Premium Essay

‘the Theory of Language Games Does Not Solve the Problems of Religious Language.’ How Far Do You Agree? (20)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By marmaladesmith
Words 593
Pages 3
Jamie Smith

‘The theory of language games does not solve the problems of religious language.’ How far do you agree? (20) Wittgenstein originally supported logical positivists, but then came to reject the verification principle. His argument is that the meanings of words are in their use, the function they perform as agreed on by the group using them. He states that each activity has its own language and shows this in his toolbox analogy ­ the items in the toolbox (hammers etc) are all tools, but without knowing the specific use and function of the tools, their understanding is superficial. He argues that this can be seen in religious language. Language games exist in all forms of human activity and life, but people not in the game will be unable to understand the use of this language. If people don’t understand the language then it will seem meaningless. Religious belief has its own language and a non­believer will find that because they aren't in the game it is meaningless to them. An outsider can’t claim that because they don’t understand the language or the game doesn’t make it any less meaningful, it just doesn’t make sense to them. I agree with the statement to certain extent. Wittgenstein argues there is a system for which religious believers can use language as a valid form of evidence towards their faith and God, and language games supports this. However, this approach doesn't help people understand what others are saying. A person (for example, an atheist) needs to accept the fact that people (religious believers) are using a specific language in context that may or may not be shared. A person can’t be confident that they understand the language being used in the same way the speaker intends for it to be understood ­ there is the problem of ambiguity. Also, language games don’t solve the problems of religious language…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Opposition Was the Main Problem Facing Alexander3. How Far Do You Agree with the Statement?

...opposition that could jeopardise his reign. But at that point he could still hold his control over Russia and opposition was too weak and divided to challenge the Tsar, at that time Empire faced more economical and social problems that Tsar needed to solve. As a child Alexander had Pobedonoscev as his tutor who was Tsars chief minister and leading official of the State Church. He was remarkable by his conservative views, being part of Slavophiles movement. It was easy for him to influence Alexanders views far before he became Tsar and even after his influence kept pursuing the young Tsar. Because of Pobedonoscevs doctrines Alexander believed in order for Russia to modernise it needs to follow old traditions, so he will be safe from repeating his fathers fate. Pobedonoscev taught Alexander that basis of political stability, which was very important for the Tsar, lay upon autocracy, Russian nationalism and the Russian Orthodox Church. Russian Orthodox Church members supported Tsar because their position was highly dependent on him. They were the bridge that tied the Tsar to the people, because faith mainly gave Tsar his powers of autocrat. Russian society had 80% of it as peasants who were uneducated “dark masses”, the lack of education made them deeply religious because it was the only knowledge they had access to and Church claimed that Tsar was God anointed, so the Church made sure that peoples mind won’t get corrupted by any other ideas. Any opposition and other......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Does Language Reflect Who I Am?

...Language is what binds us to our culture and ancestors. It’s what shaped our attitudes, beliefs, values, and understanding of what is truth. Our language is the ‘heart’ of who we are as a person. But language also depends on how your family interferes with it. How you expose yourself to it and how you observe and understand it. It can both isolate us and bring us closer together. But without our languages, would we all be with no identity? Half my family speaks German, I do not. This has made me feel like I had no identity, when surrounded by Germans for many years, but have this also affected who I am overall? My father tried desperately to teach me German as a child, but as stubborn as I was, I simply refused to learn it. That, however, has had its consequences. When growing up, my parents and grandparents would chatter away in German, leaving me feeling left out. They would often “forget” I couldn’t speak it and start talking to me in ‘their’ language. I’d look at them blankly and they’d either leave it or get a bit irritated. My parents would also bring me along to their friends in Germany, who had kids around my age, thinking I might learn some from talking to them. However, I couldn’t. While they would all be have a big discussion in German, I would sit there awkwardly, trying to catch a phrase or two. But since I grew up with the German side of my family and been dragged along to German ‘play dates’, I’m most comfortable in an environment with Germans and German......

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Stalin the Red Tsar. How Far Do You Agree with This Judgement?

...Stalin the Red Tsar. How far do you agree with this judgement? Stalin, upon his rise to power in 1929, assured the Russian peoples that he was a dedicated follower of Leninism; often saying that “Lenin is always with us” indicating that he wished to show how similar to Lenin he was going to be in his leadership. Despite this claim, in actual fact there were a number of distinctly Tsarist elements to his leadership. A Tsar is a leader who rules without parliaments in an absolute autocracy, often being resistant to any reforms; maintaining the feudal, peasant-based illiterate society. Furthermore, they were often intrinsically bound with the Russian Orthodox Church as well as being distinctively imperialistic and chauvinistic. To a large degree, Stalin fitted this model, perhaps most notably due to his “top-down” approach to leadership, thus leading to the idea that he was a “Red Tsar”. He did not fit the model fully, though, especially when it came to being anti-reform, where in fact Stalin was all for reform (though not always for the better) and believed in modernising the USSR and, despite his anti-Western stance, was a Westerniser and not a Slavophile. He was also not imperialistic like the Tsarist leaders had been, and knew that people would react badly to Russian cultural imperialism. The belief that Stalin was a Red Tsar perhaps also came from his self-portrayal as a ‘God-like’ figure, and his employment of very traditional tactics of fear and propaganda in his......

Words: 1613 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Active 8 Language Games

...B R IN F IENDL RA The n e w UB LIC A TIO N Active 8 Language Games e who… Find someon Desert Island Birthday Pre sents k News 10 o’cloc Ele In me ter nt me ary dia to te+ S Y Brain friendly Publications P Film Festival Fun with pronunciation On the ph one A nigh t on th e town Mark Fletcher e re e y f urc op so toc g Re o Ph hin ac Te Introduction Active 8 is designed for teachers with limited preparation time who want to provide lively, motivating language skills lessons to introduce different games to stimulate conversation at a Lower Intermediate level. ™ Active 8 by Mark Fletcher Illustrated by Mark Fletcher Copyright © English Experience Telephone/Fax: (44) 1303 238880 E-Mail: brainfriendlypubs@dial.pipex.com Website: www.brainfriendly.co.uk ISBN 1 898295 02 6 PRINTED BY HYTHE PRINTERS LTD., HYTHE , KENT Conditions of sale permit the photocopying / printing of these masters for student use. It is not permitted to subsequently use copies to generate further copies for resale. ACTIVE 8 CONTENTS 1a-b Find someone who....... Class and individuals. A market research activity. Very flexible. Practices different tenses and SHORT FORM ANSWERS. 2 a - b - c Desert Island Small groups. Explorer groups making a map. Information exchange. Practices “DO YOU KNOW WHERE..?” and REQUESTS. 3a-b Birthday presents Individuals or small groups. Looking for the best buys in 4 shops. Practices COMPARATIVES AND......

Words: 7794 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Disguise Is the Main Precursor to All of the Dramatic Comedy Observed in Twelfth Night. How Far Do You Agree with This?

...Disguise is the main precursor to all of the Dramatic Comedy observed in Twelfth Night. How far do you agree with this? In twelfth night written by Shakespeare there are many elements of comedy. In the play disguise is seen as a crucial element of comedy used by different characters with different purposes. Disguise in the play causes confusion, complications, and Mix-ups. It could be argued that disguise may not be the main reason for all the dramatic comedy. Shakespeare uses a wide range of different styles of comedy which include comic duos, physical Appearances, use of language etc. These also have a big comedic role in twelfth night. In my essay I will be discussing whether disguise is the main precursor or whether there are other elements which are comedic? Firstly Disguise is seen as changing your physical appearance for many reasons. Characters in Twelfth Night have used disguise for their own use such as Viola and Feste. Viola at the beginning of the play is seen to be shipwrecked and is separated from her twin brother Sebastian. In the early 1600 where the play has been set women were not seen as important and they were underestimated because they were seen weaker than men. Viola believes that if she disguises up as a man and asks the man that governs the country Illyria which they have shipwrecked in if she could have a job. The man who owns Illyria is Duke Orsino. “Conceal me what i am and be my aid for such disguise as haply shall i become”. Disguise has been......

Words: 1146 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Progress Was Made for Black Americans?

...How far do you agree that the years 1945-55 saw only limited progress in improving the status of African Americans? The years of 1945-55 saw limited progress in improving the status of African Americans to an extent; however, during this time period there was also an increased amount of progress for the African American community in improving their status. There were many key factors, which contributed to improving the status of African Americans, such as the work of key civil right parties, for instance the NAACP and their approach to increase grass-roots activism, and their increased membership shows their wide support. In addition to this, there was also help from economic and political victories which demonstrated a fundamental shift in the attitudes of the federal government. There was also help from de jure change, such as significant civil rights court cases and Federal Intervention from President Harry S. Truman, which as a result improved African Americans status. On the other hand, the problems that remained for African Americans was a lack of de facto change, such as the states reluctant attitude to de-segregate, and also there was opposition from the white population, which included brutal violence towards the African American Community, when they had protests. Finally, the opposition from politicians towards de-segregation and civil rights for African Americans all contributed towards limited progress in improving the status of African Americans. The......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Germany Was a Parliamentary Democracy by 1914?

...How far do you agree that Germany was a parliamentary democracy by 1914? During the first fourteen years of the 20th century, Germany's political system went through radical modernisation, adopting many features that are commonly associated with parliamentary democracies. The Encyclopaedia Britannica definition of a parliamentary democracy is a form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the parliament (legislature) forms the government, its leader becoming the prime minister or chancellor. Executive functions are exercised by members of the parliament appointed by the prime minister to the cabinet. The parties in minority serve in opposition to the majority and have the duty to challenge it regularly. The prime minister may be removed from power whenever he loses the confidence of a majority of the ruling party or of the parliament. This form of governance originated in Britain and spread across the globe. Parliamentary democracy is different to direct democracy in that the former is a system in which citizens vote for representatives (politicians) to make decisions on their behalf, whereas in a direct democracy policy initiatives and laws would be decided on via votes/referendums involving eligible and willing to vote. Arguably the most notable condition present in the German political system in 1914 that supports the notion of Germany being a democracy was universal male suffrage, which had been upheld since......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Elizabeth Executed Mary for Religious Reasons – How Far Do You Agree with This?

...follow his orders. Executing Mary would ensure that there were no secret plots or plans to murder Elizabeth, and it would show Catholics Elizabeth is powerful, and is going to stand her ground. Killing or overthrowing Elizabeth would mean Mary had a high chance of becoming next in line the throne, which most Catholics would be ecstatic about. The only decision Elizabeth could make during this time would be to execute Mary, which wouldn’t solve all problems, but would get rid of a potentially massive, dangerous one before things got messy. Links with Europe was part of the reason why Elizabeth executed Mary, however it wasn’t the most important. Mary had lived in France until she was 15, so had strong links with the French royal families, and there had been a few plots against Elizabeth regarding them, such has the Throckmorton Plot where there was a plan for the French army to invade England and make Mary queen. This is a problem because the French were very powerful, and England was in debt, so if this happened there wasn’t a lot Elizabeth could do about it. Also, Phillip II wanted a Catholic rebellion, and if Mary commanded Catholics to join the rebellion, it could have caused a civil war in Spain. Elizabeth definitely couldn’t afford to get into this situation because Spain were the most powerful country in Europe, and England were in great debt. The only option for Elizabeth was to execute Mary, and this is one of the reasons Elizabeth executed Mary. Dynastic reasons......

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Do You Agree with Conflict Theory

...Have you ever noticed a divide in society between the privileged and who's who are not? Such as someone who is rich versus someone who is poor. This is what we call Conflict theory. How conflict theory is applied to our everyday lives can be seen through many different ideas brought about by these conflict theorists. Whether or not I agree or disagree with this theory, will be determined by the factors and situations that conflict theory has to show. Karl Marx, a philosopher, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, is considered the father of conflict theory. He pointed out the continuous competition for power between different classes in society and how the powerful groups exploit those with less. He suggested social order is maintained by domination. So power lies in the hands of those with political, economic or social resources. Conflict theorists stated that "Societies are more appropriately characterized by conflict rather than consensus"(McShane, Williams 127). This often leads to power struggles for those with less. This inequality still exists because those who are in a better position in society actively try to defend this standing. Consider the following, let's say an individual named Zack has a minimum wage income and is paying rent for a house. A conflict theorist might say the relationship between Zack and the owner would be strongly unequal. Zack could pay rent for decades and still gain no rights or economic interest with the property. Zack doesn't......

Words: 1111 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Theories on Language

...Memory, Theories on Language Student ID: 21923613 July 12, 2015 Essay Assignment Exam number: 250391 Language learning from what I’ve read starts when you are about a year old. Learning theory approach to language development suggest that “Language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning.” They give one example in our textbook on page 232 about a mother praising her baby for saying “mama” which means the baby is more likely to continue saying it. Once the baby gets older the learning theory approach to acquisition no longer applies, because it has an issue with grammar. A child that might say “Why he walks away?” could be understood by the listeners around so it makes the theory harder to explain. So we might as well jump to our next topic in language acquisition, which is an innate process by nativist Noam Chomsky. Chomsky believed that people shared something called universal grammar. He also suggested the language acquisition device, it’s a neural system of the brain to help the understanding of language. There is also clear evidence from scientist who have helped this innate process they have researched. They have discovered that there are specific places in the brain that contribute to learning languages, and there are certain areas in the mouth and throat that help with new speech. There is also some research on how some languages need a different tone in speech such as pitch to make a words mean different things such as Chinese.......

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Language Theories

...Theories Of First Language Acquisition English Language Essay Imagine a blank template, a white sheet of paper, thats how human being starts off. From a crying baby in a cradle, to babbling, to simple single words, slowly progressing into two-words, then finally a complete sentence, ever wonder how one acquires the ability to produce the language? Linguists throughout the ages have tried to find out how does one ACQUIRE a language, is it a deep structure as claimed by Kimball? Or is it an innate ability, a build-in human capacity propagated by Chomsky? Various theories have arose since language studies came to fore, and the ability to acquire language has interested various parties since the dawn of man. From the dunes of Egypt, Psammeticus, the Pharaoh during the 7 th century BC, believed language was inborn and that children isolated from birth from any linguistic influence would develop the language they had been born with. Fast forward to the 15th century,King James of Scotland performed a similar experiment; the children were reported to have spoken good Hebrew. Akbar, a 16th century Mogul emperor of India, desired to learn whether language was innate or acquired through exposure to the speech of adults. He believed that language was learned by people listening to each other and therefore a child could not develop language alone. So he ordered a house built for two infants and stationed a mute nurse to care for them.  The children did not acquire speech, which seemed......

Words: 5227 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Hitler’s Regime Was a ‘Consensus Dictatorship’?

...How far do you agree that Hitler’s Regime was a ‘consensus dictatorship’? A consensus dictatorship is on that suggests Hitler’s regime was surrounded by a general agreement. This would mean that the majority of the German public were in cooperation with the Nazi regime and agreed with both the enforced and promoted concept of the regime. Hitler had mainly achieved this by trying to ‘ win over the hearts and minds of all non-Jewish Germans’ this would mean he would have the majority of the Germans citizens on his side. However, it is also suggested that many of the people had only consented due to fear which can be inferred from source 5 that it was the methods of the Nazi apparatus of terror that had led to the people conforming. Although source 6 suggests, even without terror which wasn’t completely enforced on ordinary Germans, the German public had ‘little difficulty in conforming’. As source 6 suggests ‘Nazi terror posed no real threat to most ordinary Germans’ so most people were easily persuaded by popular policies to consent to the Nazi regime. Source 6 agrees that the Nazi Regime was a consensus dictatorship as the public knew of the terror the minority groups faced but chose to ignore it due to their own self-interest and advantages of Hitler’s policies. Evidence from reports produced by the SOPADE and SPD who were in exile indicates that the people viewed Nazi policies positively. Unemployment had also reduced falling to 350, 000 by January 1939. This prosperity......

Words: 1468 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Problem of Religiuos Language

...Every field of studies has its own way of understanding of the language. So it is easy to see that religious language has its own different way of understanding from others. But there has clearly been a long shift of meaning between the familiar secular use of these words and their theological employment because the religious language expresses an transcendent reality which is God and the relationship between God and human. And the problem is how to understand the meaning of words which are used in the secular context when they are applied to God and the relationship between God and human. In this essay, I want to discuss about the peculiarity of religious language through two doctrine: the doctrine of analogy of Thomas Aquinas and the doctrine of the "symbolic" nature of religious language of Paul Tillich. I also want to express some problem of meaning of words after the Incarnation and make a difference between the scientific cognition and the religious cognition in languages used in these fields. I hope that all of us will have a good realization about the true meaning of religious language and be patient on the way to find out the lessons in the religious books when we read it. The doctrine of analogy According to the young Aquinas, there are three kinds of analogy: analogy according to Meaning but Not According to Be, analogy according to Be but Not According to Meaning and analogy according to Meaning and to Be. For the first kind, there is the analogy according to......

Words: 1614 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Carol Anne Duffy Presents a Cynical View of Love and Marriage in “the Worlds Wife”?

...How far do you agree that Carol Anne Duffy presents a cynical view of love and marriage in “The Worlds Wife”? I completely agree that in “The Worlds Wife” Carol Anne Duffy presents a critical view of love and marriage. She presents the reader with an array of relentless and unapologetically feminist poems consisting of a large number of personas, who are witheringly contemptuous of the men they have ended up with, generally inadequate, self-obsessed and immature. Each poem carrying an implicit message of feminine virtues governed by the somewhat scorn of women. However I feel that Rather than directly criticize the institutions of love and marriage, Carol Anne Duffy is criticizing the moral foundations upon which these institutions are based in our modern society. This critique of modern “marital ethics” appears to play a central role in all her poems in the way that the flaws of love and marriage are portrayed from a feminist perspective. In Mrs. Beast Duffy is attacking the way that males and females are conditioned into thinking that love and marriage are a battleground for the masculine and feminine ego’s.Mrs Beast is the ideal example of how dominance (male or female) is the main focus of many marriages.Mrs Beast believes that it is only by completely domineering her husband and taking the role traditionally seen as that of the man can she break the stereotype of “the dominant male” and be successful in her marriage. Duffy shows Mrs. Beasts dominance through her......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Language Theories

...heories about how young children acquire and develop language Young children become amazingly proficient communicators during the first three years of life. As the Birth to Three Matters framework points out, they use 'the hundred languages of children' - body language (including facial expressions and dance); sign language (their own and family inventions as well as an officially recognised sign language); painting, drawing and mark-making; and oral expression. They have been acutely active listeners since their days in the womb, where they learned to recognise the speech patterns, tunes and tones of the languages used in their home contexts. Language theory research informs us that young children's language development is influenced by many factors, including having sensitive adults and older children around them who will listen and attend to their expressions and who will use and model appropriate language themselves. This has been called 'Motherese' by researchers led by Cathy Snow. Children's babbling during their first year includes the sounds of every world language and 'crib talk' demonstrates their intense interest in the sounds they hear around them. Although children with a hearing loss will stop babbling, if they grow up in a home with parents who can sign, they will follow the same patterns of development using their first language - signing - and will sign their first word at around the same age that hearing children speak theirs. Between two and three......

Words: 21453 - Pages: 86