural community, and delivered a message of peace and love for thirty years. San Francisco was the center of the counterculture movement of the 1960’s. The Haight-Ashbury neighborhood attracted thousands of youths from across the country, looking to drop out of traditional society and build a new society. In the middle of this scene, living at 710 Ashbury, were the members of the Grateful Dead. The house band......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

1930's

...National Commission During the late 1800’s there was an intense rivalry between professional baseball leagues. A National Agreement was signed by the different leagues to govern relations between rival major leagues. After that agreement fell apart, a second agreement was signed in 1904, which ended the two-year war between the National League and the upstart American League. This legislation that was passed contained a formation of a commission. They created a National Commission to settle disputes regarding player contracts and arrange for an annual post-season championship series. This turned into the start of the World Series. This commission consisted of a chairperson, the American League president, and the National League president. Only the chairperson himself was given a salary by the National Commission. The other members of the commission being the National League president and the American League president served on the National Commission without compensation. Some of the powers of the commission were to interpret and carry out the terms and provisions of the agreement while also being able to enact and enforce fines and suspensions. One of the major roles of the commission came whenever a National League or American League club claimed the services of the same player. The Chairman of the Commission decides the right to that player. The Chairman shall make said decision without the help of his two associates. If the Chairman of the Commission and the major...

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Wendy"S

...communication material. The CCO also advise employees and managers on communication tasks to help meet the company’s goal of communicating effectively with their target audience, as well as the goal of building a positive view point of the company. Todd A. Penegor holds the title of Chief Financial Officer (CFO) at Wendy’s. The CFO’s responsibilities include, but are not limited to, financial reporting, budgeting, personnel management and overseeing the financial goals of the company. Robert D. Wright holds the title of Chief Operations Officer (COO). Mr. Wrights responsibilities is to lead the administrative and operational area of the corporation managing personnel matters, business processes, international systems, and quality control. Craig S. Bahner holds the title of Chief Marketing Officer (CMO). The CMO’s responsibilities include building the company’s brand and image, gaining customer loyalty, product development, developing pricing, sales management, marketing communication, and giving the company a competitive edge. These six people top out Wendy’s management team. (Wendy's, 2014) THE ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES OF A FUCTIONAL STRUCTURE The advantage of Wendy’s having a functional structure is that each Chief Officer is specialized within a specific area of the company. For example the Chief Marketing Officer is specialized in building the company brand, overseeing many employees that work and focus in that area specifically. Wendy’s having a functional......

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Social Events of the 1950's, 60's, 70's, 80's, and 90's

...The Social Events of the 1950's, 60's, 70's, 80's, and 90s Introduction Over the past 50 years, there have been many changes within the social movement in the United States. Some of these changes have been for the better and some not so great. These changes were made with the hopes and dreams of making life better for all cultures, species, families, and environment. Now the question is, how did these change come about, and what were these changes about? Social Life of the 1950's In the early 1950's was a new beginning for the United States. With the end of the Great Depression and World War II, people felt that they could start living, and have things they thought they would never have, like a home, cars, a wife or husband, and children. With the new beginning, families started moving from large city life to the suburbs, for the reason that life in the suburbs was considerable less hectic and peaceful than what city life was like. Due to the Great Depression, many men and women put off getting married or starting families for the reason of lack of money or homes, and with the War, many were afraid they might not come home. However, with the new feeling of security and peace couples were able start the family they always wanted and so began the Baby Boom years. People moving to the suburbs......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

S. Flexneri

...The evolution of multi drug resistant strain shigella sonnei from its ancestor E. Coli and predecessor S. Flexneri and its spread to Vietnam Introduction Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897. The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella causes disease in primates, and is the only naturally found in humans and apes. Shigella is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea worldwide and it is suggested that Shigella causes about 90 million cases of severe dysentery, with at least 100,000 of these resulting in death each year. Shigella originates from a human-adapted E. coli that has gained the ability to invade the human gut mucosa, spreading through fecal-oral transmission via contaminated food or water. Depending on age and condition of the host, fewer than 100 bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection. The infection results in the destruction of the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. Some strains produce the enterotoxin shiga toxin, which is similar to the  verotoxin of E. coli. The species invades the host through the cells in the gut epithelia of the small intestine.  Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. The effector proteins can alter the metabolism of the target cell, making it easier for......

Words: 3201 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

S&S Air Case

...1. Calculate the ratios for S&S Air that are shown from the industry. | Light Airplane Industry Ratios | S&S Air Ratios | | Lower Quartile | Median | Upper quartile | | Current ratio | 0,5 | 1,43 | 1,89 | 1,45 | Quick ratio | 0,64 | 0,84 | 1,05 | 0,88 | Cash ratio | 0,08 | 0,21 | 0,39 | 0,169 | Total asset turnover | 0,68 | 0,85 | 1,28 | 1,30 | Inventory turnover | 4,89 | 6,15 | 10,89 | 12,10 | Receivables turnover | 6,27 | 9,82 | 11,51 | 13,08 | Total debt ratio | 0,31 | 0,52 | 0,61 | 0,39 | Debt-equity ratio | 0,58 | 1,08 | 1,56 | 0,63 | Equity multiplier | 1,58 | 2,08 | 2,56 | 1,63 | Times interest earned (TIE) | 5,18 | 8,06 | 9,83 | 5,63 | Cash coverage ratio | 5,84 | 8,43 | 10,27 | 7,44 | Profit margin | 4,05% | 5,15% | 6,47% | 5,01% | Return on assets (ROA) | 6,05% | 10,53% | 13,21% | 6,51% | Return on equity (ROE) | 9,93% | 16,54% | 26,15% | 10,62% | 2. Mark and Todd agree that a ratio analysis can provide a measure of the company’s performance. They have chosen Boeing as an aspirant company. Would you choose Boeing as an aspirant company? Why or why not? 3.Compare the performance of S&S Air to the industry. For each ratio, comment on why it might be viewed as positive or negative relative to the industry. Suppose you create an inventory ratio calculated by inventory divided by current liabilities. How do you think S&S Air’s ratio would compare to the industry average? a) Current ratio: This ratio is......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Case S

...might assume that if information about the firm’s advertising budget is not available, it would be equal to industry averages. The same assumptions might be made for other costs and revenues. It is critical that these assumptions be realistic and clearly identified before and during the case analysis. This list should contain only those items that will be truly useful in enhancing the quality of the decisions made. It should not be a list of things that would be interesting to know. The quality of your analysis will depend on your coverage of the framework, the depth of your analysis, and the degree to which you can defend your recommendations. Step 3: Problem Definition The identification and clear presentation of the problem(s) or issue(s) facing the company is the most critical part of the analysis framework. Only a problem properly defined can be addressed. Define the problem too narrowly, or miss the key problem all together, and all subsequent framework steps will be off the mark. Getting a clear picture of the problem is one major benefit derived from SWOT analysis. The process of identifying problems is similar to the one people go through with their doctors. A nurse or assistant comes in to conduct a strength and weakness assessment on you. Your vital signs are taken and you are asked about any symptoms you may be experiencing. Symptoms are observable manifestations or indications that a problem may be present. Symptoms are not the problem themselves. If you...

Words: 7575 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

S&S Air Comp.

...CASE STUDY: RATIOS AND FINANCIAL PLANNING AT S&S AIR 1. The calculations for the ratios listed are: Current ratio = $3,138,220 / $2,162,080 Current ratio = 1.45 times Quick ratio = ($3,138,220 – 1,238,500) / $2,162,080 Quick ratio = 0.88 times Cash ratio = $365,040 / $2,162,080 Cash ratio = 0.17 times Total asset turnover = $20,077,000 / $15,453,900 Total asset turnover = 1.30 times Inventory turnover = $14,985,000 / $1,238,500 Inventory turnover = 12.10 times Receivables turnover = $20,077,000 / $1,534,680 Receivables turnover = 13.08 times Total debt ratio = ($15,453,900 – 9,466,820) / $15,453,900 Total debt ratio = 0.39 times Debt-equity ratio = ($2,162,080 + 3,825,000) / $9,466,820 Debt-equity ratio = 0.63 times Equity multiplier = $15,453,900 / $9,466,820 Equity multiplier = 1.63 times Times interest earned = $2,038,000 / $362,000 Times interest earned = 5.63 times Cash coverage = ($2,038,000 + 655,000) / $362,000 Cash coverage = 7.44 times Profit margin = $1,005,600 / $20,077,000 Profit margin = 0.0501 or 5.01% Return on assets = $1,005,600 / 15,453,900 Return on assets = 0.0651 or 6.51% Return on equity = $1,005,600 / $9,466,820 Return on equity = 0.1062 or 10.62% 2. Boeing is probably not a good aspirant company. Even though both companies manufacture airplanes, S&S Air manufactures small airplanes, while......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mp3's

...such as the title, artist, album, track number, and other information about the file to be stored in the file itself. MP3 technology was created by several developers of the Moving Picture Experts Group MPEG most notably, Karlheinz Brandenburg, a professor at Ilmenau Technical University at the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology in Germany. The immediate predecessors of MP3 were "Optimum Coding in the Frequency Domain" (OCF),and Perceptual Transform Coding (PXFM). Brandenburg became an assistant professor at Erlangen-Nuremberg where he continued to work on music compression with scientists at the Fraunhofer Society until the technology was finalized in 1994. Although they are a huge technological advancement, MP3’s are not without limitations. When performing lossy audio encoding, there is a tradeoff between the amount of space used and the sound quality of the result. Some audio is hard to compress because of its randomness and sharp attacks. When this type of audio is compressed, artifacts such as ringing or pre-echo are usually heard. The quality of MP3 files also depends on the quality of the encoder itself, and the difficulty of the signal being encoded. As the MP3 standard allows quite a bit of freedom with encoding algorithms, different encoders may feature quite different quality, even with identical bit rates. For many years, while under patent, a license was required to make, sell and/or distribute products using the MP3......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Do´S and Don´T´S

...Term paper: Do´s and don´t´s Space is critical. 20 pages is exclusive of appendices and references, so try to condense information in tables, figures etc. and include in the appendices (so that they don´t count in your 20 pages). Don´t waste space by including maps etc. in the text. Don´t exceed 20 pages – if you do, it will not be graded; it is not a question of characters – 20 pages is 20 pages (not 38, as in one case) It is not a good signal if you only can manage 10 pages. Don´t waste space between questions, use type 12, normal spacing. Use end notes or footnotes to conserve on space Don´t use up space in re-formulating the case in a prologue – I can remember what I wrote. Only include “need to know” – you do not have time for “nice to know” background information Don´t worry about making links from one group member´s answers to another (but you can within your own personal questions) – otherwise, treat each answer as a separate answer (as grades are individual) Language: It is not an English literature course – but naturally, your ability to formulate yourself nicely helps. Try to use the words, concepts used on the course – remember to have read the supplementary articles (especially those pertaining to your questions) You can integrate information from any source/course etc. Remember to ground your answers in a theory. Work as a team in the first day, trying to map out your ideas and structure to answering each question; briefly mention your......

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Jysk a/S

...Advising Business Customers JYSK A/S Business Plan Business plan - JYSK Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Problem statement ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Methodology .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Business overview ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Current position ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Competitive advantage .......................................................................................................................... 5 Growth plan ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Business strategy ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Tactics .................................................................................................................................................... 6......

Words: 5149 - Pages: 21