Free Essay

Title: Hydrogen Production by Onboard Gasoline Processing - Process Simulation and Optimization

In: Science

Submitted By vbisaria
Words 4647
Pages 19
Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy Conversion and Management journal homepage:

Hydrogen production by onboard gasoline processing – Process simulation and optimization
Vega Bisaria, R.J. Byron Smith ⇑
Process Systems Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 5 September 2012
Accepted 2 August 2013

Onboard fuel processor
Fuel cell vehicles
Process Simulation

a b s t r a c t
Fuel cell vehicles have reached the commercialization stage and hybrid vehicles are already on the road.
While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain critical issues in stand alone commercialization of the technology, researchers are developing onboard fuel processors, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The feasibility study of a 100 kW on board fuel processor based on gasoline fuel is carried out using process simulation. The steady state model has been developed with the help of Aspen HYSYS to analyze the fuel processor and total system performance. The components of the fuel processor are the fuel reforming unit, CO clean-up unit and auxiliary units. Optimization studies were carried out by analyzing the influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the process equipments. From the steady state model optimization using Aspen HYSYS, an optimized reaction composition in terms of hydrogen production and carbon monoxide concentration corresponds to: oxygen to carbon ratio of
0.5 and steam to carbon ratio of 0.5. The fuel processor efficiency of 95.98% is obtained under these optimized conditions. The heat integration of the system using the composite curve, grand composite curve and utility composite curve were studied for the system. The most appropriate heat exchanger network from the generated ones was chosen and that was incorporated into the optimized flow sheet of the100 kW fuel processor. A completely heat integrated 100 kW fuel processor flow sheet using gasoline as fuel was thus successfully simulated and optimized.
Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The provision of reliable, affordable and clean energy services is critically important for achieving the objectives of sustainable development. Of the many sustainable energy pathways that have emerged, a hydrogen-based energy system has received particular attention. The hydrogen economy is regarded as a viable and preferable option for delivering high-quality energy services in an efficient, clean and safe manner while generating little or no polluting emissions at the point of use. The last two decades have seen significant progress in hydrogen as an energy carrier as a result of concerns about climate change and diversifying of energy resources. The development of fuel cell technology has opened a

Abbreviations: ATR, auto thermal reforming; FCV, fuel cell vehicle; HEN, Heat
Exchanger Network; H2O/C, steam to carbon ratio; H2O/CO, steam to carbon monoxide ratio; HTS, high temperature shift; LTS, low temperature shift; O/C, oxygen to carbon ratio; PEMFC, proton exchange membrane fuel cell; POX, partial oxidation; SR, steam reforming; WGS, water gas shift.
⇑ Corresponding author. Address: Tridiagonal Solutions Pvt Ltd., Pune 411007,
Maharashtra, India. Tel.: +91 7387284114.
E-mail address: (R.J.B. Smith).
0196-8904/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. new opportunity for the use of hydrogen fuel. Further development of this technology will provide a wide range of applications from powering vehicles to supplying electricity and heat with environmental advantages over other energy technologies.
The success of hydrogen in the transportation sector is dependent on the development and commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV). In these vehicles a fuel cell generates onboard electricity needed to power an electric drive which in turn is fed with hydrogen. It converts stored energy within a fuel into usable energy using an electrochemical reaction to extract energy directly in the form of heat and electricity which can be utilized at the point of generation. Since it is a direct energy conversion process, they are able to achieve much higher conversion efficiencies. According to the National Academies of Science, fuel cell vehicles can reduce light duty demand for gasoline and reduce CO emissions by 80%.
Fuel Cell vehicles are 2–3 times more efficient than current internal combustion vehicles [1]. Major automobile manufacturers including General Motors, Volkswagen, Volvo, Chrysler, Nissan and Ford have announced plans to build prototype polymer electrolyte fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. IFC, Plug Power, Nuvera and Ballard Power Systems are involved in separate programs to build 50–100 kW fuel cell

V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752

systems for vehicle motive power. Other fuel cell manufacturers are also involved in similar vehicle programs.
In order to overcome the most critical issue of handling the hydrogen storage and distribution, on board fuel processors that would generate hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbon fuels have been proposed as possible near term solutions. Feed stocks that can be used for onboard hydrogen generation through fuel cells include n-heptane, gasoline, ethanol, methanol, diesel, methane, butane, propane, ethane, propanol and jet fuel. The liquid fuels show advantages in terms of high energy density, easy fuel handling and in the case of gasoline – an existing fuel infrastructure [2].
All these fuels are hydrocarbons or oxygenate that need to be reformed. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles and their implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development was studied by Joan et al. [3]. Hydrogen productions from methanol reforming have been discussed by Shetian et al. [4] and Vinay and Srinivas [5]. Reuse et al. [6] have reported on hydrogen production with Steam Reforming (SR) using methanol in an auto thermal micro-channel reactor. Diesel as hydrogen source has been investigated by Lindstrom et al. [7]; Inyong et al. [8] and Philip et al. [9]. Ethanol reforming has been studies by Chiu et al. [10]. Ganesh and Baskar [11] have investigated the use of dry auto thermal reforming of gasoline fuel. Brian et al. [12] gives the insight of the Renault Nuvera program on onboard fuel processors which discusses the advanced catalysts employed in current technology, heat exchangers, and controls in a system that is small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. A comparison of compact reformer configurations for onboard fuel processing using catalytic steam reforming of n-heptane was done by Mustafa Karakaya and Ahmet [13]. A review of energy sources and management systems for electric vehicles has been published by Siang and Chee [14].
The conventional fuels must be reformed in order to generate hydrogen on board. The fuel processor are based on any available reforming technology like steam reforming, autothermal reactor or partial oxidation followed by water gas shift reactors in a modular package. Due to the complex nature of fuel processors, the thermal management system is not very straightforward and analysis of the fuel processor system for vehicles has to be done in the context of the overall system. In this paper we analyze the process feasibility of a conventional fuel (gasoline) based onboard fuel processor to generate hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles using the steady state process simulator Aspen HYSYS.

2. Process flow sheet
The process for production of hydrogen consists of a fuel reformer, CO cleanup unit and a hydrogen separation unit. The balance of plant involves pumps, vapourizers, mixers and a series of heat exchangers that manage heat utilization in the fuel processor assembly. The conventional flow sheet for this process is depicted in Fig 1. In the reformer section, the higher hydrocarbon is broken into lower hydrocarbons and to end products. The reactions taking place in this section are endothermic in nature. Carbon monoxide is also formed here which acts as a poison to the anode of PEM fuel cell and hence to remove the CO content and enrich hydrogen, the
CO cleanup section follows the reformer. The ensuing gases are segregated in a membrane unit where hydrogen is separated and fed to the PEM fuel cell unit whereas the exhaust gases are used as heating medium inside the unit before being send out.
There are a number of fuel processing technologies for hydrogen generation from hydrocarbon fuels. The three major thermochemical reforming techniques used to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuel are steam reforming, partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Steam reforming can yield high


concentration of hydrogen (up to 70% on a dry basis), but is strongly endothermicand hence the overall configuration of steam reformer with heat exchangers makes the reforming system very bulky and heavy which is not suitable for an modular automobile fuel cell system. The POX process is exothermic and easily starts upon ignition even without the aid of a catalyst. It can raise the temperature to over 1000 °C, which permits adiabatic operation and promotes SR of the remaining fuel. However, POX produces high carbon monoxide concentration that is undesirable for PEMFCs. ATR combines the thermal effects of the POX and SR reactions by feeding the fuel, steam, and air together into the reactor. The two processes occur simultaneously in the presence of catalyst in the reactor. The thermal energy generated from POX is absorbed by SR and hence the overall temperature is lowered which is favorable to water–gas shift reaction to consume carbon monoxide and produce more hydrogen [15]. Hence the auto thermal reformer is more compact and practical for use with mobile fuel cells.
The carbon monoxide when present in concentration higher than 100 ppm poisons the proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
CO concentration can be reduced by using Pt/RHh catalysts or
Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGS). The use of platinum alloys is not as effective as the raising the operating temperature of a PEMFC is currently not feasible. Thus, setting up of water gas shift reactor appears to be the most practical method to mitigate the effect of CO poisoning. The WGS section in a fuel processor generally consists of low temperature shift (LTS) and high temperature shift
(HTS) reactors. The exit stream from the reformer goes to the
HTS which operates at about 250–400 °C and the outlet of HTS is sent to the LTS operating in the range of 150–250 °C [16]. The exit gases from this unit is send to a membrane separation unit were the hydrogen permeable membrane separates hydrogen and feeds it to the PEM fuel cell assembly. Thermal management is achieved by a battery of heat exchangers. A fuel processor of 100 kW power was to be simulated in this study as the fuel cell cars on road generally require this much power for their efficient running. Hence the selection of the operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, fuel utilization and the efficient placement of heat exchangers for thermal management were based on the fuel processor of 100 kW power output from the fuel cell.
3. Simulation and optimization
The hydrogen required for a fuel for 100 kW fuel processor was calculated based on a simple material balance and mole concept.
Based on the fuel cell handbook [17], for a typical PEM fuel cell the following parameters were chosen to calculate the hydrogen requirement for generation of 100 kW output power by the fuel cell. The parameters chosen were; fuel utilization efficiency = 60%, average cell voltage = 700 mV and current density = 0.5 A/cm2.
Using these parameters, the hydrogen requirement for the fuel cell was computed to be 8.96 kg/h. This quantity of hydrogen is to be produced by the fuel processor using gasoline as the feed stock.
Gasoline is a complex mixture of over 500 hydrocarbons of range
C5–C12. Iso-octane is the most prominent constituent of gasoline and is used in the simulation to represent gasoline.
3.1. Reformer
The ATR of octane involves a complex set of chemical reactions such as total oxidation, partial oxidation, steam reforming, methanation and CO2 reforming, cracking, and carbon gasification. When
SR and POX react simultaneously, the reformer efficiency also increases. The appropriate choice of O/C (Oxygen to carbon ratio) and H2O/C (Steam to carbon ratio) also allows the reaction to proceed without external heating. Important parameters for the


V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752

Fig. 1. Process flow sheet for onboard hydrogen production from gasoline.

reaction are temperature, pressure, O/C and H2O/C molar ratios.
These parameters should be chosen with the aim of avoiding the formation of carbonaceous deposits, maximum hydrogen production, hydrocarbon conversion and H2 + CO selectivity. In this study the ATR is approximated by Gibbs reactor as the stoichiometry of gasoline reforming is not fully understood. The condition that the
Gibbs free energy of the reacting system is at a minimum at equilibrium is used to calculate the product mixture composition in a
Gibbs reactor and it is not necessary to know the stoichiometry of the reaction taking place inside the reactor.
In autothermal reforming, the role of oxygen is to provide heat required to drive reforming reactions and to break fuel into smaller compounds. At high O/C ratio, the chemical energy of fuel may be converted to sensible heat rather than the desired H2 product and at low O/C ratio coke may form due to thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. As our desired product is hydrogen so a low value of O/C was to be considered [18]. Simulations were carried out by varying the O/C ratio between 0.1 and 1 by keeping the H2O/C ratio fixed at
0.5 and the exit gas composition from the reformer were plotted in
Fig. 2. The hydrogen and CO concentration were 0.2338 and 0.1099 respectively at O/C of 0.5 which is the maxima of hydrogen concentration and minima of CO concentration. Moreover, the steam content, methane, gasoline, carbon and CO mass fractions at the exit composition are all at their lower levels. The nitrogen from air and carbon dioxide from partial oxidation are higher and inevita-

ble. Thus an optimum O/C ratio of 0.5 is found from the simulation to be suitable for the operation of the ATR.
To analyze the influence of steam on the performance of the reactor, the O/C was kept as 0.5 and then the H2O/C was varied from 0.1 to 1 and again the exit gas composition from the reformer was plotted. These results are depicted in Fig. 3. The combined effect of H2O/C and O/C shows that the ATR should be operated at values of H2O/C = 0.5 and O/C = 0.5. The optimized results were in coherence with the study done by Aasberg Petersen et al. [19].
The reforming process favors high temperatures as it shifts the reforming reaction equilibrium towards the production of hydrogen and reduces methane. However, it is not advisable to operate the reformer above 1000 °C because the metallurgy of the catalyst tubes causes them to creep and bulge under the weight of the catalyst. In contrast, operating around 700 °C decreases hydrogen production and increases methane slip out of the reformer resulting in the waste of fuel. The only advantage of lowering temperature is a decrease in heat duty, which will reduce costs. The process is highly sensitive to temperature so it is desirable to operate reformer at a temperature as close to the metallurgical limit of 800 °C as possible in order to maximize H2 production [20]. The Fig. 4 shows the variation of the temperature of ATR with change in O/
C ratio and H2O/C ratio from 0.1 to 1 keeping the other values constant. The graph clearly indicates that when O/C ratio is increased the oxidation reactions predominates the steam reforming thereby

Fig. 2. Effect of O/C ratio on the exit gas composition of reformer for H2O/C = 0.5.

V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752


Fig. 3. Effect of H2O/C ratio on the exit gas composition of reformer for O/C = 0.5.

Fig. 4. Effect of varying O/C and H2O/C on the reformer exit temperature.

causing the temperature to increase continuously. The effect of variation of pressure on the composition of the outlet product gas was studied by varying the pressure from 1 to 4 atm. As can be seen from the graph in Fig. 5, the pressure does not play any major role as the compositions are almost constant. Hence the feed was input at 1 atm so as to reduce the extra energy needed for compression. 3.2. Water gas shift reactor
The ideal fuel for PEMFC is pure hydrogen, with less than
100 ppm carbon monoxide, as dictated by the poisoning limit of the Pt fuel cell catalyst. Therefore CO clean up section is crucial for the fuel processing. The operating variables are the H2O/CO ratio, reformate temperature and number of stages. The reaction is equi molar and therefore the effect of pressure on the reaction is

minimal. The equilibrium for H2 production is favoured by high moisture content and low temperature for the exothermic reaction. Steam to carbon monoxide ratio was analyzed in the range of 1.5–3.5. The exit gas compositions of the reactor were plotted against H2O/CO in Fig. 6. On analyzing the composition of the product gas after varying the H2O/CO from 1.5 to 3.5, the optimum value of 2.5 was taken.
The need for single stage WGS reactor and double stage WGS reactor were studied and a comparison was made between them with the hydrogen and CO compositions as the parameters. The double-stage WGS section consists of high-temperature shift
(HTS) and low-temperature shift (LTS) reactor while a single stage reactor consists of only LTS reactor. The resulting exit gas compositions by using a single reactor and two stage reactors showed that the composition of the double-stage WGS reactor consists of more amount of hydrogen and lesser amount of CO as desired.


V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752

Fig. 5. Effect of operating pressure on reformer exit gas composition.

Fig. 6. Effect of H2O/CO ratio on the exit gas composition of water gas shift reactor.

Moreover the single stage reactor unit was 82.06% efficient in removing CO while it was 94.38% for a double-stage unit. Hence the fuel processor with a double-stage unit was taken to further study. The exit gas composition of the shift reactor at various temperatures was plotted in Fig. 7. Based on the analysis, the feed temperature of the HTS is fixed at 350 °C and that of the LTS was fixed at 180 °C.
3.3. Heat integration
The heat integration on the process flow sheet is done by using the pinch analysis software Aspen Energy Analyzer. The unique features of Aspen Energy Analyzer are its ability to extract information from existing HYSYS cases. The heat integration in this software is based on pinch technique. Pinch Analysis is a Heat
Exchanger Network (HEN) optimization algorithm used for reducing energy consumption in processes by setting feasible energy tar-

gets and achieving them through optimizing the heat recovery systems, energy supply methods and process operating conditions for energy reduction.
The heat integration analysis includes the generation of the hot and cold composite curves and the grand composite curves. These curves help us in determining the quantity of hot/cold utilities required and the possible process to process heat transfer. The composite curve analysis showed that process to process heat transfer is sufficient for the heating load and cold utility is required to cool some streams. Based on the flowsheet for the onboard fuel processor, five alternative heat integrated flow sheet options were developed. The various designs were evaluated on the basis of minimum number of utility required and network cost index and performance. The selected network shows the requirement of 7 heat exchangers and two cold utility streams. The gases from the ATR are to be split into three streams and the LTS outlet split to two streams among the hot streams. The cold stream vapourizing

V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752


Fig. 7. Effect of temperature on exit gas composition from water gas shift reactor.

Fig. 8. Heat exchanger network analysis of the optimized process flow sheet.

water is split into two streams. This analysis provided the energy targets for the various streams available in the process flow sheet.
These energy requirements per stream from the HEN were used to rework the stream data in the process flow sheet to generate the heat integrated flow sheet for the fuel processor unit. The heat integrated process flow sheet is given in Fig. 8. This flow sheet is used to calculate the fuel and other inputs required by the fuel processor. 3.4. Optimized fuel requirement
Based on the optimized simulation it was estimated that for the production of 8.96 kg/h of hydrogen in the fuel processor which corresponds to 100 kW of power output from the fuel cell,
30.55 kg/h of gasoline, 94.02 kg/h of water and 146.94 kg/h of air are required. The performance of a fuel processor is measured by

its overall efficiency which is commonly defined as the ratio between the LHV of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide that are produced to the LHV of the fuel consumed. The efficiency of the fuel processor simulated by the process flow sheet was 95.98%. Thus a heat integrated process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen from gasoline fuel in a fuel processor was simulated under steady state and the operational parameters for the process were identified and reported. This requirement was equivalent to production of 100 kW of power output from the PEM fuel cell for the transportation sector.
4. Conclusion
This work discusses the steady state simulation of a 100 kW onboard fuel processing unit to generate hydrogen using conventional fuels such as gasoline. The fuel processor flow sheet


V. Bisaria, R.J.B. Smith / Energy Conversion and Management 76 (2013) 746–752

comprising the reforming and CO clean up section was generated using Aspen-HYSYS. The hydrogen generated from this fuel processor unit is assumed to be fed into a PEM fuel cell to generate
100 kW of power which is the requirement for driving a fuel cell powered vehicle. In order to obtain 100 kW power from this fuel processor, calculations were done and it was found out that
8.96 kg/h of hydrogen was needed to obtain 100 kW power. The
ATR section was optimized based on the operating variables temperature, pressure, H2O/C and O/C ratios. Both the H2O/C and O/C ratios were taken to be 0.5 because of high hydrogen and low CO concentration in the outlet composition. Also it was seen that pressure has no visible effect on the outlet composition so the system was run at atmospheric pressure in order to reduce the energy requirement for compression. Then the water gas shift section was optimized taking H2O/CO ratio, number of stages and temperature as the operating variables. The H2O/CO ratio was fixed as 2.5 based on the higher hydrogen and lower CO, water and nitrogen content. The extra steam needed for the reaction was injected directly to the system. The inlet temperature of HTS and LTS were taken as 350 °C and 180 °C based on higher hydrogen and lower CO content. The plant wide optimization was thus completed and the fuel processor was found to be 95.98% efficient in producing hydrogen. The actual fuel requirement to produce the desired amount of hydrogen was found to be 30.55 kg/h. Thus a heat integrated fuel processor of 100 kW capacity was successfully simulated and the optimized parameters for the operation of gasoline based onboard hydrogen generator were identified.
[1] Campanari Stefano, Manzolini Giampaolo, Iglesia Fernando Garcia de la.
Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well to wheel driving cycle simulations. J Power Sources 2009;186:464–77.
[2] Wang YH, Zhang JC. Hydrogen Production on Ni–Pd–Ce/Al2O3 catalyst by partial oxidation and steam reforming of hydrocarbons for potential applications in fuel cells. Fuel 2005;84:1926–32.
[3] Ogden Joan M, Steinbugler Margaret M, Kreutz Thomas G. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development. J Power Sources

[4] Shetian L. Takahashi Katsumi, Uematsu Kazuo, Ayabe Muneo, ‘‘Hydrogen
Production by oxidative methanol reforming on Pd/ZnO’’. Appl Cat A: Gen
[5] Vadlamudi Vinay K, Palanki Srinivas. Modeling and analysis of miniaturized methanol reformer for fuel cell powered mobile applications. Int J Hydrogen
Energy 2011;36:3364–70.
[6] Reuse P, Ranken A, Santo KH, Oliver G, Schubert K. Hydrogen production for fuel cell application in an autothermal microchannel reactor. Chem Eng J
[7] Lindstrom, Karlsson JAJ, Ekdunge P, De Verdier L, Haggendal B, Dawody J, et al.
Diesel fuel reformer for automotive fuel cell applications. Int J Hydrogen
Energy 2009;34:3367–81.
[8] Kang1 Inyong, Carstensen Hans-Heinrich, Dean Anthony M. Impact of gasphase reactions in the mixing region upstream of a diesel fuel autothermal reformer. J. Power Sources 2011;196:2020–6.
[9] Engelhardt Philip, Maximini Marius, Beckmann Frank, Brenner Martin.
Integrated fuel cell APU based on a compact steam reformer for diesel and a
PEMFC. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2012;37(18):13470–7.
[10] Chiu Wei-Cheng, Horng Rong-Fang, Chou Huann-Ming. Hydrogen production from an ethanol reformer with energy saving approaches over various catalysts. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2013;38(6):2760–9.
[11] Kale Ganesh R, Kulkarni Bhaskar D. An alternative process for gasoline fuel processors. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011;36(3):2118–27.
[12] Bowers Brian J, Zhao Jian L, Ruffo Michael, Khan Rafey, Dattatraya Druva,
Dushman Nathan, et al. On board fuel processor for PEM fuel cells’’. Int J
Hydrogen Energy 2007;32:1437–42.
[13] Karakaya Mustafa, Avci Ahmet K. Comparison of compact reformer configurations for on board fuel processing. Int J Hydrogen Energy
[14] Tie Siang Fui, Tan Chee Wei. A review of energy sources and energy management system in electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev
[15] Hagh Bijan F. Comparison of auto thermal reforming of hydrocarbons. Am
Chem Soc Div Fuel Chem 2004;49(1):144.
[16] Ersoz A, Olgun H, Ozdogan S, Gungor C, Akgun F, Tiris M. Auto thermal reforming as a hydrocarbon fuel processing option for PEM fuel cells. J Power
Sources 2003;118(1–2):384–92.
[17] Fuel cell handbook, 7th ed., EG&G Services Parsons Inc.; 2000.
[18] Wuyin Wang, Turn Scott Q, Keffer Vheissu, Douette Aurelien. Parametric study of auto thermal reforming of LPG. Am Chem Soc Div Fuel Chem
[19] Aasberg-Petersen Kim, Christensen Thomas S, Stub Nielsen Charlotte, Dybkjær
Ib. Recent developments in auto thermal reforming and performing for synthesis gas production in GTL applications. Fuel Chem Div Preprints
[20] Atilla Ersoza, Olguna Hayati, Ozdogan Sibel. Simulation study of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with auto thermal reforming. J Power
Sources 2006;154:67–73.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Process of Beer Production

...Introduction Brewing beer is really a very simple process, a unique mix of art and science that consists of a number of key steps. Brewing begins with malted barley that is milled and mixed with hot water to form a mash. During mashing, the malt starches are converted to sugars. The sugar rich water is then strained through the bottom of the mash and is now called wort. The wort then goes to the brew kettle where it is brought to a boil. During this stage, hops are added at different times during the boil for either bitterness or aroma. The wort is then cooled and aerated, and brewers' yeast is added for fermentation. The yeast produces alcohol and carbon dioxide and other byproducts from the sweet wort. After fermentation the "green beer" undergoes maturation. The last step in the brewing process is filtration, and then carbonation. Next the beer is moved to a holding tank where it stays until it is bottled or kegged. For a more detailed description of the brewing process click "Continue." Barley Malt Barley malt is to beer as grapes are to wine. It is ideally suited to brewing for many reasons. Malted barley has a high complement of enzymes for converting its starch supply into simple sugars and contains protein, which is needed for yeast nutrition. Of course, one important element is its flavor. There are two types of barley: six-row and two-row. [pic] Pale Ale Malt Barley Malt Six-row Barley Malt Generally, six-row barley has a higher enzyme......

Words: 33569 - Pages: 135

Premium Essay

Linear Optimization

...DECISION MODELING DECISION WITH WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL MICROSOFT Linear Optimization Linear Optimization A constrained optimization model takes the form of a constrained performance measure to be optimized over a range of feasible values of the decision variables. The feasible values of the decision variables are determined by a set of inequality constraints. constraints Values of the decision variables must be chosen such that the inequality constraints are all satisfied while either maximizing or minimizing the desired performance variable. These models can contain tens, hundreds, or thousands of decision variables and constraints. Linear Optimization Very efficient search techniques exist to optimize constrained linear models. constrained These models are historically called linear programs linear (LP). In this chapter we will: 1. Develop techniques for formulating LP models 2. Give some recommended rules for expressing LP models in a spreadsheet that facilitates application of Excel’s Solver 3. Use Solver to optimize spreadsheet LP models Formulating LP Models Every linear programming model has two important features: Objective Function Constraints A single performance measure to be maximized or minimized (e.g., maximize profit, minimize cost) Constraints are limitations or requirements on the set of allowable decisions. Constraints may be further classified into physical, economic, or policy limitations......

Words: 4037 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Nigeria: Investing in Rice Production and Rice Processing Project

...heading “Nigeria: Investing in Rice Production and Rice Processing Project” reports the policy made by government to increase the production of local rice as well as making Nigeria self-sufficient in the next four years. 2.0 Introduction The rate at which people are consuming rice globally is tremendously increasing. This does not exclude Nigeria hence the government has seen the urgency to invest in mass production of rice because of the untold consequences that could arise from ignoring the trend. According to the article, rice has become a stable food in Nigeria, and it is a fact that both rich and poor are consuming large quantity of rice on daily bases. However, given the rate of consumption of rice in Nigeria, this article explores different imminent factors that may affect rice market now and in the future. Economics theories and models are used for an in-depth analysis. Therefore, this report discusses factors such as demand, supply, shortage, Production Possibility Frontier PPF, elasticity and price floor. Lastly, conclusion is drawn to create a measurable balance. 3.0 Analysis 4.1 Demand and Supply Demand can be defined as the quantity of a good or service that a consumer is not only willing but also able to buy at a particular price during a given period of time (Hubbard et al 2010, pg. 62). The federal government of Nigeria has embarked on a plan to invest in massive production of rice in an effort to gradually......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Isolation and Process Optimization of Textile Dye Degrading Bacteria

...Title: Isolation and Process Optimization of textile dye degrading bacteria Abstract: Bacteria can remove dyes from wastewater and soil, leading to a decrease in their toxicity. The detoxification rate depends upon media and culture conditions. The decolourization/removal of textile dyes like bromophenol blue, methylene blue, methyl green, and malachite green, in addition to various other industrial dyes, using bacteria isolated from soil has been an important area of research for bioremediation and the present work is focused on this specific aspect. The effect of independent variables such as time, temperature, pH, and agitation on decolorization efficiency of bacteria has been optimized. Biodegradation of methylene blue and bromophenol blue was demonstrated by monitoring the effects of the different parameters and determining optimal conditions for degradation activity.   Introduction Several industrial activities, such as textile dyeing, olive oil extraction and the manufacture of pulp and paper are characterized by intensive water consumption rates. They release huge amounts of more or less coloured effluents into the environment. As far as synthetic dye release is concerned, textile dyeing facilities and the manufacture of dyestuffs are two major polluting sources. In addition, traditional textile dyeing processes generate a large amount of coloured effluents, because about 100 litres of water are required to process 1 kg of dyed fabrics. Moreover, up to 15% of......

Words: 6765 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Green Car Rental Feasibility Study: Hydrogen Vehicles

...Car Rental Feasibility Study: Hydrogen Vehicles Student Name COMM/215 Month DD, YYYY Faculty Name Green Car Rental Feasibility Study: Hydrogen Vehicles Introduction Obtaining a fleet of alternate fuel vehicles 5 years ago, proved to be a very good decision for the company. There is a growing trend across America to use alternative fuel sources. Americans are more eco-friendly, and looking for transportation options that can save them money as well as become more environmentally conscious. Based on this demand, many car manufacturers are now developing and producing more energy efficient vehicles. Firmly established as a leader in our industry, Green Car Rental entered the alternate fuel vehicle market, in response to the desires expressed by its customers. Based on our award winning success with alternative fuel vehicles, and the growing consumer demand for even more efficient, reduced emission vehicles, Green Car Rental Company intends to demonstrate the feasibility, and lead the rental car industry again by adding hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to our fleet. Product Information Hydrogen is a simple and plentiful, odorless, and colorless gas (H2) derived from gas fields. It is an abundant resource for fuel once processed. Manufacturers from BMW to Toyota have been developing numerous strategies to utilize hydrogen to power vehicles. Aside from CNG (compressed natural gas), LNG, and a host of other alternative fuel resources, hydrogen although expensive to......

Words: 2470 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Optimization in Production Operations

...Optimization in Production Operations Optimal “Lean Operations” in Manufacturing By Carlos W. Moreno © 2005-06 Ultramax Corporation Oct. 5, 2006 Introduction This essay deals with production / manufacturing operations: with their economic impact (or other metrics) while making product with the existing process, usually driven to satisfy: • market demand (delivered: volume, quality) • • economics (incurred: cost savings, resource utilization); and safety (safeguarding equipment, personnel and environment) These drivers represent the main impact of production on company profits, with short-term and long-term effects on the P&L Statement. The bottom line is that most production processes are underutilized; and the use of mature, accessible mathematical technology unlocks that latent capacity, which is of significant value. The best possible performance is “Optimal Operations.” In the process industry it is called “Process Optimization.” In manufacturing it is the extreme of Lean Operations, one of the components of “Lean Manufacturing” success. Other components that qualify for “lean” in the sense of avoiding waste (non-value-added), and not missing opportunities for improvements are: “Lean Design” (the most common emphasis today), “Lean Logistics – and Supply Chain,” “Lean Maintenance,” “Lean Scheduling,” “Lean Safety,” and “Lean Scheduling.” Some share interests with Six Sigma as well (quality and costs). All these solutions are also part of the classical field of......

Words: 3433 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol

...Hydrogen Production from Ethanol for Fuel Cell Applications D.Kunzru Department of Chemical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 Email: Ethanol is a renewable resource as it can be produced from biomass without contributing to the greenhouse gas emissions. Reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen is a potentially attractive process. The reactions involved include steam reforming followed by water-gas shift and selective oxidation of CO. The development of suitable catalysts for these reactions is crucial for the viability of the process. Recent studies suggest that the promising catalysts are supported Rh and Rh/Ni catalysts for steam reforming, Pt-ceria based catalysts for water-gas shift reaction and Pt-Rh or Cu-ceria catalysts for selective oxidation of CO. Microreactors are well-suited for fabricating microfuel processors for portable power applications. Further research on catalyst development and heat integration schemes is required to commercialize this process. 1. Introduction Most of the energy we use today is obtained from non-renewable fossil fuels. This has not only depleted the reserves of fossil fuels, especially crude oil, but has also caused severe environmental pollution. Intense research efforts are being made to develop alternative renewable energy sources .In recent years , considerable effort has been expended in developing fuel cells. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity very efficiently and cleanly, since...

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Seo Optimization Is a Thought Process!

...SEO Optimization is a Thought Process! Of course, SEO optimization is a thought process which uses certain search marketing rules and tolls in order to create a mind blowing and progressing business online. There are surely various online marketing methods available but SEO or you can say Search engine optimization method sis the most suitable and most successful method to opt for. At present the world of search engine marketing has been making a determining debate on the topic – “criticality of the on going process of SEO”. The search engine rank will only improve when you will be having a good and comprehensive technique and plan of SEO optimization. Experts say that SEO technique is the actual and most essential element for promoting the web sites. SEO Optimization- Exact Meaning! SEO Optimization is the art as well as science of picking the presence of your web site in order to increment the Search Engine Rankings so that more and more traffic can be driven towards your site. The content which is written with the help of SEO services makes your content completely dense with keywords so that it can fetch more customers towards it. SEO world have stated that keywords which are working today may not work tomorrow. These are simple techniques which require your common sense. You must be well aware of the method on how to work off page ad on page with the help of SEO optimization methods so that you can have a good beginning. Just go through case studies related to SEO......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Production Process and Management

...Production Process and Management Analyze Marathon’s product process and determine which phase is open to the greatest number of efficiency improvements. Marathon is among the top five crude oil refineries in the United States. It’s an integrated international energy company engaged in exploration and production of oil, sand mining, integrated gas, refining, marketing, and transportation operation. Marathon needs to upgrade a few of their refineries and pipelines in order to increase the production process of heavy crude oils, ( For example, once the Detroit Heavy Oil Upgrade Project is completed, the refinery crude capacity will increase from 106,000 bpd to 115,000 bpd. The upgrades will allow the Detroit refinery to process an additional 80,000 barrels of heavy crude oil per day ( The existing pipelines at the Detroit refinery do not have the capacity to transport additional volumes of crude oil to meet the refinery’s upgrade needs. Therefore a 1.5-mile pipeline will provide an alternative oil supply line to the refinery and provide extra security in the event of a supply disruption. Pipelines are the safest and the most efficient way to transport crude oil and other liquid petroleum products. They reduce traffic and pollution as well as provide economic benefits. Pipelines transport two-thirds of all the crude oil and refined products in the U.S. compared to three percent by tanker trucks. According to, currently...

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Production Process and Management

...Analyze Marathon’s product process and determine which phase is open to the greatest number of efficiency improvements. Marathon is among the top five crude oil refineries in the United States. It’s an integrated international energy company engaged in exploration and production of oil, sand mining, integrated gas, refining, marketing, and transportation operation. Marathon needs to upgrade a few of their refineries and pipelines in order to increase the production process of heavy crude oils, ( For example, once the Detroit Heavy Oil Upgrade Project is completed, the refinery crude capacity will increase from 106,000 bpd to 115,000 bpd. The upgrades will allow the Detroit refinery to process an additional 80,000 barrels of heavy crude oil per day ( The existing pipelines at the Detroit refinery do not have the capacity to transport additional volumes of crude oil to meet the refinery’s upgrade needs. Therefore a 1.5-mile pipeline will provide an alternative oil supply line to the refinery and provide extra security in the event of a supply disruption. Pipelines are the safest and the most efficient way to transport crude oil and other liquid petroleum products. They reduce traffic and pollution as well as provide economic benefits. Pipelines transport two-thirds of all the crude oil and refined products in the U.S. compared to three percent by tanker trucks. According to, currently 100,000 barrels of crude per......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ethonol Production

...salt from salt water in evaporators.(DOE, 2007) The production of natural gas is expected to rise 17 percent between 2005 – 2010 with an expected demand rate to raise twenty six percent in the same time frame. As it plans PetroChina a natural gas company has stated that it plans by 2010 to produce 70 percent of the counties out put of natural gas. (Jing, 2005) Natural gas is a cleaner burning source of fuel than its counter part of petroleum; it is still a nonrenewable form of energy. There will be only so much before they are faced with a dying source of energy and nothing to replace it with. China came in second in the consumption of oil bringing in a total of 6.4 trillion barrels in 2004. (Grillot, 2006 ) Only being surpassed by the United States in its consumption of oil. Just like natural gas; it is nonrenewable and quickly coming to an end. With raising prices for oil China has turned its eyes to a renewable form of energy such as Ethanol. In 2005 China converted 2 million tons of grain into Ethanol.(Brown, 2006 ) China has known about Ethanol for some time but it’s interests in it didn’t sway far from just the theories. As other nonrenewable fuel sources tightening, China has started to research biofuel as an alternative to gasoline and other power needs. There will be a total of nine provinces which will experiment with Ethanol by the end of 2005. China is looking to Brazil for their knowledge on Ethanol production. (Young, 1994) What is Ethanol and how is it......

Words: 2431 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Simulation Title: Market Research

...SIMULATION DESCRIPTION: As the manager of TriState Dairies market research department, you need to determine what to do with the Dairies' surplus milk. You earned 69 percent. Background TriState Dairies is a food processor that packages and sells dairy products. At present their core business is selling 1) pasteurized, skimmed, and plain milk, and 2) yogurts and yogurt drinks. They want to expand their market, particularly for milk. They can easily convert surplus milk production to the production of flavored milks. At the moment the flavored milks sales overall are low and the market small. The bulk of flavored milks are sold to parents who buy them for children. The marketing department thinks that there may be untapped markets for flavored milks in adults. In particular they think that it will be possible to sell milk to health-conscious adults as a healthier alternative to soda and energy drinks. TriState wants to know if this idea could work. Your role is that of a manager within the market research department. You have been tasked with gathering the data. First Steps You consider the situation, roll up your sleeves and get to work. What should be the first steps you take in obtaining the information you need in order to solve TriState's problem? YOU CHOSE OPTION 1 Examine the secondary sources you have at hand (public and internal databases) in order to establish exactly what data you already have and what data you need to obtain. You got......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Price of Gasoline

...Gasoline, one of the main products refined from crude oil, accounts for just about 17 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. The primary use for gasoline is in automobiles and light trucks. Gasoline also fuels boats, recreational vehicles, and various farm and other equipment. While gasoline is produced year-round, extra volumes are made in time for summer driving season. Gasoline is delivered from oil refineries mainly through pipelines to a massive distribution chain serving estimated 168,987 retail gasoline stations throughout the United States. There are three main grades of gasoline: regular, mid-grade, and premium. Each grade has a different octane level. Price levels vary by grade, but the price different between grades is generally constant. The cost to produce and deliver gasoline to consumers includes the cost of crude oil to refiners, refinery processing costs, marketing and distribution costs, and finally the retain station costs and taxes. The price paid by consumers at the pump reflect these costs as well as the profits (and sometimes losses) of refiners, marketers, distributors, and retail station owners. Federal, State, and local taxes area large component of the retail price of gasoline. Taxes (not including county and local taxes) account for approximately 19 percent of the cost of a gallon of gasoline. ( Why do gasoline prices fluctuate?-We seem to be wondering more often then not. Even when crude oil......

Words: 1751 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Production Process of Rbl

...often equipped with Diesel engines, may have two batteries in series for a 24 volt system, or may have parallel strings of batteries. Lead-acid batteries are made up of plates of lead and separate plates of lead dioxide, which are submerged into an electrolyte solution of about 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water. This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate reforms into lead oxide and lead. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may now be repeated. Lead-acid batteries for automotive use are made with slightly different construction techniques, depending on the application of the battery. The "flooded cell" type, indicating liquid electrolyte, is typically inexpensive and long-lasting, but requires more maintenance and can spill or leak. Flooded batteries are distinguished by the removable caps that allow for the electrolyte to be tested and maintained. More costly alternatives to flooded batteries are "Sealed" or "Valve regulated" battery of the absorbed glass mat (AGM) type which uses a glass mat separator, and a "gel cell" uses fine powder to absorb and immobilize the sulfuric acid electrolyte. These batteries are not serviceable (typically termed......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Major Practice in Dairy Production and Milk Processing

...MAJOR PRACTICE IN DAIRY PRODUCTION AND MILK PROCESSING By CHRISTIAN ANDREW J. PERALTA INTRODUCTION Importance of the Major Practice The Philippine local dairy industry is considered as a "repacking and reprocessing" industry because of the limited supply of dairy products due to the less developed dairy industries in the Philippines. It is greatly dependent on imported milk as raw materials, leading to continuous importation from Australia, USA and New Zealand. Philippine’s dairy milk production remains at less than one percent of total dairy requirements despite the continuing government and industry efforts to support and aid the increase of dairy production. Dairy farming goes back for thousands of years and has great difference in management process compare to today’s dairy farming. It was originally done on a mixed farm unlike in modern dairy production in which has specific dairy farm. ________________________ Undergraduate Major Practice Outline in Dairy Production to be presented as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, major in Animal Science from Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija to be conducted in the Philippine Carabao Center, CLSU Dairy Farm under the supervision of Edgar A. Orden Dairy farming started around villages where most people don’t own cows due to the lack of fields for them to graze. Farmers take the opportunity to make extra money......

Words: 6802 - Pages: 28