Free Essay

Water Resources Engineering Practical Coursework 1

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kevinrick
Words 2530
Pages 11
Angat Dam

Dams have been an influential part of human development for thousands of years. However, it was only in the last century, and increasingly in the last 50 years, that technological advances have enabled the construction of large dams. These are important reservoir structures for various communities for these structures help people to have water to drink and provide water for irrigation, improving navigation, creating a reservoir of water to supply industrial uses, generating hydroelectric power, creating recreation areas or habitat for fish and wildlife and containing effluent from industrial sites. The ability of dams to reduce flow variability means that water can be regulated, mitigating droughts and, to varying extents, controlling floods.

Angat dam, a famous concrete water reservoir embankment hydroelectric dam in the Philippines was built in order to supply water to Metro Manila. It was a part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system. The reservoir supplies about 90 percent of raw water requirements for Metro Manila through the facilities of the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System and irrigates about 28,000 hectares of farmland in the provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga.

Fig 1.0 Angat-Ipo-La Mesa Water System

The figure above shows how water is being supplied from Angat reservoir up to the Manila Water and Maynilad Water distribution systems which supply 90 percent of water in the east and west zones of Metro Manila.

The project is located at Barangay Tibagan, Bustos, Bulacan, served by the Angat River. The dam area is bounded by Umiray River in the northeast, the Kanan River in the southeast, and the Marikina River in the south. The main dam is about 18 meters above sea level. Among the 2.5-meter high, six-span dam’s main features are easily deflatable and inflatable rubber body, resistance to sedimentation, economical and having auto-deflation system. The dam has a normal high water level of 210 meters, according to the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Pagasa). It has three gates opening a total of 1.5 meters to gradually release water that had accumulated due to incessant rains during typhoons. Despite of supplying potable water it also produces energy to Metro Manila and nearby areas, its capacity for the main auxiliary powerhouse is 200,000 KW. Surrounded by lush greens, this place is also ideal for fishing, boating and hunting.

The dam was originally built in 1926 until steel sector gates were installed in 1967 on top of the regulator dam for the purpose of generating irrigation water, power supply and domestic water supply. The design capacity of the dam is 850 million cubic meters. The construction cost of the dam is Php 315.344 million and was being funded by the Philippine government, it runs 50 kilometers upstream from the Bustos Dam as a fixed type river weir. The method of design was based on hydrological modeling using the Water and Energy Budget-Based distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM). In fact the AARD, Angat Afterbay Regulator Dam formerly known as Bustos Dam is the longest rubber dam in Asia at 79 meters and the second largest in the world.

With its construction, the Bustos Dam’s height was increased by 2.5 meters and later renamed Angat Afterbay Regulator Dam, increasing the service area of the Angat-Maasim Rivers Irrigation System (AMRIS), which operates the AARD from 25,000 hectares in 1927 to 31,485 hectares in 20 towns in Bulacan and Pampanga benefitting 20,562 farmers.

At the beginning of the operation of the dam, a disastrous event in 1967 took place in Angat Dam when Typhoon Welming hit Central Luzon. As a successful bidder, Engineering Construction Inc. has garanted a contract by NAWASA to construct a tunnel covering a distance of seven kilometers, passing through the mountain, from the Ipo river up to Bicti. The plaintiff corporation already had completed the first major phase of the work, namely, the tunnel excavation work. Some portions of the outworks at the Bicti site were still under construction. As soon as the plaintiff corporation had finished the tunnel excavation work at the Bicti site, all the equipment no longer needed there were transferred to the Ipo site where some projects were yet to be completed. When Typhoon Welming hit Central Luzon, passing through Angat Hydro-electric Project and Dam at lpo, Norzagaray, Bulacan. Strong winds struck the project area, and heavy rains intermittently fell. Due to the heavy downpour, the water in the reservoir of the Angat Dam was rising perilously at the rate of sixty centimeters per hour. To prevent an overflow of water from the dam, since the water level had reached the danger height of 212 meters above sea level, NAPOCOR caused the opening of the spillway gates. Due to the negligent manner with which the spillway gates of the Angat Dam were opened, an extraordinary large volume of water rushed out of the gates, and hit the installations and construction works of ECI at the lpo site with terrific impact, as a result of which the latter's stockpile of materials and supplies, camp facilities and permanent structures and accessories either washed away, lost or destroyed.

Another tragedy happened occurred in 1978 that lasted for twenty one hours during the height of the Typhoon Kading, at that time NAPOCOR opened simultaneously all the three floodgates of the Angat Dam. wherein they open the three floodgates simultaneously from 1 meter to 8 meters at the first hour, until all floodgates were opened to the maximum of 14 to 14.5 meters by six hours of the same day. These acts of NPC resulted in the inundation of several towns in Bulacan near Angat Dam. Hardest-hit was Norzagaray, Bulacan.

Fig. 2.0 Map of Angat Sub System

The figure shows Norzagaray as one of the municipalities that were analyzed that will be greatly affected by the release of water from Angat dam’s spillways. About 100 Garayenos died and millions of pesos worth of properties including houses, farms, plants, working animals were destroyed. Eleven people were filed against the electric corporation in the Regional Trial Court of Malolos. NPC stressed out that there was very little opening of the spillways, ranging from 1 meter to 2 meters. But from midnight or from the first hours of the day that the tragedy happened the opening of all the three spillways started at 5 meters and swiftly went as far up as 14 meters. What made the situation worse was that the opening of the spillways was made at the unholy hours when residents were asleep. The plaintiffs all testified that they were never given any warning that the spillways would be opened to that extent.

The series of typhoons affected the structure until Bay 1 sector gate finally gave way in September 1990 after Typhoon Iriang carried away the structure 250 meters downstream from its original post. The agency has undertaken temporary rehabilitation works in the dam using their own budget and through funding assistance from the World Bank. Although it was rehabilitated, the result of the works of the agency seem to be not satisfying enough to ensure that the structure can resist the effects of natural calamities that’s why rehabilitations were been entrusted to Kurimoto, LTD., Osaka, Japan.

At present, the Manila Waterworks and Sewerage System will assess the structural condition of the 44-year-old Angat Dam for there was a fear that the dam was being damaged by the past earthquakes. Western Marikina Valley Fault could trigger movement on the fault lines beneath the dam and its dikes according to the experts. If those were damaged, the flood would affect not only areas near the Angat River but extend both upstream and downstream into the flood plain of the Pampanga River, that would be a devastating sight for some cities and towns in Bulacan, Pampanga and Metro Manila, the latter home to more than 15 million of the country's 98 million population. Recently, China had announced that they will provide the Philippines P5.3 billion for the Angat Water Utilization and Aqueduct Improvement Project which involves the construction of an additional 9.9 kms to Aqueduct 6 and an interconnection facility that would ensure water flow from Angat Dam to La Mesa Dam in Novaliches.The project aims to ensure water supply for Metro Manila's 15 million residents and reduce the 394 million liters of wastage.

As an assessment in the case of 1967 event, it cannot be pretended that there was no negligence or that NAPOCOR exercised extraordinary care in the opening of the spillway gates of the Angat Dam. Maintainers of the dam knew very well that it was far safer to open them gradually. But the spillway gates were opened only when Typhoon Welming was already at its height. In my own view, since NAPOCOR knew the coming of the typhoon four days before the tragedy took place, for me a possible solution to the problem is that action could have been taken as earlier as possible, when the water in the reservoir was still low. At that time, the gates of the dam could have been opened in a regulated manner and it could have been prevented the incident of having an extraordinary large volume of water that was being unleashed out of the gates of the dam.

In the case of 1978 tragedy, NAPOCOR should have minimized the openings of the spillways much earlier as possible to prevent having too much large collection of water at the dam that made them to forcibly increase the height of the opening of the spillways and they should have opened these in a gradual manner in order to avoid unleashing of large amount of water in a short period of time for the communities around it wouldn’t be able to prepare for the coming of an unexpected flood to their place. In our perspective, typhoon in 1990 is not only the reason in the failure of the Bay 1 Sector gate, the soil condition underneath the dam also contributed to it’s failure. For me, one of the solutions that I’ve thought in order to minimize the occurrence of this kind of incident is by studying and applying the proper grouting techniques that could be a remedial tool in various applications such as strengthening soil structure around a dam or reducing water flow through the ground by means of seepage through grout pump and injecting cement grout to fill voids or fractures in the dam foundation. It helps in order to improve the stability of rock foundations, provides pre-construction site improvements, stops rock slabbing, rectifies sinkhole problems, repairs fractures in dam foundations, controls soft-ground settlements and arrests foundation settlement.

As a conclusion, NAPOCOR is liable for all of these tragedies, they are making decisions even without thinking of the possible events that may occur in compensation of what they have done. They don’t even focus in consulting weathering agencies in order to monitor the present as well as the future condition of our weather. Weather in our country is one of the major factors that contributes in affecting the conditions of our dams. It was concluded that this factor should be seriously analyzed as earlier as possible in order for the water related agencies as well as the department concerned on the environment to be prepared and well equipped to avoid unfortunate circumstances that may occur in the operation of our dams.

For our recommendations, one of these is that the government should develop better program of national public awareness. The public is generally unaware of the benefits dams bring to their community and to the Philippines as a whole. They are similarly unaware of the effect a dam failure could have on them, through flooding and the potential for loss of life or property and the loss of the goods or protection supported by the dam. Nowadays in the country, many houses are built in dam failure flood inundation zones. Zoning board are unaware of this when they develop zones, also the developers are unaware of it when they construct within this zone, and home or property owners buy in this zone completely unaware of what the consequences might be should the dam fail. A national and local focus should be placed on increasing public awareness of dam safety to increase consciousness of the need to purchase flood insurance.

Another is that the government should develop national dam rehabilitation and repair program for those persons who are in charge of operating Angat dam. It is difficult for many of these personnels to find the funding necessary to undertake rehabilitation work when necessary. Often times, vital repairs are neglected, and these dams are subject to further deterioration due to lack of funds and neglect. Deterioration can lead to dam failure. These types of disasters can cause great destruction and loss of life.

New technological equipments should be purchased including state-of-the-art computer systems and software, new equipment to aid in engineering analysis, video inspection cameras to inspect conduits through dams, laptop computers for use in the field to complete inspection reports and other correspondence, surveying equipment; a four-wheel drive vehicle on which to mount a survey unit, and a TV-VCR to review conduit inspection videos. These equipments could make fast access to necessary data and monitoring of the present condition of the dam.

Number of dam inspection should increase. Helicopter should be use to reach some remote dams for inspections and to reduce travel time to other dams for inspections. Improvements into dam inventory databases could greatly help in identifying the present water volume and improvement of telecommunication for confirming important data and current condition of the dam. Dam safety research should be made for it would lessen the risk of the past unfortunate experiences of the dam to happen again. Dam inspector training program should be maintained and improved for it would enhance the knowledge of the inspector to dam safety engineering and safety techniques.

Policy makers should be educated about on the importance of dam safety. It cannot be emphasized enough how important dams are to the nation’s economy and to the safety and well being of citizens. Policies concerning everything from public safety, to homeland security, to energy, to flood control should take into consideration the maintenance and rehabilitation of dams. Education of lawmakers at all levels is an important part of the future National Dam Safety Program.

References

Angat Dam. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angat_Dam

Angat dam, dike sit on fault line. Retrieved from http://balita.ph/2012/07/26/angat-dam-dike-sit-on-fault-line-feature/

Investigation on dam foundation grouting process. Retrieved from http://pwri.go.jp/eng/ activity/pdf/reports/h.satoh.061107.pdf Acreman, M., F.A.K. Farquharson, M.P. McCartney, C. Sullivan, K. Campbell, N. Hodgson, J. Morton, D.
Smith, M. Birley, D. Knott, J. Lazenby and E.B. Barbier Wingfield. 2000. Managed flood releases from reservoirs: Issues and guidance. Report to DFID and the World Commission on Dams. Wallingford,
UK: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, 88p…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Unit 1 Coursework

...UNIT 1 - Exploring Business Purposes Introduction This unit is based on exploring a business. There are two tasks in this assignment. I have been asked to do; Describe four types of business from the, primary, secondary, and territory. I will be describing their purpose, ownership, size, scale. Differences & Similarities between Business because each business are different from each other in so many ways. I need to illustrate how the 3 sectors are all linked together. All businesses have objectives which they aim to fulfill in order for their business to run smoothly and effectively as possible. I will also be, looking at the companies aims to see if they have reached them yet, or what they are doing to reach their aim. I will be explaining areas of growth. As a result of the research I found the following information from research on the computer, getting help from teacher and by my own knowledge. :Sainsbury’s: Background information Sainsbury's Supermarkets is the UK's longest standing major food retailing chain, having opened its first store in 1869. The Sainsbury's brand is built upon a heritage of providing customers with healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food. It differentiates itself by offering a broad range of great quality products at fair prices with particular emphasis on fresh food, a strong ethical approach to business and continuous leadership and innovation. Size of business J Sainsbury plc consists of Sainsbury's – a chain of 504 supermarkets and...

Words: 5399 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Water Resources Utilization in Ethiopia

...Appendices vi Abbreviations vii Abstract viii CHAPTER ONE 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Background of the Study 1 1.2. Statement of the Problem 3 1.3. Significance of the Study 5 1.4. Delimitation of the Study 6 1.5. Limitations of the Study 6 1.6. Methodology and Procedure of the Study 7 1.6.1. Methodology 7 1.6.2. Source of Data 7 1.6.3. Sample Size and Sampling Technique 7 1.6.4. Instruments and Procedures of Data Gathering 9 1.6.4.1. Instruments of Data Gathering 9 1.6.4.2. Piloting the Research Questionnaire 10 1.6.5. Method of Data Analysis 10 1.7. Definition of Key Terms 10 1.8. Organization of the Study 11 CHAPTER TWO 2. Review of the Related Literature 12 2.1. Community Participation: Concept and Definition 12 2.1.1. Definition and Characteristics 12 2.1.2. Principles of Community Participation 14 2.2. The Rationale for Community Participation in the Management of Schools 15 2.3. Types and Levels of Community Participation 16 2.3.1. Types of Community Participation 16 2.3.2. Levels of Community Participation 17 2.4. Advantages of Community Participation 18 2.5. Risks of Participation 19 2.6. Indicators of Participation 19 2.7. Community Participation in Management 20 2.7.1. Participation in Planning 20 2.7.2. Participation in Decision Making 22 2.7.3. Participation in Resource Management 24 2.7.4. Participation in Monitoring......

Words: 29649 - Pages: 119

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...------------------------------------------------- Water Resource Plan SCI/275 October 6, 2013 Katrina Baron October 6, 2013 Katrina Baron The issue of freshwater pollution is a serious level of concern. The Environmental Protection Agency has projected that water pollution will be as high in 2025 as it was in 1968, which is before the passage of the Clean Water Act. We must comprehend the problems and become part of the resolution in order to combat this pollution. There are many different types of water pollution, with that being said the quality and quantity of our clean freshwater resources are depleting. The water pollution is not just a local issue but rather a global problem that does require serious attention in order for the cleanup of these contaminates to be anywhere near successful. According to Pielou, (1998) “The UN reports that one person in six lives without regular access to safe drinking water.” There are many essential changes that are needed that are not going to come easily. We need to remember that water is essential to the survival of all living things. We need to do everything we can to maintain the quality of clean water. The world today has various categories of water pollution that affects it. We do recognize this reality, but humans still ignore this problem by polluting the rivers and lakes. Many humans throw their trash into the lakes and rivers when they are fishing and camping. The main contributors of water pollution are classified......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Coursework 1

...Sociology Coursework 2 In the contemporary world, one of the most important concept of sociology of work is alienation. “The sense that our own abilities, as human beings, are taken over by other entities”(Anthony Giddens ,1989:224). The more people transform the world themselves, the more the world becomes strange for them and the more people experience themselves as aliens in that contemporary world. The world faced a rapid technological process. On the contrary, people experience of uneasiness about our technological being in the world. Some sociologists maintain that work technology has an important impact on the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of industrial workers in their workplace behaviour. Many people become alienated by doing their repetitive as well as boring job. An oversimplifying example of alienation is when worker attaches tires onto a car in a auto manufacturing plant. This essay will examine Karl Marx's contribution on alienation as well as contribution of Robert Blauner. Initially, Karl Marx claimed that alienation exists whenever and wherever there is Capitalism(Kennett, 2004). Marx maintains that alienation is interior part of the capitalist labour process, and that is why he considers that alienation is an objective state where all workers find themselves(Noon, 2007). He argues that there are four manifestations of alienation under industrial capitalism. The first manifestation is “product alienation”, it occurs when workers see......

Words: 1840 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Water Resources - Overfishing

...Water Resources - Overfishing Science 275 3/2/10 Kenneth Whitehall Water Resources - Overfishing In recent decades the method and technologies involved in commercial fishing has advanced tremendously. With a limited time in the fishing seasons, fisheries are forced to catch as many fish as they can as fast as they can. This, along with the growing population of people and their appetites for fish, is causing a major problem with overfishing. Overfishing is the process of catching fish faster then they can reproduce. It is fishing that unsustainably depletes fish stocks or that damages the ocean environment. Overfishing is causing irreversible negative effects within the ocean waters of the earth. Every living thing plays its part in the entire food chain from the smallest of organisms to the largest of animal. From the bottom of the food chain to the top all species are both predator and prey. Every living thing is connected in some fashion and relies on each other to complete the circle of life. When a part of this circle is either in shortage or is missing altogether, there is a break in the chain and everything pays the price in the end. Overfishing has become a major problem in recent decades. The damage that overfishing has already caused in the oceans is still often a surprise to environmental experts. Globally, 90% of large fish are already gone (Festa, Regas, & Boomhower, 2008). As the fishing stocks slowly disappear, commercial fisheries are......

Words: 2030 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Effects of Water Resources

...Effects of Water Resources Holly Regan SCI/275 August 29, 2014 Stacy Murphy Effects of Water Resources Groundwater Pollution in the United States is a map of the areas in the United States where significant groundwater pollution is occurring, saltwater intrusion or groundwater is naturally salty, and high level of minerals or other dissolved solids in groundwater. The pollutants range from municipal and industrial wastes such as from oil and gas fields, toxic industrial wastes, landfill leachate, irrigation return waters, and wastes from well drilling, harbor dredging, and excavation for drainage systems. The most significant pollutant throughout the regions of the United States is toxic industrial wastes and wastes from well drilling, harbor dredging, and excavation for drainage systems. Sources of Groundwater Contamination shows an illustration of the way pollutants are entering our groundwater directly or indirectly. Industrial and agricultural waste causes direct pollution which in return causes such actions as loss of wastelands, acid rain, landfill leaching, and faulty sewers. Global warming and drought can cause just as much harm because drought causes salt intrusion that leads to increased metals and acids that can ruin your drinking source. Protecting American’s from Danger in the Drinking Water is about a small town in California named Hinkley. The company Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) and workers at PG&E's nearby compressor station had......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Operations Management Coursework 1

...Operations  Management  Coursework  1   Atiqah  Erlina  binti  Abdullah   K1455621   King’s  College  London   Department  of  Informatics                                             Operations  Management  Coursework  1     Question  1   Model  this  problem  as  a  linear  program    with  integer  constraints.  What  do  your                 variables  represent?  Provide  a  tabular  representation  of  the  above  information  and   explain  how  the  constraints  in  your  program  are  derived  from  it.   Constraints  identified:     Plant  A:  40  golf  carts  and  3   snowmobiles   5   Plant  B:  65  golf  carts   Plant  C:  53       snowmobiles               Hence;         Minimize  z  =  210000x1  +  190000x2  +  182000x3   Subject  to;   40x1  +  65x2  ≥  1500     35x1  +  53x3  ≥  1100       x1  ≤  30       x2  ≤  30           x3  ≤  30       x1,  x2,  x3  ≥    0             Initial  Tableau ...

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Resources Chapter 9 and 14

...fresh water * 70% of earth is covered in water, but 97% of that is salt * Remaining freshwater (<.5% salt), 22% is underground, and 77% is frozen (<1% fresh water bodies) * 2.78% Freshwater, 97% found in ocean as saltwater * ¼ of all freshwater underground * ¾ aboveground but mostly in ice and glaciers (not very usable) * Very little resides in lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands * Groundwater structure and Use * Groundwater exists in permeable layers of rock called aquifers. These allow us to get usable ground water * Unconfined aquifers are aquifers that water can easily flow in and out of * Easily recharged from above * Confined aquifers are aquifers that are surrounded by an impermeable layer * Under high pressure and can create artesian wells * Water table is the uppermost limit of saturated rock. Separates zone of aeration from zone of saturation * Zone of aeration = pore spaces are partly filled with water * Zone of saturation = spaces are filled with water * Groundwater recharge zone is where water gets added to an aquifer (harder in confined aquifers) * Springs are where ground water reaches the surface. Naturally clean * Wells are holes dug into the groundwater (cone of depression) * Problems with Depleting Groundwater * Saltwater intrusion- when the pumping of fresh water out of a well is faster than the recharge. Near coastal areas this can cause salt water......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Water Resources Engineer

...OF TECHNOLOGY Building and Construction Engineering Department Dr. SAAD FAIK ABBAS AL-WAKEL References: 1. A Practical English Grammar by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet. 2. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy. 3. English Solutions for Engineering and Sciences Research Writing by Adam Turner. 1. The Sentence * A sentence is a group of words that are put together to mean something. A sentence is the basic unit of language which expresses a complete thought. It does this by following the grammatical rules of syntax. A complete sentence has at least a subject and a main verb to state a complete thought. The first word of a written sentence has a capital letter, and at the end of the sentence there is a full stop or full point. The sentence consists of: subject + verb + object or (preposition + noun) 2.1 Sentence Structure * The basic unit of grammar is the clause. All clauses have at least two parts: a noun phrase (subject) and a verb phrase. clause = subject + verb We can join two or more clauses together to make a sentence. Example: (subject) (verb) (verb) (subject) Although the method improved accuracy, it caused a significant increase in computation time. * There are two types of clause: main clause (independent clause) and subordinate clause (dependent clause): (1) Main clause (Independent clause) A main clause contains a subject and a verb that......

Words: 2323 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Software Engineering (Chapter 1 Summ.)

...Inadequate software engineering has led to failure of modern softwares. Causes of software failures ---------- 1. increasing demand: software developers are tasked to develop softwares that solve more complex solutions and are often given short time. the existing software engineering techniques are therefore not able to cater for this complexity. 2. low expectation: most software developers develop softwares without using software engineering techniques which often cause software failures and unreliable softwares Attributes of a good software:(M.A.D.E) Maintainability: it should be able to evolve in order to fit new needs or suit new customers Acceptability: it must meet the need for which it was developed for and must be usable for its users Dependability and Security: it must not cause physical damage or be open to malicious attackers for exploits Efficiency: it must not waste system resources like memory, disk space, e.t.c Others are D.R.I.P Distributability,Reusability,Interoperatability,Portability software engineering is an aspect of engineering discipline that focuses on all the aspect of software development production Fundamental software engineering activities DEVS: software development, software evolution, software validation, software specification Difference between software engineering and computer science: computer science focuses on the theories and fundamentals of software......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Water the Finite Resources

...Water, The Finite Resources Outline   I. Introduction   A. Opener: What is water scarcity?   B. Thesis statement: One of the crises that our environment is facing is fresh water scarcity which is a very serious issue and it affects our global environmental.     II. Water shortage effects on environment and human beings.   A. Causes disease   B. Agricultural fields   C. Poverty group   D. Aquatic Ecosystems   III. Water scarcity is causes by different factors.   A. Global warming   B. Changes of climate   C. Decreasing ground water level   D. Population growth and the increased consumption of water   IV. Solution for water scarcity is a necessity.   A. Water Sharing Treaty   B. Environmentalists Oppose Desalination Solution   C. Government’s rules, regulations and plan   V. Conclusion: People should use water wisely to prepare a better future for our next generation. Water, Our Finite Resources One of the crises that our environment is facing is fresh water scarcity which is a very serious issue and it affects our global environment.   In the boundless black desert of space, the Earth which is always a blue-green oasis has a finite stock of fresh water (Lean, 2009).   Water is the principal element for all socio-economic growth and for sustaining healthy ecosystems (“Water scarcity: The”, n.d.).   Water scarcity is the product of an inequity between the supply of and demand for water supplies in a geographical area.   Plainly put,......

Words: 3208 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Effects of Water Resources

...Effects of Water Resources Neal Wolf SCI/275 08/09/2015 Dr. Bryan Taylor Video The video about protecting Americans from danger in drinking water was focused on the effects in the town of Hinkley, CA due to PG&E pollutants. The plant releases tons of Chromium 6 into the environment in Hinkley, CA. Hinkley is suffering because they do not have drinking water, nor do they have sustainable conditions for living due to the pollutants. The environmental issues presented in the video affect me directly because I live in California. The water is very limited due to our ongoing drought and contaminating clean drinking water only causes more issues. I do not live in Hinkley, CA so the issues of drinking water do not affect me directly in that sense. I think that there needs to be closer management over companies and their affects onto the environment. The diagram focuses on the sources of groundwater contamination. There are three areas that deal with groundwater contamination. The three areas of groundwater contamination are natural activities, direct pollution, and indirect pollution. The environmental issues discussed in the diagram affect me directly because pesticides, chemicals. and groundwater pollution are all issues in California. The issues in the diagram that do not affect me directly are the drinking water. The drinking water where I live is not the greatest, but I have my water run through two different filters to prevent any chances of contamination.......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...Water Resource Plan Water Resource Plan This is the link to the Audio Ace recording followed by the transcript and references: http://host7721.mytruvirtual.com/AudioAceHHS/?a=QZaecavNuUqbxxxnoatPgg “Coastal development is a major threat to shorelines and ocean waters. High population growth; large for profit corporations; and lack of enforcement for conservation programs; among other things, threaten the sustainability of clean water resources, onshore and off. With the use of an integrated management program people can develop a sustained use of coastal resources and perpetual maintenance initiatives. Sustainable development encourages social well-being along with economic prosperity while minimizing the impact on the ecosystem. With a plan that is tailored to meet the needs of local residents and the needs of the environment, the processes can create a level of cohabitation between man and nature. Through the processes of arrangement, coordination, and review; coastal development can be utilized in a manner that provides a benefit to the people and the environment. Arrangement involves a detailed plan for development and resource protection, including policies, goals, legal authorization and an enforcement mechanism. Coordination with governing agencies; including permit issuers and inspectors; will insure the safety of the resources. Review; including an environmental impact assessment and a review mechanism; insures that the arrangement and coordination have been......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...Water Resource Plan Evelyn Hillard University of Phoenix My selection of water resource is water pollution. This is cause by different problem when we dump garage, chemicals in the water, oil, and human waste in rivers and ocean. Water pollution have many different causes it makes it hard sometimes to resolve this issue. Sewage is one of the main causes of water pollution. This type of water pollution affects our lives in many ways. Over billions of people on this earth dispose of sewage waste a lot. When you dispose of sewage in any lakes, rivers, and ocean it takes a affect on our health and living condition. Many people do not realize that water pollution is very important and many people can get sick from it. I believe a good management plan will alleviate the problem of water pollution. Water pollution needs to have strict laws of waste and fuel dumping. They need certain people to go out and do testing on these lakes, rivers, and ocean to make sure that no one is dumping anything into the water. We should also have a machine that clean the water every so often. Making sure that it will collect all the trash and waste. The government needs to make s person pay a fine if they get caught polluting the water. I do not understand of where anyone should have a opposing view of water pollution. My view will be making sure that this world stop polluting the water. This problem is for our......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan Sci275

...Week 6 Assignment Water Resource Plan Jeff White SCI275 January 22, 2012 Week 6 Assignment Water Resource Plan Groundwater consists of surface water of lakes and streams and the underground aquifers that feed them. Because groundwater is believed to be infinitely renewable in many areas of the world, the threat to it is not recognized. This is extremely dangerous because, in reality, groundwater cannot be naturally replenished and plans must be formed to protect it. Many above ground reservoirs that are used as municipal water sources are feed by what are classified as “fossil aquifers”. These aquifers hold water that is, in some cases, hundreds of thousands of years old and they are minimally recharged if at all by surface precipitation that must penetrate hundreds of feet to reach the aquifer. It is estimated that up to 30% of water can be removed from lakes, rivers, and aquifers and not adversely affect the replenishment rate. Based on declining world precipitation estimates and with current and future municipal water consumption, there is no way these water sources can survive indefinitely. One of the key elements of insuring that groundwater will be available in the future is by developing a replenishment plan. Because of the precipitation estimates, natural replenishment seems unreliable and therefore a human methodical process must be employed to make wastewater, meaning municipally treated water that just goes down the drain, useable again. This is known......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4