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TOEFL iBT Tips
®

United StateS PURDUE U POLITECNICO dI MILANO HONG KONG LAW

How to prepare for the TOEFL iBT. www.ets.org/toefl UCLA CANADA ENGINEERING ART FRANCE Teaching YALE Germany MEDICINE U of British ColUmBia MCGILL SINGAPORE UK U OF TOKYO KOREA

TOEFL® iBT Tips
TOEFL iBT Tips—from ETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Open More Doors with TOEFL® iBT, the Key to Academic Success . . . 4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The TOEFL® Test—The Key to Academic Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 TOEFL Scores Open More Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The New TOEFL iBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What’s New About the TOEFL iBT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Why Were Changes Made to the TOEFL Test? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 About the TOEFL iBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Question Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A . TOEFL iBT Reading Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Academic Reading Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 What is Different? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 B . TOEFL iBT Listening Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Academic Listening Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 What is Different? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 C . TOEFL iBT Speaking Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Academic Speaking Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Speaking Task Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Independent Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Integrated Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What is Different? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 D . TOEFL iBT Writing Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Academic Writing Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Writing Task Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Integrated Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Independent Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Contents continued on next page.

TOEFL iBT Tips

What is Different? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 About Test Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A . Score Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 B . Rating of Speaking and Writing Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 C . Score Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 D . Score Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 General Skill-building Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 A . Reading Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 B . Listening Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 C . Speaking Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 D . Writing Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Test Preparation Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Step 1: View all the Test Materials to See What the Test is Like . . . . . . 35 Step 2: Take an Online Practice Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Step 3: Practice More on Your Weakest Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Step 4: Use Proven Test-Taking Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Register for the New TOEFL iBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Step 1: Get a Copy of the Information and Registration Bulletin . . . . . 40 Step 2: Check the TOEFL Website for the List of Test Centers . . . . . . . 40 Step 3: Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Test Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Test Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Test Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Test Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Rubrics for Speaking Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Rubrics for Writing Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Score Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Speaking Score Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Total Score Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Score Comparisons for Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

TOEFL iBT Tips

Score Comparisons for Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Score Comparisons for Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Converting Rubric Scores to Scaled Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Percentile Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Standard Error of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Contacting ETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Performance Feedback for Test Takers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

TOEFL iBT Tips

TOEFL® iBT Tips—from ETS
Open More Doors with TOEFL® iBT, the Key to Academic Success
ETS (Educational Testing Service), created this publication . ETS is the nonprofit educational organization in Princeton, New Jersey, USA, that develops and administers the TOEFL® test . TOEFL® iBT Tips is designed to help English-language learners understand and prepare for the TOEFL® Internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT) . As learners prepare for the test, they also build the skills required for academic success . TOEFL iBT Tips also supports ESL/EFL instructors and educational advisors as they help students with test preparation . TOEFL iBT Tips does not replace the Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL Internet-based testing, which contains information test takers need to register for the test . To download the Bulletin, visit the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl or write to TOEFL Services, PO Box 6151, Princeton, NJ, 08541, USA, to receive a copy . To receive updates, special offers, and discounts on test preparation materials, sign up for the TOEFL mailing list on the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl .

Introduction
The TOEFL Test—The Key to Academic Success
Undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate programs around the world require students to demonstrate their ability to communicate in English as an entrance requirement . The TOEFL test gives students the opportunity to prove they can communicate ideas effectively by simulating university classroom and student life communication . The language used in the test reflects real-life English-language usage in university lectures, classes, and laboratories . It is the same language professors use when they discuss coursework or concepts with students . It is the language students use in study groups and everyday university situations, such as buying books at the bookstore . The reading passages are from real textbooks and course materials .

TOEFL Scores Open More Doors
The TOEFL test measures how well students use English, not just their knowledge of the language . Because it is a valid and reliable test with unbiased, objective scoring, the TOEFL test confirms that a student has the English language skills necessary to succeed in an academic setting . That’s why it has become the most popular and accessible Englishlanguage test in the world . It has been administered more than 20 million times since 1964, and is available in more than 180 countries . It is also the most accepted test in the world . More than 6,000 colleges, universities, and agencies in 110 countries accept TOEFL scores . That means that students have the flexibility to use their TOEFL test scores worldwide .

The New TOEFL iBT
First introduced in 2005, TOEFL iBT is being gradually introduced throughout the world . The paper-based test continues to be offered to supplement the TOEFL iBT test center network and in countries where the TOEFL iBT is not yet available . To view a list of TOEFL test center locations, visit the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl .

TOEFL iBT Tips 4 TOEFL iBT Tips

What’s New About the TOEFL iBT?

Introduction

N It tests all four language skills that effective communication requires: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing . It emphasizes and measures English usage and communication ability in academic settings . N A Speaking section has been added. This section includes six tasks that require test takers to wear headphones and speak into a microphone when they respond . The responses are digitally recorded and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . To ensure maximum objectivity and reliability, three to six certified ETS raters evaluate the responses on a scale of 0 to 4 . The average rating is then converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30 . Raters are constantly monitored every time they score a test to ensure the highest accuracy and quality control possible . N The Writing section has been expanded. The new test requires test takers to write a response to material they have heard and read . In addition, test takers must compose an essay in support of an opinion . Test takers’ typed responses to the writing tasks are sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network where two to four raters evaluate the responses on a scale of 0 to 5 . The average rating is converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30 . N Some questions require the test taker to use more than one English-language skill and combine or integrate information from more than one source, the same way students use English language every day in the classroom . For example, sometimes test takers read a passage, listen to a short lecture about a topic, and then provide a written or spoken response . TOEFL iBT helps test takers prove they can combine their Englishlanguage skills to communicate ideas effectively . This ability is the key to academic success . N Note taking is allowed. Test takers can take notes on any section of the test the same way they would in a real college class . Test takers can use the notes when answering test questions . The notes are collected and destroyed before the test takers leave the test center . N The new test takes about four hours. Test takers complete all four sections of the test in one day, eliminating the need to travel to the test center twice . N It is delivered on computer via the Internet at secure test centers around the world. N The new scores help explain a test taker’s English-language skill level. ETS provides comprehensive scoring information, including four skill-section scores and a total score . Performance feedback for each skill and level are available on page 56 of this publication and the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . This feedback helps explain what the new scores mean . Test takers also receive performance feedback on their score reports to support English-language learning . The feedback describes test takers’ language proficiency levels and contains advice on how they can improve their language skills in the future . N Scores are now reported online. Test takers can view their scores online 15 business days after the test . They can also choose to receive a copy of their score report by mail . Colleges, universities, and agencies can go online to view the scores of those students who selected them as a score recipient . They also continue to receive scores in paper and electronic formats .

Why Were Changes Made to the TOEFL Test?
N To assess the ability to communicate successfully in an academic setting. The new test helps test takers determine their academic readiness . It also helps institutions identify and select students with the English-communication skills required to succeed . N To simulate university communication. The new integrated tasks, which require more than one language skill to complete, reflect the way language is used on campus every day—from the classroom to the bookstore . By simply preparing for the new TOEFL test, students will build the skills they need for academic success .
TOEFL iBT Tips Introduction 5

About the TOEFL iBT
Overview
The new TOEFL iBT consists of four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing . The entire test is about four hours long and all sections are taken on the same day . For a brief comparison of the three versions of the TOEFL test, visit www.ets.org/toefl and download TOEFL® iBT At a Glance .

Format
N The new TOEFL iBT is administered via computer from a secure Internet-based testing network . N Instructions for answering questions are given within each section . There is no computer tutorial . N TOEFL iBT is not computer-adaptive . Each test taker receives items that cover the full range of ability . N Test takers can take notes throughout the entire test . At the end of testing, all notes are collected and destroyed at the test center to ensure test security . N For the Speaking section, test takers wear noise-cancelling headphones and speak into a microphone . Responses are digitally recorded and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . N For the Writing section, test takers must type their responses . The typed responses are sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . N Human raters, trained and certified by ETS, rate the Speaking and Writing responses . The chart below shows the possible number of questions and the timing for each section . The time limit for each section varies according to the number of questions . Every test contains additional questions in the Reading or Listening Section . The New Test Format Test Section Number of Questions Timing

Reading Listening Break Speaking Writing

3–5 passages, 12–14 questions each 4–6 lectures, 6 questions each 2–3 conversations, 5 questions each

60–100 minutes 60–90 minutes 10 minutes

6 tasks: 2 independent and 4 integrated 1 integrated task 1 independent task

20 minutes 20 minutes 30 minutes

TOEFL iBT Tips 6 TOEFL iBT Tips

Question Types

About the TOEFL iBT

The TOEFL iBT features many of the question types used on the computer-based test . New questions involve integrated (combined) language skills and require test takers to:
● ● ●

read, listen, and then speak in response to a question listen and then speak in response to a question read, listen, and then write in response to a question

These new questions measure the student’s ability to use English to communicate effectively and determine if they have the language skills needed for academic success .

Toolbar
The toolbar in each section allows test takers to navigate through the test with ease . The following are examples of testing tools from the Listening and Reading sections of the new test . The section is always found in the upper left-hand corner of the toolbar . This is what the toolbar looks like in the Listening section .



Test takers always know what question they are answering and how much time is left in the section . It is possible to hide this clock at any time by clicking on Hide Time . Volume enables test takers to adjust the volume of the Listening material . Help gives test takers a way to get relevant help . When test takers use the Help feature, the clock does not stop . Next allows test takers to proceed to the next question . Once test takers click on Next, they can confirm their answers by clicking on OK . In the Listening section, test takers cannot see a question again once they click on OK .

● ●

● ●

The toolbar for the Reading section has some unique features .



Test takers can view the entire passage when answering questions . For some questions, they need to click View Text to see the entire reading passage . They can view all of their answers by clicking on Review . This allows them to return to any other question and change their answers . They can also see which questions they have skipped and still need to answer . In the Reading section, test takers can also click on Back at any time to return to the previous question .





TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 7

A. TOEFL iBT Reading Section
Academic Reading Skills
The Reading section measures the test taker’s ability to understand university-level academic texts and passages . In many academic settings around the world, students are expected to read and understand information from textbooks and other academic materials written in English . The following are three purposes for academic reading: Reading to find information
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effectively scanning text for key facts and important information increasing reading fluency and rate

Basic comprehension


understanding the general topic or main idea, major points, important facts and details, vocabulary in context, and pronoun references1 making inferences2 about what is implied in a passage



Reading to learn
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recognizing the organization and purpose of a passage understanding relationships between ideas organizing information into a category chart or a summary in order to recall major points and important details inferring how ideas throughout the passage connect



Description
Reading Section Format

Length of Passage Approximately 700 words

Number of Passages and Questions 3–5 passages 12–14 questions per passage

Timing 60–100 minutes

Reading passages: The TOEFL iBT uses reading passages from university-level textbooks that introduce a discipline or topic . The excerpts are changed as little as possible so the TOEFL iBT can measure how well students can read academic material . The passages cover a variety of different subjects . Test takers should not be concerned if they are unfamiliar with a topic . The passage contains all the information needed to answer the questions . All passages are classified into three basic categories:
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Exposition3 Argumentation4 Historical

Pronoun references—The nouns that pronouns refer to in a passage Make an inference—To comprehend an argument or an idea that is strongly suggested, but not explicitly stated in a passage 3 Exposition—Material that provides an explanation of a topic TOEFL iBT Tips 4 Argumentation—Material that presents a point of view about a topic and provides evidence to support it
1 2

8

TOEFL iBT Tips

Often, passages present information about the topic from more than one perspective or point of view . This is something test takers should note as they read . Usually, they are asked at least one question that allows them to demonstrate that they understood the general organization of the passage . Common organization types that test takers should be able to recognize are:
● ● ● ●

About the TOEFL iBT

classification compare/contrast cause/effect problem/solution

Test takers must read through or scroll to the end of each passage before receiving questions on that passage . Once the questions appear, the passage appears on the right side of the computer screen . The questions are on the left . (See the illustration that follows .) Test takers do not need any special background knowledge to answer the questions in the Reading section correctly, but the definition of difficult words or phrases in the passage may be provided . If test takers click on the word, a definition appears in the lower left part of the screen .

The 60 to 100 minutes allotted for this section include time for reading the passages and answering the questions . Reading Question Formats There are three question formats in the Reading section:
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questions with four choices and a single answer in traditional multiple-choice format questions with four choices and a single answer that ask test takers to “insert a sentence” where it fits best in a passage new “reading to learn” questions with more than four choices and more than one possible correct answer . (See page 10 .)



TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 9

What is Different?


Reading to learn questions These questions test the student’s ability to recognize how the passage is organized and understand the relationships among facts and ideas in different parts of the passage . Test takers sort information and place the text options provided into a category chart or summary . The summary questions are worth up to 2 points each . The chart questions are worth up to 3 points if there are five options presented, and up to 4 points if there are seven options presented . Partial credit is given in this question format .



Paraphrase questions Questions in this category are in multiple-choice format . They test the student’s ability to select the answer choice that most accurately paraphrases a sentence from the passage .



Glossary feature Test takers can now click on some special purpose words and phrases in the reading passages to view a definition or explanation of the term . In the example below, test takers can click on the word “shamans” to view its definition .

TOEFL iBT Tips 10 TOEFL iBT Tips

Reading to Learn—Category Chart Question Example

About the TOEFL iBT

Reading to Learn—Summary Question Example

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 11

B. TOEFL iBT Listening Section
Academic Listening Skills
The Listening section measures the test taker’s ability to understand spoken English . In academic settings, students must be able to listen to lectures and conversations . Academic listening is typically done for one of the three following purposes: Listening for basic comprehension


comprehend the main idea, major points, and important details related to the main idea (Note: comprehension of all details is not necessary .)

Listening for pragmatic understanding
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recognize a speaker’s attitude and degree of certainty recognize a speaker’s function or purpose

Connecting and synthesizing5 information
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recognize the organization of information presented understand the relationships between ideas presented (for example, compare/ contrast, cause/effect, or steps in a process) make inferences6 and draw conclusions based on what is implied in the material make connections among pieces of information in a conversation or lecture recognize topic changes (for example, digressions7 and aside statements8) in lectures and conversations, and recognize introductions and conclusions in lectures

● ● ●

Description
Listening material in the new test includes academic lectures and long conversations in which the speech sounds very natural . Test takers can take notes on any listening material throughout the entire test . Listening Section Format Listening Material Number of Questions Timing

4–6 lectures, 3–5 minutes long each, 6 questions per lecture about 500–800 words 2–3 conversations, about 3 minutes 5 questions per conversation long, about 12–25 exchanges

60–90 minutes 60–90 minutes

Synthesize—To combine information from two or more sources Make an inference—To comprehend an argument or an idea that is strongly suggested, but not explicitly stated in a passage 7 Digressions—Side comments in which the speaker briefly moves away from the main topic and then returns 8 TOEFL iBT Tips Aside statements—Comments that are relevant to the main theme, but interrupt the flow of information or ideas (Example: “Pay attention now, this will be on the test .”)
5 6

12

TOEFL iBT Tips

Academic Lectures

About the TOEFL iBT

The lectures in the TOEFL iBT reflect the kind of listening and speaking that occurs in the classroom . In some of the lectures, the professor does all or almost all of the talking, with an occasional comment by a student . In other lectures, the professor may engage the students in discussion by asking questions that are answered by the students . The pictures that accompany the lecture help the test taker know whether one or several people will be speaking . A Lecture Where the Professor Is the Only Speaker

A Lecture Where the Professor and the Students Both Speak

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 13

Conversations in an Academic Setting The conversations on the TOEFL iBT may take place during an office meeting with a professor or teaching assistant, or during a service encounter with university staff . The contents of the office conversations are generally academic in nature or related to course requirements . Service encounters could involve conversations about a housing payment, registering for a class, or requesting information at the library . Pictures on the computer screen help test takers imagine the setting and the roles of the speakers . Conversation Example

Listening Question Formats After the listening material is played, test takers both see and hear each question before they see the answer choices . This encourages them to listen for main ideas . There are four question formats in the Listening section:


traditional multiple-choice questions with four answer choices and a single correct answer multiple-choice questions with more than one answer (e .g ., two answers out of four or more choices) questions that require test takers to order events or steps in a process questions that require test takers to match objects or text to categories in a chart



● ●

TOEFL iBT Tips 14 TOEFL iBT Tips

Chart Question Example

About the TOEFL iBT

What is Different?


Note taking is allowed . After testing, notes are collected and destroyed before the test takers leave the test center for test security purposes . Conversations and lectures are longer, and the language sounds more natural . A new multiple-choice question measures understanding of a speaker’s attitude, degree of certainty, or purpose . These questions require test takers to listen for voice tones and other cues, and determine how speakers feel about the topic they are discussing . In some questions, a portion of the lecture or conversation is replayed so test takers do not need to rely on memory of what was said .

● ●



In the replay format, test takers listen to part of the conversation or lecture again and then answer a question . Sometimes the question repeats a portion of the listening material again, as indicated by the headphones icon in the example on page 16 .

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 15

This is an example of a new type of question that measures the comprehension of a speaker’s purpose .

C. TOEFL iBT Speaking Section
Academic Speaking Skills
Students should be able to speak successfully in and outside the classroom . The Speaking section measures the test taker’s ability to speak effectively in academic settings . In classrooms, students must:
● ● ● ●

respond to questions participate in academic discussions with other students synthesize9 and summarize what they have read in their textbooks and heard in class express their views on topics under discussion

Outside of the classroom, students must:
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participate in casual conversations express their opinions communicate with people in such places as the bookstore, the library, and the housing office

Description
The Speaking section is approximately 20 minutes long and includes six tasks .


The first two tasks are independent speaking tasks on topics familiar to test takers . They ask test takers to draw upon their own ideas, opinions, and experiences when responding . (However, test takers can respond with any idea, opinion, or experience relevant to completing the task .)

TOEFL iBT Tips
9

Synthesize—To combine information from two or more sources

16

TOEFL iBT Tips



The remaining four tasks are integrated tasks where test takers must use more than one skill when responding . Test takers first read and listen, and then speak in response . They can take notes and use those notes when responding to the speaking tasks . At least one requires test takers to relate the information from the reading and the listening material .

About the TOEFL iBT

Like all the other sections of the TOEFL iBT, the Speaking section is delivered via computer . For all speaking tasks, test takers use headsets with a microphone . Test takers speak into the microphone to record their responses . Responses are digitally recorded and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network where they are scored by certified raters .

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 17

Speaking Task Types
Task Type Task Description Timing

Independent Tasks
1. Personal Preference This question asks the test taker to express and defend a personal choice from a given category—for example, important people, places, events or activities that the test taker enjoys. This question asks the test taker to make and defend a personal choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses of action. Preparation time: 15 seconds Response time: 45 seconds

2. Choice

Preparation time: 15 seconds Response time: 45 seconds

Integrated Tasks
Read/Listen/Speak
3. Campus Situation Topic: Fit and Explain • A reading passage (75–100 words) presents a campus-related issue. • A listening passage (60–80 seconds, 150–180 words) comments on the issue in the reading passage. • The question asks the test taker to summarize the speaker’s opinion within the context of the reading passage. • A reading passage (75–100 words) broadly defines a term, process, or idea from an academic subject. • An excerpt from a lecture (60–90 seconds; 150–220 words) provides examples and specific information to illustrate the term, process, or idea from the reading passage. • The question asks the test taker to combine and convey important information from the reading passage and the lecture excerpt. Preparation time: 30 seconds Response time: 60 seconds

4. Academic Course Topic: General/ Specific

Preparation time: 30 seconds Response time: 60 seconds

Listen/Speak
5. Campus Situation Topic: Problem/ Solution • The listening passage (60–90 seconds; 180–220 words) is a conversation about a student-related problem and two possible solutions. • The question asks the test taker to demonstrate an understanding of the problem and to express an opinion about solving the problem. • The listening passage is an excerpt from a lecture (90–120 seconds; 230–280 words) that explains a term or concept and gives concrete examples to illustrate that term or concept. • The question asks the test taker to summarize the lecture and demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the examples and the overall topic. Preparation time: 20 seconds Response time: 60 seconds

6. Academic Course Topic: Summary

Preparation time: 20 seconds Response time: 60 seconds

TOEFL iBT Tips 18 TOEFL iBT Tips

TOTAL

20 minutes

Independent Speaking A single question that appears on the screen is read aloud by the narrator . Test takers have 15 seconds to prepare an answer, and have 45 seconds to respond . A clock shows the remaining time for preparation and response .

Introduction

Integrated Speaking—Read/Listen/Speak Test takers read a passage on a given topic and then listen to a speaker talk about the same topic . A question appears on the screen and is read aloud by the narrator . Test takers have 30 seconds to prepare their response . They have 60 seconds to respond by synthesizing and summarizing the information they have read and heard . Sample Reading Passage from an Ecology Class

TOEFL iBT Tips Introduction 19

Sample Lecture from the Same Ecology Class

Test takers are asked to briefly synthesize and summarize the information from the reading and listening material .

TOEFL iBT Tips 20 TOEFL iBT Tips

Integrated Speaking—Listen/Speak Test takers listen to part of a conversation or lecture . They are asked to briefly summarize the information from the listening material . For some tasks, they may be asked to summarize the information and express an opinion about it .

About the TOEFL iBT

What is Different?
The entire section is new because there is no Speaking section on the paper-based or computer-based TOEFL test .

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 21

D. TOEFL iBT Writing Section
Academic Writing Skills
In all academic situations where writing in English is required, students must be able to present their ideas in a clear, well-organized manner . The Writing section measures a test taker’s ability to write in an academic setting .


Often students need to write a paper or an essay response on an exam about what they are learning in their classes . This requires combining information they have heard in class lectures with what they have read in textbooks or other materials . This type of writing can be referred to as integrated writing . In this type of writing, students must: — take notes on what they hear and read, and use them to organize information before writing — summarize, paraphrase, and cite information from the source material accurately — write about the ways the information they heard relates to the information they read For example, in an academic course, a student might be asked to compare and contrast the points of view expressed by the professor in class with those expressed by an author in the assigned reading material . The student must successfully draw information from each source to explain the contrast .



Students must also write essays that express and support their opinions . In this type of writing, known as independent writing, students express an opinion and support it based on their own knowledge and experience . For example, students may be asked to write an essay about a controversial issue . The students use past, personal experience to support their position .

In all types of writing, it is helpful for students to:
● ● ● ● ●

identify one main idea and some major points that support it plan how to organize the essay (e .g ., with an outline) develop the essay by using reasons, examples, and detail express information in an organized manner use effective linking words (transitional phrases) to connect ideas and help the reader understand the flow of ideas use a range of grammar and vocabulary for effective expression use grammar and vocabulary accurately; use idiomatic expressions appropriately follow the conventions of spelling, punctuation, and layout

● ● ●

Description
The total time for the Writing section is 50 minutes . Test takers write their responses to two writing tasks (see page 23) . Responses are typed into the computer and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network where they are scored by certified raters .

TOEFL iBT Tips 22 TOEFL iBT Tips

Writing Task Types
Task Type Task 1: Integrated Writing Task Read/Listen/Write Task Description • Test takers read a short text of about 230–300 words (reading time, 3 minutes) on an academic topic. • Test takers may take notes on the reading passage. • The reading passage disappears from the screen during the lecture that follows. It reappears when test takers begin writing so they can refer to it as they work. • Test takers listen to a speaker discuss the same topic from a different perspective. The listening passage is about 230–300 words long (listening time, 2 minutes). • The listening passage provides additional information that relates to points made in the reading passage. Test takers may take notes on the listening passage. • Test takers write a summary in connected English prose of important points made in the listening passage, and explain how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. Suggested response length is 150– 225 words; however, there is no penalty for writing more as long as it is in response to the task presented. Task 2: Independent Writing Writing from Experience and Knowledge NOTE: This is the same type of task on the computerbased TOEFL and the Test of Written English™ (TWE®). • Test takers write an essay that states, explains, and supports their opinion on an issue. An effective essay will usually contain a minimum of 300 words; however, test takers may write more if they wish. • Test takers must support their opinions or choices, rather than simply list personal preferences or choices. • Typical essay questions begin with statements such as: - Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use reasons and specific details to support your answer. - Some people believe X. Other people believe Y. Which of these two positions do you prefer/agree with? Give reasons and specific details.

About the TOEFL iBT

TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 23

Integrated Writing—Read/Listen/Write Example from a Business Class

TOEFL iBT Tips 24 TOEFL iBT Tips

Independent Writing

About the TOEFL iBT

What is Different?
● ● ●

There are two writing tasks as opposed to a single essay . There is a new, integrated writing task . The independent writing task is similar to the computer-based TOEFL test (CBT) essay and the Test of Written English™ (TWE®), which is administered with the paper-based TOEFL test . Typing is now required . (The vast majority of test takers on the computer-based TOEFL test chose to type their essays .)



TOEFL iBT Tips About the TOEFL iBT 25

About Test Scores
A. Score Scales
Because TOEFL iBT is significantly different from the previous version of the test, the score scale is also different . The TOEFL iBT provides scores in four skill areas: Listening Reading Speaking Writing Total Score 0–30 0–30 0–30 0–30 0–120

The total score is the sum of the four skill scores .

B. Rating of Speaking and Writing Responses
Speaking
Responses to all six Speaking tasks are digitally recorded and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . The responses from each test taker are scored by 3 to 6 different certified raters . The response for each task is rated on a scale of 0 to 4 according to the Rubrics on pages 44 and 45 . The average of all six ratings is converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30 . Raters listen for the following features in test taker responses:


Delivery: How clear was the speech? Good responses are fluid and clear, with good pronunciation, natural pacing, and natural-sounding intonation patterns . Language use: How effectively does the test taker use grammar and vocabulary to convey their ideas? Raters determine the test taker’s ability to control both basic and more complex language structures, and use appropriate vocabulary . Topic development: How fully do test takers answer the question and how coherently do they present their ideas? How well did the test taker synthesize and summarize the information in the integrated tasks? Good responses generally use all or most of the time allotted, and the relationship between ideas and the progression from one idea to the next is clear and easy to follow .





It is important to note that raters do not expect test takers’ responses to be perfect . Even high-scoring responses may contain occasional errors and minor problems in any of the three areas described above .

Writing
Responses to all writing tasks also are sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . The responses are rated by 2 to 4 certified raters on a score scale of 0 to 5 according to the Rubrics on pages 46 and 47 . The average of the scores on the two writing tasks is converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30 .


The response to the integrated writing task is scored on the quality of writing (organization, appropriate and precise use of grammar and vocabulary) and the completeness and accuracy of the content . The independent writing essay is scored on the overall quality of the writing: development, organization, and appropriate and precise use of grammar and vocabulary .



TOEFL iBT Tips 26 TOEFL iBT Tips

It is important to note that the raters recognize the responses are first drafts . They do not expect test takers to produce a well-researched, comprehensive essay . For that reason, test takers can earn a high score with a response that contains some errors .

About Test Scores

C. Score Reports
The new score reports now provide better information than ever about a student’s readiness to participate and succeed in academic studies in an English-speaking setting . Score reports include:
● ●

four skill scores total score

Scores are reported online 15 business days after the test . Test takers can view their scores online free of charge . Colleges, universities, and agencies can also view scores online when examinees have selected them as a score recipient . Paper copies of score reports will be mailed shortly after the scores are posted online . Score reports also include performance feedback that indicates whether their performance was high, medium, or low, and describes what test takers in these score ranges know and can do with the English language . In the future, performance feedback will also include suggestions for improvement .

TOEFL iBT Tips About Test Scores 27

D. Score Requirements
Each institution sets its own requirements for TOEFL iBT scores . Test takers should consult their target institutions to determine their specific TOEFL iBT score requirements . A list of colleges, universities, and agencies that accept TOEFL scores, and a list of institutional score requirements reported to ETS can be obtained at www.ets.org/toefl . The comparison tables on pages 49–52 explain how scores on the TOEFL iBT compare with those on the computer-based and paper-based tests . The comparison tables can also be downloaded from the TOEFL website .

TOEFL iBT Tips 28 TOEFL iBT Tips

General Skill-Building Tips
The best way for English-language learners to develop the skills measured by the TOEFL iBT is to enroll in an English-language learning program that provides instruction in:


General Skill-Building Tips

reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills, with an emphasis on speaking integrated skills approach (e .g ., instruction that builds skills in listening/ reading/speaking, listening/reading/writing)



In addition to the advice for improvement listed on pages 56 to 69, ETS has created the following tips for students, but they also contain information useful to teachers .

A. Reading Tips
English-language learners can improve their reading skills by reading regularly, especially university textbooks or other materials that cover a variety of subject areas (e .g ., sciences, social sciences, arts, business, etc .) and are written in an academic style . A wide variety of academic texts are available on the Internet as well as in magazines and journals . Reading to Find Information


Notes

Scan passages to find and highlight key facts (dates, numbers, terms) and information . Practice frequently to increase reading rate and fluency .

✓ The Reading section does not measure summarizing skills, but practicing them builds the skills required for the integrated tasks in the Speaking and Writing sections.



Reading for Basic Comprehension
● ●

Increase vocabulary . Flashcards can help . Practice skimming a passage quickly to get a general impression of the main idea, instead of carefully reading each word and each sentence . Develop the ability to skim quickly and identify major points . After skimming a passage, read it again more carefully and write down the main idea, major points, and important facts . Choose some unfamiliar words in the passage and guess the meaning from the context (surrounding sentences) . Then, look them up to determine their meaning . Underline all pronouns (e .g ., he, him, they, them, etc .) and identify the nouns to which they refer in the passage . Practice making inferences and drawing conclusions based on what is implied in the passage as a whole .

● ●







Practice your reading skills with TOEFL® Practice Online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice and receive instant scores to confirm you are ready for test day.

TOEFL iBT Tips General Skill-building Tips 29

Reading to Learn


Identify the passage type (e .g ., classification, cause/effect, compare/ contrast, problem/solution, description, narration, etc .) and its organization . Organize the information in the passage: – Create an outline of the passage to distinguish between major and minor points . – If the passage categorizes information, create a chart and place the information in appropriate categories .



On the TOEFL iBT, test takers do not have to create such a chart. Instead, a chart with possible answer choices is provided for them, and they are required to fill in the chart with the correct choices. Practicing this skill will help test takers think about categorizing information, and be able to do so with ease. Create an oral or written summary of the passage using the charts and outlines . Paraphrase individual sentences in a passage . Then, paraphrase entire paragraphs .





B. Listening Tips

Notes

Listening to the English language frequently and reading a wide variety of academic materials is the best way to improve listening skills . Watching movies and television, and listening to the radio provide excellent opportunities to build listening skills . Audiotapes and CDs of lectures and presentations are equally valuable and are available at libraries and bookstores . Those with transcripts are particularly helpful . The Internet is also a great resource for listening material (e .g ., www.npr.org or www.bbc.co.uk/radio or www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish) . Listening for Basic Comprehension


✓ The Reading section measures the ability to recognize paraphrases. The ability to paraphrase is also important for the integrated tasks in the Writing and Speaking sections of the test.

Increase vocabulary . Focus on the content and flow of spoken material . Do not be distracted by the speaker’s style and delivery . Anticipate what a person is going to say as a way to stay focused . Stay active by asking yourself questions (e .g ., What main idea is the professor communicating?) . Copy the words, “main idea, major points, and important details” on different lines of paper . Listen carefully, and write these down while listening . Continue listening until all important points and details are written down and then review them . Listen to a portion of a lecture or talk and create an outline of important points . Use the outline to write a brief summary . Gradually increase the amount of the presentation you use to write the summary .

✓ The Listening section does not measure summarizing skills, but practicing summarizing skills is useful for the integrated tasks in the Speaking and Writing sections.



● ●





TOEFL iBT Tips 30 TOEFL iBT Tips

Listening for Pragmatic Understanding10

General Skill-Building Tips



Think about what each speaker hopes to accomplish: What is the purpose of the speech or conversation? Is the speaker apologizing, complaining, or making suggestions? Notice each speaker’s style . Is the language formal or casual? How certain does each speaker sound? Is the speaker’s voice calm or emotional? What does the speaker’s tone of voice tell you? Notice the speaker’s degree of certainty . How sure is the speaker about the information? Does the speaker’s tone of voice indicate something about his/her degree of certainty? Listen for changes in topic or digressions11 . Watch a recorded TV or movie comedy . Pay careful attention to the way stress and intonation patterns are used to convey meaning .





● ●

Listening to Connect and Synthesize12 Ideas


Think about how the lecture you’re hearing is organized . Listen for the signal words that indicate the introduction, major steps or ideas, examples, and the conclusion or summary . Identify the relationships between ideas . Possible relationships include: cause/effect, compare/contrast, and steps in a process . Listen for words that show connections and relationships between ideas . Listen to recorded material and stop the recording at various points . Predict what information or idea will be expressed next . Create an outline of the information discussed while listening or after listening .



● ●



Practice your listening skills with TOEFL® Practice Online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice and receive instant scores to confirm you are ready for test day.

C. Speaking Tips
The best way to practice speaking is with native speakers of English . If you do not live in an English-speaking country, finding native speakers of English might be quite challenging . In some countries, there are English-speaking tutors or assistants who help students with conversation skills and overall communication skills . It is critical to find them and speak with them as often as possible . Another way to practice speaking is by joining an English club whose members converse in English about movies, music, and travel . If a club does not exist in your area, start one and invite native speakers to help you get started . Independent Speaking Tasks
● ● ● ● ●
10 11 12

Make a list of topics that are familiar, and practice speaking about them . Describe a familiar place or recount a personal experience . Later, state an opinion or a preference and present clear, detailed reasons for it . Make a recommendation and explain why it is the best way to proceed . Practice giving one-minute responses to topics .

Pragmatic understanding—To understand a speaker’s purpose, attitude, degree of certainty, etc . Digressions—Side comments in which the speaker briefly moves away from the main topic and then returns Tips TOEFL iBT Synthesize—To combine information from two or more sources

General Skill-building Tips

31

Integrated Speaking Tasks


Find a textbook that includes questions about the material at the end of chapters, and practice answering the questions orally . Read a short article (100–200 words) . Make an outline that includes only the major points of the article . Use the outline to orally summarize the information . Find listening and reading material on the same topic covered by the article . The material can contain similar or different views . (The Internet and the library are good places to find information .) Take notes or create outlines on the listening and reading material:13 – Orally summarize the information in both the written and spoken materials . Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures . – Orally synthesize the material by combining the information from the reading and listening materials and explain how they relate . – State an opinion about the ideas and information presented in the reading and listening material and explain how they relate . – If the reading and/or listening material describes a problem, suggest and explain a solution to the problem .







Recognize the attitude of the speaker or the writer of the original material through intonation, stress, and word choice . This helps to understand their point of view and plan an appropriate response .

All Speaking Tasks
● ● ●

Increase vocabulary and learn to use idiomatic speech appropriately . Learn grammatical structures and use them naturally when speaking . Work on pronunciation, including word stress, intonation patterns, and pauses . (There are a number of products and websites that can help you develop pronunciation skills .) When practicing for the TOEFL iBT using the tips above, take 15 seconds to think about what you’re going to say before you speak . Write down a few key words and ideas, but do not attempt to write down exactly what you are going to say . (Raters will be able to detect responses that are read and give them a lower rating .) Use signal words and expressions to introduce new information or ideas, to connect ideas, and to mark important words or ideas . This will help the listener easily follow what you are saying . (For example, “on the one hand…,” “but on the other hand…,” “what that means is…,” “The first reason is…,” “another difference is…”) Make recordings of the above activities and evaluate your effort by asking yourself these questions: – Did I complete the task? – Did I speak clearly? – Did I make grammatical errors? – Did I use words correctly? – Did I organize my ideas clearly and appropriately? – Did I use the time effectively? – Did I speak too fast or too slowly? – Did I pause too often?







13

Taking notes on the reading and listening material in the integrated Speaking tasks on the TOEFL iBT test is allowed . Since the reading and listening material is very brief, taking notes on the material may not be necessary . However, Tips TOEFL iBTthe activity described above will help test takers prepare for entering the academic setting . If test takers can do this well, they will most likely succeed on the integrated Speaking tasks on the TOEFL iBT test .

32

TOEFL iBT Tips



Monitor your progress and ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate your speech using the appropriate TOEFL iBT Speaking Rubrics . (See pages 44 and 45 for the Rubrics .)

General Skill-Building Tips

Practice your speaking skills with TOEFL® Practice Online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice and receive instant scores to confirm you are ready for test day. To practice your pronunciation skills use Pronunciation in English at www.ets.org/tse/pie22.html.

D. Writing Tips
Integrated Writing Tasks


Find a textbook that includes questions about the material at the end of chapters and practice writing answers to the questions . Read an article that is about 300–400 words long . Make an outline that includes the major points and important details of the article . Use the outline to write a summary of the information and ideas . Summaries should be brief and clearly communicate only the major points and important details . Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures . Find listening and reading material on a single topic on the Internet or in the library . The material can provide similar or different views . Take notes on the written and spoken portions, and do the following: – Summarize the information and ideas in both the written and spoken portions . – Synthesize the information and discuss how the reading and listening materials relate . Explain how the ideas expressed are similar, how one idea expands upon another, or how the ideas are different or contradict each other .





Paraphrasing Paraphrasing involves restating something from the source material in one’s own words . On the TOEFL iBT, test takers receive a score of zero if all they do is copy words from the reading passage . Practice paraphrasing words, phrases, sentences, and entire paragraphs frequently using the following tips:


Learn to find synonyms with ease . Pick 10 to 15 words or phrases in a reading passage and quickly think of synonyms without looking them up in a dictionary or thesaurus . Write a paraphrase of a reading passage using only your notes . If you haven’t taken notes, write the paraphrase without looking at the original text . Then check the paraphrase with the original passage to make sure that it is factually accurate and that you have used different words and grammatical structures .



Independent Writing Tasks
● ● ●

Make a list of familiar topics and practice writing about them . For each topic state an opinion or a preference and then support it with evidence . Practice planning and writing at least one essay for each topic . Be sure to take 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise each essay . Think about and list all ideas related to a topic or task before writing . This is also called TOEFL iBT Tips “prewriting .”
General Skill-building Tips 33



Notes



✓ Teachers: It is a good idea for English programs to use the TOEFL Speaking and Writing Rubrics (pages 44–47) to measure students’ abilities and evaluate their progress. This helps students build their skills for the TOEFL iBT.
● ●

Identify one main idea and some major points to support that idea, and plan how to communicate them (by creating, for example, an outline to organize ideas) . Create a focused thesis statement and use it to develop the ideas presented in the essay . Develop the essay by using appropriate explanation and detail .

All Writing Tasks


Increase vocabulary and knowledge of idiomatic speech so you can use it appropriately . Learn grammatical structures so well that you can use them naturally when writing . Learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation, and layout (e .g ., paragraph creation) . Express information in an organized manner, displaying unity of thought and coherence . Use signal words and phrases, such as “on the one hand” or “in conclusion,” to create a clear structure for your response . As you practice ask yourself these questions: – Did I complete the task? – Did I write clearly? – Did I make grammatical errors? – Did I use words correctly? – Did I organize my ideas clearly and coherently? – Did I use the time effectively? Monitor your own progress and ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate the writing by using the appropriate TOEFL iBT Writing Rubrics . (See pages 46–47 for the Rubrics .)













Practice your writing skills with TOEFL® Practice Online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice and receive instant scores to confirm you are ready for test day. If you want more writing practice, ask your teacher about ETS Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service or visit www.ets.org/criterion.

TOEFL iBT Tips 34 TOEFL iBT Tips

Test Preparation Tips
Step 1: View all the Test Materials to See What the Test is Like.


Test Preparation Tips

Use the TOEFL iBT online tour at www.ets.org/toefl to become familiar with specific parts of the test or view a complete sample test within the TOEFL Practice Online site at www.ets.org/toeflpractice .

This is a screen from the online tour .



Become familiar with the Speaking and Writing Rubrics on pages 44–47 and how responses are evaluated . Register for the TOEFL iBT and receive a FREE TOEFL iBT Sampler to become familiar with the test format and question types . Take a practice test on TOEFL Practice Online . Individuals that join TOEFL Practice Online also receive free membership to the TOEFL® access online community, which provides information about studying in Englishspeaking countries .



TOEFL iBT Tips Test Preparation Tips 35

Step 2: Take an Online Practice Test on TOEFL Practice Online— www.ets.org/toeflpractice. It’s the key to success on the TOEFL iBT.

Do your best on the TOEFL iBT by practicing with exclusive test materials from ETS . TOEFL Practice Online offers:
● ● ● ● ● ●

A real TOEFL iBT test experience Practice tests that help prepare you for test day INSTANT scores and performance feedback on all four skills A variety of targeted practice Access to discussion boards The TOEFL access online student community that provides information on studying in English-speaking countries

TOEFL Practice Online members have the option of taking the practice test under timed or untimed conditions so they can get used to the pace of the test, using headphones, and the directions they’ll receive while taking the official test .

TOEFL iBT Tips 36 TOEFL iBT Tips



Score reports include both skill scores and performance feedback so test takers understand their strengths and weaknesses . (Note: These are different from the official TOEFL iBT score reports .)

Test Preparation Tips

TOEFL iBT Tips Test Preparation Tips 37

You can supplement your practice by purchasing The Official Guide to the New TOEFL® iBT, 2nd Edition, a book and CD-ROM created by ETS and McGraw-Hill .

This handbook, which is a great companion to TOEFL Practice Online, offers more than 30 hours of lessons and practice activities . It empowers students to practice on their own, either in a language lab or at home . It features:
● ● ●

Actual TOEFL iBT sample questions for practice Detailed explanations of what is being measured in each section A companion audio CD with authentic TOEFL Listening passages and students’ spoken responses Extensive information about the Speaking and Writing sections, with scoring information and actual raters’ comments to student responses



Visit www.ets.org/toeflguide.html .

Step 3: Practice More on Your Weakest Skills.


Use the practice test score report and performance feedback analysis from TOEFL Practice Online to determine which skills are your weakest . Follow the skill-building tips on pages 29–34 and use the targeted practice on TOEFL Practice Online for the skills you need to improve the most then monitor your progress . Use The Official Guide to the New TOEFL® iBT . Take a complete practice test on TOEFL Practice Online to help prepare for the real test experience .

● ●

TOEFL iBT Tips 38 TOEFL iBT Tips

Step 4: Use Proven Test-Taking Strategies.
● ●

Carefully follow directions in each section to avoid wasting time . Click Help to review the directions only when absolutely necessary; because the clock does not stop when the Help function is being used . Do not panic. Concentrate exclusively on the current question only . Do not think about how you answered other questions . (This is a habit that can be learned through practice .) Avoid spending too much time on any one question. If you have given the question some thought and you still don’t know the answer, eliminate as many choices as possible and then select the best choice . Although responses can be reviewed in the Reading section by clicking on View, it is best that test takers do this only after answering all the questions in a Reading subsection . Once test takers leave a subsection, they are not allowed to return to it . Pace yourself so you have enough time to answer every question . Be aware of the time limit for each section and budget enough time for each question so you do not have to rush at the end . You can hide the time clock if you wish, but it is a good idea to check the clock periodically to monitor progress . The clock will automatically alert you when five minutes remain in the Listening and Reading sections, and in the independent and integrated tasks in the Writing section .

Test Preparation Tips







TOEFL iBT Tips Test Preparation Tips 39

Register for the New TOEFL iBT
Step 1: Get a Copy of the Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL iBT.
The Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL iBT is a free publication that contains information test takers need to register to take the TOEFL iBT . It explains registration procedures and provides information about fees and identification requirements . The Bulletin can be downloaded or ordered online from the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . Paper copies of the Bulletin can be found locally at many educational advising centers, universities, and libraries . Bulletins ordered online are shipped from Ewing, New Jersey, USA . Allow up to eight weeks for delivery outside of the United States .

Step 2: Check the TOEFL Website for the List of Test Centers.
An up-to-date list of cities where the TOEFL iBT is being offered is available in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . Test takers should check this list before registering to make sure TOEFL iBT is being offered in their area .

Step 3: Register
Registering for the TOEFL test is as easy as sitting down at a computer . Test takers can register online in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . Registering online is not only convenient, it’s the best and easiest way to register for the test . From the online registration system, test takers can view and print their registration confirmation, reschedule or cancel a test, and order other services, such as additional official score reports . Test takers can also register by phone or mail . For more information on TOEFL registration procedures, visit the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website . The Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL iBT is available there and can be downloaded for free . When test takers register, they can select the universities to which they would like to send their scores . The official list of approved score recipients can be viewed in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . Score reports can also be ordered after the test for a fee if test takers decide they want to wait until after they receive their scores before deciding whether to send them to universities . Test takers can view their scores online 15 business days after test day . In addition, ETS will send each test taker a paper score report for their records .

TOEFL iBT Tips 40 TOEFL iBT Tips

Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers
General
Why did the test change? The TOEFL iBT is carefully designed to simulate university and campus life . The new test better measures a test taker’s ability to communicate ideas in an academic setting . It also helps to confirm their readiness to participate in academic coursework and campus life . It allows test takers to demonstrate that they can combine language skills by speaking or writing about material that they read or hear . It also helps institutions select students with the English communication skills needed to succeed . What is different about the TOEFL iBT? The TOEFL iBT has a new Speaking section, which includes independent tasks as well as integrated tasks . Integrated tasks require test takers to respond to material they have read and heard . There is no longer a Structure section, but grammar is indirectly tested in each section . Note taking is allowed throughout the test . The lectures and conversations in the Listening section are longer, but the language sounds much more like the language used on college campuses . There also are new types of questions that measure a test taker’s ability to understand a speaker’s attitude, degree of purpose, and certainty . The Reading section has new questions that ask test takers to categorize information and fill in a chart or complete a summary . In the Writing section, typing is required so that responses can be sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network . The Writing section contains an integrated task in addition to the independent task . There are also new scoring guides because of the significant changes made . Which colleges, universities, and agencies accept TOEFL scores? More than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in more than 110 countries accept TOEFL scores . That means the TOEFL test opens more doors to studying abroad than any other English test in the world . For a list of approved score recipients, please visit the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl .

Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers

Rollout
How will I know which cities offer TOEFL iBT? The TOEFL iBT is being gradually introduced throughout the world . An up-to-date list of TOEFL iBT cities is available in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl . This list is updated every Monday . How much longer will paper-based testing be available in a country? ETS plans to continue to offer paper-based testing in areas where the TOEFL iBT is not available, and to supplement TOEFL iBT test center network . Will TOEFL iBT take the place of the Test of Spoken English™ (TSE®)? Yes . Because TOEFL iBT includes a Speaking section, institutions and agencies will no longer need to have a separate TSE score requirement . TSE will be available upon request in locations where the TOEFL paper-based test is administered .

TOEFL iBT Tips Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers 41

Test Delivery
Where is the test administered? The new test is administered in a network of secure Internet-based test centers on fixed test dates . The test is offered 30 to 40 times a year, but the number of administrations in any one location varies based on volume, test center capacity, and time zone . See an up-to-date list of TOEFL iBT locations in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl or go to the TOEFL iBT online registration system . Why use Internet-based testing? Internet-based testing makes it possible to capture and score Speaking responses in the most efficient, standardized, and objective manner . Internet-based testing also makes it possible to increase the number of test centers, which provides test takers with more test dates and geographic options .

Test Registration
How can test takers register? Test takers can register online, by phone or by mail . The Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL iBT is available at many educational advising centers, colleges, universities, and libraries . What is the fee for TOEFL iBT? The price of the test varies by country . Please check the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl for the test fees in your country .

Test Benefits
Is the new test really different? The TOEFL iBT uses an entirely new approach to measuring English-language proficiency . For the first time ever, the TOEFL test assesses a test taker’s ability to integrate English skills and to communicate about what they read and hear . Is the new test more difficult than the previous test? The TOEFL iBT Reading and Listening sections are not drastically different from those on previous tests . The integrated tasks on the TOEFL iBT Speaking and Writing sections may be more challenging because they are new to test takers . To succeed in an academic setting, however, students must be able to communicate about what they have read and heard . The new integrated tasks allow test takers to demonstrate they are ready to enter the academic world, and can understand and effectively communicate ideas . What other benefits does the new test provide? The addition of the Speaking section, tasks that require integrated skills and the emphasis on communication, will change how English is taught in the future . Test takers who are wellprepared for the TOEFL iBT can feel confident that they are also well-prepared for academic success . Who else benefits from the new test? Admissions officials and faculty at colleges and universities, as well as administrators of certification and licensing agencies, receive better information on an applicant’s Englishcommunication skills .
TOEFL iBT Tips 42 TOEFL iBT Tips

Test Preparation

Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers

Are sample questions available? Yes, examinees who register to take the TOEFL iBT receive a link to a TOEFL iBT Sampler . The Sampler includes sample questions from all four sections of the TOEFL iBT . The Reading and Listening sections are interactive, and sample responses are provided for the Writing and Speaking questions . Is it possible to take a practice test and get a score? Yes . Practice tests for TOEFL iBT can be purchased at TOEFL Practice Online, www.ets.org/ toeflpractice . This site features practice tests that include exclusive TOEFL iBT practice questions covering all four skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing, with scoring provided by certified ETS raters . In addition, TOEFL iBT practice test takers have the opportunity to join TOEFL access, a free online community that allows them to participate in discussion boards and receive a free e-magazine with information about studying in English-speaking countries .

TOEFL iBT Tips Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers 43

Appendix
Independent Speaking Rubrics
SCORE GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The response fulfills the demands of the task, with at most, minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibits sustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by all of the following:

DELIVERY
Generally well-paced flow (fluid expression). Speech is clear. It may include minor lapses, or minor difficulties with pronunciation or intonation patterns, which do not affect overall intelligibility.

LANGUAGE USE
The response demonstrates effective use of grammar and vocabulary. It exhibits a fairly high degree of automaticity with good control of basic and complex structures (as appropriate). Some minor (or systematic) errors are noticeable, but do not obscure meaning. The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. This may affect overall fluency, but it does not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. The response demonstrates limited range and control of grammar and vocabulary. These limitations often prevent full expression of ideas. For the most part, only basic sentence structures are used successfully and spoken with fluidity. Structures and vocabulary may express mainly simple (short) and/or general propositions, with simple or unclear connections made among them (serial listing, conjunction, juxtaposition). Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severely limit or prevent expression of ideas and connections among ideas. Some low-level responses may rely heavily on practiced or formulaic expressions.

TOPIC DEVELOPMENT
Response is sustained and sufficient to the task. It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas).

4

3

The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression, though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, though minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing are noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overall intelligibility is not significantly affected).

Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveys relevant ideas/information. Overall development is somewhat limited, usually lacks elaboration or specificity. Relationships between ideas may at times not be immediately clear.

2

The response addresses the task, but development of the topic is limited. It contains intelligible speech, although problems with delivery and/or overall coherence occur; meaning may be obscured in places. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is basically intelligible, though listener effort is needed because of unclear articulation, awkward intonation, or choppy rhythm/pace; meaning may be obscured in places.

The response is connected to the task, though the number of ideas presented or the development of ideas is limited. Mostly basic ideas are expressed with limited elaboration (details and support). At times relevant substance may be vaguely expressed or repetitious. Connections of ideas may be unclear.

1

The response is very limited in content and/or coherence or is only minimally connected to the task, or speech is largely unintelligible. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Consistent pronunciation, stress, and intonation difficulties cause considerable listener effort; delivery is choppy, fragmented, or telegraphic; frequent pauses and hesitations.

Limited relevant content is expressed. The response generally lacks substance beyond expression of very basic ideas. Speaker may be unable to sustain speech to complete the task and may rely heavily on repetition of the prompt.

0

Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the topic.

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Integrated Speaking Rubrics
SCORE GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The response fulfills the demands of the task, with at most, minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibits sustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by all of the following:

Appendix

DELIVERY
Speech is generally clear, fluid, and sustained. It may include minor lapses or minor difficulties with pronunciation or intonation. Pace may vary at times as the speaker attempts to recall information. Overall intelligibility remains high.

LANGUAGE USE
The response demonstrates good control of basic and complex grammatical structures that allow for coherent, efficient (automatic) expression of relevant ideas. Contains generally effective word choice. Though some minor (or systematic) errors or imprecise use may be noticeable, they do not require listener effort (or obscure meaning). The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. Such limitations do not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used, but typically contain errors). This results in limited or vague expression of relevant ideas and imprecise or inaccurate connections. Automaticity of expression may only be evident at the phrasal level.

TOPIC DEVELOPMENT
The response presents a clear progression of ideas and conveys the relevant information required by the task. It includes appropriate detail, though it may have minor errors or minor omissions.

4

3

The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression, though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, but it exhibits minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing and may require some listener effort at times. Overall intelligibility remains good, however.

The response is sustained and conveys relevant information required by the task. However, it exhibits some incompleteness, inaccuracy, lack of specificity with respect to content, or choppiness in the progression of ideas.

2

The response is connected to the task, though it may be missing some relevant information or contain inaccuracies. It contains some intelligible speech, but at times problems with intelligibility and/or overall coherence may obscure meaning. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is clear at times, though it exhibits problems with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing and so may require significant listener effort. Speech may not be sustained at a consistent level throughout. Problems with intelligibility may obscure meaning in places (but not throughout).

The response conveys some relevant information but is clearly incomplete or inaccurate. It is incomplete if it omits key ideas, makes vague reference to key ideas, or demonstrates limited development of important information. An inaccurate response demonstrates misunderstanding of key ideas from the stimulus. Typically, ideas expressed may not be well connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the stimulus is necessary to follow what is being discussed. The response fails to provide much relevant content. Ideas that are expressed are often inaccurate, limited to vague utterances, or repetitions (including repetition of prompt).

1

The response is very limited in content or coherence or is only minimally connected to the task. Speech may be largely unintelligible. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Consistent pronunciation and intonation problems cause considerable listener effort and frequently obscure meaning. Delivery is choppy, fragmented, or telegraphic. Speech contains frequent pauses and hesitations.

Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severely limit (or prevent) expression of ideas and connections among ideas. Some very low-level responses may rely on isolated words or short utterances to communicate ideas.

0

Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the topic.

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Appendix

45

Independent Writing Rubrics
SCORE TASK DESCRIPTION
An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

5

◾ Effectively addresses the topic and task ◾ Is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

◾ Displays unity, progression, and coherence ◾ Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

4

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

◾ Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated ◾ Is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

◾ Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connections

◾ Displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning

3

An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following:

◾ Addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

◾ Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured ◾ May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning

◾ May display accurate, but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

2

An essay at this level may reveal one or more of the following weaknesses:

◾ Limited development in response to the topic and task ◾ Inadequate organization or connection of ideas ◾ Inappropriate or insufficient exemplifications, explanations, or details to support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task

◾ A noticeably inappropriate choice of words or word forms ◾ An accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage

1

An essay at this level is seriously flawed by one or more of the following weaknesses:

◾ Serious disorganization or underdevelopment ◾ Little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task ◾ Serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage

0

An essay at this level merely copies words from the topic, rejects the topic, or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters, or is blank.

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Integrated Writing Rubrics
SCORE TASK DESCRIPTION
A response at this level successfully selects the important information from the lecture and coherently and accurately presents this information in relation to the relevant information presented in the reading. The response is well organized, and occasional language errors that are present do not result in inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connections.

Appendix

5

4

A response at this level is generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and in coherently and accurately presenting this information in relation to the relevant information in the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas.

3

A response at this level contains some important information from the lecture and conveys some relevant connection to the reading, but it is marked by one or more of the following:

◾ Although the overall response is definitely oriented to the task, it conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise connection of the points made in the lecture to points made in the reading.

◾ The response may omit one major key point made in the lecture. ◾ Some key points made in the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two, may be incomplete, inaccurate, or imprecise.

◾ Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may result in noticeably vague expressions or obscured meanings in conveying ideas and connections.

2

A response at this level contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture or in the connections between the lecture and the reading; a response at this level is marked by one or more of the following:

◾ The response significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection between the lecture and the reading.

◾ The response significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points made in the lecture.

◾ The response contains language errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or meaning at key junctures or that would likely obscure understanding of key ideas for a reader not already familiar with the reading and the lecture.

1

A response at this level is marked by one or more of the following:

◾ The response provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture. ◾ The language level of the response is so low that it is difficult to derive meaning.

0

A response at this level merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters, or is blank.

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Appendix

47

Score Comparisons
A field test conducted from November 2003 to February 2004, involving 3,284 test takers in 30 countries, provided data to compare performance on the new TOEFL iBT with TOEFL computer-based test performance . It did not compare performance between the new iBT test and the paper-based TOEFL test . Paper-based and computer-based test score comparisons shown in the tables on the following pages were developed based upon data from 6,556 examinees who took both the paper-based and computer-based tests between November 1997 and March 1998 . Score comparison tables are provided in score-to-score and range formats for:
● ● ● ●

reading listening writing total score

Although score comparisons can be useful in understanding the relationship between scores on the three versions of the TOEFL test, it is important to note that differences among the tests make exact comparisons difficult . The difference in the three versions of the test can be seen most clearly in the writing component . The new iBT Writing section is composed of two writing tasks: one independent essay and one integrated writing task . The computer-based Structure and Writing sections include multiple-choice questions and an essay . The paper-based Structure and Written Expression section consists of multiple-choice questions only, and the required essay (Test of Written English™) score is reported separately from the total score . Therefore, the scores for these three writing sections are calculated differently . In addition, when comparing total scores, the TOEFL iBT measures speaking, but the computer-based and paper-based tests do not .

Speaking Score Comparisons
There is no speaking score comparison because the TOEFL computer-based test does not measure speaking . However, since the Test of Spoken English™ (TSE®) does measure speaking and is frequently used by universities to select or evaluate potential teaching assistants, ETS conducted a standard-setting study with international teaching assistant administrators in September 2004 to establish acceptable scores for International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) on the speaking portion of TOEFL iBT . The panel of 18 experts established two separate requirements: 1 . The TOEFL iBT Speaking section score, which was required before test takers could have the lowest level of ITA contact with undergraduate students, was set at 23 out of 30 score points . 2 . The TSE score equivalent of 50 was established as being comparable to a test taker receiving 26 out of 30 score points for the TOEFL iBT Speaking section .

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TOEFL Total Score Comparisons
SCORE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED TOTaL
120 120 119 118 117 116 114–115 113 111–112 110 109 106–108 105 103–104 101–102 100 98–99 96–97 94–95 92–93 90–91 88–89 86–87 84–85 83 81–82 79–80 77–78 76 74–75 72–73 71 69–70 68 66–67 65 64 62–63 61 59–60 58 57 56 54–55 53 52 51 49–50 48 47 45–46 44 43 41–42

Appendix

SCORE COMPARISON, CONTINUED.
INTERNETBaSED TOTaL
40 39 38 36–37 35 34 33 32 30–31 29 28 26–27 25 24 23 22 21 19–20 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

cOMPuTERBaSED TOTaL
300 297 293 290 287 283 280 277 273 270 267 263 260 257 253 250 247 243 240 237 233 230 227 223 220 217 213 210 207 203 200 197 193 190 187 183 180 177 173 170 167 163 160 157 153 150 147 143 140 137 133 130 127 123

PaPER-BaSED TOTaL
677 673 670 667 660–663 657 650–653 647 640–643 637 630–633 623–627 617–620 613 607–610 600–603 597 590–593 587 580–583 577 570–573 567 563 557–560 553 550 547 540–543 537 533 527–530 523 520 517 513 507–510 503 500 497 493 487–490 483 480 477 470–473 467 463 460 457 450–453 447 443 437–440

cOMPuTERBaSED TOTaL
120 117 113 110 107 103 100 97 93 90 87 83 80 77 73 70 67 63 60 57 53 50 47 43 40 37 33 30 27 23 20 17 13 10 7 3 0

PaPER-BaSED TOTaL
433 430 423–427 420 417 410–413 407 400–403 397 390–393 387 380–383 377 370–373 363–367 357–360 353 347–350 340–343 333–337 330 323–327 317–320 313 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310

RANGE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED TOTaL
111–120 96–110 79–95 65–78 53–64 41–52 30–40 19–29 9–18 0–8

cOMPuTERBaSED TOTaL
273–300 243–270 213–240 183–210 153–180 123–150 93–120 63–90 33–60 0–30

PaPER-BaSED TOTaL
640–677 590–637 550–587 513–547 477–510 437–473 397–433 347–393 310–343 310

Note: The paper-based total score does not include writing. The paper-based and computer-based total scores do not include speaking. TOEFL iBT Tips
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Appendix

49

TOEFL Score Comparisons for Reading
SCORE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED REaDING 30 29 28 28 27 26 24 23 21 20 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 cOMPuTERBaSED REaDING 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PaPER-BaSED REaDING 67 66 64–65 63 61–62 59–60 58 57 56 54–55 53 52 51 50 48–49 47 46 44–45 43 41–42 40 38–39 36–37 34–35 32–33 31 31 31 31 31 31

RANGE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED REaDING 28–30 26–28 21–24 17–20 14–16 11–13 8–10 5–7 1–4 0 cOMPuTERBaSED REaDING 28–30 25–27 22–24 19–21 16–18 13–15 10–12 7–9 4–6 0–3 PaPER-BaSED REaDING 64–67 59–63 56–58 52–55 48–51 44–47 40–43 34–39 31–33 31

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SCORE COMPARISON

RANGE COMPARISON

TOEFL Score Comparisons for Listening
INTERNET-BaSED cOMPuTERLISTENING BaSED LISTENING 30 30 29 28 27 26 25 23 22 21 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 7 6 5 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PaPER-BaSED LISTENING 67–68 66 65 63–64 62 60–61 59 58 56–57 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 42–43 41 40 38–39 36–37 34–35 32–33 31 31 31 INTERNET-BaSED cOMPuTERLISTENING BaSED LISTENING 29–30 26–28 22–25 18–21 15–17 12–14 9–11 5–7 1–4 0 28–30 25–27 22–24 19–21 16–18 13–15 10–12 7–9 4–6 0–3 PaPER-BaSED LISTENING 65–68 60–64 56–59 53–55 50–52 47–49 44–46 40–43 34–39 31–33

Appendix

TOEFL iBT Tips
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Appendix

51

TOEFL Score Comparisons for Writing
SCORE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED WRITING 30 29 28 26 24 22 20 19 17 16 14 13 13 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 5 3 1 0 0 0 cOMPuTERBaSED WRITING 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PaPER-BaSED WRITING 68 67 65–66 63–64 61–62 59–60 58 56–57 55 54 52–53 51 50 48–49 47 46 44–45 43 42 40–41 39 37–38 35–36 33–34 31–32 31 31 31 31 31 31

RANGE COMPARISON
INTERNETBaSED WRITING 28–30 22–26 17–20 13–16 11–13 10–11 8–9 7–8 3–6 0–1 cOMPuTERBaSED WRITING 28–30 25–27 22–24 19–21 16–18 13–15 10–12 7–9 4–6 0–3 PaPER-BaSED WRITING 65–68 59–64 55–58 51–54 47–50 43–46 39–42 33–38 31–32 31

Note: The new Internet-based TOEFL Writing section is composed of two writing tasks: one independent essay and one integrated writing task. The computer-based Structure and Writing section contains multiple-choice questions and an essay topic. The paper-based Structure and Written Expression section consists of multiple-choice questions only and the required essay score is reported separately from the total score. Therefore, the scores for these three sections are derived differently.

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Converting Rubric Scores to Scaled Scores for the Writing and Speaking Sections of the TOEFL iBT
WRITING RuBRIc MEaN 5.00 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2.75 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 ScaLED ScORE 30 29 28 27 25 24 22 21 20 18 17 15 14 12 11 10 8 7 5 4 0 SPEakING RuBRIc MEaN 4.00 3.83 3.66 3.50 3.33 3.16 3.00 2.83 2.66 2.50 2.33 2.16 2.00 1.83 1.66 1.50 1.33 1.16 1.00 ScaLED ScORE 30 29 28 27 26 24 23 22 20 19 18 17 15 14 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Appendix

Note: Performance on the Speaking and Writing sections of the TOEFL iBT is evaluated based on scoring rubrics of 0 to 5 for each of the two writing tasks and 0 to 4 for each of the six speaking tasks. The tables above show how the mean rubric scores of the two writing tasks and the mean rubric score of six speaking tasks are converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30.

TOEFL iBT Tips
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Appendix

53

Percentile Data
Percentile data for TOEFL iBT test administrations for 2005–2006 are available on the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefldata.html .

Standard Error of Measurement
When a group of test takers who have the same ability take the test, they will not necessarily receive the same scores . Instead, they will receive scores that are close to each other and close to their true ability . The standard error of measurement (SEM) is an estimate of how much a test score differs from a test taker’s true ability . SEMs from TOEFL iBT test administrations for 2005–2006 are available at www.ets.org/toefldata.html .

Contacting ETS
Visit the TOEFL Website at www.ets.org/toefl
● ● ● ●

Get the latest information about the TOEFL iBT Take a tour of the test View a sample test Download important publications such as the Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL iBT, TOEFL iBT Tips, and TOEFL iBT At a Glance Download an official list of approved TOEFL score recipients Check out the list of upcoming teacher workshops, conferences, and student fairs Sign up for the TOEFL mailing list to receive updates

● ● ●

Test Taker Contact
● ●

E-mail: toefl@ets .org Phone: 1-877-863-3546 (toll free in the United States, U .S . territories, and Canada) or 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations)

All Others If you are an advisor, ESL teacher, or score-receiving institution or agency:
● ●

E-mail: TOEFLNews@ets .org Phone: 1-609-683-2008

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Performance Feedback for Test Takers
The TOEFL iBT Performance Feedback and Advice for Improvement tables on pages 56–69 of the TOEFL iBT contain useful information for test takers about how their TOEFL iBT scores on each section of the test relate to their skill level . The Performance Feedback column lists the feedback that is provided on the TOEFL iBT score reports for each skill level . The Advice for Improvement column includes excerpts from the detailed suggestions for English-language practice and study that are available under Improve Your Skills in the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL website . In addition, approximately 2,300 TOEFL iBT test takers have provided ETS with selfevaluations of their English-language abilities in reading, listening, speaking, and writing after they have taken the TOEFL iBT . These evaluations have been compiled into a list of English Language Competency Descriptors, which are also available on the TOEFL website . Score users, English-language programs, and test takers can use these descriptors to help understand the language ability of test takers at each major score level for each of the skill sections on the TOEFL iBT, as well as the total score .

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 55

Reading Skills
LEVEL HIGH (22 – 30)
Test takers who receive a score at the HIGH level, as you did, typically understand academic texts in English that require a wide range of reading abilities regardless of the difficulty of the texts. Test takers who score at the HIGH level, typically: have a very good command of academic vocabulary and grammatical structure; can understand and connect information, make appropriate inferences and synthesize ideas, even when the text is conceptually dense and the language is complex; can recognize the expository organization of a text and the role that specific information serves within the larger text, even when the text is conceptually dense; and can abstract major ideas from a text, even when the text is conceptually dense and contains complex language.

YOUR PERFORMANCE









Read as much and as often as possible. Make sure to include academic texts on a variety of topics written in different genres and with different degrees of conceptual density as part of your reading.


ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

Read major newspapers, such as The New York Times or Science Times, and websites (National Public Radio [NPR] or the BBC). Write summaries of texts, making sure they incorporate the organizational pattern of the originals.



Continually expand your vocabulary. Continually practice using new words you encounter in your reading. This will help you remember both the meaning and correct usage of the new words.

TOEFL iBT Tips 56 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

INTERMEDIATE (15–21)
Test takers who receive a score at the INTERMEDIaTE level, as you did, typically understand academic texts in English that require a wide range of reading abilities, although their understanding of certain parts of the texts is limited. Test takers who receive a score at the INTERMEDIaTE level typically:


LOW (0 – 14)
Test takers who receive a score at the LOW level, as you did, typically understand some of the information presented in academic texts in English that require a wide range of reading abilities, but their understanding is limited. Test takers who receive a score at the LOW level typically:


have a good command of common academic vocabulary, but still have some difficulty with high-level vocabulary; have a very good understanding of grammatical structure; can understand and connect information, make appropriate inferences, and synthesize information in a range of texts, but have more difficulty when the vocabulary is high level and the text is conceptually dense; can recognize the expository organization of a text and the role that specific information serves within a larger text, but have some difficulty when these are not explicit or easy to infer from the text; and can abstract major ideas from a text, but have more difficulty doing so when the text is conceptually dense.

have a command of basic academic vocabulary, but their understanding of less common vocabulary is inconsistent; have limited ability to understand and connect information, have difficulty recognizing paraphrases of text information, and often rely on particular words and phrases rather than a complete understanding of the text; have difficulty identifying the author’s purpose, except when that purpose is explicitly stated in the text or easy to infer from the text; and can sometimes recognize major ideas from a text when the information is clearly presented, memorable or illustrated by examples, but have difficulty doing so when the text is more demanding.

■ ■











Read as much and as often as possible. Study the organization of academic texts and overall structure of reading passages. Read an entire passage from beginning to end.


Read as much and as often as possible. Develop a system for recording unfamiliar words.


Pay attention to the relationship between the main ideas and the supporting details. Outline the text to test your understanding of the structure of the reading passage. Write a summary of the entire passage.
▶ If ■

Group words into lists according to topic or meaning and review and study the words on a regular basis so that you remember them. Increase your vocabulary by analyzing word parts; study roots, prefixes and suffixes; study word families.





the text is a comparison, be sure that your summary reflects that. If the text argues two points of view, be sure both points of view are reflected in your summary.

Study the organization of academic texts and overall structure of a reading passage. Read an entire passage from beginning to end.


Look at connections between sentences; look at how the end of one sentence relates to the beginning of the next sentence. Look for the main ideas and supporting details and pay attention to the relationship between them. Outline a text to test your understanding of the structure of a reading passage.
▶ Begin ▶ Write ▶ Write

Continually expand your vocabulary by developing a system for recording unfamiliar words.




Group words according to topic or meaning and study the words as a list of related words. Study roots, prefixes and suffixes; study word families. Use available vocabulary resources, such as a good thesaurus or a dictionary of collocations (words commonly used together).



■ ■

by grouping paragraphs that address the same concept.

one sentence summarizing the paragraphs that discuss the same idea. a summary of the entire passage.

TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 57

Listening Skills
LEVEL HIGH (22 – 30)
Test takers who receive a score at the HIGH level, as you did, typically understand conversations and lectures in English that present a wide range of listening demands. These demands can include difficult vocabulary (uncommon terms, or colloquial or figurative language), complex grammatical structures, abstract or complex ideas and/or making sense of unexpected or seemingly contradictory information. When listening to lectures and conversations like these, test takers at the HIGH level typically can:

YOUR PERFORMANCE



understand main ideas and important details, whether they are stated or implied; distinguish more important ideas from less important ones; understand how information is being used (for example, to provide evidence for a claim or describe a step in a complex process); recognize how pieces of information are connected (for example, in a cause-and-effect relationship); understand many different ways that speakers use language for purposes other than to give information (for example, to emphasize a point, express agreement or disagreement, or convey intentions indirectly); and synthesize information, even when it is not presented in sequence, and make correct inferences on the basis of that information.

■ ■







Further develop your listening ability with daily practice in listening in English and by challenging yourself with increasingly lengthy listening selections and more complex listening material.


Listen to different kinds of materials on a variety of topics:
▶ Focus ▶ Listen

on topics that are new to you. to academic lectures and public talks. to audio and video material on TV, radio and the Internet.

ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Take ■

to programs with academic content, such as NOVA, BBC and NPR broadcasts. to conversations, phone calls and phone recordings. live and audio-recorded tours (e.g., of museums). notes as you listen for main ideas and important details. predictions about what you will hear next. down new words and expressions.

Listen actively:
▶ Take ▶ Make

▶ Summarize. ▶ Write ■

For the more difficult material you have chosen to listen to, listen several times: 1. First listen for the main ideas and key details; 2. Then listen again to fill in gaps in your understanding; to understand the connections between ideas, the structure of the talk and the speakers’ attitude; and to distinguish fact from opinion.

TOEFL iBT Tips 58 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

INTERMEDIATE (14 – 21)
Test takers who receive a score at the INTERMEDIaTE level, as you did, typically understand conversations and lectures in English that present a wide range of listening demands. These demands can include difficult vocabulary (uncommon terms or colloquial or figurative language), complex grammatical structures and/or abstract or complex ideas. However, lectures and conversations that require the listener to make sense of unexpected or seemingly contradictory information may present some difficulty. When listening to conversations and lectures like these, test takers at the INTERMEDIaTE level typically can:


LOW (0 – 13)
Test takers who receive a score at the LOW level, as you did, typically understand the main idea and some important details of conversations. However, test takers at the low level may have difficulty understanding lectures and conversations in English that involve abstract or complex ideas and recognizing the relationship between those ideas. Test takers at this level also may not understand sections of lectures and conversations that contain difficult vocabulary or complex grammatical structures. Test takers at the LOW level typically can:


understand explicitly stated main ideas and important details, especially if they are reinforced, but may have difficulty understanding main ideas that must be inferred or important details that are not reinforced; understand how information is being used (for example, to provide support or describe a step in a complex process); recognize how pieces of information are connected (for example, in a cause-and-effect relationship); understand, though perhaps not consistently, ways that speakers use language for purposes other than to give information (for example, to emphasize a point, express agreement or disagreement, or convey intentions indirectly); and synthesize information from adjacent parts of a lecture or conversation and make correct inferences on the basis of that information, but may have difficulty synthesizing information from separate parts of a lecture or conversation.

understand main ideas when they are stated explicitly or marked as important, but may have difficulty understanding main ideas if they are not stated explicitly; understand important details when they are stated explicitly or marked as important, but may have difficulty understanding details if they are not repeated or clearly marked as important, or if they are conveyed over several exchanges among different speakers; understand ways that speakers use language to emphasize a point or to indicate agreement or disagreement, but generally only when the information is related to a central theme or is clearly marked as important; and make connections between the key ideas in a conversation, particularly if the ideas are related to a central theme or are repeated.















Practice listening in English daily. Gradually increase the amount of time that you spend listening, the length of the listening selections and the difficulty of the material.


Practice listening in English daily. Gradually increase the amount of time that you spend listening, as well as the length of the individual listening selections.


Listen to different kinds of materials on a variety of topics:
▶ Start

Listen to different kinds of materials on a variety of topics.
▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Listen

with familiar topics; then move to topics that are new to you.

to recordings on topics that are familiar to you. to recordings of English lessons.

▶ Listen ▶ Listen ▶ Listen ■

to audio and video material on tape/DVD or recorded from TV, radio and the Internet. to programs with academic content, such as NOVA, BBC and NPR broadcasts. to conversations and phone recordings.


to audio and video material on tape/DVD or recorded from TV, radio and the internet. to short programs with some academic content. to conversations and phone recordings.

Listen actively:
▶ Take ▶ Ask

Listen actively:
▶ Take ▶ Ask

notes as you listen for main ideas and important details.

notes as you listen for main ideas and important details.

yourself about basic information (Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?). predictions about what you will hear next. down new words and expressions.


yourself about basic information (Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?). predictions about what you will hear next. down new words and expressions.

▶ Make

▶ Make

▶ Summarize. ▶ Write ■

▶ Summarize. ▶ Write

For more difficult material, listen several times: 1. First listen with English subtitles, if they are available; 2. Then, without subtitles, listen for the main ideas and key details; 3. Then listen again to fill in gaps in your basic understanding and to understand the connections between ideas, the structure of the talk and the speakers’ attitude.

Listen several times to each recording: 1. First listen with English subtitles, if they are available; 2. Then, without subtitles, listen for the main ideas and key details; 3. Then listen again to fill in gaps in your basic understanding and to understand the connections between ideas.

TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 59

Speaking Skills
Speaking about Familiar Topics
LEVEL YOUR PERFORMANCE GOOD (3.5 – 4.0)
Your responses indicate an ability to communicate your personal experiences and opinions effectively in English. Overall, your speech is clear and fluent. Your use of vocabulary and grammar is effective with only minor errors. Your ideas are generally well developed and expressed coherently.

FAIR (2.5 – 3.0)
Your responses indicate you are able to speak in English about your personal experiences and opinions in a mostly clear and coherent manner. Your speech is mostly clear with only occasional errors. Grammar and vocabulary are somewhat limited and include some errors. At times, the limitations prevent you from elaborating fully on your ideas, but they do not seriously interfere with overall communication.

Look for opportunities to speak to native speakers of English. Interaction with others will improve your speaking ability.


Ask a native speaker to provide feedback on your pronunciation problems (if any).

Think about topics related to student life (what type of classes you enjoy taking, what is the best place to study, where you would prefer to live [dorm or off campus]).


ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

Write down two reasons to explain your preference; practice speaking for one minute about each topic, using connecting words or phrases to help explain your opinion (“the reason I prefer,” “this is important to me because”).

Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation. Make a list of some general speaking topics (people you admire, places you enjoy visiting, things you enjoy doing).


Then think of a specific example for each topic (a parent, the market, reading books). Talk about each one for one minute, explaining what you admire or enjoy about each. Repeat your responses to each topic two or three times to build up fluency.





TOEFL iBT Tips 60 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

LIMITED (1.5 – 2.0)
Your responses indicate some difficulty speaking in English about everyday experiences and opinions. Listeners sometimes have trouble understanding you because of noticeable problems with pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. While you are able to respond partially to the questions, you are not able to fully develop your ideas, possibly due to limited vocabulary and grammar.

WEAK (0 – 1.0)
Your responses are incomplete. They contain little or no content and are difficult for listeners to understand.

Give yourself about 20 seconds to think about what you did yesterday. After 20 seconds, begin to recount what you did. Try to talk for one minute.
■ ■

Practice speaking about different topics without a lot of preparation. Write down several questions about various topics (for example, about your family, your hobbies, your friends or your school). Select a question and answer it aloud. Think of a story that you are familiar with. Tell the story to several different people. Try to tell the story faster each time.

Pay attention to your use of the past tense. Try to use connecting words and phrases, such as “first,” “then,” “while I was.”

Give yourself about 20 seconds to think about what you will probably do tomorrow. Try to talk for one minute. After 20 seconds, begin to talk about what you are planning to do.

TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 61

Speaking Skills
Speaking about campus Situations
LEVEL YOUR PERFORMANCE GOOD (3.5 – 4.0)
Your responses indicate an ability to speak effectively in English about reading material and conversations typically encountered by university students. Overall, your responses are clear and coherent, with only occasional errors of pronunciation, grammar or vocabulary.

FAIR (2.5 – 3.0)
Your responses demonstrate an ability to speak in English about reading material and experiences typically encountered by university students. You are able to convey relevant information about conversations, newspaper articles and campus bulletins; however, some details are missing or inaccurate. Limitations of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation at times cause difficulty for the listener. However, they do not seriously interfere with overall communication.

ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

Look for opportunities to build your fluency in English.


Take risks and engage others in conversation in English whenever possible. Join an Internet chat room.

Practice speaking English about everyday topics that are important to students’ lives. This will develop your fluency and confidence.




Find a speaking partner. Set aside time each week to practice speaking with your partner in English. If you can’t find a native English speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time. Read articles from campus newspapers that can be found on the Internet. Discuss the articles with a speaking partner or friend. Practice summarizing the articles and expressing your opinions about the articles.





TOEFL iBT Tips 62 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

LIMITED (1.5 – 2.0)
Your responses indicate that you have some difficulty speaking in English about information from conversations, newspaper articles, university publications and so on. While you are able to talk about some of the key information from these sources, limited grammar and vocabulary may prevent you from fully expressing your ideas. Problems with pronunciation make it difficult for listeners to understand you at times.

WEAK (0 – 1.0)
Your responses are incomplete. They include little or no information about the topic. Your speech is often difficult for listeners to understand, and the meaning is unclear.

Develop friendships with people who want to speak English with you. Interaction with others will improve your speaking ability. If you can’t find a native speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.

Take a conversation class. This will help improve your fluency and pronunciation in English.

TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 63

Speaking Skills
Speaking about academic course content
LEVEL YOUR PERFORMANCE GOOD (3.5 – 4.0)
Your responses demonstrate an ability to communicate effectively in English about academic topics typical of first-year university studies. Your speech is mostly clear and fluent. You are able to use appropriate vocabulary and grammar to explain concepts and ideas from reading or lecture material. You are able to talk about key information and relevant details with only minor inaccuracies.

FAIR (2.5 – 3.0)
Your responses demonstrate that you are able to speak in English about academic reading and lecture material, with only minor communication problems. For the most part, your speech is clear and easy to understand. However, some problems with pronunciation and intonation may occasionally cause difficulty for the listener. Your use of grammar and vocabulary is adequate to talk about the topics, but some ideas are not fully developed or are inaccurate.

Record yourself and then listen and transcribe what you said.

Practice speaking for a limited time on different academic topics.


ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT



Read a short article from a newspaper or textbook. Record yourself summarizing the article. Transcribe the recording and review the transcription. Think about other ways to say the same thing.

Read a short article from a newspaper or a textbook. Write down key content words from the article. Write down 2 or 3 questions about the article that include the content words. Practice answering the questions aloud. Try to include the content words in your response. After practicing, record your answers to the questions.









TOEFL iBT Tips 64 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

LIMITED (1.5 – 2.0)
In your responses, you are able to use English to talk about the basic ideas from academic reading or lecture materials, but, in general, you include few relevant or accurate details. It is sometimes difficult for listeners to understand your responses because of problems with grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Overall, you are able to respond in a general way to the questions, but the amount of information in your responses is limited and the expression of ideas is often vague and unclear.

WEAK (0 – 1.0)
Your responses are incomplete. They include little or no information about the topic. Your speech is often difficult for listeners to understand, and the meaning is unclear.

Practice speaking about current events.


Read newspaper articles, editorials and cultural events in English. Share the information that you read with a friend in English. Visit a university class and take notes in the class. Then use your notes to tell a friend about some of the information you heard in English. Develop your academic vocabulary. Write down important new words that you come across while reading or listening and practice pronouncing them. Listen to a weather report and take notes on what you heard. Then give the weather report to a friend in English.

Increase your vocabulary and improve your grammar in your speech.


Study basic grammar rules so that your speech is grammatically correct. As you learn new words and expressions, practice pronouncing them clearly. Record yourself as you practice.









TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 65

Writing Skills
Writing Based on Reading and Listening
LEVEL YOUR PERFORMANCE GOOD (4.0 – 5.0)
You responded well to the task, relating the lecture to the reading. Weaknesses, if you have any, might have to do with:


FAIR (2.5 – 3.5)
You responded to the task, relating the lecture to the reading, but your response indicates weaknesses, such as:


slight imprecision in your summary of some of the main points, and/or use of English that is occasionally ungrammatical or unclear.

an important idea or ideas may be missing, unclear or inaccurate; and/or it may not be clear how the lecture and the reading passage are related; and/or grammatical mistakes or vague/incorrect uses of words may make the writing difficult to understand.







ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

Continue to improve your ability to relate and convey information from two or more sources. For example, practice analyzing reading passages in English.


Practice finding main points.


Read two articles or chapters on the same topic or issue, write a summary of each, and then explain the ways they are similar and the ways they are different. Practice combining listening and reading by searching for readings related to talks and lectures with teacher or a friend.

Ask a friend to record news and informational programs in English from the television or radio, or download talks or lectures from the Internet.
▶ Listen



and take notes. Stop the recording about every 30 seconds to write out a short summary of what you heard. the recording to check your summary. Mark places where you are not sure if you have understood what was said or if you are not sure you have expressed yourself well.

▶ Replay

TOEFL iBT Tips 66 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

LIMITED (1.0 – 2.0)
Your response was judged as limited due to:


failure to understand the lecture or reading passage; deficiencies in relating the lecture to the reading passage; and/or many grammatical errors and/or very unclear expressions and sentence structures.





Read and listen to academic articles and other material in your own language. Take notes about what you read and hear.


Begin by taking notes in your own language and then take notes in English. Summarize the points in complete English sentences. Ask your teacher to review your writing and help you correct your errors. Gradually decrease the time it takes you to read the material and write these summaries. Practice typing on a standard English (QWERTY) keyboard.









TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 67

Writing Skills
Writing Based on knowledge and Experience
LEVEL GOOD (4.0 – 5.0)
You responded with a well-organized and developed essay. Weaknesses, if you have any, might have to do with:


FAIR (2.5 – 3.5)
You expressed ideas with reasons, examples and details, but your response indicated weaknesses, such as:


YOUR PERFORMANCE

use of English that is occasionally ungrammatical, unclear or unidiomatic, and/or elaboration of ideas or connection of ideas that could have been stronger.

you may not provide enough specific support and development for your main points; your ideas may be difficult to follow because of how you organize your essay or because of the language you use to connect your ideas; and/or grammatical mistakes or vague/incorrect uses of words may make the writing difficult to understand.







ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT

Continue to improve your ability to express opinions by studying the ways that published writers express their opinions.


Write a response to an article or essay in English, taking the opposite viewpoint.
■ ■

Outline your response. Note the methods you use to support your ideas. Make sure your supporting ideas are clearly related to your main point. Note what method you use to develop each of your supporting points. Make sure you have developed each of your points in detail. Is there anything more you could have said to strengthen your points?

Read articles and essays written by professional writers that express opinions about an issue (for example, a social, environmental or educational issue).
▶ Identify ▶ Notice

Reread what you have written.


the writer’s opinion or opinions.

how the writer addresses possible objections to the opinions, if the writer discusses these.





TOEFL iBT Tips 68 TOEFL iBT Tips

Performance Feedback for Test Takers

LIMITED (1.0 – 2.0)
You attempted to express your opinion, but your response indicates notable deficiencies, such as:
■ ■

your response contains insufficient detail; your ideas and your connections of ideas are difficult to understand because of many grammatical errors and/or very unclear expressions and sentence structure; and/or your response is only marginally related to the question that was asked.



Study the organization of good paragraphs and essays. A good paragraph discusses ONE main idea. This idea is usually written in the first sentence, which is called the topic sentence. In essay writing, each paragraph should discuss one aspect of the main idea of an essay.


Write paragraphs in English that focus on one main idea and contain several complete sentences that explain or support that idea. Ask your teacher to review your paragraphs for correctness.



TOEFL iBT Tips Performance Feedback for Test Takers 69

For the latest information about the TOEFL iBT or to sign up for our mailing list to receive updates, visit www.ets.org/toefl. Contacts for Test Takers and Parents: Write to: toefl@ets.org Call: +001-609-771-7100 (Outside of the United States, U.S. Territories and Canada) Call: Toll Free 1-877-863-3546 (Inside the United States, U.S. Territories and Canada) Contacts for Teachers and Institutions: Write to: toeflnews@ets.org Call: 1-609-683-2008

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