Free Essay

Waste to Building Materials

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mathapagla
Words 10245
Pages 41
Business Plan

Topic: Waste to Building Materials

Prepared for:
Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Majid
Course Instructor: Entrepreneurship
Course Code: W301

Prepared by:
Safa Tasneem (RQ-17)
BBA 18th Batch

Date of Submission: January 21, 2013

Institute of Business Administration
University of Dhaka





Partners: The partnership has been formed amongst a group of three close friends and highly aspiring entrepreneurs graduating from the BBA 18th batch of Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka.

|Name |Address |
|Safa Tasneem |House # C-39, Road # 6, Niketan, Gulshan-1, Dhaka-1212 |
|Adel Mostaque Ahmed |House # 37, Road # 1, Block– A, Banasree, East Rampura, Dhaka – 1219 |
|Ahnaf Zabee |House # 3/6, Block- A, Lalmatia, Mohammadpur, Dhaka |
| | |
| | |

The Business: ঠিকানা™ is a partnership enterprise that converts waste materials into construction products. It will undertake two projects: ঠিকানা™ Concrete: ready-mix concrete using stone powder from stone crushing zones as fine aggregate and ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles: handmade glass tiles from 100% locally sourced recycled glass. ঠিকানা™ will target small, medium and large construction projects, both residential and commercial, for providing its products.

Nature of Business: ঠিকানা™ will operate in the real estate sector of Bangladesh as the first company to utilize waste materials to produce construction products. It will be a profit-driven business but will add social value by contributing to waste management in Bangladesh.

Financing: The resources required for the launch of ঠিকানা™ will be financed through a combination of debt (60 %) and equity (40 %).

This report is confidential and is the property of the partners listed above. The report has been prepared for the purpose of fulfilling the course requirement. Any reproduction or divulgence of any of its contents without the prior written consent of the company is strictly prohibited.

Executive Summary

• THE DEMAND FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS IN BANGLADESH IS UNDERPINNED BY A CONTINUOUSLY EXPANDING URBANIZATION PROCESS TO SUPPORT ITS EVERGROWING POPULATION. • Bangladesh is facing an array of problems which are threatening its sustainable growth. One of these major problems is the management of solid waste. However, with only 45% of waste properly collected by the municipal corporation, the growing waste still can be beneficial for Bangladesh. • This report aims to link the demand for construction materials with the need for waste management initiatives by analyzing the prospects of converting waste materials into building materials. • A possible application of waste materials can be made in building green structures, i.e. buildings designed specifically to reduce the level of resources consumed during construction, whether energy, raw materials or water. The use of recycled construction materials satisfies the theme of green architecture. • A business plan has been proposed, which is based on a partnership enterprise titled ‘ঠিকানা™’ which will focus on two issues: utilizing stone dust produced as waste byproducts of stone crushing in Jaflong, Sylhet as a substitute for normal sand (a non-renewable natural resource) in ready-mix concrete and recycling glass which is found in landfills (a non-biodegradable waste) to produce glass tiles. Hence ঠিকানা™ will have two products: ঠিকানা™ Concrete and ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles. • ঠিকানা™ Concrete is a high-strength, ready-mixed concrete, using stone dust from Jaflong as fine aggregate. Because of its high strength, ঠিকানা™ Concrete is more capable than plain concrete in safeguarding buildings from cracks, reducing the likelihood of damage caused by earthquakes. Its market potential is high, arising from increasing concrete consumption and demand for ready mix concrete. Its environmental friendliness lies in the fact that it will utilize stone dust from Jaflong which is considered as a waste in the locality. • ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles are made from 100% locally sourced recycled glass. These come in different vibrant colors, sizes and finishes and are superior to ceramic tiles by being less brittle, more impermeable to water, being non-allergic and better in appearance. Its market potential stems from the rising importance of resource recycling and increasing demand-supply gap for tiles. They are eco-friendly since divert landfill glass to usable forms and also consume less energy during production than ceramic tiles. • ঠিকানা™ will set up its production plant in Dhaka. The rapid population growth of Dhaka has been the cause of a booming construction industry within the city. However, the city’s infrastructure faces danger from impending earthquakes, the main reason being the lack of concrete strength. In developed countries, steel fibers are used as reinforcement to counteract such weakness in concrete and increase its tensile strength. However, steel fiber reinforced concrete is not a viable solution for the construction companies in Bangladesh since it costs twice as much as plain concrete. Moreover, there are no more landfill spaces left for dumping further solid wastes. • Granted this scenario, there is a great need for reinforced concrete but at an affordable price in the local construction industry. Also, a recycling plant would reduce the problems of non-biodegradable waste management manifold. ঠিকানা™ aims to fulfill this need by offering stone dust concrete, whose compressive strength is almost 15 per cent higher and cost per cubic feet is 10 per cent lower than that of normal sand concrete. Also, ঠিকানা™ will set up a glass recycling plant and produce beautiful glass tiles which are completely new in Bangladesh. • Since ঠিকানা™ will be the first company in Bangladesh to use waste materials as resources for construction materials, it is likely that the technology adopted by ঠিকানা™ will come across skepticism from the construction companies initially. However, the company will tackle this problem by undertaking a vigorous marketing campaign that will emphasize the benefits of ঠিকানা™ products over conventional ones. It will also dissolve doubts about stone dust being a good substitute for normal sand and the stigma of using recycled products. • ঠিকানা™ will procure the stone dust from concrete material suppliers in Dhaka and the glass from local glass manufacturing companies as well as from street vendors. By doing so, ঠিকানা™ hopes to reduce the amount of environmental pollution both in Dhaka and Jaflong.

|NPV |USD 710196.39 |
|IRR |37% |
|Profitability | |2013 |2014 |2015 |
|Profit Margin | |-0.0051 |0.0014 |0.0070 |
|ROA | |-0.0259 |0.0086 |0.0473 |
|ROE | |-0.1144 |0.0364 |0.1734 |

table of contents

I. Introductory Page……………………………………………………………….....ii

II. Executive Summary……………………………………………………………….iv

III. Industry Analysis…………………………………………………………………..1

IV. Description of Venture…………………………………………………………...11

V. Production Plan…………………………………………………………………..14

VI. Marketing Plan……………………………………………………………………17

VII. Organizational Plan………………………………………………………………21

VIII. Assessment of Risk……………………………………………………………….23

IX. Financial Plan……………………………………………………………….…….27

X. Appendix………………………………………………………………………….30

1. Industry analysis


The market potential for converting waste materials to construction materials stems from the waste management crisis in Bangladesh. If the wastes can be converted into usable and commercially viable forms, a sound business idea may be developed. ঠিকানা™ will focus on two issues about waste management in Bangladesh and relate them with two highly demanded products in Bangladesh: concrete and tiles. The issues are:

• Utilizing stone dust produced as waste byproducts of stone crushing in Jaflong, Sylhet as a substitute for normal sand (a non-renewable natural resource) in ready-mix concrete • Recycling glass which is found in landfills (a non-biodegradable waste) to produce glass tiles


Waste Management Crisis:
Waste generation is increasing both locally and globally every year, having adverse effects on the environment and public health. Bangladesh is facing an ever-increasing problem of waste management due to its population pressure and rapid economic development. Bangladesh is the 9th most populous country and 12th most densely populated countries in the world with a population of 142.3 million, population growth rate of 1.34% and projected urban population growth rate of 3%. But at the same time, Bangladesh is the 44th largest in the world and ranks 195th in the Per Capita GDP (PPP). It is a N11 country, maintaining an enviable GDP growth of 6 -6.5% throughout the last decade. The industrial contribution to GDP has doubled to 29% in the last decade. But the steady economic growth, rapid industrialization and urbanization combined with a poor waste management framework caused waste generation to skyrocket. Total waste generation in Bangladesh is 7.3 million tons/year and per capita waste generation is 0.5kg/day. It is projected that the amount of waste only from the urban region will rise to 47,000 tons per day and close to 17.16 million tons per year by 2025. With only 45% of waste properly collected by the municipal corporation, the waste management coverage in Bangladesh is one of the lowest in the world, being less than 40%.

However, the growing waste still can be beneficial for Bangladesh. The collected waste has the potential to be treated in various ways to render environmental, financial and social benefits to the country. A possible way to address waste management issues in Bangladesh is the conversion of waste to building materials. The demand for construction materials in Bangladesh is underpinned by a continuously expanding urbanization process to support its ever-growing population. While more than 1500 m tons of waste materials and byproducts are generated daily in Dhaka, only small amounts are being used by the construction industry. The low level of use does not yet reflect the advances being made in converting wastes into viable construction materials. In several cases, construction materials produced from wastes have been at least the technological equivalent of materials produced from virgin resources. Hence, there is a high market potential for using waste materials to produce construction materials in two ways:

• Using waste materials directly as components of construction materials

• Using recycled waste materials as components of construction materials

Stone Dust: A Waste Byproduct
Sand extracted from the land or the marine environment is used in concrete as a fine aggregate. Fine aggregate is one of the most important constituents that affect the strength of concrete. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 9.5 mm sieve. The main constituents of concrete such as sand, stone and water are mainly natural resources. They are not produced in laboratory or in any industry; they are obtained from the nature and processed to make it perfect for aggregate. For example, sand is carried by river water and then collected, and stones are obtained by crushing of bolder using stone crusher. These resources of engineering materials (sand, stone) are limited and day by day the dependence on them must be minimized. So some other materials should be introduced by replacing sand and stone. Stone dust is one of such alternative of sand that can fulfill the demand of fine aggregate.

Stone powder produced from stone crushing zones appears as a problem for effective disposal. Therefore, substitution of normal sand by stone powder will serve both solid waste minimization and waste recovery. From laboratory experiments, it was revealed that concrete made of stone powder and stone chip gained about 15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand and brick chip. The highest compressive strength of mortar found from stone powder which is 33.02 MPa, shows that better mortar can be prepared by the stone powder. Concrete from brick chip and stone powder produces 14.6% higher compressive value from that of brick chip and normal sand concrete. Moreover, the price of stone dust per cubic feet is lower than that of normal sand by BDT 10. As a result, stone powder is most appropriate for medium graded concrete for better performance in terms of strength and economy over normal sand.

In Jaflong, Sylhet a huge number of stone crushers are available. As a result of these extensively labor oriented economic activities, a large number of low income workers live in Jaflong and its surroundings. A huge amount of dust is produced during stone crushing which is often considered to be a waste in the locality. Stone dust is not given any interest and is thrown here and there. While landfills are commonly used for disposal of stone dust in Bangladesh, rapid urbanization has made it increasingly difficult to find suitable landfill sites.

Importance of Glass Recycling
Glass bottles and jars are 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or quality. An estimated 80% of recovered glass containers are made into new glass bottles. Using 50% recycled glass to make new glass containers would save enough energy to power 21,978 homes for one year and remove 181,550 tons of waste from landfills every month. Energy costs drop about 2-3% for every 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process. Currently there are no glass-recycling plants in Bangladesh. Waste Concern, the only organization in Bangladesh engaged in waste management, owns a Recycling Training Center to promote organic waste recycling, rain water harvesting, solar power generation and eco-sanitation. There are plastic-recycling plants as well, some being owned by companies recycle their own PET bottles for reuse. PET bottle recycling is a growing sector generating export revenues. With the employment of approximately 1,20,000 urban poor urban dwellers from the informal sector, Dhaka has established a recycling chain, and only 15% of the total generated waste accounts for 475 tons/day being recycled. Hence, there is potential to set up a glass recycling plant in Bangladesh.

Local Infrastructure in Danger:
The capital city of Bangladesh – Dhaka – is currently home to more than 9 million people. By 2015, the city will be the fifth most populated one in the whole world, with an estimated population of 19.5 million people. This rapid population growth is a key driver of the booming construction industry within the city. However, the city is at an alarming risk from earthquakes; the US Department of Defense has identified the city as a major earthquake zone. Moreover, as many as 72,000 buildings in Dhaka are expected to be completely destroyed in the event of an earthquake of 7-7.5 degrees in the Richter Scale.

Consequently, earthquake-resistant building structures are a necessity, rather than an option, in Dhaka city. However, one of the impediments to the sustainability of the buildings is presented by the inherent weakness in concrete, which is an essential component of every building structure. Even though concrete is strong in compression, it is weak in tension; the tensile strength of concrete is just about 8% to 14% of its compressive strength. Due to the low tensile strength, concrete structures are susceptible to cracking, especially during earthquakes. In fact, a recent study in Bangladesh has found that most of the buildings have deteriorated within a few years of development; the study also cites the low strength of conventional concrete as one of the main causes of the deterioration of the buildings.

In developed countries, steel fibers are used as reinforcement to increase the tensile strength of concrete. However, steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) costs twice as much as conventional concrete. As a result, there is little demand for SFRC in the local market. A cheaper alternative to steel fiber reinforced concrete is asbestos fiber reinforced concrete; however, asbestos fibers are associated with several serious health hazards, such as lung cancer, and, therefore, manufacturers in Bangladesh are prohibited from using asbestos fibers. Granted this scenario, reinforcement of concrete– even though of fundamental importance – has not yet received much popularity among the contractors, subcontractors, real estate developers and engineering firms of Bangladesh.


Rising Demand for Tiles:
The tiles industry, coupled with phenomenal growth in the country's real estate sector, has developed into a very prospective industry with an investment worth BDT. 1000 Crores. The ceramic tiles sector grew at an average rate of 12-15% consistently until 2011 and eventually narrowed down the demand-supply gap of the construction material. More players are joining this sector due to its strong market growth. The demand for ceramic tiles both for interior and exterior is rising rapidly in Bangladesh. Use of tiles is no more a fashion now: it has become essential in the construction of buildings and other structures and is increasingly being used in urban and semi-urban areas. Bankers also consider the sector as a potential industry for financing. Considering the local production in the period between 1984 and 2012, production of tiles has increased from 300 square meters to around 112000 square meters per day (around 40 million square meters per month). Currently the consumption of tiles is at 0.20 square meters per person compared to over 2.0 square meters per person in the countries like China, Brazil and Malaysia. The growth can be attributed to the increasing demand and low production cost. Gas and labor account for 23% and 16% respectively of the total production cost, and Bangladesh has an edge on these inputs over other countries. Also, Bangladesh has an opportunity to export tiles because the major global player, China, is losing advantage to rising production cost.

However, the national production of tiles is still much smaller than its demand. Tiles are needed to be imported from China, Spain, Italy, Brazil and other countries. Also, there is a shortage of raw materials for the ceramic units in Bangladesh. Most of the local manufacturers are using imported raw materials for producing shining tiles. Given the scenario, there is huge market potential for an alternative raw material for manufacturing tiles, such as recycled glass.

Rising Concrete Consumption:
The growth of the real estate sector of Bangladesh has been proliferating over the last years; such exponential growth is expected to continue as Dhaka prepares to more than double its population by 2015. Less than 40% of the areas in Dhaka have been urbanized, showing that the city is still under construction. This, coupled with the rising population, translates into increasing demand for concrete in the future. At present, concrete is the most common man-made material in the world, with the annual global production of concrete surpassing 8 cubic kilometers; this means that, every year, more than a cubic meter of concrete is produced for every person in the world. Concrete is a ubiquitous material in Bangladesh as well. The volumes of concrete consumption in the last three years have been 11,600,000 cubic meters (2010), 14,009,320 cubic meters (2011) and 16,919,056 cubic meters (2012), with Dhaka and Chittagong alone accounting for more than 65% of the consumption.

Rising Demand for Ready-Mixed Concrete:
In the past, builders in Dhaka had to rely only on traditional on-site mixers for producing concrete. Not only these mixers produce concrete at a very slow rate (because of their capacity of 2-3 cubic meters), they also cannot achieve the desired quality of concrete. Moreover, the raw materials– cement, sand and stone aggregates– have to be stored near the construction site if traditional on-site mixers are used. There are more than 1000 real estate companies in the country, most of which operate in Dhaka. In general, these firms require at least 50 cubic meters of concrete for a medium to large-scale construction project. The low-capacity on-site mixers cannot serve this demand at a satisfactory speed. Moreover, the rising scarcity of vacant areas in Dhaka suggests that there is not enough space near the construction site where the raw materials of concrete can be stored. As a result, there is growing popularity of ready-mixed concrete among the real estate companies of Dhaka; this ready-mixed concrete is manufactured in a central batch plant and transported through several trucks, each of capacity exceeding 7.5 cubic meters, to the construction site. At present, the demand for ready-mixed concrete in Dhaka is much greater than the installed capacity of these ready- mix companies, showing that the market is not saturated and present opportunities for new players.

Emergence of Green Buildings Concept:
Buildings have a major impact upon the world's resources and upon the health of people who live in them. Green building refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Green building in Dhaka with regard to all aspects of physical and social factors as well as ideological practice is very rare.

The first Green Building in Bangladesh was by EPIC group in May 2011. Since 2008, Sustainable Built Environment Initiative - Bangladesh (later Bangladesh Green Building Council) founder, Sanwar Azam had worked to unify the stake holders towards a greener country, saying that with growing population in a diminishing land and rapid urbanization to major cities, ‘Going green’ had become a marketing ploy for various organizations as there were no quantifiable way to judge a structures sustainability. He offered a centralized board to offer Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certifications to interested projects and firms. In addition, he proposed a similar voluntary building rating tool that is much cheaper to attain and one that is much suited to the socio-economic conditions of the country and relevant to its building environment and construction culture. Since green buildings are designed specifically to reduce the level of resources consumed during construction, whether energy, raw materials or water; using recycled waste materials as construction materials can be a possible way to ‘go green’.

1.1.3 ENTRY OF ঠিকানা™:
ঠিকানা™ will enter the nascent ready-mixed concrete market and 100% recycled glass tile market of Dhaka by making use of the following factors simultaneously:

• the immediate need to address waste management by reducing solid wastes • the demand-supply gap of ready-mixed concrete and need for affordable, reinforced concrete • the demand-supply gap of tiles and lack of local raw materials for their manufacture


ঠিকানা™ will enter a highly competitive market; however, the company will take all the necessary steps to tackle the competition in order to achieve its desired sales. The main competitors of ঠিকানা™ concrete are:

a) Ready-mixed Concrete Manufacturers:

(i) Plain Concrete: Currently, most of the ready-mixed concrete manufacturers in Bangladesh produce plain concrete (without reinforcement) because of the higher costs and the consequent lower demand of steel fiber reinforced concrete. In order to combat competition from ready-mixed concrete manufacturers, ঠিকানা™ will convince its prospective clients about the benefits of ঠিকানা™ concrete over plain concrete. The consumers’ survey undertaken has shown that most of the builders in Bangladesh are aware, and dissatisfied, with the fact that concrete has low tensile strength and is thus very likely to crack. Moreover, they are aware of the limitations of plain concrete in safeguarding buildings from earthquakes. The company will take advantage of such dissatisfaction of the clients with plain concrete in order to position ঠিকানা™ as the most affordable measure for the prevention of cracks in the building structures, and thus as a necessary product for making buildings more resistant to earthquakes.

(ii) Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Right now, the demand for steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) is already low because of its extremely high costs. Even then, ঠিকানা™ may face some competition from SFRC, especially for industrial projects. In this case, the company will emphasize to its prospective clients that ঠিকানা™ is available at a much lower price even though it offers strength comparable to steel fiber reinforced concrete.

b) Customers:

For small projects (i.e. those which require less than 50 cubic meters of concrete), customers are more willing to buy the raw materials (cement, stone aggregates and sand) themselves and produce concrete with the help of on-site mixers. Even though the main targets of ঠিকানা™ will be medium to large scale projects, the company will also focus on small-scale projects sometimes. In this case, the company’s strategy will be to emphasize the earthquake-resistant features of ঠিকানা™ concrete as well as how buying ঠিকানা™ concrete can help them cut wastage and labor costs.

The main competitors of ঠিকানা™ glass tiles include:

a) Ceramic Tiles:

More than 10 big local and joint venture companies are now manufacturing tiles and controlling the market, with R A K Ceramics as the market leader. Their main product segments include wall tiles, floor tiles and porcelain tiles. RAK Ceramics (Bangladesh) Ltd, a UAE-based company set up in 2003, which brought a drastic change in the tiles industry and now grabs one-fourth of the domestic market share. They produce homogeneous tiles, floor tiles and wall tiles of different shapes and sizes. Of the total production in 2007, RAK Ceramics alone made 74 million square feet, followed by China-Bangla, Fu-Wang and Mir each slightly over 30 million square feet. Many new manufacturers have entered into the market, assuming further growth of the sector. The total investments in the sector during the last five years amount to around BDT 10 billion with the largest share coming from Akij Ceramics, which has built a state-of-the-art factory on 44 acres of land at a cost of BDT 2.46 billion. However, ceramic tiles are way too common nowadays and only a few companies of the sector are applying professional marketing strategies to promote their sales. Under such circumstances, ঠিকানা™ may grab the opportunity of applying vigorous marketing strategies to capture a niche market for 100% recycled glass tiles, which are relatively new in Bangladesh. Consumers may purchase 100% recycled glass tiles to enhance the aesthetics of their buildings and also fulfill social responsibilities by “building green”.

b) Glass Tiles

There are a few companies which produce glass tiles in Bangladesh such as Tile & Amp (a glass tile, glass sanitaryware, glass bathroom, and glass bath-mirror manufacturer) and also a few importers of glass tiles. However, they are not recognized as ‘brands’ due to the lack of marketing strategies undertaken by them and none of them use recycled glass. Hence ঠিকানা™ can be the pioneer in introducing environmentally friendly glass tiles in Bangladesh and has the potential to be positioned in that manner to capture a niche market.


1.3.1 PESTEL

The following diagram illustrates the macro-environmental factors such as political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors affecting the company:

1. Political: Political factors are political events that may change the projections for profitability of a business venture of a given investment. Political risk includes acts of war, civil disobedience, and labor relations, expropriation of assets, force majeure, delays in client approval, corruption, and changes in policies that affect progress of works. A major concern for any construction company before venturing on a project is whether the political situation in the country will change in such way that the operating position will deteriorate. Political situation in Bangladesh, like many other developing countries, is not very stable: occurrences of protest marches or events leading to work closures are not uncommon. One other factor that may be identified as political risk in Bangladesh is “hartal.” A term that signifies closing down of places business and education with the object of realizing a demand, it is a recognized political instrument to demonstrate people’s protest against the establishment. When a nationwide “hartal” is called by any political party, the country is forced to shut down. All educational institutions and commercial centers remain closed, modes of communications are disrupted. Movement of people, goods, and services are either restricted or completely stopped. Sometimes these events may only be site specific that the constructors usually refer as “local interference.” Even though the “hartals” may not directly affect construction works, they certainly have an indirect affect. The workers possibly cannot reach the work site in time due to restricted commuting facilities. It is also likely that disruption of transportation services would have an effect on the delivery of materials and equipment to the construction site.

2. Economic: Another key factor that affects the real estate sector is the overall condition of the economy. This is generally measured by economic indicators such as the GDP, employment data, manufacturing activity, the prices of goods, etc. Broadly speaking, when the economy is sluggish, so is real estate. However, the cyclicality of the economy can have varying effects on different types of real estate depending on their sensitivities to the economic cycle. Currently the housing market is facing a demand slump worldwide. However, the effect is not very severe yet in Bangladesh, where the GDP growth is still high and higher national income growth may boost demand for a firm's products. Hence the demand for concrete and tiles will soon begin to rise.

3. Social: The general people in Bangladesh, especially those who are not literate enough, are not very sensitive to issues such as conforming to design while building a structure, resistance of buildings to earthquake, etc. However, professional builders are aware and dissatisfied with the fact that concrete has low tensile strength and is thus very likely to crack. They are also aware of the limitations of plain concrete in safeguarding buildings from earthquakes. Hence the company can position itself as a safeguard to buildings from earthquakes. But almost everyone building a structure is accustomed with the use of tiles and deems them to be a luxury item that adds modernity to the building. However, there is a social stigma about using recycled products. Under such circumstances, ঠিকানা™ must make it clear to people through marketing activities that the glass, when recycled, has the same properties as newly produced glass such as depth, durability, etc.

4. Technological: Technology can reduce costs, improve quality and lead to innovation. These developments can benefit consumers as well as the organizations providing the products. All the machineries and equipment required to make ready-mix concrete, recycle glass, etc. are already available in Bangladesh.

5. Environmental: The growing desire to protect the environment is having an impact on many industries and the general move towards more environmentally friendly products and processes is affecting demand patterns and creating business opportunities. Environmental factors are perhaps the main factors in the macro-environment of ঠিকানা™. Since the business aims to address waste management of Bangladesh by using waste materials such as stone powder from stone crushing zones and glass at the landfills to produce ready-mix concrete and recycled glass tiles respectively, ঠিকানা™ will have a significant environmental impact.

6. Legal: The introduction of age discrimination and disability discrimination legislation, an increase in the minimum wage and greater requirements for firms to recycle are examples of relatively recent laws that affect an organization's actions. Since ঠিকানা™ will be involved in recycling glass from landfill sites, it expects to make a smooth progress through legislative procedures. Legal changes can affect a firm's costs (e.g. if new systems and procedures have to be developed) and demand (e.g. if the law affects the likelihood of customers buying the good or using the service).

2. description of venture


ঠিকানা™ will manufacture two products: ঠিকানা™ Concrete and ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles. The mission statement of the business will be to become the pioneer and market leader in the field of reinforced ready-mix concrete and recycled glass tiles and create social value through addressing waste management problems in Bangladesh.

1. ঠিকানা™ CONCRETE

ঠিকানা™ Concrete is high-strength, ready-mixed concrete which is produced by utilizing the stone dust produced as waste as fine aggregate instead of sand. Concrete made of stone powder and stone chip is 15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand and brick chip. The economy, efficiency, durability, mouldability and rigidity of reinforced concrete make it an attractive material for a wide range of structural applications.
Why use stone dust? Stone powder produced from stone crushing zones appears as a problem for effective disposal whilst normal sand is a non renewable natural resource. Therefore, substitution of normal sand by stone powder will serve both conservation of normal sand and solid waste minimization and recovery. Both stone dust and normal sand have a Fineness Modulus (FM) of 2.3-3.1, making them good substitutes.

How does stone dust concrete differ from normal sand concrete? Concrete made of stone powder and stone chip gained about 15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand and brick chip. Moreover, the price of stone dust per cubic feet is lower than that of normal sand by BDT 10, making ঠিকানা™ Concrete more cost effective than concrete made from normal sand.

2.1.2 ঠিকানা™ GLASS TILES

ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles are handmade tiles created from 100% locally sourced recycled glass. Whether consumers work for a small residential job or a large commercial project, ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles can provide them with a custom product that combines artistic flair with an emphasis on a healthy environment. They are also guaranteed to be free of breaks and chips. With 10 lively colors, both in gloss and matte finishes, the possibilities of these recycled glass tiles are endless.

Why use recycled glass tiles? Waste from construction sites was by far the largest component of our waste going to landfills last year. By using materials destined for landfills, some of the waste can be diverted into usable materials.

How do recycled glass tiles differ from ceramic tiles? ঠিকানা™ glass tiles provide a translucent surface with a depth not found in ceramic tiles. They are impervious to water and do not harbor mildew or mold which makes the ideal for countertops, backsplashes, showers, and landscaping. Glass tiles are cleanable with water or glass cleaners and a great addition for bathrooms and kitchens and areas where a non-allergenic surface is important. Glass reflects light and can be very bright and intense in color. This gives a designer or homeowner an opportunity to use color in a very modern way that ceramics do not convey.

How durable are recycled glass tiles? ASTM Test Results: C373-86 Water Absorption: .03%; C648-84 Breaking Strength 420 lbs.; C501-84 Abrasion Resistance Index: 137.5; c1028-83 Coefficient of Friction; .95 dry .27 wet.

ঠিকানা™ will be launched as a partnership among three enthusiastic, hardworking and commercially astute entrepreneurs: Safa Tasneem, Adel Mostaque Ahmed and Ahnaf Zabee. As BBA graduates from a top-tier business school in the country, each of them will contribute towards the success of ঠিকানা™ by sharing their valuable business insight.

|Name |Age |Educational Background |
|Safa Tasneem |23 |BBA, IBA, DU (Major: Finance; Minor: Operations Management) |
|Adel Mostaque Ahmed |22 |BBA, IBA, DU (Major: Finance; Minor: Marketing) |
|Ahnaf Zabee |23 |BBA, IBA, DU (Major: Marketing; Minor: Finance) |


Initially, the size of ঠিকানা™ will be medium-scale (by volume of production) and will gradually move on to being a large-scale business depending on its market growth.


Office equipment will include tables, chairs, personal computers, fans, air conditioners, carpets and shelves. The list of office personnel is given in the Organizational Plan.

3. production plan


The head office will be located in Tejgaon Industrial Area, Dhaka in the same premises as that of the factory. The entire location will be rented.

Strategic Location of Production Plant for ঠিকানা™ Concrete: Ready-mixed concrete has a shelf life of only a few hours, after which it hardens. In general, a truck mixer can carry the ready-mixed concrete for about 8 miles from the batch plant without letting it harden up in the truck. Moreover, the larger the distances from the batch plant to the construction site, the greater is the fuel costs incurred, and thus the greater is the price of the concrete. As a result, ঠিকানা™ needs to set up its concrete batch plant near its potential markets. The company has chosen Tejgaon Industrial Area, Dhaka, for the location of its concrete batch plant. In this way, the plant will be at close distances from areas like Mohakhali, Moghbazar, East/West Rajabazar, Kawran Bazar and even Dhanmondi, where construction works regularly occur. Moreover, by being located at the city of Dhaka, ঠিকানা™ will be able to attract a more talented pool of engineers and managers, who are reluctant to work for factories located outside the city. In addition, suppliers of sand, cement and stone aggregates are widely available in Dhaka, so the concrete batch plant will also have sufficient access to raw materials.

Strategic Location of Production Plant for ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles: The production plant for glass tiles will be located within the same factory in order to gain access of customers easily and make the maximum utilization of the factory’s capacity, thereby lowering fixed costs. Since the tiles are small mosaic tiles, their transportation is not a difficulty both in terms of bulk and distances from construction areas. If the tiles are available besides concrete, they will gain attention of the entire customer base of concrete and their sales will be accelerated.


|Resources |Quantity |Unit |Price (BDT) |Price (USD) |
| | |Price | | |
|Concrete Batch Plant |1 |6,000,000 |6,000,000 |85,714 |
|Mixer Truck |5 |3,500,000 |17,500,000 |250,000 |
|Concrete pump |2 |5,500,000 |11,000,000 |157143 |
|Wheel-Loader |2 |5,000,000 |10,000,000 |142857 |
|Generator |1 |1,200,000 |1,200,000 |17,143 |
|Oven |1 |250,000 |250,000 |3,571 |
|Compressive Strength | | | | |
|Machine |1 |1,100,000 |1,100,000 |15,714 |
|Cement Silos |2 |1,200,000 |2,400,000 |34,286 |
|Dump Truck |2 |2,300,000 |4,600,000 |65,714 |
|Pick-up van |2 |900,000 |1,800,000 |25,714 |
|Cars |3 |1,000,000 |3,000,000 |42,857 |
|Building ( Office, | | | | |
|Laboratory) |1 |5,000,000 |5,000,000 |71,429 |
|Deep Tube-well |1 |1,200,000 |1,200,000 |17,143 |
|Electric Sub-station |1 |1,500,000 |1,500,000 |21,429 |
|Glass Crushing Machine |1 |545,000 |545,000 |7786 |
|Glass Melting Furnace |1 |245,000 |245,000 |3500 |
|Tile Moulds |10000 |1 |10,000 |143 |
|TOTAL | | |67,350,000 |962,143 |


a) List of Suppliers of Raw Materials for ঠিকানা™ Concrete:

Quotations from the following suppliers have been taken for the supplies of raw materials for making ready mix concrete such as stone dust, cement, coarse aggregate, etc.

• Karim Store

• Sohel Enterprise

• Unique Enterprise

• Tarek Enterprise

• Alam Enterprise

b) List of Suppliers of Raw Materials for ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles:

• Companies which do not recycle its waste glass

• Wholesalers of waste glass

• Street vendors who collect waste glass

• Manudeep Meta-Chem, Maharashtra, India for industrial glass colors

• Local potters for ceramic tile moulds



a) Wet Mixing: Cement, water, stone dust and admixtures will be mixed to make slurry in the concrete batch plant, to which the stone aggregates will be added. b) Slurry-Dewatering: About 80% of the slurry will be just water. Using high pressure of the truck mixer, this excess water from the concrete will be eliminated; at the same time, the truck mixer will ensure uniform distribution of the cement, water, stone dust, stone aggregates and admixtures in the concrete.


a) Collection of glass: Typical sources of glass for recycling are bottles, jars or window glass. To make glass from recycled glass sources, the raw materials must be free of contaminants (paper, dirt, wrappers, etc.) and must be of uniform source and color. Hence glass from the suppliers will be sorted and cleaned.

b) Production of Cullets: The recycled glass will be crushed and sorted into uniform particles by the glass crushing machine.

c) Melting of Glass and Addition of Colors: The glass particles will be melted in the glass melting furnace at around 14000C and color will be added.

d) Arranging in Moulds: The molten colored glass will be placed in ceramic moulds and cooked at 8000C in the oven.

e) Annealing: Once prepared, the glass tiles will be heated to remove stress.

4. marketing plan


The marketing efforts of ঠিকানা™ Concrete will focus on the following goals: • Achieve sales of 100,000 cubic meter of ঠিকানা™ Concrete in the first year; • Increase sales volume by 12% in every consequent year; • Raise awareness about the numerous benefits of ঠিকানা™ Concrete over both mixed-on-site concrete and ready-mixed concrete from other manufacturers; • Dissolve doubts about the ability of stone dust to replace normal sand; • Establish ঠিকানা™ Concrete as the most promising solution to safeguard buildings from cracks and earthquakes.

The marketing efforts of ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles will focus on the following goals: • Achieve sales of 200,000 square meter of ঠিকানা™ glass tiles per year; • Increase sales volume by 15% in every consequent year; • Capture a niche market by positioning ঠিকানা™ glass tiles as a symbol of luxury and artistic flair • Raising awareness about the benefits of glass tiles over ceramic tiles


Target Market: ঠিকানা™ will target the construction projects in the Dhaka city. The construction industry in the city is already huge and rapidly growing because of its more than 9 million inhabitants. Moreover, the rapid growth of the construction industry will continue as the population of the city is expected to rise by another 10.5 million people by 2015

Market Segments
By Project Type: The market for ঠিকানা™ in the Dhaka city can be further segmented by building types:

• Segment A: residential (such as houses and apartment blocks) • Segment B: commercial (such as office buildings, shopping malls and hotels) • Segment C: industrial (such as factories, mills and power plants) • Segment D: institutional (such as universities, mosques and police stations) buildings
The market segments targeted by ঠিকানা™ Concrete include all four and will target new construction projects rather than repairing ones. This is because the latter requires ready-mixed concrete in small quantities and so does not make the full utilization of the capacity of truck mixers, increasing the transportation costs per cubic meter of concrete supplied. Moreover, a greater focus will be paid on large projects because these require concrete in large quantity that cannot be produced at a sufficient rate by on-site mixers.

The market segments for ঠিকানা™ Glass tiles are segments A, B and D since industrial projects do not usually buy decorative items.

By Transacting Party: The prospective buyers of ঠিকানা™ include licensed general contractors, subcontractors, real estate developers, engineering firms and interior designers who are hired to carry out the construction work. The marketing efforts of ঠিকানা™ will be directed not only towards these hired parties but also towards the building owners, who influence the decisions of the hired parties regarding their purchase of construction materials (such as ready-mixed concrete and tiles).

By Income: Due to its high production costs, ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles will target the high income group to appeal to their aesthetic senses by the vibrant colored glass tiles which are also eco-friendly. This is to capture a niche market for the recycled glass tiles.


ঠিকানা™ Concrete: Unlike fast-moving consumer goods, the price of concrete is not the same for every buyer. The price depends on the compressive strength of the concrete (since it requires a greater volume of cement to increase the compressive strength of the cement) as well as on the transportation costs, which in turn depend on the distance between the construction site and the concrete batch plant. After taking into account all these factors, it is found that, in general, the price of ঠিকানা™ will be 10% lower than that of ready mix concrete made from normal sand.

ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles: Because of the manual labor involved in producing each custom-made tile, recycled glass tiles are priced premium to tile products found at major hardware and tile retailers. Pricing starts at $1.75 per tile.


ঠিকানা™ will make use of a change in both concrete and glass technology: using stone dust instead of normal sand and recycled glass instead of normal glass respectively. Since no other construction materials manufacturer in Bangladesh has used these methods before, it is likely that the technology adopted by ঠিকানা™ will come across some skepticism initially. As a result, the marketing strategies laid down below are meant to serve a dual role: first, build awareness among the target market about the arrival of ঠিকানা™ Concrete and Glass Tiles second, remove doubts about their performances.

1. Brand Name and Logo: ঠিকানা™ is a Bengali word which means ‘Shelter’. The brand name is not only unique, interpretable by the mass population (because of being in Bengali) and memorable, but it also captures the essence of the role of construction materials in building a shelter. Both the ready mix concrete and recycled glass tiles have been named after the parent brand so that consumers can associate the products with one single brand ঠিকানা™ that stands out as the 1st producer of construction materials from discarded materials. The green building in the logo of ঠিকানা™ also depicts the attributes eco-friendliness of the products and will be used in every print or online publication of the company as well as on every promotional material.

2. Promotion: ঠিকানা™ will rely heavily on personal selling; a competent sales force will find prospective contractors, subcontractors, construction firms and interior designers; provide them with information on ঠিকানা™ and its innovative technology, and persuade them to buy ঠিকানা™ Concrete and ঠিকানা™ Glass Tiles for the same buildings they are constructing or working for. Discounts will be given on the price of glass tiles for interested buyers who have already bought concrete from ঠিকানা™. Moreover, the sales force will comprise of diploma engineers who can explain the technical features and advantages of ঠিকানা™ to the prospective customers. Adverts on ঠিকানা™ will be run on newspapers, business magazines and in the internet for raising awareness of the mass population. ঠিকানা™ will have its own website where it will contain a catalogue of its products, especially the glass tiles where all the colors, sizes and finishes will be featured. The website will have e-commerce facilities for the glass tiles where customers can order tiles of their desired color, size and finish in their desired quantities.

3.Influencing the Influencers: The engineers of the Bureau of Research, Testing and Consultation (BRTC) of BUET not only serve as consultants for various large-scale public and private projects but they also write articles on engineering journals, such as the Journal of Civil Engineering published by The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh – which are read by most professional engineers of Bangladesh. Thus, they will act as opinion leaders and disseminate information about the new concrete and glass technology to the construction firms. For this reason, samples of ঠিকানা™ products will be sent to the BRTC for strength tests. The impressive test results, coupled with one-to-one interaction between the sales force of ঠিকানা™ and the BRTC engineers, will convince the latter about the higher tensile strength of ঠিকানা™ products and persuade them to feature articles on this product on journals and to recommend ঠিকানা™ to others.

5. organizational plan


ঠিকানা™ is a partnership formed among three entrepreneurs who are also the principal shareholders of the company. The partnership has been formed among close friends graduating from the same university in order to avoid conflicts of interest. It which will have to obtain license before it can be launched. It will have to go through a few lab tests to show its compliance with Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) and other international construction standards such ISO 6935 and ASTM A-496. All these are expected to last for four months. As a result, the production process of ঠিকানা™ is expected to start at the beginning of 2013 after the company applied for license in September 2012.


|Safa Tasneem |
|Adel Mostaque Ahmed |
|Ahnaf Zabee |


Safa Tasneem will serve as the Head of Operations, Adel Mostaque Ahmed as the Head of Finance and Ahnaf Zabee as the Head of Marketing.

The Organogram is illustrated in the following diagram:

Head of Marketing Head of Operations Head of Finance

Marketing Managers Procurement Manager Account Manager Management Engineer

Lab Technician Engineer


Managers Operator Diploma


Operator Assistant




(a) Management Engineers: 2 experienced engineers, preferably with a Master of Civil Engineering degree from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), will serve as Management Engineers and look over the technical aspects of the business.

(b) Marketing Managers: The company will employ 4 marketing managers. Initially, in an effort to cut down costs, the company will not employ any sales representatives. As a result, the marketing managers, together with engineers (4), will also carry out the functions of sales representatives. For this very reason, it is expected that a few of these managers will hold Engineering degrees from accredited universities so that they can explain the technical features of ঠিকানা™ Concrete and Glass Tiles to the clients, who are also expected to be knowledgeable in the subject of concrete technology and use of tiles.

(c) Procurement Managers: There will be three procurement managers, who will be responsible for the timely delivery of raw materials (mainly cement, stone dust, stone aggregates).

(d) Warehouse Managers: There will be 6 six warehouse managers for looking after the storage of raw materials. Since the delivery of products follows a just-in-time production process, there will be no need for an inventory manager for the management of stocked finished products.

(d) Accountants: The company will employ 2 accountants for managing its finances, together with the Head of Finance.

7. assessment of risk


7.1.1 ঠিকানা™ CONCRETE

|Strengths |Weaknesses |
|15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand |Difficulty in gaining acceptance of a new technology |
|and brick chip | |
|Price of stone dust is 10% lower than normal sand | |
|Increases convenience of builders: cuts down wastage and labor costs| |
|Ensures effective use of waste stone dust and conserves natural | |
|sand, thereby protecting Jaflong’s natural beauty | |
|Opportunities |Threats |
|Rising concrete consumption |Technology is easy to adopt by competitors |
|Rising demand for ready mix concrete |Demand slump in global housing market |
|Demand-supply gap for affordable ready mix concrete | |
|Emergence of Green Buildings | |
|Tax benefits from the Government for waste management practices | |
|First Mover’s Advantage due to new technology | |

7.1.2 ঠিকানা™ GLASS TILES

|Strengths |Weaknesses |
|Translucent surface with a depth not found in ceramic tiles |High price due to the amount of manual labor involved |
|Impervious to water |Stigma about using recycled products |
|Does not harbor mildew or mold |Collecting suitable glass from landfills for mass production of |
|Cleanable with water or glass cleaners |tiles is difficult |
|Creates non-allergic surface | |
|Gives opportunity to use color in a very modern way that ceramics do| |
|not convey | |
| | |
|Opportunities |Threats |
|Rising tiles consumption |Technology is easy to adopt by competitors |
|Demand-supply gap of tiles |Demand slump in global housing market |
|Emergence of Green Buildings | |
|Tax benefits from the Government for waste management practices | |
|First Mover’s Advantage due to new technology | |


7.2.1 ঠিকানা™ CONCRETE

Threat from Existing Competitors: High
In order to mitigate risks from existing ready-mixed concrete, ঠিকানা™ will have to convince buyers about the higher strength of its concrete.

Threat from New Entrants: Moderate
The booming ready-mixed concrete market will attract newcomers. However, the entry of concrete companies will be slow, with not more than 2 companies entering the market every year, since setting up a concrete batch plant requires high initial capital investment.

Threat of Substitutes: Moderate
Buyers may not be convinced about the benefits of ready-mixed concrete and decide to go for producing the concrete themselves using on-site mixers. To mitigate such risks, ঠিকানা™ will target large-scale projects where the volume of concrete required cannot be produced by on-site mixers at a sufficient rate.

Bargaining power of Suppliers: Low
Raw materials, such as stone aggregates, cement and stone dust, are available from various suppliers, minimizing their bargaining power.

Bargaining power of Consumers: Moderate
With competitors constantly vying for large-scale projects, ঠিকানা™ will have to offer discounts to the construction firms in order to secure such deals for itself.

7.2.2 ঠিকানা™ GLASS TILES

Threat from Existing Competitors: High
In order to mitigate risks from existing ceramic tiles and glass companies, ঠিকানা™ will have to convince buyers about the exclusive features of its recycled glass tiles.

Threat from New Entrants: Moderate
The booming tiles market will attract newcomers. However, the entry of recycled glass tile companies will be slow due to the high initial capital investment and intensive training of labor to learn the production method.

Threat of Substitutes: Moderate
Buyers may not be convinced about the benefits of recycled glass tiles and continue to buy ceramic tiles. To mitigate such risks, ঠিকানা™ will have to use vigorous marketing campaigns to differentiate glass tiles from ceramic tiles.

Bargaining power of Suppliers: Low
Raw materials, such as bottles, jars or window glass, are available from various suppliers, minimizing their bargaining power.

Bargaining power of Consumers: Moderate
ঠিকানা™ will have to offer discounts to the construction firms for purchasing its glass tiles in order to secure such deals for itself.


If the business does not pay back within a few years, the company can divest the business to prevent further losses. The company can sell off its assets and thus repay its loan. The main assets of the company include:

• Concrete Batch Plant, Truck Mixers and Pumps: These can be sold off easily to the local ready-mixed concrete companies, who want to expand their operations, or any new company who wants to enter the ready-mixed concrete industry. • Glass Crushing Machine and Glass Melting Furnace: These can be sold off to local glass manufacturing companies who want to expand their operations or enter the glass-ware industry.

8. financial plan


|Resource |Cost (Taka) |Cost (Dollar) |
|Factory Equipment |31300000 |447143 |
|Working Capital |59359800 |847997 |
|Marketing Costs |3410960 |48728 |
|Buildings including Office Fixtures |5000000 |71429 |
|Licensing and Registration Costs |367500 |5250 |
|Transportation Vehicles |4150000 |59286 |
|Total |103588310 |1479833 |


The aforementioned resources will be financed through a combination of debt (60 per cent) and equity (40 per cent).


| |2013 |2014 |2015 |
|Revenue from Sales |11,905,880 |14,034,651 |16,544,047 |
|COGS |10,818,342 |12,738,279 |15,000,711 |
|Gross Profit |1,087,538 |1,296,372 |1,543,336 |
|Selling and Administrative Expense |997,148 |1,119,696 |1,262,678 |
|EBIT |90,390 |176,676 |280,658 |
|Interest |(119,403) |(94,783) |(66,962) |
|Tax |(31,636) |(61,837) |(98,230) |
|Net Income |(60,650) |20,056 |115,466 |


| |2013 |2014 |2015 |
|Cash flow from Operating |(930402) |49510 |121702 |
|Activities | | | |
|Net Cash Flow from Investing |- |- |- |
|Financing Activities | | | |
|Net Cash Flow Provided by |(189386) |(214007) |(241827) |
|Financing Activities | | | |
|Net Cash Change |(1119789) |(164496) |(120126) |
|Opening Balance |1018977 |(100812) |(265308) |
|Closing Balance |(100812) |(265308) |(385434) |


| |2013 |2014 |2015 |
|Assets | | | |
|Total Current Assets |1,696,754 |1,853,663 |2,112,409 |
|Fixed Assets less Accumulated |644,413 |485,548 |326,684 |
|Depreciation | | | |
|Total Assets |2,341,168 |2,339,211 |2,439,093 |
|Liabilities & Equity |1,081,834 |1,273,828 |1,500,071 |
|Current Liabilities |1,081,834 |1,273,828 |1,500,071 |
|Long Term Liabilities |729,099 |515,092 |273,265 |
|Total Liabilities |1,810,933 |1,788,920 |1,773,336 |
|Total Owners Equity |530,234 |550,291 |665,757 |
|Total Liabilities and Owners | | | |
|Equity |2,341,168 |2,339,211 |2,439,093 |


| |2013 |2014 |2015 |
|Profitability | | | |
|Profit Margin |-0.0051 |0.0014 |0.0070 |
|R.O.A |-0.0259 |0.0086 |0.0473 |
|R.O.E |-0.1144 |0.0364 |0.1734 |
|Liquidity | | | |
|Current ratio |1.5684 |1.4552 |1.4082 |
|Activity | | | |
|Total asset turnover |5.0854 |5.9997 |6.7829 |
|Financial Leverage | | | |
|Debt equity ratio |1.2339 |0.9714 |0.4966 |
|Receivable turnover |10.2041 |10.2041 |10.2041 |
|Debt asset ratio |0.3114 |0.2202 |0.1120 |


The current required rate of return (15%) has been used to evaluate the project feasibility and sustainability:

|NPV |710196.39 |
|IRR |37% |
|Payback Period |2.27 |
|Discounted Payback Period |2.67 |



Compressive strength of stone powder (dust) VS compressive strength of sand:

[pic]Compressive Strength: The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to squeeze or compress the material together. The compressive strength of stone powder has been found to be 15% higher than that of sand.

Fineness Modulus of stone powder VS fine modulus of sand:


Fineness Modulus (FM): as an empirical figure obtained by adding the total percentage of the sample of an aggregate retained on each of a specified series of sieves, and dividing the sum by 100. Both sand and stone powder have FM in the range of 2.3-3.1, thereby being substitutes of each other as fine aggregates in concrete.



Ready-Mixed Concrete Batch Plant Concrete Truck Mixer


Glass Crushing Machine




| |YEAR |2013 |
| |Month |JAN |FEB |MAR |
|1.1 |Newspapers | |
| | |
|Print Adverts |$ 14,286 |
|Personal Selling (Sales Reps)* |$ 13,371 |
|Discounts for large volume customers |$ 8,286 |
|BCPBMA (Membership Fee & Seminar Participation Costs) |$ 4,285 |
|BTRC, BUET (Cost of Strength Test) |$ 1,000 |
|IEB Seminar Participation Costs |$ 1,429 |
|Company Brochures (Design & Printing Cost) |$ 2,857 |
|Company Newsletter (Design & Printing Cost) |$ 2,500 |
|Company Website Set-up Cost |$ 714 |
|Total Marketing Expenses |$ 48,728 |

Questionnaire for the Survey of the Builders in Dhaka city: Number of Respondents: 50

1. In general, how much concrete do you require for a given project? • less than 50 m3 • less than 100 m3 • greater than 100 m3

2. What do you normally use for your project? • mixed-on-site concrete • ready-mixed concrete

3. Do you ever receive complaints about cracks on floors/roofs within the first 10 years after finishing a project? • Yes • No

4. If yes, do you cite the low (tensile) strength of the concrete as one of the causes of the cracks? • Yes • No

5. Do you often use steel fiber reinforced concrete? Why? • Yes • No, because there is no need • No, because the cost is extremely high

6. Will you opt for reinforced concrete (with higher tensile strength) at a lower cost than conventional concrete? • Yes • No

7. Do you keep track of the latest innovations in the concrete technology adopted by the concrete manufacturers in Bangladesh? • Yes • No

8. If yes, what is your usual source of information? (Select multiple answers if necessary.) • Print Media • Acquaintances • Seminars & Conferences • Engineering Journals

9. Will you be hesitant to use concrete that has with stone dust as fine aggregate? • Yes • No

10. Will your doubts dissolve if such concrete achieves favorable test results from the BTRC, BUET? • Yes • No

Findings from the Survey Responses:

97.5 per cent of the builders who require at least 50 cubic meter of concrete for a project opt for ready- mixed concrete rather than mixed-on-site concrete while just 53 per cent of the builders who require less than 50 cubic meter of concrete for a given project opt for ready-mixed concrete. 50 per cent of the builders confided about receiving complaints from their clients because of cracks on the floors/roofs. And out of them, 88 per cent blame the low (tensile) strength of the concrete as the chief cause of the cracks. 98 per cent of the builders do not use steel-fiber reinforced concrete. Out of them, 92 per cent do not use steel-fiber reinforced concrete because of its high costs. 90 per cent of the builders will switch to reinforced concrete if its cost lower. 90 per cent of the respondents said that they are aware of the latest concrete technology used in Bangladesh. Among them, 80 per cent learn about this from their acquaintances, 67 per cent from seminars/conferences, and 57 per cent from the engineering journals. 60 per cent said that they would be doubtful about any concrete that has stone dust as fine aggregate. However, 86 per cent of them said that their doubts would dissolve if the test results from the BTRC, BUET are favorable.

The Company:

¿ • ¾ ¨ ¾

Political Factors: • Documentation and permits for construction Political Unrest • Policy changes • Labor relations • Corruption •

Economic Factors: • Demand for ready-mix concrete and tiles- high growth • Fluctuating demand in thঠিকানা

Political Factors:

Documentation and permits for construction Political Unrest

Policy changes

Labor relations


Economic Factors:

Demand for ready-mix concrete and tiles- high growth

Fluctuating demand in the housing market

• Export prospects

Legal Factors: • Legislations • Tax credits, deductions and subsidies • Protection of property e.g. patents, trademarks

Social Factors: • Credibility and perceived image of the business • Affluence of people • Traditional viewpoints about concrete and tiles

Environmental Factors: • Pollution caused by stone powder produced at stone crushing zones • Pollution caused by non-biogradable waste in landfills

Technological Factors: • Technological know-how of the business • Availability of machines and equipment…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Waste Management

...the manner in which you dispose waste? For individuals, Hong Kong people have many wasteful habits. Plastic bags, expanded-polystyrene lunchboxes and over-packaged products are commonly used. A recycling programme that provides recycling bins has also been running in schools since 2000 to enhance students' understanding of the importance of conserving resources and separating waste. The increase in the volume of recyclables collected over the years proves the success of the programme in turning students' awareness into action. Overall speaking, Hong Kong has an imminent waste problem. At present, we rely solely on our landfills to dispose of our waste. 40% of our waste are for recycling. We must address the waste problem in a holistic manner. This Policy Framework sets out a comprehensive strategy consisting of a series of tried and proven policy tools and measures to tackle our waste problem head on and achieve the following targets: |Target 1: |To reduce the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Hong Kong by 1% per annum up to the year 2014. | |Target 2: |To increase the overall recovery rate of MSW to 45% by 2009 and 50% by 2014. | |Target 3: |To reduce the total MSW disposed of in landfills to less than 25% by 2014. | Tackling the Problem at Source Waste avoidance and minimization......

Words: 3035 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Waste to Energy

...ABSTRACT Alternative uses of waste for energy production becomes increasingly interesting both from a waste management perspective - to deal with increasing waste amounts while reducing the amount of waste deposited at landfills and from an energy system perspective to improve the flexibility of the energy system in order to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The object of analysis is waste which is not reused or recycled, but can be used for energy production. Different Waste-to-Energy technologies are analyzed through energy system analysis of the current Danish energy system with 13-14% renewable energy, as well as possible future Danish energy systems with 43% (2025) and 100% renewable energy (2050), respectively. The technologies include combustion, thermal gasification, anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and transesterification technologies producing electricity, heat, or transport fuel. In the USA, according to the US energy recovery council, there are 87 WTE plants producing 2,700 megawatts that results into 17 million of kwh per year which is enough to meet the needs for power for 2 million households. In the EU incineration is more popular. According to the confederation of European Waste to energy plants (CEWEP) the plants in Europe can supply annually about 13 million inhabitants with electricity and 12 million inhabitants with heat. Waste to energy is produced mainly by biological material and thus the energy produced......

Words: 5419 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Waste Material

...CONDUCTIVITY OF WASTE MATERIAL (PLASTICS) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2 ME 11L SUBMITTED BY: Alega, Ulysses Jr. H. Bicaldo, Mark Zedrick L. Engaño, Moises A. Sabida, Ricalyn B. SUBMITTED TO: Engr. Manuel E. Europeo March 10, 2014 INTRODUCTION Heat conduction (or thermal conduction) is the transfer of internal energy by microscopic diffusion and collisions of particles or quasi-particles within a body due to a temperature gradient. The microscopically diffusing and colliding objects include molecules, electrons, atoms, and phonons. They transfer disorganized microscopic kinetic and potential energy, which are jointly known as internal energy. Conduction can only take place within an object or material, or between two objects that are in direct or indirect contact with each other. Conduction takes place in all forms of ponderable, such as solids, liquids, gases and plasmas. Whether by conduction or by thermal radiation, heat spontaneously flows from a hotter to a colder body. In the absence of external drivers, temperature differences decay over time, and the bodies approach thermal equilibrium. In conduction, the heat flow is within and through the body itself. In contrast, in heat transfer by thermal radiation, the transfer is often between bodies, which can be spatially separate. Also possible is transfer of heat by a combination of conduction and thermal radiation. In convection, internal energy is carried between bodies by a material......

Words: 3390 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...of large amount of waste, then identify different ways to reducing the amount of waste people produce. By Latchaya Paknam Earth is confronting with many environmental crises, for instance global warming, overpopulation, resources depletion, energy and pollution. Luis F. diaz (2011) points out “These crises are interrelated and connected to waste and waste management”. World bank (2012) states that “Currently, world cities generate about 1.3 billion tonnes of solid waste per year. This volume is expected to increase to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025.” Large amount of waste generated leads to serious problems. The world immediately needs effective sustainable methods to tackle this problem for our next generation. Firstly, this essay will examine 3main impacts of waste disposal and then will provide effective solutions based on this examine. Waste is not always a broken or expiration but waste is unwanted or un-useful material that human throws away. Waste disposal causes enormous environmental impacts. The first impact is Environmental impact. Waste creation drains a large number of natural resources. Giljum et al.,(2008),cited in Zaman, Lehmann 2013,p.124) state that a great deal of natural resources are consumed daily. 120-130 billion tonnes of those raw materials are used for news products and generate approximately 3.4 to billion tonnes of municipal solid waste every year. Energy is one of the resources significantly depleted by deposing waste. According to......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Concrete as a Building Material

... Concrete as a building material Name: Institution Concrete is a building material which has been in use since the Roman times. It is a complex mixture of water, coarse granular material usually sand or gravel. Cement fills the spaces among the granular material and acts as a binder that glues them together. The Panama Canal, the Hoover Dam, and the Roman Pantheon are some of renowned structures made of concrete. (PCA) Concrete usage dates back thousands of years ago. Concrete was used for building of many ancient structures. Heinrich Schliemann, a German archaeologist discovered concrete floors in a royal palace of Tiryns, Greece, which dates approximately 1400-1200 BC. The Romans also used concrete on large scale from 300 BC to 476 AD. Roman concrete was made from an aggregate of pumice, pozzolana and quicklime. (Jacobs 4). Modern concrete is different from the Romans concrete in two ways. First, its mixer of a homogeneous fluid, this allows it to be poured into forms instead of hand-layering together with the arrangement of gravel, in Roman practice, this comprised of debris. Second, modern cement is integrated with steel that reinforces it to great strength in tension. Roman concrete depended only on the strength of the concrete bonds to withstand tension. The idea of reinforced concrete was invented by Joseph Monier in 1849. The first reinforced concrete bridge was built that year. (Constructor) Concrete has many benefits. It is economical when ingredients are......

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, “Gather up the leftover fragments, that nothing may be lost.” - John 6:12 Electronic waste, or e-waste, is high-tech trash that includes cast-off televisions, computer monitors, keyboards, mice, processors (CPUs), printers, scanners, fax machines, pocket computers (PDAs), walkie-talkies, baby monitors, certain kinds of watches, and cell phones—in other words, anything digital that’s no longer being used. Added together, this information-age detritus makes up the fastest growing category of waste in the U.S. and the more complex the circuitry, the more complicated the equipment’s disposal, since electronics contain toxic substances such as mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, and beryllium that pose a hazard to both humans and the environment. VIEW POINT There are a lot of view points for the case “E-waste”. They are as follows: * In 1997, in one of the few studies of food waste, the Department of Agriculture estimated that two years before, 96.4 billion pounds of the 356 billion pounds of edible food in the United States was never eaten. * In England, a recent study revealed that Britons toss away a third of the food they purchase, including more than four million whole apples, 1.2 million sausages and 2.8 million tomatoes. * A recent study in Sweden found out that families with small children threw out about a quarter of the......

Words: 5302 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Waste to Eneergy

...Final Project Report Topic: - Feasibility of waste-to-energy projects in Industries Submitted by: - Sanchita Tiku Roll No. 13020243022 Submitted to :- Dr. Prakash Rao Contents Topics Page No. 1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………1-9 2. Literature Review………………………………………………………………..10-13 3. Methodology……………………………………………………………………………14 4. Analysis & Interpretation…………………………………………………….15-17 5. Main Findings………………………………………………………………………17-21 6. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..22 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Waste as described in Basel Convention: - Wastes are those materials which are supposed to be disposed or are intended to be disposed under the national law. Waste is any substance that is off no more use or that should be disposed off e.g. waste of leftover construction material, food waste, e-waste, hazardous waste, sludge from industries, packaging items, garden waste etc. There are numbers of ways available through which waste can be prevented, reduced, re-used and recycled. So, the leftover substance which cannot be treated should be land filled. Wastes are of following types:- 1. Municipal Solid waste: - Municipal solid waste is generated by households, commercial......

Words: 7570 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Soild Waste

...Urban Waste Management Solid wastes are those organic and inorganic waste materials produced by various activities of the society, which have lost their value to the first user. Improper disposal of solid wastes pollutes all the vital components of the living environment (i.e., air, land and water) at local and global levels. There has been a significant increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) generation in India in the last few decades. This is largely because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country. Due to rapid growth of urban population, as well as constraint in resources, the management of solid waste poses a difficult and complex problem for the society and its improper management gravely affects the public health and degrades environment. The population of Mumbai grew from around 8.2 million in 1981 to 12.3 million in 1991, registering a growth of around 49%. On the other hand, MSW generated in the city increased from 3200 ton per day to 5355 ton per day in the same period registering a growth of around 67% (CPCB 2000). This clearly indicates that the growth in MSW in our urban centers has outpaced the population growth in recent years. This trend can be ascribed to our changing lifestyles, food habits, and change in living standards. Waste referred as rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or unusable material. According to European councils’ directive “Waste is any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is......

Words: 3699 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Waste and Disposal

...McElmurry SCI201-1503A-04 Professor Ryan Cornell August 3, 2015 Waste and Disposal When useful material goods reach the end of its life cycle, it loses it economic value and turns into waste material. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, “Solid waste includes garbage, rubbish, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, municipal, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations and from community and institutional activities” (EPA, n.d.). The focus of this discussion is to familiarize you with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), how we dealt with waste before industrialization and why the process changed. Followed by an explanation of how things are being done to make the Mariannhill Landfill more productive and reduce its environmental impact. MSW is the nonhazardous waste (trash and garbage) that we throw away every day. This includes durable goods, such as tires and furniture, nondurable items such as plastic cups and newspapers, containers like milk cartons and other waste from your yard and food. This type of waste refers to common household waste, as well as businesses, hospitals or schools. Industrial, hazardous and construction waste are not included (CSS, 2014). All of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) must comply with the federal regulations or......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Waste Plastic bags were very popular at one time but now they are creating a problem in the environment. As I was reading about the plastic bags I found out that a strand of hair is thicker than a grocery bag, weighing less than 5 grams, just one bag can hold 17 pounds a thousand times its own weight, they are very strong (Mangu-Ward, 2015). These plastic bags are amazing; they can be reusable because I sometimes use them to line my small garbage can. Two environmental problems caused by extensive plastic bag use would be the ocean because they cause harm to the marine wildlife when they are floating around in the water. The marine wildlife animals will eat them mistakenly for food or can choke on them. Turtles see them as jellyfish and will swallow them. Plastic bags is also an environmental problem for land animals when people throw them out with food in them or the scent of food the animals eat the plastic and sometimes get choked. Plastic bags are so light; they can blow all over the landscape and cause the streets drains to clog up. If I were in charge of getting rid of or reducing the use of plastic bags, I would implement bans on them. When customers are shopping, they would have to bring their bag or buy one from the store. All stores will be equipped with heavy duty bags to sell. Many states have banned plastic bags; Los Angeles became one of the largest cities to ban plastic bags; later the Big Island of Hawaii adopted a similar law to ban plastic bags......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


..."Identify one of the waste "wedges" or categories identified in the JAMA article by Berwick and Hackbarth and explore the opportunities where managerial epidemiology principles applied in accountable care models of care can reduce waste". The reason for the project is to explore the reasons why, and possible changes that can take place to lower the costs of healthcare. Healthcare in the United States is at an astounding 18% of GDP and is definitely demanding a change to lower the costs of healthcare. Not only does the United States pay more for healthcare than other leading countries, it sees less quality of care. As per the article by JAMA, the minimum believed to be spent on wasteful spending is $558 billion per year, and a midpoint of $910 billion per year. Eliminating that alone is enough to make a change in our healthcare system. In order to elaborate on the topic, this project identifies one of the waste wedges I decided to write about, tells why I chose the particular one that I did, what exactly the wedge is and how it produces waste while affecting healthcare, and then finally what we can do to lessen the waste, as well as a proposition to eliminate waste in said category while looking at a proposal to better the organization and population. II. Selection of Topic For this project I chose Failures of Care Delivery as my waste wedge to explore. A. What is Failures of Care Delivery Failures of Care Delivery as defined in the JAMA article is:" the waste that......

Words: 3460 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Composite Materials in Building

...Composite Materials in Building and Construction Applications Presented at: ACMA’s CORROSION, MINING, INFRASTRUCTURE & ARCHITECTURE CONFERENCE May 15, 2013 - Denver, CO Course Description Composites have been used extensively in industries such as marine and transportation for more than 50 years. Yet in some industries composites are just now becoming a primary material of choice. The use of composites in the building industry is growing rapidly. Traditional benefits offered by composites are being recognized and utilized to address design limitations and can be used to reduce life cycle environmental and cost impacts. Learning Objectives • Define ‘Composite Materials’ and learn the history of composites in multiple industries and the factors that led the growth of composites in these industries. • Identify the design and performance attributes of composites used in other industries that are applicable to the building / construction market. • Review case studies that demonstrate how the inherent attributes of composites such as low weight, durability and low thermal conductivity, result in environmental and cost effective material options. • Explore web based education tools that offer case studies on the use of composites in construction and allow users to connect with composite fabricators that specialize in design, fabrication and installation of composite building materials. What is a Composite? Composite An engineered......

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Waste Waste is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste; such as urea, sweat or feces. Litter is waste which has been disposed of improperly. Feces contain large quantities of fresh and soft texturized waste products. Waste is directly linked to human development, both technologically and socially. The compositions of different wastes have varied over time and location, with industrial development and innovation being directly linked to waste materials. An example of this includes plastics and nuclear technology. Some components of waste have economical value and can be recycled once correctly recovered. Zero Waste America defines waste as "a resource that is not safely recycled back into the environment or the marketplace." This definition takes into account the value of waste as a resource, as well as the threat unsafe recycling can present to the environment and public health.  The word 'waste' and the act of 'wasting' are human inventions. Waste doesn't exist in nature. In nature, everything has a purpose. Waste was created by humans for short-term convenience and short-term profit. Wasting results in long-term harmful consequences for both humans, nature, and the economy. Where does your waste go? Landfill As you can see from the chart most rubbish in Britain goes to landfill. We used to call landfills dumps or pits. We try to use old sandpits,......

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Waste Management

...DEVELOPING INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN TRAINING MANUAL Volume 4: ISWM Plan U N I T E D N AT I O N S E N V I R O N M E N T P R O G R A M M E Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2009 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations Environment Programme. Disclaimer The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement. Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan Training Manual Volume 4 ISWM Plan Compiled by United Nations Environmental Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics International......

Words: 18353 - Pages: 74

Premium Essay

Waste Mangement

...Waste Management, Inc. Strategic Case Analysis Submitted for Approval to: Dr. Jifu Wang LEADING EDGE CONSULTING Houston, TX The Leaders in Waste Management Group 1 Consultants Jason Cummings Correen Harrell Deanna Lewis Jim Upchurch David Woods Page 3 of 163 Table of Contents 1.0 2.0 2.1. 2.2. Executive Summary..........................................................................8 Background Information on Waste Management ..........................9 Brief History of Company............................................................................... 9 Historical Timeline of Important Events...................................................... 11 3.0 External Analysis ............................................................................13 3.1. General Environmental Analysis ................................................................. 13 3.1.1. Political/Legal Factors.............................................................................. 13 3.1.2. Economic Factors .................................................................................... 16 3.1.3. Sociocultural Factors ............................................................................... 20 3.1.4. Demographic Factors............................................................................... 21 3.1.5. Technological Factors.............................................................................. 25 3.1.6. Global Factors ...............................................

Words: 39684 - Pages: 159