Free Essay

The Evolution of Historiography in Greek Society

In: Historical Events

Submitted By missippirena
Words 1781
Pages 8
| The Evolution of Historiography in Greek Society |

American Public University
August 3, 2014
Rena Reynolds
Summer 2014

Although at first Greek historians had difficulties grasping the concepts of time and that ideas of the past could influence those of the present, through trial and error the development of Greek chronology help achieve the documentation of the Greek experience. Greek historians grew from works of fiction with some historical significance to the systematic study of people and culture as their society progressed through wars and cultural change. War is a universal experience which has occurred since the birth of the human race. It is also the muse of historians around the world. In early Greek society war provided a gateway to heroes, glory, and gods. The famous Trojan War described in Homer’s Iliad epic gave descriptions of Achilles, Hector, Paris and Helen of Troy which were intertwined with the gods Athena, Apollo and Hephaestus. Homer entertained the populace with the “actions of gods and the deed, passions, glories, and defeats of a few heroes,” but also cataloged a few historical significant items. Subsequent the Great Persian War (in 490 and 480/79 BC) inspired Herodotus in writing his Histories migrating from heroes and gods to a more common cultural history. His descriptions still held a dramatic flair which was pleasing to the populace but held a more chronological account of events. Following the Great Persian War was the Peloponnesian War (430-404 BC) and brought forth Thucydides. His accounts of the war provided an analytical view on events and identified sources to actions and political structure. Nevertheless historiography developed over the growth of Greek society and to better understand this each war and historian should be discussed further. Let us begin with the Trojan War. The area between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea is known as Dardanelles located in Turkey and this small sea passage is about a mile wide. This passage is the only canal between the two seas. This was a major trade route for the Greeks and whoever controlled this passage had the power. This area is where historians believe Homer’s Troy was located. Also it is believed that the trade passage was the means to the war unlike Homer’s epic where is believed to begin over Helen of Troy. Nonetheless, Homer’s Iliad provided a little information about the Achaeans ships and military structure which delighted historians. The majority of the story was the tale of humans and gods intertwined with heroic dramas that entertained the general population. It is important to note that in Homeric times that these stories were told in bards that the documentation of these would not be written until an estimated 200 years after Homer’s death. Homer led way to heroic history well into the eighth century with no concept of time only great events worth the tables of aristocrats and inspired those at festivals and public gatherings. It wasn’t until the Hesiod of Ascra that precept of a continuing interval of history was attempted with a “collective human fate”. Hesiod wrote his Theogony with a different look into the past than Homer and divided the past into five ages: the Golden Age, the Silver Age, the Age of Bronze, the Age of Heroes, and the Iron Age. These ages encompassed the relationship between gods and men and the distance between the two as timed passed. His writing developed from Homer’s in that he tried to account the beginning of time to the present to include all events big and small. Also, during this time many historians documented geography and genealogies to account for the beginning of time. Hecataeus of Miletus was one of these historians and he tried to “rationally organize” the known areas of the Greek world. Furthermore, he tried to identify generations for the populace that linked the present to the past. These were steps in the right direction but failed ultimately due to the lack of pin pointing a certain event and building from it either backwards or forwards in time. As milestones were made after Homer’s Iliad through Hesiod and Hecataeus, true development in Greek historiography was achieved with Herodotus and the Great Persian War. Herodotus was originally from Asia Minor and was driven from his home after civil war broke out. His home was now under Persian control and he sought refuge in Athens where he wrote his Histories. In his work he documented the rise of the Persian Empire and the Persian Wars themselves. His writing still held aspects of the Homer bards and entertained as it documented the events of the War but developed into prose with the use of speeches without the embellishments often seen in poetry. Herodotus still spoke of gods and oracles but did not do so in the embellishments of Homer. For example, in Homer’s Iliad he stated, “Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus’ son Achilles, murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans countless losses…feasts for the dogs and birds, and the will of Zeus was moving toward its end”. Herodotus descriptions did not call the gods by their names but merely mention the presence of their existence. For example in his Histories he wrote, “Such was the prophecy uttered under a divine inspiration. Pisistratus, apprehending its meaning, declared that he accepted the oracle, and instantly led on his army”. It is clear that the works are evolving away from the heroic history. Herodotus has moved in the direction of cultural history. He has “recognized that significant human individuals are the forces that create history…so he devotes to peoples personal ambitions, relations and frictions [with] the careful treatment that they deserve”.
In addition to the change in writing Herodotus provided a more “chronological structure” between events and cultures. As he developed his works he depended on the stories to mature their own suggestion of time. It wasn’t until Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War did a systematic account for time occur. He did so by dating the beginning of the war “For Fourteen year, the thirty years’ peace…” In doing so he was able to maintain a consistent dating system throughout his histories. This was an achievement that those before him tried but never fully grasped and would lay the foundation of historiography for future historians. Like Homer and Herodotus war inspired Thucydides but progressed into analytical history without the need for romantic dialogue. His approach brought the “why” into the event. He pursued the underlayment of an event to search for the truth and gave an analytical theory of his thoughts. For example he accounts the recorded reasons for events and then questions alternative routes,
The reason why Archidamus remained in order of battle at Acharnae during this incursion, instead of descending into the plain, is said to have been this. He hoped that the Athenians might possibly be tempted by the multitude of their youth and the unprecedented efficiency of their service to come out to battle and attempt to stop the devastation of their lands… On the other hand, should the Athenians not take the field during this incursion, he could then fearlessly ravage the plain in future invasions, and extend his advance up to the very walls of Athens.
This change of cause and effect included in histories was a critical milestone that is still used today. Another breakthrough perceived by some historians is the absence of dramatics and the supernatural elements. Thucydides was very objective in his writing and although previous historians had used speeches Thucydides recorded information about the source labeling them “unreliable” or “rejecting the type of history they produced”. Furthermore, he even discredited himself in the recollection of the speeches and stated that most were “his own opinions” of what was said. The Trojan, Persian, and Peloponnesian Wars inspired countless changes in Greek historiography and established principles in historical writings. Homer set the stage in his narrative and stimulated curiosity in the past. The establishment of consisted systematic accounts of the past were pursued through Hesiod, Hecataeus and Herodotus. Eventually Thucydides constructed a system in his works that allowed for efficient documentation of events. The migration from paranormal dealings to normal day to day happenings was achieved thru Herodotus cultural history and seen in Thucydides histories. Finally, Thucydides included an analytical process to his account to include cause and effect accounts that are still the norm today. All of these writers and historians helped the evolution of historiography in Greek society.

Selected Bibliography
Asimov, Isaac. The Greeks A Great Adventure. Boston: The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1965.
Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Grant, Micheal. The founders of the Western World: A history of Greece and Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1991.
Herodotus. Histories : Book 1 - CLIO. n.d. (accessed August 1, 2014).
Homer. The Iliad. 800 B. C. E. (accessed August 1, 2014).
Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War Book 2, Chapter VI. 400 B.C.E. (accessed August 1, 2014).

[ 1 ]. Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.6.
[ 2 ]. Ibid.6.
[ 3 ]. Ibid.13.
[ 4 ]. Asimov, Isaac. The Greeks A Great Adventure. Boston: The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1965. 8.
[ 5 ]. Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.6.
[ 6 ]. Ibid.
[ 7 ]. Ibid. 7.
[ 8 ]. Ibid. 8.
[ 9 ]. Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. 13.
[ 10 ]. Grant, Micheal. The founders of the Western World: A history of Greece and Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1991. 69.
[ 11 ]. Homer. The Iliad. 800 B. C. E. (accessed August 1, 2014).
[ 12 ]. Herodotus. Histories : Book 1 - CLIO. n.d. (accessed August 1, 2014).1.63.
[ 13 ]. Grant, Micheal. The founders of the Western World: A history of Greece and Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1991. 70.
[ 14 ]. Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. 11.
[ 15 ]. Ibid.
[ 16 ]. Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War Book 2, Chapter VI. 400 B.C.E. (accessed May 20, 2015).
[ 17 ]. Breisach, Ernest. Historiography: Anceient, Medieval, and Modern. Third. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. 17.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Evolution of Music: Offensive to Women, Yet Acclaimed in Society

...The Evolution of Music: Offensive to Women, yet Acclaimed in Society Victor Hugo, a well known French Romantic writer, once stated “Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent.” Though this statement was made in the 19th century, it continues to stand true to this day. Through decades of evolution, music has constantly been a way for anyone to express themselves through melodies, timbre, dynamics, and lyrics. People around the world are composing, as well as listening to, all kinds of music, and this unifies nations in all countries and continents. Introduction to Literature is an anthology that consists of a variety of literary works – poems, short stories, and excerpts from novels – that discusses globalization. I believe that a chapter regarding the subject of music and its evolution should be included in the Introduction to Literature. Music has continuously been changing ever since the first beat was tapped, the first piano was struck, the first violin was plucked, and the first horn was blown; however, in the last 150 years, the meaning of lyrics and the style of music has changed drastically. From Bing Crosby to Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson and Eminem, the artists and composers have altered the way music sounds on the radio, computer, and other musical devices. Every genre has artists, who have songs, which have lyrics that contain a story. Whether the story is from a memory, a dream, or an ambition, it......

Words: 2731 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Evolution of the Hero

...Hum I: Philos. Thought (HUM-101-OL010) Written Assignment 2 18 May 2013 The Evolution of the Hero Heroes are part of every culture’s mythology and the most famous and diverse is that of ancient Greece. In order for us to assess the development of the Heroic ideal in ancient Greek culture, we must be able to identify where the Hero’s identity comes from. The Heroic identity has been useful for thousands of years, serving as a perfect representation of a super-human, a human that is capable of dealing with problems that require unique skills and knowledge beyond that of a normal person. But where does it come from? The answer is simple. A Hero’s identity has its roots in the culture it lives in. That is to say, the Hero’s identity is a direct reflection and embodiment of the values and ideals of its society. The Hero is society’s way of reproducing its values and beliefs for the next generation. As a result, the characteristics that make up a Hero are as varied and different as the cultures that created them. When examining the evolution of Heroic ideals, one must be aware of the always changing cultural conditions and the necessity of the Hero’s criterion to fit an ever evolving society. If you look at Homer’s The Illiad, his portrayal of a Hero is someone who is famous, has great strength, kills many people and governs strongly. The Homeric Hero must obey all of society’s customs and religious rituals, and if threatened, was......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...argued family life was essential in allowing slaves to retain their own character and to teach children how to behave around their masters. He believes that the slave not only learned how to avoid the blows of the master, but also drew on the love and sympathy of its members to raise his spirits. The family was an important survival mechanism. | Herbert Gutman | The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (1976) | Challenged the belief that slavery had weakened/destroyed the African American family. He argued the black family survived slavery with impressive strength, although with differences from the prevailing form of the white family. | Eugene Genovese | Roll, Jordan, Roll (1974) | Viewed the antebellum South as a society that exploited and attempted to dehumanize the slaves. He believed blacks manipulated the paternalist assumptions that lay at the heart of slavery to build a large cultural space of their own where they could develop their own family life, social traditions and religious patterns. He also paid close attention to religion as a form of resistance, thinks they used it to give themselves a sense of humanity. He redefined resistance to slavery as all efforts by which slaves rejected their status as slaves, including religion, music and culture they built. |...

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

This Paper Will Be Using Sculptural and Ceramic Illustrations Provided by Soltes, Explain the Evolution from Geometric Greek Art Into Classical Greek Art, Culminating with the Construction and Decoration of the

...paper will be using sculptural and ceramic illustrations provided by Soltes, explain the evolution from Geometric Greek art into Classical Greek art, culminating with the construction and decoration of the Parthenon (The Temple of Athena). It will discuss what social, cultural/historic events accompanied and promoted this evolution. Greek art and sculpture has had a profound effect throughout the ages. Many of the styles have been reproduced and copied by some of what the modern day audiences would class as some of the finest artists to have ever lived. The Greeks used many different types of materials in their sculptures including stone, marble and limestone as these were abundant in Greece. Other materials such as clay were also used but due to their brittle nature very few have survived. Greek sculptures are very important as the vast majority of them tell us a story about Gods, Heroes, Events, Mythical Creatures and Greek culture in general. Many of the statues that have survived are actually of Roman origin. Like many people today the Romans had a deep respect for Greek sculptures and many were copied. If the Romans had not made these copies, many of the Greek Legends and stories that we know today would have been lost to antiquity. Geometric Art was a dramatic transformation that led to the establishment of primary Greek institutions such as the Greek city and the Greek alphabet. Although primarily visual, transformation is a concept which moves it......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Greeks

...Hail them who fought for glory and honour by the use of their bravery and intelligence that brought them to excellence. The movie Odyssey showed many Greek qualities perfectly. It also manifested and gave more colors and meanings to their mythology. The bravery of Odysseus mirrored how the Greeks stood for their own civilization. His intelligence manifested the Greek’s intelligence – their culture, their artworks and how they worked for their society’s growth were the products of this. Same as Odysseus, the Greeks loved their own society that they’re ready to sacrifice even their own lives. They had their very strong faith to their gods as their foundation in living. Greek’s unity leads them to excellence that no one could ever surpass. Odyssey tried to prove to their gods that he could achieve victory and honour without their help but he got it wrong. He then realized that without Poseidon, he can’t cross island from island; without Athena, he can never have his wisdom to conquer challenges; without Ionnus, he can’t have air to breath and so sail across oceans; wholly, without their gods, his life would never exist – the Greeks had this belief in their lives. They also can’t have their very well-known civilization without gods. Greeks had their unsurpassable love for their society as well as Odyssey. They had their lives that they’ve wanted and worked hard for. They accomplished many incomparable things and they became supreme in every artwork that had ever......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Evolution of Comedy

...Comedy has evolved in many ways over the past two thousand years or so since the writings of Plautus and Aristophanes, and yet, there are many things that remain the same. When you look at modern comedy, such as the film "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," the connections between old Greek Comedy and the humor that exists today are very apparent. More specifically, when comparing the film to Plautus' Mostellaria one can see that the two contain many comedic and structural similarities. They both have similar plot ideas and the character structures are very alike as well, but what gives both stories the ability to contain so many similarities and still appeal to their intended audiences during vastly different time periods are how they alter the content of each joke to match the knowledge, values, and norms of the society in which they were written to entertain. The first signs of similarity between "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum" and Mostellaria is the plot structure and the character personalities. All of the basic stock characters are easily identifiable in both stories. Both father characters are easily relatable to the "senex" stock character due to their overly lax character traits and how they both are fooled by a "servi" due to their son's ("adolescens'") mischievous actions. In addition to the similarities between the "senex" and "servi," the son in both stories confuses lust for love in the way they few a certain "meretrix" in the......

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...kategóriánként még csak 4 és 18 százalék között változott. 19 Az áfa, mint minden adó, az adóelkerülés terepe, s emelése, mint minden adóé, egyben növeli az adócsalás mértékét is. Az adócsalás mértéke azonban sokkal inkább változik országonként, mint adónemenként (ahol általában kisebb az adócsalás, ott minden adónemben kisebb.) Görögországban az adóelkerülés az átlagosnál kiterjedtebb, az áfa esetében a 90-es évek közepén a spanyol, portugál, olasz és belga értékekhez állt közel (Keen–Smith (2007): p. 19.), 2009-ben pedig a be nem fizetett adók a becslések szerint akár a költségvetési deficit 31 százalékát is elérhették. Artavanis et al. (2012): p. 4. 20 TaxExperts. Greek Tax Guide. 18 17 122 Artner Annamária ösztönzése végett ugyanakkor az osztalékokat 2011-ben 21, 2012-től pedig 25 százalékkal adóztatják meg.21 A 2012 februárjában hozott újabb munkaerő-piaci lépések az egységnyi munkaerőköltség további csökkentését szolgálják:  a 2012. januári szinthez képest márciustól a minimálbért további 22 százalékkal csökkentették (586 euróra),22 a fiatalok minimálbérét ezen felül további tíz százalékponttal (tehát összesen 32 százalékkal).  100 euróval, havi 359 euróra csökkentették a munkanélküliségi segélyt.  A befagyasztották a béremeléseket, amíg a munkanélküliség tíz százalék alá nem esik.  A kollektív szerződések hosszát és hatókörét......

Words: 5654 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Science and Its Evolution

...Science and its Evolution Science which comes from the Latin word scire, to know, I would say is method of observing natural events and conditions so that we can discover facts about them and to formulate laws based on these observations. Another way of defining science is to say that it is the philosophy that the natural world can be known through human reason and that nature is rational, ordered and regular. When things seem irrational in human eyes, the scientific answer is to say that we don’t have enough data to solve the problem. Also, science has several branches under it such as biology, physics, geology, and astronomy, to name a few. Modern science has been evolving since the foundation was laid by the first scientists ways back then. It wasn’t always highly regarded; it emerged from the darkness of mysticism, alchemy, astrology, and better yet, sorcery. Metaphysics was the first attempt to give rational explanations for natural phenomena. Overall any field was used to try to give an explanation to unanswered questions, some people agree with these “answers” and some people don’t. Ancient civilizations practiced what we now refer to as applied science and mathematics. The discoveries made during these times were sought for practical uses. Counting could’ve been the fundamental beginning of recording information. (Isenhour, 2013) Babylonians, Egyptians and other ancient civilizations practiced astronomy and engineering. Astronomy was and is still useful for......

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Greek vs Roman Comparison Chart | Comparison | The Greeks | The Romans | Greek vs Roman Attitudes | Greeks revered the poet   | Romans revered the warrior | Greek vs Roman Mythology | Poetical & fanciful myths about individuals   | Practical myths focussing on the gods relevance to everyday life and the Roman state   | Greek vs Roman Creativity | The Greeks were highly imaginative and developed their fantastic mythology   | The Romans borrowed existing mythology, names were changed. Stories of the wars and founders of Rome were included in their mythology   | Greek vs Roman Time Period | Greek mythology was developed first   | Roman mythology was developed 1000 years later | Greek vs Roman Nature of the gods | Greek mythology focussed on the personality traits of gods   | Roman mythology focussed on practical roles and achievements | Greek vs Roman Actions | Individualistic, emphasis placed on the heroic deeds and achievements and actions of individuals   | Non-Individualistic, emphasis placed on the achievements and actions of Romans and Rome   | Greek vs Roman Politics | Greek religion had little influence on politics   | Roman religion was officially endorsed by the state and exerted considerable influence over the government of Rome   | Comparison | The Greeks | The Romans | Greek vs Roman Priests | Greek priests were revered as teachers and healers of individuals   | Roman Politicians took the offices of influential priests, called...

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mexican American Historiography

...Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States Review: The Third Generation: Reflections on Recent Chicano Historiography Author(s): David G. Gutiérrez Source: Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer, 1989), pp. 281-296 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/05/2011 16:00 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive....

Words: 6812 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Greek Culture/Society and Homosexuality

... HIS-321 (Ancient World of Greece & Rome) Analysis Paper Greek Culture / Society and Homosexuality Greek Culture / Society and Homosexuality By Daniel Smithson Southern New Hampshire University HIS-321 Professor Charles Disantis Daniel Smithson HIS-321 (Ancient World of Greece & Rome) Analysis Paper Greek Culture / Society and Homosexuality Ancient Greece: The golden age of the Grecian empire said to span the years 500 to 300 BCE. This time gave breath to the great philosophers Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates. This was also the time of great playwrights such as Aristophanes, Sophocles and Aeschylus. How did the Greeks maintain familial ties in a culture with more sexual freedom and seemingly non-existent sexual stigma than today? Grecian Patriarchal Society: Although the Grecian people valued family life, Greek society was stalwartly patriarchal in its social-political structure. The men of Greece coveted the aesthetic of the male form and enjoyed nude wrestling in the arena. Grecian men often shared what we today would call “Homoerotic” or “Homosexual” experiences, Indecorous witticisms illustrated in the compositions of Aristophanes and many other playwrights. Sexual fluidity among men was an intrinsic characteristic of Grecian society. In the Iliad Homer tells the story of ......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY GREEK PHILOSOPHERS SOCRATES Socrates, perhaps the most famous of all philosophers, lived his entire life in Athens. Unlike Thales and other early thinkers, Socrates was more concerned with the health of the soul, than the nature of reality. Socrates spent his days in the streets of Athens, questioning people about their values. He termed himself a "gadfly" (horsefly) who ceasely irritated his fellow citizens into investigating their beliefs. Making many powerful enemies in the course of his life, Socrates was sentenced to death by the Athenian Assembly in 399 BC. One of Socrates' wonders is that he invented rigorous, ethical investigation. His conversations with his fellow Athenians, as recorded by Plato, are the first records we have of an individual, by his own careful reasoning, trying to discover the guiding principles of moral choices. METAPHYSICS Because Socrates always claimed that his only wisdom was that he knew nothing, it is difficult to determine his metaphysics, his view of reality. However, in some accounts of his conversations, like Plato’s EUTHYPHRO, we may catch glimpse of his beliefs. Socrates seemed to hold that individual entities, like holy actions, have universal characteristics, like Holiness, which can be discovered by the mind after careful investigation. This may mean that he anticipate Plato’s metaphysics that thee is higher, eternal world of truths (like Holiness) which exists independently of this......

Words: 1632 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Evolution of Medicine

...Term paper EN1320 Dr. Baughman Jay C. Montgomery August 13, 2015 The Evolution of Medicine By Jay C. Montgomery The evolution of medicine was a contributing factor to important advances in our own modern day medicines and technologies. While there are many civilizations to choose from, some of the best contributions came from the Egyptian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Muslim, Indian, and Japanese cultures. In order to understand what these civilizations did to transform the medical world, it is a necessity to first recognize and appreciate what they were able to accomplish with the little resources available at the time. That being said, even though these societies had little to work with, they were still capable of amazing achievements. The first civilization being considered is the Egyptian civilization because it is one of the oldest and most well-known for their proficiency in various fields, including medicine. The Egyptians possessed a large amount of knowledge of healing with herbs as well as repairing physical injuries in order to tend to the workers responsible for building the great monuments that we still see today in Egypt (Shuttleworth, Ancient Medicine). The Egyptians were very skilled at performing eye surgery, since irritation of the eyes was common in a desert society. Most of the archeological evidence we have today is thanks to the well preserved mummy corpses. We know that healed skeletons were a good indication that prove the Egyptians were capable...

Words: 2827 - Pages: 12

Free Essay


...rings represent the five continents brought together by the Olympic Movement, Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania Meanings: * To show the universality of Olympism * White background: translates the idea of the universality of the Olympic Movement. * At least one of the colors of the rings, including the white background, can be found on the flag of every nation in the world." | Marxism | Definition: A system of economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors. History: * Developed in the 19th century * By two Germans living in London - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels * Forms the foundation of communism. Aim: * To develop a classless society which governs itself without a governing class or structure. | Emblems | Description | Nazism | Origin: * Ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler * It is a variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and anti-Semitism * It was designed to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism * Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class struggle and instead promoted the idea of Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community") | Goddess Venus | Symbolism: * Is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, sex, fertility and prosperity. Origins and Genealogy: * daughter of Jupiter and mother of the hero Aeneas. Strength: *......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...desirable traits that were once only prevalent in a few individual animals became common traits for entire species (Winston, 2009). There are countless amounts of evidence that suggest that humans owe their existence to evolution, however, many people are skeptical as to whether or not it is still occurring, and whether or not it is happening in the same way. Some scientists hold that the human race has reached “its biological pinnacle and is no longer capable of changing” (McKie, 2005, ¶1). Alternatively, some experts believe that humans are evolving faster than ever (Sample, 2007), and others believe it is still happening, just on different terms. There has not been any deciding evidence as to whether or not humans are still evolving, however, saying it isn’t happening is a very difficult position to defend. Gene mutations happen at random so saying that humans will never undergo any more evolutionary changes seems very unlikely (Douglas, 2006). Many scientists and evolutionists believe that the complexion of modern society is changing the means by which natural selection and, consequentially, evolution is occurring. The evolutionary trait of an advanced brain is what defines us as humans; ironically that same brain is what is allowing us to change the rules of evolution. As a result of a number of medical advancements, doctors are able to sustain life that would not have lasted back in Darwin’s time. This means that humans with genetic advantages are not the only ones......

Words: 3572 - Pages: 15