Free Essay

The Fog of War

In: Business and Management

Submitted By barsonmc
Words 758
Pages 4
Michael Barson
ANT3212
M/W 3:05-4:20
December 2, 2013

The Fog of War

The Fog of War is a documentary based upon the intriguing life of Robert Strange McNamara. The documentary covers several important parts of American history that McNamara was a part of or helped influence at the least. In addition, McNamara talks about the 11 lessons that should be learned from his life. The first lesson Robert talks about is empathizing with your enemy. To further illustrate, a great example would be when Thompson urged President Kennedy to respond with the soft response to Kruschev. Thompson put himself in the shoes of Kruschev and empathized with him saying that by responding with the soft message it would make him look like he saved Cuba from a U.S. attack, in which it did. McNamara’s second lesson said that rationality will not save us. His rationality behind this is how the United States was on the brink of nuclear war. Castro wanted to use the weapons against the U.S. and knew that if he had it would result in the destruction of Cuba itself. The third lesson is that there is something beyond one’s self. McNamara, a self made man, is trying to say that you are only as good as you make yourself and that you can go above and beyond and find that something that is beyond yourself. McNamara attended Berkley and went on to become a assistant professor at Harvard. In addition, he served three years in WWII, seven years as Secretary of Defense and thirteen years as President of the World Bank. Maximizing efficiency was McNamara’s fourth lesson. A great example of this is creation of the B-29 bomber planes that were developed to bomb from higher altitude and bomb much more efficiently. McNamara examined bomb reports and created a way to increase target destruction efficiency to weaken the adversary not to kill thousands of people. In McNamara’s fifth lesson he basically talks about proportionality in war and asks when does enough actually become enough. Gathering Data is his sixth lesson. McNamara’s bright young mind gathered data to increase efficiency wherever he went. Robert tremendously helped Ford motor company and made cars safer by comparing eggs in a egg crate to humans in cars. He wanted to package humans in cars like eggs in a egg crate. Later, he would be asked to be the first president of Ford motor company that was not part of the “ford family,” he quit the job 5 days later. Probably one of the most important of McNamara’s lessons in my opinion is his seventh lesson where he says belief and seeing are both often wrong. We see what we want to believe. June 10, 1965 our draft doubled and the Vietnam War became bigger and bigger. We fought in a war that we should not have been involved in at all. In fact, the Vietnamese were fighting for their independence against the Chinese and Russian, however we were to blind to see that. Because of the war in Vietnam the U.S. casualty rates increased by the week and none of the US allies supported the war in Vietnam. Ultimately, this leads me to McNamara’s eighth lesson. Be prepared to reexamine your reasoning. The ninth lesson he talks about in order to do good you have to engage in evil. He means that in order to do good things and get to those goals you have to sacrifice doing evil things. Furthermore, his tenth lesson says never say never. I want to quote something wise that McNamara said that reflects on this tenth lesson, he says “ Never answer the question you’ve been asked. Answer the question you wished you were asked.” In my opinion, I believe that this really says who McNamara was and it really defines how his public image was displayed. Lastly, his last and eleventh lesson says you cannot change human nature. We all make mistakes it is called human error. McNamara went on to define the fog of war in which he says, “War is so complex that it is beyond the human mind to compute all the variables. Judgment and understanding are not adequate and we kill people unnecessarily.” The fog of war takes into account human nature and human error. In my opinion, the fog of war is one of the most interesting documentaries I have had the pleasure of watching. Robert S. McNamara’s eleven lessons should be every American citizen should learn about.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The War

...oduction The Nigerian Civil War, 1967 – 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. The war became notorious for the starvation in some of the besieged war-bound regions, and the consequent claims of genocide made by the largely Igbo people of those regions. Causes of the Conflict The conflict was the result of serious tensions, both ethnic and religious, between the different peoples of Nigeria. Like most modern African nations, Nigeria was an artificial construct, put together by agreement between European powers, paying little regard to historical African boundaries or population groups. The Nigeria which received independence from Britain in 1960 had a population of 60 million people of nearly 300 differing ethnic and tribal groups. Of the ethnic groups that made up Nigeria, the largest were the largely Muslim Hausa in the north, the Yoruba in the half-Christian, half-Muslim south-west, and the Igbo in the predominantly Christian south-east. At independence a conservative political alliance had been made between the leading Hausa and Igbo political parties, which ruled Nigeria from 1960 to 1966. This alliance excluded the western Yoruba people. The well-educated Igbo people were considered by many to be the main beneficiaries of this alliance, taking most of the top jobs and leading business opportunities in the Nigerian federation. The Yoruba......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Smooth Bore vs. Fog Nozzles

...has been a topic within the fire service since the introduction of the fog/combination nozzles in the 1960’s. Although there are positives to both pieces of equipment, I believe that the department needs to make a decision on which nozzle to use for a standard operating procedure and safety purposes. To better understand the background of the contrasting views, we must look at how the fire service has developed around these two nozzles. The original nozzle was the smooth bore, partly because of its simple design-no moving parts or springs, just a piece of metal that allows water to take shape when it leaves. When Dr. Charles Oyston obtained a patent on a spray nozzle in 1863, the debate slowly emerged. The U.S. Navy introduced the fog nozzle to thousand of men during World War II. Lloyd Layman, commander of the Coast Guard Fire School, discovered the indirect application of fog technique. It was taught at great length, since shipboard fires are very easily compartmentalized and a flammable liquid was the combustible. This fire condition was efficiently and safely extinguished with ease with the indirect fog attack method. According to Layman, the rules for this success depended on the following: 1. The water must be in spray (fog) form. 2. The ceiling temperature must be 1,000°F at the site the water is applied. 3. Confinement of the steam within the building is essential.1 As peacetime occurred, the fog nozzle was introduced heavily into the fire service as a result......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Cold War and the War on Terror

...Eerily, it seems that during the Cold War and the War on Terror, many of the feelings that citizens felt were the same, but what America called the enemy was different. Following the September 11th attacks, there was a feeling of paranoia felt throughout America similar to the paranoia felt during the Cold War. Americans did not feel safe, and an attack could come at any time. The fight on the home front looked different during the Cold War and the War on Terrorism. During the Cold War there was more of a correlation between fighting Communism, and buying consumer goods. During the war on terrorism Americans were asked to give up some of their rights in order to maintain their safety. There is an abundance of similarities between the Cold War and the War and Terror. In Echoes of the Cold War, Elaine Tyler May says, “The war against terrorism, like the struggle against Communism, defines the enemy as a worldwide conspiracy…with operatives infiltrating the United States.” In both wars, America was not just fighting a group of people; America was also fighting an idea. In the Cold war, America was fighting of Communism. The USA believed they were truly free, and that in order for other countries to be truly free they had to embrace capitalism and consumerism. America tried to spread capitalism to Vietnam and Korea by fighting in those countries, similarly to how America tried to bring Democracy to Iraq and Afghanistan. In the War on Terrorism, the idea that America......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Wars

...The Wars by Timothy Findley Novel Study 1. Journal Entries Character Sketch Robert Ross, the “nineteen years old” protagonist in Timothy Findley’s The Wars is: -innocent: “Robert is easily bruised” this can be interpreted in the sense that Robert represents innocence which is can be easily corrupted by bad things such as war. -introverted: “Robert avoided them through the journey-wanting to protect the last of his privacy”“he was studious and careful: exact. He watched the men around him from a distance...he found excuses to keep them at bay” -compassionate: Robert is compassionate towards the weak and helpless like his mentally challenged sister Rowena for whom he was a loving “guardian”. When he was forced to shoot the wounded horse on the convoy ship, it really pained Robert to shoot the animal and when it took more than one shot to kill it, Robert felt bad for not putting it out of its misery to the point he gets frustrated with himself and the horse -a leader: Robert was a person who could lead and follow, although he knew that Captain Leather’s orders to place the gun beds in a bad spot he followed his orders and during the gas attack he was able to direct his men, who weren’t issued gas masks, to safety (he told them to urinate on their handkerchiefs). One of his men was in shock and was unable to urinate so Robert, the only person with a gas mask, gave his mask to the soldier. Furthermore, when they were ‘escaping’ the German, Robert,......

Words: 2033 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

War and Peace

...TERRORISM, WAR, PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS FACULTY GUIDEBAC 445 FONTBONNE UNIVERSITY OPTIONS BACHELOR OF ARTS IN CONTEMPORARY STUDIES COURSE DESCRIPTION This course will explore ethical, theoretical, and practical questions relating to terrorism, the engagement of war, cultural and ethnic conflicts. This course will explore why we wage war, the development of terrorism and its impact on societies, society’s quest for peace and the methods attempted to achieve peace. This course will also explore the concept of human rights and how terrorism and war impact these rights. © Copyright Fontbonne University, St. Louis, MO, January 2007. COURSE OVERVIEW TOPICS • Historic and philosophical positions on war • Contemporary moral foundations on war • Human rights • Terrorism • Humanitarian intervention and preemptive war • Religious positions on war • Toward a theory of just peace COURSE OVERVIEW INTRODUCTORY NOTES TO FACULTY The subjects of war, peace, terrorism and human rights are daily fare in the media. While people form strong opinions on these matters and tend to regard them as right or wrong, many do not have the skills to analyze and clearly articulate a rationale for their positions. The purpose of this course is thus twofold: to equip students with the ethical theories needed to make a......

Words: 2915 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Fog Creek

...MGT 261 Case: How Fog Creek Software Pays Developers 1.) Fog Creek’s pay structure meets the legal requirements of equal pay for equal work effectively. Fog Creek pays all employees within the same skill level at the same pay rate. This eliminates the problem of finding an employee pay rate equilibrium, as all employees make the same rate, given they are on the same skill level. In regards to product markets, Fog Creek’s structure does not effectively meet these requirements. Due to the fact that Fog Creek pays all employees the same wage, and pays higher wages to keep good employee, their cost to make a product may fluctuate higher than their competitors. As far as labor market conditions, Fog Creek does meet those conditions by raising wages to match the going rate of the market for newer employees that may be hired on by the company. This means that they are staying current with the labor market changes in pay. 2.) I would say that Fog Creek’s pay structure is absolutely objective. Employees are placed in a certain level, based on skill, and all employees in that skill level are paid the same. This means that there are not discrepancies in pay from one employee to the next whom may have similar skill-sets. I believe that Fog Creek’s employees would also care about the integrity of the pay structure in regards to skill levels being assigned properly, as well as the evaluation process being proficient each year. 3.) If Fog Creek grew from a few dozen......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The House of Sand and Fog

...Los Angeles Times states that “The most rending kind of war is not between two hatreds, but between two hopes”. Correspondingly, Andre Dubus III introduces two hopes in the novel House of Sand and Fog written in 1999. Behrani and Kathy, two determined yet fragile individuals, come from different backgrounds that meet in the California hills struggles to gain social stability. The competing desires for the house leads to Behrani’s ultimate downfall. His obsession with the house comes from the ambition to procure a large sum of money to ameliorate the family’s social status in America; as a result, he is blind to see the house’s flaws. Consequently, this restricts his ability to understand kathy when she claims she is the righteous owner of the house. The continuous misconception between Kathy and Behrani evolves into severe conflict; the final outcome is tragedy, deaths. Obsession with the house is the result of the desire to gain social status. Behrani’s fame is lost since the day they fled to America from Iran four years ago. In Iran, Behrani is Colonel in the Imperial Air Force and others respect him deeply indeed. Here, he works outdoors as a garbage soldier and others view him “no longer than a man would take for a dead insect upon his windshield while driving”, Behrani thought “for the thousandth time in this terrible country I wished to be wearing my uniform”. (Dubus III, 22) He is ambitious to restore his dignity and social status, so he devotes most of his time......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Interpretation of War by Otto Dix

...Dix, Otto. The War. 1929-1932. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemaldegalerie Neue Meiste, Dresden. A Graphic Narrative Interpreted The piece the war by Otto Dix creates an ominous depiction of what a war may look like. Divided into four different pictures, the painting creates a narrative about war. Beginning with an image that displays soldiers going off to war, then the combat area, a mass coffin, and ending with a ghostly figure reaping the battle ground. From the images provided the viewer can interpret that war is very gruesome and negative. At a first glance the viewer is drawn to the center of the painting, as their eyes move around, they begin to decipher the painting and the heaviness of the painting is felt. The grim war zone overwhelms the viewer and displays an aftermath of evil. Otto Dix effects the reader with confusion through a variety of chaos inducing techniques, and ultimately shares his opinions on war. The narrative begins with an image that displays pre-war activities. The battle has not begun yet and the soldiers do not know what to expect. The first panel displays what looks like a group of soldiers hiking off to war. In the left portion of the painting there are soldiers rising out of the fog, the viewer can only see every thing above the soldiers’ shoulders’. They sky is filled with various types of clouds, and red, almost orange tints. In the corner, there is a small piece of dark sky filled with stars. The soldiers are ready for battle with......

Words: 2153 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

War Stories

...War Stories Earnest Hemingway and Tim O'Brien both draw from personal experiences in war to write “A Soldiers Home” and “How to Tell a True War Story”. The character Krebs in “Soldiers Home” and the narrator in “How to Tell a True War Story” both display the psychological and emotional tolls that war takes on those who have experienced it. Both of these stories give the reader a view of the experience of war from a soldier’s perspective. While Hemingway focuses the emotional apathy of Krebs, O'Brien's perspective is much more graphic and detailed, with strong descriptions of the scenery, the sights and sounds. The methods used by O'Brien and Hemingway vary, but the end results are similar. Both authors draw from personal experience from war to tell their stories and create the characters there in. In “Soldiers Home” Krebs has a hard time rejoining society. He feels out of touch and unappreciated. This is pointed out when Hemingway states “By the time Krebs returned to his home town in Oklahoma the greeting of heroes was over” (Hemingway 187). Krebs was unable to relate to the people in his home town, as most had already heard the war stories and “His town had heard too many atrocity stories to be thrilled by actualities. Krebs found that to be listened to at all he had to lie, and after he had done this twice he, too, had a reaction against the war and against talking about it” (Hemingway 187). The fact was that the truth was either too boring or too strange. The......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Is War

...Is War Primarily the Product of ‘Human Nature’? It is too great a task to identify a common cause of all wars, past and present, then attribute it responsibility for their commencing. However, what can be done is to identify certain foundations common in all “war”, and pay heed to how “states [or other structures] actually behave, behind the façade of their values-based rhetoric” (Kaplan, 2012, p.1). It will be this essay’s goal to determine first, what needs be included in the definition of “human nature”, and what constitutes “war”, and second, stake the claim that all political action, including that of states, is derived primarily from this definition of human nature. The first task is to define what is meant by “war”, and while definitions abound, it is possible to order them into one of two categories supplied by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. The first is the modern conventional view, that war is “the state of armed conflict between nations or states” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573), and the second, considerably broader, of “any active hostility or struggle between living beings” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573). The former accounts well for conflicts that were overwhelmingly state-centric, such as the First World War, and marks a clear distinction between war and individual political violence: war is the business of states. However, is the Vietnam War to be understood—like the Korean—as a simple north versus south conflict, despite the northern state only assuming active......

Words: 2214 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

War in World War 2

...The College Board Modified AP World History Essay Questions 6 2007 Continuity and Change-Over-Time Essay Question Revised Question Analyze major changes and continuities in the formation of national identities in ONE of the regions listed below from 1914 to the present. Be sure to include evidence from specific countries in the region selected: • Middle East • Southeast Asia • Sub-Saharan Africa Analyze continuities and changes in nationalist ideology and practice in ONE of the following regions from the First World War to the present: • Middle East • Southeast Asia • Sub-Saharan Africa Rationale for Revision: The original question was about state-building in areas of the world that were decolonized, albeit in different forms, in the years after the First World War. The revised question is one that requires that same knowledge, using the same regions, but removes specific dates and instead references the First World War. This should prompt students to consider both the ideologies that led to the creation of new states as well as the ways in which that ideology was implemented in those new states or across the regions. This makes the question more closely aligned with the Curriculum Framework while broadening it to allow students to demonstrate their knowledge more effectively. Revised Question’s Alignment with the Curriculum Framework Key Concept Theme Skills for Basic Core Points 6.2; 6.3.I.C; 6.3.II; 6.3.III.B Theme 3:......

Words: 1866 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Wars

...War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterised by extreme violence, social disruption and an attempt at economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of (collective) political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace. While some scholars see warfare as an inescapable and integral aspect of human nature,[1] others argue that it is only inevitable under certain socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[2] For some, the practice of war is not linked to any single type of political organization or society. Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his A History of Warfare, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. Another argument suggests that since there are human societies in which warfare does not exist, humans may not be naturally disposed for warfare, which emerges under particular circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests.[3] Proportionally speaking, the most destructive war in modern history is the War of the Triple Alliance, which took the lives of over 60% of......

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War 1

...Essay on Battle of Bulge The Battle of Bulge was fought between central and the allied powers for four months. The battle started on December 16th 1944 and ended on April 16th 1944. This battle was also known as ‘Hitler’s desperate gamble’, as Hitler attempted to use Battle of Bulge to turn the tide of World War II. The battle of Bulge, which was a major offensive campaign by Nazis, was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, down to Ettelbruck in the middle of Luxembourg and then finally reaching France. It extended on an eighty-mile front. There are various reasons of why the battle was fought at this specific location. Firstly, it was the shortest route to reach Paris by land. Secondly, the winter weather was in Hitler’s favor. Low cloud and fog would not allow attacks by ‘the superior air force’ of the allies. Another reason is that the “tank busting Typhoons of the RAF or Mustang fighters from the USAAF could not be used against the German tanks”. Battle of Bulge was connected to the larger war as it was a last chance that Adolf Hitler had to push back the allied forces. This is why many people call battle of Bulge as ‘Hitler’s desperate gamble’. Germany directed an ambitious counteroffensive with the objective of capturing Antwerp and splitting the American and British armies in the area. It would then deprive the Allies of a badly needed seaport on the Meuse River. Germany also wanted to negotiate peace by force. To fulfill...

Words: 578 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Fog Feast

...standards with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Yet GNP per capita remained higher in these ex-Soviet countries than in developing countries like India and Nigeria.6 This suggests that relative trends in living standards influence happiness more than absolute levels of affluence, but the relationship between economic development and subjective well-being deserves more research attention. Human Development Very limited data is available on public attitudes toward issues of human development, although it can be assumed that there is near-universal support for increased child survival rates, adult life expectancies, and educational opportunities. However, despite the remarkable increases in these indicators of human well-being since World War II,7 there appears to be a globally pervasive sense that human well-being has been deteriorating in recent years. In 2002, large majorities worldwide said that a variety of conditions had worsened over the previous five years, including the availability of well-paying jobs (58 percent); working conditions (59 percent); the spread of diseases (66 percent); the affordability of health care (60 percent); and the ability of old people to care for themselves in old age (59 percent). Likewise, thinking of their own countries, large majorities worldwide were concerned about the living conditions of the elderly (61 percent) and the sick and disabled (56 percent), while a plurality was concerned about the living conditions of the unemployed (42......

Words: 10704 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

House of Sand and Fog

...The novel House of Sand and Fog, written by Andrew Dubus III, is a story about how society, events from the past and present situations can affect people’s persona, anima/animus, shadow and self which eventually influences their decisions about life. Dubus explores the conflict between two completely different people with opposite persona. Colonel Masoud Behrani, once a wealthy man in Iran, is now a struggling immigrant willing to bet everything he has to restore his family’s dignity. Kathy Nicolo is a troubled young woman whose house is all she has left, and who refuses to let her hard-won stability slip away from her. These two characters are drawn by their competing desires to the same small house and domed by their tragic inability to understand one another, converge in an explosive collision. In the course of the novel, Dubus takes the readers to the journey about the past of these two people and shows how basic pervious desire, fear and need derive each of them into their downfall; however, Colonel Behrani is the character whose persona got affected the most, caused the conflict to get worsen. Colonel Behrani is an old, strong, responsible, honorable and experienced man who had power and money back in his old life, thus his persona is extremely strong. Behrani had a peaceful life as he says: “As in our pervious life, we would have a driver. Our home would be surrounded by high walls covered with vines and blooming flowers” (p.187). He is used to being in a......

Words: 1304 - Pages: 6