Free Essay

Translation

In: English and Literature

Submitted By bulnesm18
Words 2093
Pages 9
Language Shapes Our Minds

Language is so essential to our existence, so deeply part of what every human has and does, and it’s impossible to picture life without it. As social creatures, we use language as a tool, but this tool is embedded in us. This tool doesn't just help us shape the world around us and create bonds and express things, but this tool also shapes our mind.
They can alter the way we see the world and the way we think and the way we live our lives. I’ve always been a firm believer of this and many different persons including lawyers, linguists, and psychologist speculated it, but not until recently were studies actually done to prove these statements. This was mostly done because it was presumed “untestable”, but luckily, Stanford and MIT found ways to reopen the question. “We have collected data around the world: from China, Greece, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, and Aboriginal Australia. What we have learned is that people who speak different languages do indeed think differently and that even flukes of grammar can profoundly affect how we see the world.” (Boroditsky, Lera. "HOW DOES OUR LANGUAGE SHAPE THE WAY WE THINK.) Language is a unique thing that humans have had the ability to create and develop and it is not only a key example to express how humans work, but it allows us to express ourselves in so many ways.
To understand how language works, we must first understand what language is. Language is defined as ‘a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition’, but this definition can no longer be viewed as valid. Communication through language isn’t just a verbal expression. In fact, language wasn't the earliest form of expression and communication between two individuals; sign language was. Sign language isn’t just a single language either. Sign language has separate dialects, such as American or French sign language. Language is what gives people the ability to communicate, but these languages shape the way we think.
I am able to speak English fluently and I also have conversational Spanish fluency. With this being said, the languages shape the way we think in conversation because sometimes the words must come out in separate orders than how they are translated, which ultimately shapes the way of how we phrase what we are going to say. This was best phrased by Lera Boroditsky, assistant professor at Stanford, who said “To say [certain things] in English, we have to mark the verb for tense; in this case, we have to pronounce it like "red" and not like "reed." In Indonesian you need not (in fact, you can't) alter the verb to mark tense “(Boroditsky, Lera.) This clearly influences the way we perceive and remember things. This isn’t about ignorance; it just means that if we don’t talk about something, which may be due to language, we may not think it. We may think the same way and see the same things, but talk differently and this changes us more than we know. Another way language can affect the way we think is by forcing the way we speak. If we cannot directly express something using a word or two, it may not entirely be able to explain. In a Ted talk, Keith Chen, describes the difficulty in Chinese, some phrases are to articulate versus that of other language. The example he uses is trying to say, “This is my uncle.” It’s very easy to say in English, but according to Keith Chen, “In Chinese, you have no choice but to encode more information about said uncle. The language requires that you denote the side the uncle is on, whether he’s related by marriage or birth and, if it’s your father’s brother, whether he’s older or younger.” (Gross, Jessica. "How Language Can Affect the Way We Think) What’s the value of all this information? Nothing really, it’s obligatory. This goes back to a point I was communicating about how certain languages make you think of certain things that others may not. When I say, “this is my uncle”, I don't think “This is my uncle who is the older brother of my mother that is related to me by birth.” Chinese forces the speaker to say this in order to get the small bit of information that he or she wants to get across. The need to share this additional information is also interesting because it can also improve our mind. “Russian speakers, who make an extra distinction between light and dark blues in their language, are better able to visually discriminate shades of blue.” (Lost in Translation) I think this is actually very neat. Language offered more than just a tool to allow us to express things, but it allowed people who speak Russian frequently to pay more attention to colors and have an easier time identifying colors, which may not be a huge deal to most people, but this could be helpful when it comes to certain professions and overall, it is an additional positive externality.
More importantly than how we speak it, we must consider how the listener interprets the information thrown at him or her. How we use language says a lot. Tone of voice is important in this too. We can be speaking seriously or we can be speaking sarcastically or we can be speaking in a nervous manner and all these little social cues are important to the speaker and the interpreter. If the tone is serious, then it’s clear that this information may be vital or holds some truth. If speaker mumbles and stutters, you may interpret that the speaker is reader for a multiple of reasons.
Language also doesn't always translate perfectly between separate languages. We all remember that one year at the Super Bowl where Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson performed together and a huge wardrobe malfunction lead to a quick exposure of Janet Jackson’s nude breast. When the media covered this, one channeled used identical reports, but they did not transfer over perfectly. “The reports were identical except in the last sentence where one used the agentive phrase "ripped the costume" while the other said, "the costume ripped." (Lost in Translation) It's clear to see how this could affect the listeners understanding of the story. Reading the costume ripped leads me to believe that it was an innocent mistake. Reading that he ripped her costume makes me feel as if this was an attack on her and something that is almost sickening. In a study, “Not only did people who read, "ripped the costume" blame Justin Timberlake more, they also levied a whopping 53% more in fines.” Language doesn't affect everyone who speaks that language the same. If you speak Russian, as we know, not everyone is going to act the same as every other Russian speaker. If you change how they use this language, though, it is found that you change the way people think. Amazingly enough, a study done by MIT was able to conclude that language changes how we perceive certain things. Think of language as a second pair of eyes. If you close one eye, you’re missing a large chunk of the picture that is in front of you. Languages work this way. If you only know one language, you aren’t fully utilizing our human potential to learn languages and improve our understanding of what is around us. Language allows us to analyze certain things differently and think differently of what we are doing or looking at and this is a huge advantage. The structures that exist in our languages profoundly shape how we construct reality, and help make us as smart and sophisticated as we are.
Language is also a direct tie to our culture and our understanding of it. Coming from a Hispanic family and having parents that are bilingual in both languages, language also helps mold the way that I view my culture. "Language is fundamental to cultural identity. This is so for people everywhere… For this reason, it is important that people keep their own language alive."(Racismnoway. The Importance of Culture, Language and Identity.) If we were to eliminate language, we would be eliminating culture. The roots of who we are can be found in this language. How the words are used, how people’s languages evolve and all these other great questions can be answered by language, but if language were to be lost, the world would be a bore and the ability to understand culture would vanish with it.
Languages also create a strong form of identity. When I am here at Goucher College, I identify with my English speaker identity because that's what is most common here. We listen to songs in English and speak in English and read in English and there isn’t many mix of languages here, unless you are in a language class, so I choose to identify with my English half. My Spanish side mainly comes out when I am at home. The only way I communicate with my grandma is through Spanish and when I spend time with her I like to listen to music by Spanish artist, such as Celia Cruz, because I know her and I will both enjoy it. When I need to speak to my parents, I used what we call ‘Spanglish’. Spanglish is where we articulate by combining the languages of English and Spanish, hence the name. What I find interesting is how many times we do this and it has developed a few problems when I speak to some only Spanish speakers and only English speakers. The problem I tend to find is that I don't know how to say some words in one language and that could be for various reasons, such as, the word doesn't exist or I’m just so used to growing up and hearing the word in one language that I may have never learned it in another. My earliest indication of this problem was back in first grade. I remember transferring to a private school that had a bit less Hispanics and I was trying to tell some friends that I went to my ‘tia’s house. These kids weren’t entirely sure what a what was and I wasn't sure how to tell them, until we asked our teacher and she told us that in English it was an aunt. Lets examine artist. Most of the time when they create beautiful art pieces they don't tend to use words. So how does this have to do with language per say? Well, language creates grammatical gender. “What it means for a language to have grammatical gender is that words belonging to different genders get treated differently grammatically and words belonging to the same grammatical gender get treated the same grammatically.”(Lost in Translation) Languages influence in many ways that we don't consider. Our mind is influenced and affected by this in ways we do not even know. “It turns out that in 85 percent of such personifications, whether a male or female figure is chosen is predicted by the grammatical gender of the word in the artist's native language. So, for example, German painters are more likely to paint death as a man, whereas Russian painters are more likely to paint death as a woman.” (Lost in Translation) Breaking down language proves how vital this is for the human experience. Language is so much more important of a key role than we may have ever considered. It changes the way we view things, it alters how we think about certain things, it alters how we may interpret things, and it alters people from their personality all the way to their understanding of identity.

Works Cited
Boroditsky, Lera. "HOW DOES OUR LANGUAGE SHAPE THE WAY WE THINK." HOW DOES OUR LANGUAGE SHAPE THE WAY WE THINK? Web. 15 Apr. 2015. <http://edge.org/conversation/how-does-our-language-shape-the-way-we-think>.

Gross, Jessica. "How Language Can Affect the Way We Think." Ideastedcom. 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. <http://ideas.ted.com/5-examples-of-how-the-languages-we-speak-can-affect-the-way-we-think/>.

"Lost in Translation." WSJ. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703467304575383131592767868>.

"Racismnoway." The Importance of Culture, Language and Identity. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. <http://www.racismnoway.com.au/about-racism/understanding/culture-language-identity.html>.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Lost in Translation

...Adrian Trejo Professor Crandall Monday-Thursday: 1:20-4:00PM 01/17/13 Essay#2- Lost in Translation Sophia Coppola’s, Lost In Translation presents a relationship, between two Americans who are married, but lack communication and inadequate attention from their spouses, while staying in Tokyo. Bob Harris is away from his family on a business trip, as he’s going through a mid-life crisis. Charlotte, a woman in her early twenties struggles to find a place in the world. She hoped a trip to Tokyo, with her husband would help conflicted feelings about her two-year-old marriage, her spirit, discovering a purpose and finding a career. These individuals meet and are instantly attracted to one another, because of parallel doubts about their life in contrasting perspectives. Magnetically drawn to one another, they inevitably communicate their problems in marriage, their fears, and insecurities of current circumstances. Bob and Charlotte are scapegoats staying in another country, as well as a foreign society. Their feelings of displacement, isolation and alienation during their stay in Japan, provide an exploration of complex human emotions, such as boredom and loneliness. Bob Harris is an aging movie star beyond his peak years, who is still famous enough to be recognized, but not to be asked to do any more movies. Now in his fifties, he traded his fast-paced Hollywood lifestyle for a wife and family. Harris thinks that he’ll only be in Tokyo for a few days, but his......

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Lost in Translation

...Adrian T Essay- Lost in Translation Sophia Coppola’s, Lost In Translation presents a relationship between two Americans who are married, but lack communication and e attention from their spouses, while staying in Tokyo. Bob Harris is away from his family on a business trip as he is going through a mid-life crisis. Charlotte, a woman in her early twenties struggles to find a place in the world. She hoped a trip to Tokyo, with her husband would help conflicted feelings about her two-year-old marriage, her spirit, discovering a purpose and finding a career. These individuals meet and are instantly attracted to one another, because of parallel doubts about their life in contrasting perspectives. Magnetically drawn to one another, they inevitably communicate their problems in marriage, their fears, and insecurities of current circumstances. Their feelings of displacement, isolation and alienation during their stay in Japan, provide an exploration of complex human emotions, such as boredom and loneliness. Bob Harris is an aging movie star beyond his peak years, who is still famous enough to be recognized, but not to be asked to do any more movies. Now in his fifties, he traded his fast-paced Hollywood lifestyle for a wife and family. Harris thinks that he’ll only be in Tokyo for a few days, but his stay is extended when his agent explains that he couldn’t pass on a deal a prestigious photographer offered. Mr. Harris is making two million dollars from a Japanese whiskey......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Translation Lab

...Introduction: Translation Lab will allow you to study the importance of the nucleotide sequence of mRNA as the fundamental basis for the genetic code universally deciphered by living cells. You will produce sequences of ribonucleotides that will be translated into protein to simulate the landmark experiments involving cell-free extracts that were essential for interpreting and understanding the genetic code. A major step forward in figuring out the code was the discovery by Nirenberg in 1961 that a cell-free extract made from E. coli cells could translate RNA added to the extract into proteins. The composition of the newly synthesized proteins could be determined by measuring the incorporation of radioactive amino acids into these proteins as they were translated. In his first experiment he made poly U RNA, using the enzyme polynucleotide phosphorylase, and translated it into a peptide of polyphenylalanine using the cell-free extract. This was definitive proof that RNA could code for the synthesis of proteins and gave the first possible assignment of a nucleotide code to the amino acid it specified. Methods and Materials: For each of the four bottles of ribonucleotides that appear, click on the arrow to select a nucleotide. Do this for two nucleotides initially. Click the Make RNA button to display the sequence of mRNA that you created. Click Add to Notes to create a record of your experiment. To translate this sequence into amino acids, click on the To Translation......

Words: 2429 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Lost in Translation

...Lucy Parkhurst Dr. Thombre 11/5/13 Intercultural Movie Review When thinking of intercultural communication, the movie that comes to mind is Sophia Coppola’s “Lost in Translation”. Bob Harris, played by Bill Murray, is an American actor who visits Tokyo, Japan to film an ad for whiskey. Bob, away from his wife and his familiar western environment, experiences isolation, loneliness, and sleeplessness upon entering Tokyo. He is constantly frustrated, due largely in part to his understanding of what others, such as a film director, restaurant waiters, and prostitutes are trying to convey to him in Japanese. In the midst of all this, he meets Charlotte, an American woman who like him, is lonely because her husband is more interested in his photography work than her. Due to their shared loneliness and feelings of isolation and culture shock, Bob and Charlotte become friends, and begin a relationship through respect, trust, and self-disclosure. Bob and Charlotte become a mirror to each other, as both try to sort out their identities and how proceed from their own relational crossroads. While the audience may wonder throughout the movie if Bob and Charlotte’s relationship will ever become romantic, it is plain to see that they learn lots about themselves and each other as a result of being outsiders in this new and unfamiliar culture. The most evident intercultural concepts I noticed in the film is culture shock, language, and identity. The first concept, culture shock, is......

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Lost in Translation

...Lost in Translation Ever been to a place where you don’t understand the language of the people around you? A place where you’re native language and their native language doesn’t meet. There are a lot of reasons why not knowing how to speak the language of the place you are staying can be exhausting. One of the reasons is for practicality. When you can’t speak the language, you’ll feel really useless because basically, you can’t communicate what you want. I experienced that firsthand while I was in Japan. I was in a shop in Japan and was looking through their items. I saw a coat and I really like it so I checked the price. It cost a lot but I think it was on sale, so I approach a saleslady. But apparently, the lady cannot speak English and I’m not that fluent in Japanese. So I ended up looking for my cousin just to ask him what the saleslady said. Did I mention my cousin was a 12 year-old? He grew up in Japan so he practically speaks the language half of his life. I often have a hard time speaking to him too. So, basically, language barrier can affect our lives in so many ways. Consequently, different language also means different currency. And because of globalization, the companies expand their business in different parts of the world. As a result, a company will have a subsidiary with a different functional currency. This subsidiary will have to be translated to the functional currency of its parent for the purpose of consolidation. The article discussed about the...

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A False Translation

...One of the most common types of a conversion is the change from one language to another, otherwise known as a translation. I believe that the common goal of a translation is to change the way an idea is formatted while still being able to have the idea to keep the same essence and spirit of the original copy. The same can be said for a translation of languages as to the translation from a novel to a movie. Although the format has been changed, the goal is to keep and convey the original message in a different medium. What a translation allows is the spread of different ideas to a wider and broader audience base that may not have been able to experience the idea otherwise. In the case of the novel East of Eden by John Steinbeck and the 1952 version of the movie East of Eden I view the movie to be a translation which becomes a broader and somewhat more accessible version of the original story. Even though the movie was created to capitalize on the huge monetary success of the novel, the film makers felt the need to drastically change the film in a way that changes the principal tone and meaning of the story. I feel that the arguments made in the movie are radically different from the ones made in the novel and by my definition, the movie a poor translation of the original novel. The original novel by Steinbeck had been highly anticipated and when it was release it found high sales while it received mixed reviews from critics and was highly controversial. 1950’s America......

Words: 1305 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Language and Translation

...Fall 2013 11/1/2013 Unit 3 Assignment: “How Do You Say It?” Final Draft Language and Translation Language is the basic tool people use to communicate with each other, including verbal language and non-verbal language. Language is used to announce, to persuade, to queries, to express emotions, to transmit complicated ideas or even to hurt people. Generally speaking, using the language correctly allows people to communicate better, compared with animals. However, we live in a big world, which has more than 6 billion people now. With the existence of many different languages, the issues of translation are generated. After reading Alberto Rios essay – Translating Translation: Finding the Beginning, I know Rios understands languages and translation in complex and stratified ways, from cultures and manners. He writes “Language is more than what we say – it’s also how we say it, and whether or not we even understand what we are saying. ” in his short essay (508). It can be understood easily why Rios pays so much attention to languages and translation. He grew up on the southwestern borderlands, having a Mexican father and an English mother. (504) The place he grew up is a place where cultures of the United States and Mexico meet and collide. Based on his own experience of dealing with different cultures and different languages, he points out how to say is more significant than what we say. The elements making his essay to be persuasive......

Words: 1880 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Translation Shift

...The Translation Shifts [Name of Student] [Name of University] Translation shift refers to the changes that occur during the process of translating from one language to another. These shifts occur at all level whether the lower level of language or the higher thematic level of text. According to Catford (1978:73) he says translation shift is the change from the formal correspondence to the target text. He has divided translation shifts into two categories and that is rank and category translations shift. Rank translation shift is where there is a change from grammar to lexis whereas category is the change from formal correspondence. The existence of a translation shift in any kind of translational activity has become an unavoidable phenomenon as translation is a process. It never stops with the evolution of time and the knowledge of mankind. Translation has never and will never reach completion or perfection. It is where our practice makes perfect. Translation shifts normally occurs when the source language is different from the target language and these are normally due to differences in word order, types of tense used grammar used parts of speech applied etc. In the case of translating English to Arabic there occurs a translational shift because English belongs to the Indo-European family and Arabic is a Semitic language. The disparity makes the shift to come out. It is always important for one to understand that translation shift helps to reduce literal translation......

Words: 962 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Rumi Translation

...the physical one. Sometimes someone feels this truth so strongly that he or she can live in mountain solitude totally refreshed.   The worried, heroic doings of men and women seem weary and futile to dervishes enjoying the light breeze of spirit. Translation Questions: 1. The translation does not evoke any old vocabulary. Both translations are in modern English. I feel the translation is more modern so it can be more easily understood to modern readers. Rumi’s poems were originally written in Arabic, which is a very old language and still alive today. 2. The original was written in verse just as both the translations are also written in verse. 3. When translated I believe the piece lost its rhyme scheme, it actually lost it’s sense of rhyme in the first place once translated. 4. The piece lost its lyrical flow and eb once translated. 5. The work is not a play, Rumi was typically poet rather than a playwrite. 6. Once translated the piece loses its eb and flow as mentioned above, there is no rhyme scheme or rhyme at all anymore. It is somewhat unfortunate that this is lost because it is probably a very beautiful sounding piece of writing. 7. I believe there was no goal other than to provide readers with a translation of a famous poets work....

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Polysemy in Translation

...Parallel Corpus Hammouda Salhi University of Carthage, Tunisia hammouda_s@hotmail.com Abstract: This article investigates a topic at the interface between translation studies, lexical semantics and corpus linguistics. Its general aim is to show how translation studies could profit from the work done in both lexical semantics and corpus linguistics in an attempt to help ‘endear’ linguists to translators (Malmkjær, 1998). The specific objective is to capture the semantic and pragmatic behavior of the noun ‘destruction’ from its different translations into Arabic. The data are taken from an English-Arabic parallel corpus collected from UN texts and their translations (hereafter EAPCOUNT). While it seems that ‘destruction’ is monosemous, it turns out, after exploring its occurrences, to be highly polysemous and shows a case of complementary polysemy, where a number of alternations can be captured. These findings are broadly in line with the results reached in recent developments in lexical semantics, and more particularly the Generative Lexicon (GL) theory developed by James Pustejovsky. Some concrete suggestions are made at the end on how to enhance the relation between linguists and translators and their mutual cooperation. Key words: Lexical semantics, corpus linguistics, translation studies, complementary polysemy, coercion, parallel corpora, lexical ambiguities Résumé: Le présent article aborde un sujet à la croisée des études de......

Words: 8055 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Translation Nation

...Chapter Summaries Translation Nation – Hector Tobar 1. In chapter one, Americanismo – City of Peasants, Hector Tobar first introduces the idea of Americanismo: immigrants have cultural dual citizenship in physical living in America and keeping their cultural identity alive in the home. The people who form a nation, like America, have an integrated identity composed of their cultural origin. 2. In chapter 2, Where Green Chiles Roam – No es imposibl, Tobar depicts the dichotomy of illegal immigration at the border, one side with the fantasy of life across the border and the other side, the reality of living in America. This highlights that living conditions and perspective are truly a function of perspective. 3. In chapter 3, Brother Citizen, Brother Alien – Sin fronteras, Tobar portrays a specific encounter he had with two brothers that are separated by citizenship, cultural and national. 4. In chapter 4, The Wanderers – El destierro, Tobar depicts the lives of immigrants, the channels through which they cross and life after crossing the border. It is one depicted of wandering travel and job seeking. 5. In chapter 5, In the Land of the New – En la tierra de lo nuevo, Tobar illustrates fantasy, of those who immigrate, meeting reality through brokenness in the education system. 6. In chapter 6, Our Secret Latin Heartlands – Los secretos del machete, Tobar depicts the phenomenon of immigrants who reject their Mexican cultural identity for the desperate hope...

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Translation

...HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH ------***------ NGUYEN VAN TUAN TRANSLATION 5 HUE - 2006 1 INTRODUCTION TRANSLATION 5 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English scientific texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to science and technology as well as the typical structures frequently used in scientific and technological texts. Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: - obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English scientific and technological documents. - get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of scientific and technological texts in their translations. - accurately translate scientific and technological texts into English and Vietnamese. On the completion of this course book, I would like to......

Words: 34454 - Pages: 138

Premium Essay

Translation Quality

... TRANSLATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT Translation quality assessment has become one of the key issues in translation studies. This comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of translation evaluation makes explicit the grounds of judging the worth of a translation and emphasizes that translation is, at its core, a linguistic operation. Written by the author of the world’s best known model of translation quality assessment, Juliane House, this book provides an overview of relevant contemporary interdisciplinary research on translation, intercultural communication and globalization, and corpus and psycho- and neuro-linguistic studies. House acknowledges the importance of the socio-cultural and situational contexts in which texts are embedded, and which need to be analysed when they are transferred through space and time in acts of translation, at the same time highlighting the linguistic nature of translation. The text includes a newly revised and presented model of translation quality assessment which, like its predecessors, relies on detailed textual and culturally informed contextual analysis and comparison. The test cases also show that there are two steps in translation evaluation: firstly, analysis, description and explanation; secondly, judgements of value, socio-cultural relevance and appropriateness. The second is futile without the first: to judge is easy, to understand less so. Translation Quality Assessment is an invaluable resource for students......

Words: 66245 - Pages: 265

Premium Essay

Translation and Gende

...researches in the field of translation are being focused on the concept of gender in translation (e.g. von Flotow 2001, Simon 1996, and Chamberlain 1998). According to Chamberlain (1998: 96), “the issues relating to gender in the practice of translation are myriad, varying widely according to the type of text being translated, the language involved, cultural practices and countless other factors”. Von Flotow (2001) offers a comprehensive overview of research areas in which the issue of “gender and translation” could be investigated: - Historical studies (who translated what when and how, and how did gender play into this?) - Theoretical considerations (how do different gender affiliations, definitions, constructions play themselves out in translation and translation research?) - Issues of identity (how does gendered identity or a lack of it affect translation, translation research?) - Post-colonial questions (does our largely Anglo-American "gender" apply in other cultures and their texts? Does it translate into other languages? And what does it mean if it doesn’t?) - More general questions of cultural transfer (is the current government-supported export of Canadian women’s writing, a hot commodity in some literary markets, really about Canadian tolerance and egalitarianism?) Whereas most of researches done regarding gender in translation have dealt specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, the main focus of......

Words: 4874 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Equivalence in Translation

... Victoria Plata Spring 2012 Equivalence in Translation Formal correspondence, or dynamic equivalence, that is the question. Whenever translation is discussed, the concept of equivalence is most likely to come forth. However, more than one definition has been given for this central concept. Two of the most relevant theories about equivalence would be Eugene Nida’s and J. C. Catford’s. I will comment on those and on the possibility of finding a point of balance between the two seemingly antagonistic alternatives for translation. First of all, a rudimentary notion of translation begins with a text in a source language (SL) which aims to be transferred into a target language (TL). Such text might be seen as the carrier of a message conformed by two kinds of factors: linguistic factors, pertaining to the concrete form and the abstract meaning of a text; and cultural factors, which are not evident at the level of form or meaning, but pertain to the mental background of the speakers and writers of the SL. Both factors considered, different approaches are possible. One the one hand, the translating process could be either source oriented or target oriented. On the other hand, the focus might be either linguistic or functional. According to Nida (1964), translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly I terms of style. He proposed two different types......

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5