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The Knowledge of Nursing Mothers About Oral Rehydration

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Submitted By adebayo12
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ABSTRACT
This study was designed to investigate the knowledge of nursing mothers about Oral Rehydration therapy in lautech teaching hospital,osogbo,osun state. Random sampling was used, the target population was the nursing mothers in lautech teaching hospital, osogbo. The main instrument for data collection was a self designed structured interview conducted on 40 respondents.
The main statistical tool use in the analysis was chi-square. The data obtained were analysed and discussed by using tables. On the basis of the findings, a number of recommendations aimed to prevent and manage dehydration were made. CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction & Background of the study
When a person has the clinical signs and symptoms of decrease in extra-cellular fluid like increased thirst, reduced skin turgor, sunken eyes, oliguria, hypotension, tachycardia, apathy, anuria and coma, the diagnosis of dehydration is made.
There are different degrees of dehydration namely: Mild dehydration: weight loss <5% Moderate dehydration: weight loss <5-10% Severe dehydration: weight loss >10%
Oral dehydration therapy is the mainstay of therapy for mild dehydration. Moderate and severe dehydration require intravenous fluid therapy. According to Gupte [2006] , Oral dehydration means drinking a solution of clean water , sugar and mineral salts to replace the water and salts lost from the body during diarrhoea, especially when accompanied by vomitting, the so-called gastroenteritis. Oral rehydration therapy is considered as a powerful intervention for the treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. The scientific basis of ORT arose from the fundamental observations that sodium transport was enhanced by concurrent glucose transport in the small intestine. Thus glucose linked sodium and thereby water transport is largely intact in diarrhoeas of various aetiologies and hence use of glucose, electrolyte solutions can help to prevent or to correct dehydration in large majority of diarrhoeal episodes. Thousands of lives of children have been saved by use of Oral dehydration therapy. Oral rehydration therapy is beneficial in three stages of diarrhoeal disease namely:
[1] Prevention of dehydration if initiated right at the beginning of an episodeof diarrhoea.
[11] Rehydration of the dehydrated child so that he does not enter the phase of severe dehydration in which intravenous fluids may become necessary.
[111] Maintainance of hydration after severely dehydrated patient has been rehydrated with intravenous administration.
The standard formulation, recommended by

World Health Organisation after extensive research, should contain the following ingredients. Sodium Chloride 3.5g Sodium bicarbonate 2.5g Potassium chloride 1.5g Glucose 20g
These ingredients are to be dissolved in a litre of clean water. The concentration of various ingredients in the solution form: sodium 80mmol/L, potassium 20mmol/L. This formulation is now distributed internationally by the UNICEF in packets labelled oral rehydration salts[ORS] and also manufactured commercially by several pharmaceutical houses for sale on prescription [Gupte, 2006]. Prajapati [2005], stated that the simplest way to prepare oral rehydration solution is to add one 3 finger pinch of salt and two finger scoop of sugar in one litre of clear water. Various preparations are available in the market. The ORS supplied under national programme has a light blue colour and the national logo. If ORS from other sources are used, the packet should be checked and confirmed that it has the original composition. They do not only have different composition on reconstitution but also have different instructions for reconstitution. Therefore, it is important to read carefully the instruction for reconstitution and familiarize oneself with different preparations. * Mothers should be taught how to measure the amount of water. It is important that a measure which is easily available in the houses is identified and the mothers are told the exact number of measures that will make the defined amount of water. * There is no need to boil the water for preparing the ORS, clean water which the household normally uses for drinking purposes can be used. * Hands must be washed with soap before preparing the ORS. * The defined proportion of water and oral rehydration salt must be maintained. * The container should be kept covered. * The ORS should be used within 24hours of its preparation, later it gets contaminated. * How to give ORS: [a] Give at least one teaspoonful every 1-2minutes [b] Give frequent sips from a cup to an older child. [c] If the child vomits, wait for 10mins, then give the solution more slowly. [d] Vomitting person is not a contraindicationto ORT.
Given in small amounts with spoon and cup, ORT can help to control vomitting.

* How much ORS is to be given for replacement of ongoing stool looses and to prevent dehydration. Age After each liquid stool <6 months 50ml [1/4 of a glass] 7 months to 2years 50ml – 100ml [1/4 to ½ of a glass] 2 to 5 years 100 – 200ml [1/2 to 1 glass] * When should ORT be terminated?
[a] As soon as abnormal losses of diarrhoeal stools are under control.
[b] If the vomitting is persistent and the child is unable to retain ORS.
[c] If the dehydration is moderately severe or if it worsens on ORT, IV fluid therapy should be started.
[d] Development of complication like distension of abdomen,convulsion, septicaemia, e.t.c. The concern of the researcher on this topic is the rate at which children are dying in osogbo local government area due to dehydration usually caused by diarrhoeal diseases which may be due to non- use of Oral Rehydration Therapy. The logical step is to find out what knowledge of ORT is possessed by nursing mother in the local government area, hence this research is being carried out.

*…...

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