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Tolerance and Withdrawal

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By gemrod
Words 741
Pages 3
There are various types of tolerance and two are heroin and alcohol tolerance. Many people after engaging in initial drug use experience a euphoric high and can become quite addicted to that initial high that many spend years chasing the dragon. However, some people become addicted than others experiencing high levels of tolerance. “There is evidence that after prolonged use, heroin is highly addictive. People who use heroin regularly can develop dependence and tolerance to it, which means they need to take larger amounts of heroin to get the same effect”. (NIDA research report series, 2005) Heroin is also an opioid drug and with Heroin, it can be snorted, smoked, injected and inhaled. Once heroin substance is administered the pharmacological route involves crossing the blood brain barrier where the permeability of heroin is ten times higher than morphine. “Once heroin crosses the blood brain barrier, it is hydrolyzed into 6-acetyl morphine and morphine, which then quickly bind to opioid receptors. The “rush” felt by heroin users is the sensation caused by the rapid entry of heroin into the brain and the attachment of 6-acetyl morphine and morphine to opioid receptors. Opioids in general can change the neurochemical activity in the brain stem causing a depression in breathing. In the limbic system opioids cause an increase in feelings of pleasure, and have the ability to block pain signals sent through the spinal cord”. (NIDA research report series, 2005) The physiological changes with heroin and other opioid substances stem from long term use of the drug which causes neurochemical and molecular changes in the brain. The biggest change that occurs with dependence and addiction of heroin substances is with the brain circuitry which deals with the wiring and reward pathway of the brain. “Whenever this reward circuit is activated, the brain records that…...

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