Free Essay

Veterans in Middle Age

In: Social Issues

Submitted By balbano92
Words 2821
Pages 12
Veterans In Late Adulthood
Brittany Albano
NYU

Part I
I observed homeless veteran men within the late adulthood population at the Borden Avenue Veterans Shelter in Long Island City, NY. I watched the veterans first in a recreation room interacting socially with other clients, next, in a meeting with social workers, and lastly, outside of the shelter on the streets of New York. These observations were all made at the same time, at approximately 12 pm. I watched the veterans both interact with others and behave on their own for an hour in each setting. During this time, I saw and noted many different aspects of what it means to be a homeless veteran in late adulthood through a social work lens.
In an entirely social setting, the recreation room, most clients interacted closely and comfortably. It was mealtime in the recreation room and they were gathered to eat lunch. Most of the clients were loud and spoke to each other often. They seemed ‘free’. Some were even making inappropriate jokes and it seemed as if their guards were down. I heard them making fun of other people, both staff members and clients.
The clients sat in dyads or small groups; practically no one was alone in the room. However, the younger clients who were not part of the late adulthood population that engulfs most of the clients at the shelter seemed to be excluded and stuck together. The older clients did not interact with them at all. During this time, the clients were dressed casually, most in sweatpants or the equivalent. They were slumped in their chairs and seemed to be informal in their mannerisms. The few clients that were dressed better seemed to be were more serious overall. The clients who acted like this were mainly alone and were only talking amongst each other, not with the rest of the population. These clients seemed to be pushed off to the side, between the nonverbal behaviors and the blatant exclusion. As a whole, the clients who dressed better acted more serious and responsible. In other words, the grooming and attire of the clients were absolutely congruent with their behaviors. Most of the clients were entirely positive with the exception of a few negative outbursts.
The recreation room was set up with horizontal tables, around ten people to one table. I sat in the corner with another staff member, and my presence was clear. The clients were aware that I did not belong, and it was obvious they were questioning my reasons for being there. I felt very excluded and could not imagine what the clients who were not being drawn into the groups must have felt like.
While the recreation room showed clients to be mostly laid-back and positive, the social worker’s office portrayed a completely different outlook on the clients. As soon as they walked through the door, I noticed disparities in their guards going up and being far less open as I had noted they were in the recreation room. I observed two clients come in at the same time who each had an appointment with a different social worker. They did not communicate with each other but instead entirely focused on the social workers and myself. The clients acted more formal and seemed as if they took themselves more seriously in this type of environment. Additionally, their conversation topics had shifted. Instead of joking around and talking about the positives of life, the veterans were suddenly noting how depressed and anxious they felt. They immediately started complaining about different staff members and how they were ruining their lives. Vouchers and public assistance allowances dominated the conversations between the clients and the social workers. The impression that I took from these clients in this particular setting were that their lives were horrible, and that everything that was going wrong was. There were grievances about mostly everything there could have been within the shelter, including room changes, annoying clients, food, and even the temperature within the facility. Their demeanors had changed as well, and mannerisms became more conscious and formal. However, they had not changed their clothes or groomed themselves any more than they had for lunchtime in the recreation room. The third setting was perhaps the most interesting to me. Clients would exit the shelter to go to their jobs, activities, or get food. I chose to observe clients in this setting because I was curious to see their interactions with people on the outside world, or not within the confines of the shelter. I observed once someone would leave the facility, and watched them walk to their destination, usually the town.
Once the clients exited the shelter, they acted similar to typical individuals who were not vulnerable nor needed the help and attention they were receiving. The clients I watched dressed in nicer clothes and carried themselves with more confidence than they do within the shelter. Individually, they seemed more serious about themselves. Watching the veterans reminded me of typical, productive members of society, instead of homeless clients. The veterans interacted with people on the street like many late adulthood individuals would. The only difference was that they were alone, and seemed it.
I observed one client enter Dunkin Donuts. He sat down and observed other people for about forty-five minutes. He took no phone calls or spoke to anyone really, besides to make awkward remarks about two young women sitting at an adjacent table. These women seemed uncomfortable, proving the client to be maladjusted to society for the most part. This was an intriguing case of the client seeming confident and capable upon leaving the shelter, but in actuality in need of assistance in functioning in the real world.
My expectations of the late adulthood population of veterans were moderately different than what I ended up observing. Because these clients are indeed homeless, I envisioned most of them would keep to themselves. I have seen homeless individuals both on the streets of New York City and in certain shelters, and most are not very talkative. On the contrary, the clients were overall friendly and especially social amongst their age group population. I was also expecting them to isolate given their age since they had no family around them, and I did not necessarily expect the individuals at the shelter to be friends. At this point in their lives, this age population typically has established a set of family and friends and often is not looking for more. It is not a sociable age where individuals often gather with friends similar to the adolescent and young adult populations. This was also incorrect, and it seemed as if they bonded solely for this reason. I also assumed the observations to be similar within all three settings. I anticipated minor differences, but none like the ones I observed. This opinion proved to be incorrect, and the clients acted differently in both obvious and subtle ways. The more obvious changes included a shift of attitude. In addition, while potentially undetected through a normal lens, the clients acted different through the social worker perspective I implemented during my observations. For example, things such as dress, grooming, and overall demeanor changed in each setting.
Despite most of my refuted expectations, there were predictions that were also confirmed. Before observing the clients, I anticipated most or all of them of having disgruntled tendencies. It is not uncommon to predict homeless veterans who were certainly not young anymore to be displeased with their current situation, especially after serving our country in an honorable way. This expectancy was definitely confirmed, but interestingly enough, only in one setting. As noted above, the other two settings that I observed clients in showed the clients as positive and happy go lucky. However, in the meeting with the social workers, the clients portrayed the attitude that I thought would be the case.
It is certainly possible that my expectations were certainly affected by my choice of setting. Because I expected the clients to act similarly in all three settings, I did not realize that the settings changed the clients’ attitudes. The clients acted the way they wanted others to perceive them in each individual setting. For example, in order to get along with their peer communities, they act laid back and relaxed in the recreation room. In the social worker’s office, the clients wanted the social workers to see that they were serious about their lives and sometimes also not receiving the proper treatment that they expect. Once in the outside world, the clients aimed to give off the impression of a person and simply desired to blend in. It was difficult to be in line with my predictions when added in the dynamic nature of the clients’ actions, looks, and impressions. I did not anticipate outside entities affecting them so strongly.
In addition, homeless late adulthood population certainly will certainly differ from late adult populations in typical home settings with families. Because these people I observed are forced to stay within the confines of the shelter, I believe that often they may interact with others when they normally wouldn’t outside of this environment. Overall the most noted and surprising to me about my observations were the clients’ friendliness and sociability when I anticipated the opposite.

Part II
The life cycle stage of the clients I observed is generally described as late adulthood and categorizes people aged sixty-five and older.
Age sixty-five is considered a milestone and the beginning stages of late adulthood. This stage is an important one because of the many lifestyle changes it brings. Some of these are leisurely and rather trivial, such as reduced fares for movie tickets and other social activities, while other changes can often bring stress and severity, like retirement from work, Social Security and Medicare benefits. There are significant psychosocial, cognitive, and social differences between individuals in their late adulthood and other stages previous to this.
According to Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, individuals aged sixty-five years and older tend to slow down their productivity and start to explore lives as retirees, in what is called the “Wisdom” phase of “Integrity vs. Despair.” Retrospection is a key element of Erikson’s “Wisdom” phase and involves looking back on one’s life and accomplishments. During this time, one will develop feelings of contentment and integrity if he or she believes they led a happy, productive life. On the contrary, one may develop a sense of despair if they look back on a life filled with disappointments and/or unachieved goals. The psychosocial development is especially relevant to the clients that I observed because it goes without saying that many of them tend to look back at their lives with a sense of disappointment due to their placement in a homeless shelter.
Family structures are typically in place for this life stage and are normally the individual’s primary and strongest form of support. Socially speaking, this age population is not known for regularly adding new friends. In fact, according to Siebert, “new and unfamiliar social contacts can behave in ways that could erode rather than strengthen an older person's self-perceptions so interventions focusing on enhancing existing positive support would be more effective and efficient than creating or linking a client with novel support” (Carstensen, 1991).
In other words, it is not an easy task for individuals in late adulthood to engage in new relationships, and atypical form a new family at this stage. Given this, individuals in late adulthood without stable and structural family, peer, and/or professional support typically suffer and this therefore becomes a risk factor. Members of this population without these supports may become depressed, engage in substance abuse, or develop other physical, social, or mental issues (Potts, M.K, 1997).
Cognitively, individuals in late adulthood can slip back and regress, especially if an individual is not being stimulated in the proper environment. The processing speed declines as the brain ages. This is detrimental because the speed of processing determines the ability to control what one pays attention to, which is vital for daily functioning (Rogers & Fisk, 2001; Tun & Lachman, 2008). This decline can cause various and troubling problems in late adulthood individuals. This is not to say they are completely depleted of their cognitive abilities, however. On the contrary, a study found that the late adulthood population’s capability to parallel process, which refers to the ability to process and complete two or more tasks, over-performed the young adult population (Lien et al., 2006). This type of processing includes word recognition, which is typically automatic in the elderly population because they have been reading for so long. This, of course, assumes that the adults had indeed been reading and placed in decent academic experience in their earlier lives.
As a whole, cognitive decline during late adulthood is typical, but largely depends on the individual and the experiences they had prior to entering the late adulthood life stage.
Through both learning and experiencing first hand the overarching themes of the late adulthood life stage, I realized that the homeless veterans generally do not fit in with the developmental tasks outlined in the physiological, cognitive, and the social and family structure theories.
As noted before, physiological development places much importance upon prior life accomplishments. Though these clients were once veterans and therefore highly respected individuals, any accomplishments they may have achieved in their lives is subdued and overtaken by their current situation, which is homelessness. Despite these individuals therefore defying the norm within the life stage, they truly exemplify the negative effects and warnings that are also a part of the theory. Erikson’s description of the stage also includes a sense of despair and hopelessness if a fulfilling life is not in front of individuals at this point. These clients are the poster children for what happens if an individual is unfulfilled at this point in their lives. Theoretically, this could account for a certain amount of mental illness and substance abuse within this specific population.
The social and family structure theories are another most prominent example of my observed group not fitting the theories of typical developmental tasks. If a client in the observed group did indeed have a family, which is not the majority, there must be a situation within the family that caused the individual to not live with them. Therefore, it can be assumed that these clients have not formed clear family structures like the theory alludes to. The social groups of the clients is skewed and differentiates from the norm as well, because once again, if these support systems were in place and functional, individuals would not have been forced to resort to homelessness in the first place. These are open assumptions, but overall tend to portray the clients as dissimilar to an individual who fits the familial structure task of the late adulthood stage.
Given the several distinctions of my clients and classic developmental tasks for this age population, the life cycle framework certainly differs from my observed group. This can largely be attributed to the fact that these individuals are homeless and are therefore in certain situations that others their age may not experience. I do not believe, however, that it speaks to holes in the various theories. The only discrepancies I see that are not explained by the difference of track the homeless veterans are on would be within the cognitive realm. Depending on the type of education an individual received, cognitive developments and changes could differ enormously. This seems to certainly be a gap in what is offered in the cognitive theories and could also be the reason why there is not an extensive amount of research done on the subject. Regardless, it leaves the question open-ended in terms of what exactly changes in the late adulthood brain and what is instead attributed to one’s early and current lifestyle.
References

Jokisaari, M. (2004). Regrets and subjective well-being: A life course approach. Journal of Adult Development, 11(4), 281-288.

Potts, M.K. (1997). Social support and depression among older adults living alone: The importance of friends within and outside of a retirement community. Social Work, 42, 348363.

Rasheed, J. M. (1998). The adult life cycle of poor African American fathers. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 1, 265280.

Rosen, E. (2005). Men in Transitions: The New Man. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.) Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives.

Schulz, R. & Heckhausen, J. (1996). A life span model of successful aging. American psychologist, 51(7), 702714.

Siebert, D.C., Mutran, E.J. & Reitzes, D.C. (1999). Friendship & social support: The importance of role identity to aging adults. Social Work, 44, 522534.

Walsh, F. (2005). Families in later life. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.) Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Sex in Th Middle Ages

...there are five common social skills dimensions for children and adolescents: peer relationship skills, selfmanagement skills, academic skills, compliance skills, and assertion skills. Under the “relationship skills” are items such as applauds peers, invites peers to play, is sought out by peers to join activities, is sensitive to feelings of peers, makes friends easily, and shares laughter with peers. I saw evidence of all these behaviors with Emm and her friends. She is well integrated into a group of about five peers, and every day I observed her laughing, smiling, and in general playing with these peers. For example, On April 24, when I first encountered her, she was running around without a shoe! I then noticed that she was deep in the middle of a game where one of her friends takes her shoe and runs with it, or she takes one of their shoes. When I became a player in her group, I saw Emm drawing new people into the group, advising them on who was it in the chase game we played. Under the category “self-management skills,” Caldarella and Merrell (1997) placed skills such as remains calm when problems arise, accepts imposed limits, receives criticism well and responds to teasing by ignoring peers. This is where Emm has some limitations. For example, she frequently cries. Our first interaction occurred on April 24, when I tried to give her a time out, and she responded by crying. As I was trying to soothe her and fix part of her shoe, she began to cry harder, saying, “its......

Words: 6782 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Best Middle Age Label

...The Middle Ages was the era between 500 and 1400 in Europe there was a lot going during this time. There are many ways to describe it. This era was best labeled by the Dark Ages, Age of Feudalism, the Age of Faith, or the Golden Age. Historian Frantz *****- Brentano used previously publishes texts to describe Europe in the Dark Ages the excerpt says that the Hungarains swarm over the Western provinces, sucked town and village and laid the waste on the fields. The conditions on Europe were horrible. This is because of all the terror the trade ceased and peasants abandoned the fields to avoid the violence of the anarchy. (Doc. 1). In an excerpt from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles it says that in 842, during the dark ages, there was a great slaughter in London, Quentavic and in Rochester. Because of this, men loaded their boats with their goods and returned to their own country. (Doc # 3). During the Age of Feudalism, Vassals and Lords had feudal obligations to each other. Vassals owed loyalty, military service and ransom, if needed, to their lords. Lords who owned their land, or fiefs, and protection to their Vassals. ( Doc # 4). In an excerpt from the Homage Oath taken by John Toul it informs that Toul was making it knows that he was the liege if the count and countess of Champagne. Since he was the liege, he would aid the count of Champagne in his own person and he would send his knights to count and countess, who he owes service to for the fief that he holds of theirs.......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Papacy of the Middle Ages

...Papacy of the Middle Ages Alexander Henry His 101 2/20/2014 The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as leader of the Catholic Church, spans from the time of Saint Peter to present day. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. The fall of Rome began the middle ages (around 476 ad). The papacy at the start of the middle ages was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding Italian Peninsula; these periods are known as the Ostrogothic Papacy, Byzantine Papacy, and Frankish Papacy. Over time, the papacy consolidated its territorial claims to a portion of the peninsula known as the Papal States. Thereafter, the role of neighboring sovereigns was replaced by powerful Roman families during the saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, and the Tusculan Papacy. A fateful event for the papacy was the donation of lands made to the pope by the Frankish king Pepin the Short in 756. The papacy had already been given lands, but it was the Donation of Pepin that came to be considered the real as well as the symbolic founding of the Papal States. The pope thus became a powerful lay prince as well as an ecclesiastical ruler. This intermingling of powers was a determining condition in the struggle between church and state that was a main theme in the history of the West in the Middle Ages. Strong lay princes attempted to direct the church just as the pope tried......

Words: 1178 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The High Middle Ages

...John Foster HIS-109 March 6, 2014 Professor Carta The High Middle Ages The Christian religions rise to supremacy in the middle ages was the result of several factors. Christians had long been persecuted by the Roman Empire because the Romans felt that Christianity challenged and offended the Greco-Roman Gods and the Christians were prone to revolt against Roman rule. Christianity survived because it had many teachings that appealed to the downtrodden in Roman society, these teachings being that even though they were suffering they would gain equality and possibly superiority in the next life, Christianity gave them hope. When Emperor Constantine “converted” to Christianity, this conversion is not fact and often debated, after the Christian God gave him a vision that he would win a battle if he put the sign of Jesus Christ on his soldier’s banners. He did and won the battle decisively giving credit to the Christian God and then proceeded to favor Christianity over all religions in the Empire. Constantine’s favor was the turning point in the Christian religion. Under his rule Roman citizens converted in droves. When the Western Roman Empire collapsed around 476 A.D. all non-religious authority broke down throughout this empire and central Europe. Germanic tribes began to invade and take over these areas and the rule of law became almost non-existent. The Catholic Church maintained its organization giving the Christians a place to look for guidance during this......

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

High Middle Ages

...Running head: The High-Middle Ages The High-Middle Ages xx xx World Civilization HIS-109 xx February xx,xxxx The High-Middle Ages This paper includes a few major events in the history of the High-Middle Ages; An era with war and conflict from Asia all the way to Europe and beyond. Peace and war continued throughout the High-Middle Ages yet wars lasted longer and several issues arose impacting both war and peace. This paper includes an explanation of the people affected in the High-Middle Ages consisting of, Christianity in Europe, the Crusades failure, the structure of a feudal society, and death beyond belief. Christianity surfaced through the beliefs of Jews and creating the rise of Christianity began. The expansion of Christianity during the reign of the Roman Empire threatened the Empire. The Empire wanted power and if Christians has all power the Roman Empire failed as leaders. This threat began the stages of persecution towards Christians and the aggravation ceased when Emperor Constantine obtained his Roman throne. Christianity held strong and dominated Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Christianity dominated people of both the poor and the rich. “Religious institutors including the Church and the monasteries became wealthy and influential given the fact that the state allocated a significant budget for religious activities”, (Newman, 2008, Para.1). Christianity dominated and Crusaders wanted nothing more than to take over the Holy Land......

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

.China in the Middle Ages

...that the economies of the United States and China have become interdependent in more ways than are readily visible. In the Middle Ages, China thought of herself as the center of the world, naming herself as the Middle Kingdom, and the rest of the world was drawn to her because of her wealth, technology, And culture. However, China stagnated later and, after losing out in the Opium Wars in the mid nineteenth past century, she found subject to a quasi-colonial rule by European powers. After a long period of wars and revolutions, China is now staging a spectacular comeback, and the question that is engaging the minds of scholars and policy makers alike is what lies ahead of this resurgent China, and how her resurgence will influence the world. Answers to these broad questions however depend on the resolution of a wide range of issues that have accompanied or arisen in the course of China’s growth. The population and growth issue is in China has been around for a long time. In the 1950s China’s population was seven percent of the world’s population. Population policies in the 1950s and 1960s were fluctuating between pro and anti growth. The countries population continued to rise. The one child policy was instituted to further decrease population growth. The growth rate did merely slow down. The number of people living to old age also increased as life expectancy more than doubled from 35 to 74 years old. Educational investment cut adult illiteracy from 80 to......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nursing in the Middle Age

...of Nursing From Dark Ages to Renaissance (THE MIDDLE AGES)       During the late middle Ages (1000-1500) -the crowding and poor sanitation in the monasteries nurses went into the community. During this era hospitals were built and the number of medical schools increases.       Between 1500 and 1860 (A.D.) -the Renaissance all affected nursing. As nursing was not valued as an intellectual endeavor it lost much of its economic support and social status. The nursing conditions were at their worst and have been called the dark period of nursing. New hospitals had been built but quickly became places of horror as unsanitary conditions caused them to be a source of epidemics and disease.       In 1545 -the council of Trent decreed that every community of women should live in strict enclosure. It took over 200 years of resistance for women to overcome this decree. The nursing sisters of France made little or no resistance such that their professional standards deteriorated.       In the late 1500's - several groups began nursing and tending the sick, poor, and dying. These groups were St. Francis de Sales, the Order of the Visitation of Mary, St. Vincent DePaul, the Sisters of Charity, Dames de Charite', Louise le Gras, Brothers Hospitallers of St. John, Albuquerque, Order of St. Augustine, St. Camillas De Lellis, Jeanne Biscot, and the Nursing Sisters of St. Joseph de La Fleche. Many of these people came from rich and influential families.       The dark ages of nursing lasted......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Middle Age Classifcation Dbq

...Kate Mozzochi Mrs. Neumann Honors World History December 20, 2013 Middle Ages Classification The Middle Ages were a time of massive change for all of Europe. The time period started off with the overthrow of the Roman Empire and creation of feudalism. Although the time period has been called the Dark Ages, faith and advances in arts and construction created positive changes to earn the era the name the Golden Ages. The Middle Ages lasted from AD 500 to 1400 and were a time of hardships, growth, faith, and feudalism. Due to the hardships that led to the name the Dark Ages, positive faith and advances resulted. Although the Middle Ages have been known as various names, the labels the Age of Faith, Age of Feudalism, and the Golden Ages best describe the time period. The Age of Faith can be used as a label for the Middle Ages because during the era, Church had a vast influence over the people of Europe. The Church attempted to create a peaceful environment through enforcing the Truce of God. The Truce of God allowed people to handle and carry weapons but not use them to injure anyone during certain days of the year. The Truce of God called for, "every Sunday, Friday, and Saturday, and on fast days of the four seasons... this decree of peace shall be observed... so that no injury shall be done in any way to any one" (Document 5). The Church had so much influence that it controlled when people fought and banned fighting on weekends, feasts, and fasts. The Church also......

Words: 958 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Middle Age Fashion

...The clothing worn by men and women in the Middle Ages differed based on social standing, occupation, and climate. In general, medieval clothing was practical above all else, particularly for the peasants and lower classes. The nobility and clergy were able to experiment more with luxurious fabrics and decorations, but practicality was still a significant factor. Most men and women in the Middle Ages had few items of clothing. It is estimated that many medieval men and women bathed just once a week or a fortnight, and it is likely their clothes were washed on a similar schedule. Clothing needed to be made to stand up to constant use and, in the case of the peasants, of dirty and tiring physical labor. Throughout Europe, the difference in costuming related to allegiance to the former Roman Empire that had ruled most of Europe until 476 CE or adopting clothing associated with newer European populations, including the Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and the Visigoths. The length of the tunic represented the political persuasion of an individual in terms of the new identity of Europe. The peasants and townspeople did not have the capital to purchase exotic and refined materials for their clothing so it often consisted of wool, sheepskin, and linen, generally that had been produced locally. These fabrics may not have been very fine, but it was practical for the hard-working lifestyle they led.The nobility and clergy were able to experiment with local and exotic materials for their clothing....

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Middle Ages

...The middle ages is a period that most certainly cannot be addressed as a period that no events occurred and all was so called "dark". Many Tragic events did happen, but during this period many events happened that weren't so dark. Such things as the rise of new Universities, the division of Christianity and the Renaissance. Let's begin to think of the middle ages as the birth of Western Civilization, instead of the images we have in our heads due to movies and high school history. During the High Middle Ages(1000CE-1300), ideas were changing, society became more interested in art, sports, education, and literature. Occupations and preoccupations differed from the feudal nobility and labouring peasants(McKay,Hill, Buckler,Crowston,Wiesner-Hanks, & Perry, 2012, p.298). Cities were now crowed and polluted and caused improvement in legal status. The sumptuary laws were laws that social groups needed to wear certain items clothing to distinguish from one another. The high social group wore velvet , silk, pearls while peasants wore dark clothing made of linen and wood blending(McKay,2012., p.300). So the interaction between the wealthy and peasants was common. Games and sports were a popular form of entertainment that united society. With that, Primary schooling was most of the time in monasteries, convents and cathedrals. By the 12th century the demand for trained officials increased, trade and feudalism were the cause of this development(History of Western......

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Hygiene in the Middle Ages

...Hygiene and Infectious Disease During the Middle Ages Cayman Scott Jacksonville University | In the period known as the Renaissance, the transition of the Middle Ages to the modern world was taking place, showing diversity | |in cultural and religious practices and philosophical and artistic impressions, including an emphasis in education. What coincides | |during this era is the eventual change in belief system regarding hygiene and the thought process of infection causes, treatments and | |preventive measures. | |The relation of religion to disease process was widely accepted, as diseases manifested upon the body were believed to be derived from | |sin. It was generally accepted to find the relief of ailments in disease through prayer, meditation, religious pilgrimage and | |ritualistic practice. Many practicing physicians were priests or clerics and it was common to find hospitals treating illness to be on | |the grounds of monasteries and churches. As the body was seen as part of a universal whole, the concept of atonement of sin to | |eradicate one's health maladies was commonplace. The general belief of practitioners was that diseases were part of the original four | |humors relating to specific body fluids, blood, phlegm, and black and yellow bile, coordinating with elemental properties of fire, | |water,......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Legacy of the Early Middle Ages

...Legacy Of the early Middle Ages (Price) Philosophy, Art, Theology 1 Philosophy, Art, Theology The Legacy Joetta Price The Orgins of Western Culture Instructor Hafizi May 23, 2011 Source:Cunningham/Reich 2010, Mason; Cengage/Learning Philosophy, Art, Theology 2 Philosophy, Art, Theology The popular view of the early Middle Ages—often referred to as the Dark Ages—is that of a period of isolated and ignorant peoples with little contact outside the confines of their own immediate surrounding, and at times that was indeed the general condition of life. Nonetheless, it is important to note that in the late eight and early ninth centuries, Charlemagne not only ruled over an immense kingdom (all of modern-day France, Germany, the Low Countries, and Italy as far south as Calabria) but also had extensive diplomatic contact outside that kingdom, The Carolingian World). Charlemagne maintained regular, if somewhat testy, diplomatic......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Middle Ages Assignment

...Middle East Assignment Humanities 412 Syria 1.) Provide a map of the region. 2.) What year did Syria become independent and from who? Syria became independent on various different dates. It first was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 till the first world war, as the Empire collapsed Syria became a mandated territory in 1020 administered by France with Lebanon. They first tried a declaration of independence in 1944 but the French resisted this. On April 17th 1946 independence was finally achieved and the French forces withdrew. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm 9.) Hot off the presses: a current dispatch about the situation in the country. Currently in Syria there is a widespread antigovernment protests, the Syrian authorities have been trying to stop these protests with military force. So far 1600 people have died and 10,000 have started to flee the country and move to Turkey. These protests were inspired by the revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia. In March people started participating in rallies wanting freedom in the southern border town of Deraa. Things escalated when security forces opened fire on unarmed crowds. This single act created much unrest in Deraa, which spread onto other towns and cities. The president of Syria, Bashar al-Assad responded by sending in tanks and troops with the goal to restore order. Once again tanks and snipers fired on unarmed protesters, at night men were rounded up and electricity and communication......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Middle Ages

...The Middle Ages Do you know the chivalry of the knight? Do you know the famous Notre Dame de Paris? And do you know the martyr Giordano Bruno? I believe many of us at least have heard something about these. And they all share an identical time label. That is the Middle Ages. And today, I will introduce the Middle Ages in 4 parts: its history, religion, culture and economy. First is about the history. The Middle Ages is the second stage of the European history in a traditional division which divided the European history into 3 ages, namely the Classical Civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Modern Period. The Middle Ages lasted for roughly a millennium from the year of 476 to 1453, commonly dating from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Early Modern Period in the 16th century. During that time, the ruling regime was the feudalization which comes from the legal and martial liability of the noblesse. The 3 main features about it are seignior homager and land. The seigniors are the noblesse who have land. And the homagers fighting for them will get land as rewards. There were many seigniors who have homagers and knights fighting for them, leading to mass wars and armed conflicts. Since it was under the time of cold arms, the soldiers had to fight with bow and arrow, sword and for the knights, lances and pikes under the protection of Armor and shield. In these endless wars, there were several relative small empires...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marriage in the Middle Ages

...I. Marriage in the Middle Ages A. Marriage and women’s rights in the medieval society B. Thesis: Arrangement of marriages, abuse and adultery, divorce and desertion II. Arrangement of Marriages A. Age requirements 1. Muslim 2. Christianity B. Betrothals 1. Elite 2. Peasants III. Adultery A. Upper elite nobility 1. Priests and sex a. Peasants b. Concubines 2. Kings a. Servants IV. Abuse to wives A. Physical violence 1. Lower class 2. Nobility a. Abduction/imprisonment of wives B. Repercussions for husbands versus wives V. Divorce A. Religion 1. Christianity 2. Muslim 3. Judaism B. Desertion 1. Repercussions a. Wife b. Family VI. Conclusion A. Catholic marriages versus other religions 1. Middle ages 2. Today B. Divorces 1. Less in Catholic marriages a. Why b. Requirements today Marriage can be defined as a union between a man and a woman to become as one in the eyes of the church and most importantly, God. For a woman, this is one of the happiest days of her life. During the Middle Ages, women were born solely to marry and to rear children; most importantly, to produce a son for their husbands. Most arranged marriages, or betrothals, were arranged by the parents of the bride and groom. This type of arrangement was often the cause of abuse and adultery which would lead to the ending of the union by either divorce or desertion. Unfortunately for women, they had little or no......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8