Premium Essay

Transpiration and Leaf Resistance

In: Science

Submitted By bernina05
Words 1511
Pages 7
Transpiration and Leaf Resistance
By: Bernina Berber
Due: February 24, 2011
Lab: Thursday 1:40pm
Section: 15227

Introduction Transpiration is a part of the water cycle process, and it is the loss of water vapor from parts of the plants. It is a process similar to evaporation. Evaporation and diffusion cause the plant tissue to have negative water potential. If you were to compare transpiration it would be like saying it is close to sweating (but in plants), especially in leaves but also in stems, flowers and roots. Stomata are dots with openings on top of the leaves surfaces, which in many plants have numerous on the undersides of the foliage. The stomas are boarded by guard cells that open and close the pore. Leaf transpiration happens through stomata, it is considered as a necessary need associated with the opening of the stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration is very important for plants because it cools them and enables the mass flow of mineral nutrients and water from roots and shoots. The amount of water vapor within the plant tissue, air humidity, and air temperature all play a roll in the rate of transpiration. The rate of transpiration can be measured using the mass of water lost per unit area of leaf tissue relative to time. When you take a leaf from a plant it is obvious that water is lost from the tissue, however it has no source of water to compensate for its negative water potential, which keeps increasing. When cuticles are waxy that helps the leaf to slow the loss of water vapor. High cuticular pathway resistance is indicated when there is a low rate of water; on the other hand this means that the leaf has a high resistance to water loss. In this lab we were suppose to determine the rate of transpiration from a cut segment of citrus leaves. We are to test their resistance to the…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Bitter Leaf

...bitter leaf Bitter leaf, scent leaf extract protects diabetics from heart, testicular damage Thursday, 19 July 2012 00:00 CHUKWUMA MUANYA Features - Natural Health Top of Form Bottom of Form [pic] Can increasing the intake of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) and scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) protect Nigerians from complications of diabetes? CHUKWUMA MUANYA writes. DIABETES is an age long, serious metabolic disorder with complications that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Chronic hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) during diabetes has been shown to cause glycation of body protein, which in turn leads to secondary complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves and arteries. These complications may be delayed, lessened or prevented by maintaining blood glucose levels close to normal. Several studies have indicated that cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in modern societies, among the numerous complications of diabetes. Long standing diabetes has been documented to cause structural and functional cardiac impairment, which was found to lead to ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Previous studies have also shown that diabetics have significantly reduced testicular weights and tubule diameters. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. But recent studies suggest that a combination of bitter leaf  (Vernonia...

Words: 2593 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Plant Transpiration

...Go to the following website for completion: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_10/BL_10.html Name: Daniel Lee Green Title: Plant Transpiration Question: What factor affects the transpiration rate in plants? | |Normal |With Fan |With Heater |With Lamp | |Arrowhead |3.6 |7.5 |6.6 |4.0 | |Coleus |0.9 |6.0 |3.9 |3.0 | |Devil’s Ivy |2.9 |4.6 |4.1 |3.0 | |Dieffenbachia |4.1 |7.7 |6.0 |3.9 | |English Ivy |1.8 |5.1 |3.2 |2.1 | |Geranium |1.2 |4.7 |5.8 |2.4 | |Rubber Plant |4.9 |7.7 |6.0 |3.9 | |Weeping Fig |3.3 |6.1 ...

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Last Leaf

...The Last Leaf Many artists lived in the Greenwich Village area of New York. Two young women named Sue and Johnsy shared a studio apartment at the top of a three-story building. Johnsy's real name was Joanna. In November, a cold, unseen stranger came to visit the city. This disease, pneumonia, killed many people. Johnsy lay on her bed, hardly moving. She looked through the small window. She could see the side of the brick house next to her building. One morning, a doctor examined Johnsy and took her temperature. Then he spoke with Sue in another room. "She has one chance in -- let us say ten," he said. "And that chance is for her to want to live. Your friend has made up her mind that she is not going to get well. Has she anything on her mind?" "She -- she wanted to paint the Bay of Naples in Italy some day," said Sue. "Paint?" said the doctor. "Bosh! Has she anything on her mind worth thinking twice -- a man for example?" "A man?" said Sue. "Is a man worth -- but, no, doctor; there is nothing of the kind." "I will do all that science can do," said the doctor. "But whenever my patient begins to count the carriages at her funeral, I take away fifty percent from the curative power of medicines." After the doctor had gone, Sue went into the workroom and cried. Then she went to Johnsy's room with her drawing board, whistling ragtime. Johnsy lay with her face toward the window. Sue stopped whistling, thinking she was asleep. She began making a pen and ink drawing for a......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Last Leaf

..."The Last Leaf" by O. Henry is an interesting short story about a sick girl named Johnsy, who is deeply affected by a bare vine tree. Johnsy has decided she will not get well and has reconciled herself with the fact that she is going to die when the last leaf falls off the ivy bush outside her bedroom window. Johnsy's hopelessness and willingness to accept the worst without a fight is a major statement about the emotional state of the character. In his wonderful short-story “the last leaf”, using sacrificial themes, fear of pneumonia and a twist on the fatalistic tone, O.Henry depicted a really meaningful goal: Life must have hope. In brief, I love this story very much. Its plot and its characters are simply, but it is a very touching story that makes I recognize many things in life. Life is meaningful only for people who have hope and love. The hope helps us live better and heals our body and spirit. Hope is the foundation of our personal futures; each of us would probably suicide without hope. It is the virtue that helps us overcome obstacles. Without hope, we seem to give up easily like Johnsy in the story. Without hope, there is nothing. Another important thing in life is love. O. Henry, through the story, advices us should love ourselves and other people. The love between three persons, Johnsy, Sue and old Behrman makes a moving story. Johnsy had sometimes forgotten loving herself and cause the worry for Sue, but the biggest love is the love of the old Behrman for......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Last Leaf

...singing and acting. By 1894, he founded the weekly newspaper The Rolling Stone humorous and served as editor. He also worked for other newspapers and journalists contributed occasionally drawing cartoons. In 1919, the Arts and Science (Society of Arts and Sciences) set "O. Henry Memorial Award" (O. Henry Memorial Awards), awarded annually for outstanding short stories. In Vietnam there were many translations of some of O. Henry short story. The most recent book "The singer's final" due Literature Publishing House published. Short story last leaf was brought into the school program literature. The last leaf (last leaf) O. Henry was composed in 1907, is a famous short story is known to most, has been included in textbooks of many countries to introduce foreign literature. Stories about life's hardships those poor artists in America. Made life miserable surrender Gion-cylinder with pneumococcal disease, but thanks to the last leaf has revived Jonsy...

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Resistance

...Employees often show resistance to change due to fear of the unknown. When employees are accustom to their ways of doing things, new procedures or ideas may make them feel uneasy. In order for a company to stay up float, it is inevitable for changes to occur. Companies over the years have elaborated multiple tactics to turn resistance into collaboration. One popular way to avoid resistance within the organization is participation. Participation makes employees and upper management feel involved. Because design requires information from all participants, cooperation keeps everyone committed to the change. For example, a company decides to implement staggering work shifts effective immediately to improve logistics for the work place; however, employees show resistance given that they were never consulted or involved in such decisions. Participation can also be time consuming, so different approaches may be necessary. Even though coercion is the most commonly use approach for change implementation, it is not the best tactic as employees feel like victims. Coercion could even complicate or prolong change. In some instances, coercion may be optimal for rapid results in urgent matters. A good example for coercion could be a board of directors terminating the CEO for a terrible performance. Communication and education may be the most expensive approach to implement changes as it may require huge amounts of training and communication. Nevertheless, it is the most......

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Transpiration

...Introduction 1. Transpiration is “the uptake of water by plant roots, transport through the plant and evaporation from the leaf through pores called stomata” (Roberts et al., 2006). Transpiration is important because it enables the plant to absorb nutrients while taking up water and the effect of evaporation prevents the temperature within the plant from reaching “supra-high levels” (Roberts et al., 2006). 2. Plants regulate transpiration through “partial or complete stomatal closure” (Roberts et al., 2006). 3. Transpiration is affect by many abiotic factors such as “water stress, flooding, light intensity, high temperatures, cold and freezing” (Nilsen and Orcutt, 1996). Water Stress refers to drought conditions which can lead to dehydration of vegetation. Flooding can cause the nutrients to be washed away as well as smother the plant roots. High light intensity could cause irreparable damage to the leaves due to radiation where as low light intensity could inhibit photosynthesis. Under freezing conditions, water will turn to ice which prevents the plant from absorbing it. Also, as water becomes ice, the volume will expand and can cause physical damage to the plant itself. High temperatures increases evaporation of water and can lead to the plant dehydrating. In our experiment we will be exploring the abiotic factors heat as well as humidity, closed stomata, and surface area of the leaves. Humidity can affect transpiration because under high humidity, the......

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Anatomy of Leaf Plant

...scientific structure of organisms including the study of cells and tissues. (Potts, 1997) Anatomy of leaf: Anatomy of leaf has been studied and being discusses form many decades and it is a rich field of research too. There are two types of anatomical studies and researches done in the leaf plant and one of them, which is more important, is that of the cross sectional anatomy, exploring the structure of leaf. (Phillips, 1980) Whenever we study the anatomy of the leaf of any plant, it comes up with below mentioned structure. There will be including the stoma (plural of Stomata) on the upper side of the leaf (when studying it cross-sectional) which is used by the plant, for the procession of transpiration. (Phillips, 1980) With stoma, there will be guard cells including the same side and followed by the upper epidermis. On the opposite of it, there is a waxy cuticle of the plant which includes specified functioning for it. Other important parts of the plant’s internal structure are that of mesophyll cells which are also considered as photosynthetic cells. (Phillips, 1980) On the right side of the cross section of the plant, there is palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll followed by vein and lower epidermis. The anatomy of leaves of different plants varies somehow but the internal parts are found mostly in the same manner. (Phillips, 1980) Researches on the anatomy of the leaf: The anatomy is a very rich and broad field and there are thousands of researches conducted......

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Orangw Leaf

...With the growth in the frozen treat business the market is becoming saturated, but Orange Leaf Frozen Yogurt has found the right pieces of the puzzle to allow rapid growth in this crowded market. Founded in 2008, in Oklahoma City, Orange leaf Frozen Yogurt has quickly expanded to 225 locations, with plans in place to open up 125, within 35 states (Orange Leaf, 2). In 2011 Orange Leaf turned into an international company, by opening their first outlet in Australia (Ruggless, 1). Orange leaf has a variety to choose from. Each store has sixteen different flavors ranging from unusual flavors such as coconut and lemon, to your traditional flavors, such as vanilla and chocolate (Quintanilla, 1). You also have the option to swirl select flavors as well. This may seem like a low option of flavors, but they are switched out often with different flavors to change it up for their customers. After you make your own bowl of frozen yogurt from the machines, you have the options of choosing from fifty-two different toppings (Quintanilla, 1). Some of the options you have when it comes to toppings are fruit topping, chocolate candies, nuts, gummy candies, and many more (Quintanilla, 1). Orange Leaf Frozen yogurt is without a doubt a business to consumer product. Let us define exactly what it mean to be a business to consumer is. According to Investopedia business to consumer are transactions that happen directly between a company and a consumer, where the consumer is the end user...

Words: 1999 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Effects of Wind on Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration Rate of Betula Papyrifera

...wind on stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of Betula papyrifera Previous studies on transpiration rates of plants suggest that in the presence of wind, transpiration rates can increase as the boundary layer is removed. A branch of Betula papyrifera was set up as a potometer and exposed to windy conditions and its transpiration rate measured, as well as the stomatal conductance. Although the average rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance were lower for the branch exposed to wind, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group data sets to suggest a direct relationship. Introduction Plants are able to take in water and move it throughout its systems through the process of transpiration, in which moisture is carried from the roots to the leaves to be evaporated out through the stomata. Water loss through transpiration is crucial for plant survival as it allows them to cool their temperature, as well as increase their nutrient intake as additional water is absorbed to compensate for the loss. Although most of the water absorbed from the soil is lost through transpiration, plants utilize a small percentage of water to undergo photosynthesis. The energy required to carry out both transpiration and photosynthesis is obtained from sunlight, which can have a direct effect the transpiration rate. Plants are at a higher risk of wilting in hot, sunny weather due to the increase in rate of transpiration and lack of water abundance (Ku......

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Transpiration Rate

...Alexander Templet Transpiration Rate in Tomato Solanum lycopersicum Biology 156 Summer 2008 Mr. Leith Adams, Instructor Lab Partners: Michael Adams Andrew Scalist Experiments Conducted: 23 June 2008 Abstract Plants draw water up through their roots and out through their leaves. This process is known as transpiration. The transpiration rate is a major determining factor in how quickly plants absorb water, and is thus critically important to understand for agriculture. In order to study how varying weather conditions affect the rate of transpiration, we conducted experiments using stems of the tomato Solenum lycopersicum. Our results showed increased transpiration when the plants were subjected to wind and also when subjected to light. Interestingly, wind and light combined did not increase transpiration as greatly as light acting alone. Introduction Plants draw water in through their roots, and then transport it through the xylem up to the branches and leaves. Water exits the leaves through the stomata in the form of water vapor. Polarity causes the water exiting through the stomata to draw after it the water in the xylem, which then pulls in more water through the roots. This process is known as transpiration (Raven et al., 2002). Transpiration is a vitally important process in plants, and to study it further we designed and conducted an experiment to measure the rate of transpiration in the tomato plant, Solenum lycopersicum. In order to......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Resistance to Change and Overcoming Resistance

...RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND OVERCOMING RESISTANCE This paper examines organizational change, focusing on the distinction of changes according to their scope and presenting a typology of evolutionary and strategic changes. Through empirical research, it analyzes the importance of the sources of resistance to change defined theoretically, also considering types of changes, offering hints about where organizations should pay special attention when initiating a change process. INTRODUCTION Many authors (Lawrence, 1954; Maurer, 1996; Strebel, 1994; Waddell and Sohal, 1998, among others) stress that the reasons for the failure of many change initiatives can be found in resistance to change. Resistance to change introduces costs and delays into the change process (Ansoff, 1990) that are difficult to anticipate (Lorenzo, 2000) but must be taken into consideration. Resistance has also been considered as a source of information, being useful in learning how to develop a more successful change process (Beer and Eisenstat, 1996; Goldstein, 1988; Lawrence, 1954; Piderit, 2000; Waddell and Sohal, 1998). Undoubtedly, resistance to change is a key topic in change management and should be seriously considered to help the organization to achieve the advantages of the transformation. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Organizational change is an empirical observation in an organizational entity of variations in shape, quality or state over time (Van de Ven and Poole, 1995), after the deliberate introduction of...

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Resistance

...infection can be easily contracted if not careful. Locker rooms are fertile breeding grounds for bacteria due to close quarters and the sharing of personal items. “In 2003, eight players from the St. Louis Rams football team contracted MRSA. The same year, linebackers Junior Seau of the Miami Dolphins and Ben Taylor of the Cleveland Browns had to be hospitalized because of the illness” (Watson 12). The fact that almost anyone is susceptible to superbugs should promote user knowledge and compliance. “The reality is, for now, humans will have to coexist with superbugs. These drug- resistant bacteria won’t disappear overnight” (Watson 52). Although its unfortunate, scientists wont be able to slow down and control the process of resistance until doctors are given more training in prescriptions, regulations and government actions are set to correct and enhance drug quality and supply around the world, and our population as a whole becomes aware of the problem and unites to achieve a less- resistant microbe world. Until then scientists are hard at work to keep up with the bacteria in what seems to be futile. Although this is true many people believe in achieving what was achieved many years ago, when Penicillin came to existence....

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Last Leaf

...To be perfect short story neatness, brevity and a significant incident or an aspect of character or an experience of some psychological moment is essential. Within its short frame work, it must have a beginning, middle and an end. There must be completeness in its structure. All the elements plot, character, dialogue, descriptions and background must be organically connected with other. Generally a good story has a surprising end which bears a sense of endlessness. All these characteristics of a good short story are fulfilled in the short story of O Henry’s The Last Leaf. It has an ironical twist at the end that is surprising and at the same time striking to the readers. Old Behrman’s bold self sacrifice for the young Johnsy comes unexpectedly to the readers, but none the less convincing and admirable.The story if farther a parable of christian story of Resurrection and sacrifice.  The story begins in a leisurely manner with the sketchy background. The old Greenwich village in which painters come to set up their art studio has curious maze streets criss-crossing one another. A traveler loses the directions of the streets. This description of the streets has relevance to the story in which a strong and strange psychological morbidity is focused. The main theme is then introduced it has two characters – Sue and Johnsy. They met together suddenly at a hotel and found themselves sharing taste chicory salad, bishop sleeves and in painting. They become intimate friends and in a......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Resistance

...The term resistance to change simply means that individuals are set in his or her ways and often don’t want to modify his or her routing. However, this change resistance doesn’t just occur when individuals who like their jobs are asked to make a change. Resistance even happens when individuals are chronically upset with their working conditions. For them, the known evil is preferable to the unknown. For anyone to resist a change, there obviously has to be a change. These new conditions are the events that occur around us every day. And these events, big or small, good or bad, invariably lead to some result. However, it is important to distinguish between the symptoms of resistance to change, and the causes behind it. These behaviors fall into two categories -- active-resistance or passive-resistance. Symptoms of active resistance occur where individuals are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement. Overt active resistance, although potentially damaging, is at least visible and you have the option of using formal disciplinary actions (although more positive methods should normally be used first). When it is covert, you may also need to use to covert methods to identify the source and hence take appropriate action Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions. At meetings...

Words: 692 - Pages: 3