Free Essay

The Difference Between Cracking a Wep and a Wpa Network Passkey and How to Protect Yourself from It

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By njberna1
Words 3607
Pages 15
N. Justin Bernard
Management 6740
Executive Summary
“Wireless Networking and How to Keep Yourself Protected”
Technology is consistently evolving and changing and wireless networking is no exception. There are constant updates as well as vulnerabilities in wireless networking, and my goal is to inform you of those vulnerabilities to help you stay protected from them. Wired Equivalent Protocol (WEP) was the original wireless security protocol. WEP was flawed in numerous ways and hackers were able to get information in minutes. WPAv1 was then introduced as an interim replacement because WEP was that flawed. WPAv1 was made to improve on the secure wireless networks and also used a newer and more improved algorithm. When WPAv2 was finally released, many devices began to be created to be compatible with the AES algorithm WPAv2 uses. There still have not been any major hacks or attacks on a WPAv2-AES network that would cause the Wi-Fi alliance look into using another algorithm a replacement. WPAv1 is too easy to hack so it is not recommended and WPAv1 is now susceptible to multiple types of attacks. There are several different ways you can help to protect yourself and your information. Verify your spam in your e-mail to make sure a file accidentally was not forwarded to spam. There are also others to improve your security. The length of your passkey is very important in security, as well as keeping an up-to-date anti-virus and staying up-to-date on all the latest hacks, cracks, and technology are critical for your protection.

N. Justin Bernard
Network Security Term Paper
November 13, 2012
The difference between cracking a WEP and a WPA network passkey and how to protect yourself from it In today’s always evolving and improving technology world, there are always loopholes, weaknesses, and gaps. I will discuss one of the primary weaknesses in network security, which is wireless hacking or cracking. I will discuss what a WEP, WPAv1, and WPA2 network is and the advantages and disadvantages of each, I will explain the differences and how to crack each, and I will explain the importance of security and how to improve your security. A wired equivalent privacy, or WEP, is protocol for security for wireless networks. WEP was introduced in 1997 as a part of the original 802.11 standard. WEP was originally designed to be as secure as a wired connection and to protect user’s information and data when they were using a wireless network. There were multiple issues with WEP’s security. “A high percentage of wireless networks have WEP disabled because of the administrative overhead of maintaining a shared WEP key. WEP has the same problem as all systems based upon shared keys: any secret held by more than one person soon becomes public knowledge. Take for example an employee who leaves a company – they still know the shared WEP key. The ex-employee could sit outside the company with an 802.11 NIC and sniff network traffic or even attack the internal network. The initialization vector that seeds the WEP algorithm is sent in the clear. The WEP checksum is linear and predictable” (http://www.tech-faq.com/wep-wired-equivalent-privacy.html). With so many issues and WEP becoming so easy to decrypt a new security standard was necessary. When people use WEP one of the main concerns are when people do not change their keys periodically so when someone captures enough packets to crack it and will always have access to your network. The Wi-Fi Protected Access, or WPA, protocol was developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to better secure wireless networks after all the security flaws were found in WEP. WPAv1 officially became available in 2003. WPA provided stronger encryption and better authentication and integrity checking. There are two different WPA protocols, WPAv1 and WPAv2. In WPAv1 they used a newer and more improved algorithm. “WPAv1 uses a shared key that is between 8-63 characters long and features many improvements over the WEP system, including TKIP, the Temporary Key Integrity Protocol, that prevents the major downfall of the WEP protocol by preventing the unencrypted transmission of important passkey data in the packets sent by a wireless network” (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/cog1c7rm85/Security-Wireless-Network-Improve-Security-Wireless-Network.html#ixzz2AoDs8hCp). There was also a firmware and software update and improvement for users looking to upgrade from the WEP security to the WPAv1. “TKIP uses the same underlying mechanism as WEP, and consequently is vulnerable to a number of similar attacks. The message integrity check, per-packet key hashing, broadcast key rotation, and a sequence counter discourage many attacks. The key mixing function also eliminates the WEP key recovery attacks” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporal_Key_Integrity_Protocol). TKIP stands for Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. It is basically a patch for the weakness found in WEP. The problem with the original WEP is that an attacker could recover your key after observing a relatively small amount of your traffic. TKIP addresses the problem of being able to steal a key just by packet watching or observing your traffic by automatically rotating the key or negotiating a new key every few minutes. No hacker using the same exact packet watching method as cracking a WEP key will have enough time or information to steal the key. WPAv1 was more like an interim replacement than something permanent. In September 2003, WPAv2 certification began and was completed in 2006. The issue with WPAv1 was that it still used a shared key similar to WEP, which made it very vulnerable to hacking attempts. WPAv2 introduced a newer and more improved algorithm: CCMP, an AES-based encryption with much better security. CCMP, or Counter Cipher Mode with Block Chain Message Authentication Code Protocol, was the actual permanent replacement for WEP. “AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard and is a totally separate cipher system. It is a 128-bit, 192-bit, or 256-bit block cipher and is considered the gold standard of encryption systems today. AES takes more computing power to run so small devices like Nintendo DS don’t have it, but is the most secure option you can pick for your wireless network” (http://askville.amazon.com/difference-AES-TKIP/AnswerViewer.do?requestId=7123665). With WPAv2 hacking a network becomes over less likely and your network is more secure. There are many key differences between WEP, WPAv1, and WPAv2 which include a longer bit key, cracking difficulty, and the different algorithms. A key in network security is a long sequence of bits used by encryption and decryption algorithms. The bit keys strength and effectiveness is measured by the length of its key. The WEP key length depends on encryption used. The IEEE 802.11 standard will support two types of WEP encryption, 40-bit and 128-bit. One of the weaknesses of WEP is key management because it is not specified and they tend to be long-lived and poor quality as well. “Cracking WEP is fast and easy with commonly available Windows- or Linux-based tools. The length of the WEP key, 40- or 104-bit, is practically irrelevant, and with the software tools currently available, any novice can crack WEP in minutes given enough captured data” (http://www.cwnp.com/cwnp_wifi_blog/hacking-solutions-cracking-wep-and-wpa2-psk/). WPA/WPA2 is a lot more difficult to crack than cracking WEP, but is far from impossible. “Given the right dictionary files and the latest versions of WPA cracking tools, cracking WPA/WPA2-Personal can happen in a short time if a very strong passphrase isn't used by the network administrator. The Wi-Fi Alliance suggests at least 20 characters with lower case, upper case, numbers, and special characters and use of WPA2 over WPA whenever possible” (http://www.cwnp.com/cwnp_wifi_blog/hacking-solutions-cracking-wep-and-wpa2-psk/). WPAv1 was designed to be used with the TKIP algorithm and WPAv2 was designed to use the stronger AES algorithm. Some devices allow WPAv1 with AES and WPAv2 with TKIP. TKIP is not directly comparable to AES; the TKIP algorithm is an integrity check and the AES is an encryption algorithm. TKIP is a lower end encryption protocol and AES is a higher end encryption protocol but AES is the preferred encryption protocol for the best security.
Cracking a WEP network only requires three things, software that scans for packets, being able to capture packets, and finally decrypting the packets and finding a key. There are multiple different kinds of software that can be used to scan for packets. I used to the CommView for WiFi software in this project. To analyze the packets I logged I used the software Aircrack. “Aircrack-ng is an 802.11 WEP and WPA-PSK keys cracking program that can recover keys once enough data packets have been captured. It implements the standard FMS attack along with some optimizations like KoreK attacks, as well as the all-new PTW attack, thus making the attack much faster compared to other WEP cracking tools” (http://www.aircrack-ng.org). With CommView for Wifi you can scan the air for WiFi stations and access points, capture WLAN traffic, specify WEP or WPA keys to decrypt, monitor bandwidth utilization, browse captured and decoded packets, log packets to files, and import and export packets. To capture packets, a special driver was downloaded so I would be able to scan and analyze networks. Once you are able to scan the networks, and if you want to crack a specific network you must know the SSID. An SSID, or Service Set Identifier, is just the name of a wireless local area network. Within the CommView for WiFi program you run a scan and it will show all the channels where at least one packet has been captured. When you see the SSID you want to crack you select to monitor only specifically the channel that the SSID is under. Once the correct channel network is selected, you can then begin capturing packets. As previously stated, there are multiple networks within a channel, so even though you are capturing the channel where the SSID is located, you don’t need packets from all the other SSID’s on the channel. Under the SSID’s information there is the MAC address for the network, which you can copy and under the recording tab paste the MAC address so it is set to record and capture packets only from that specific SSID. Once the data packets have begun to be captured you are on your way to cracking the WEP network key. WEP network keys do not require many packets to crack the key so if there is significant traffic on the network it sometimes will only take a few minutes to obtain enough packets. The packets that are logged must be saved to a log file so that they can be analyzed and decrypted to crack the network key. Most programs that decrypt packets and crack the network key will crack the key in hash, and you can then simply enter the key into the network. With the process being so simple to crack the code, WEP was deprecated by the Wi-Fi Alliance. When WPAv1 came out as, it was just a temporary replacement for WEP, which had already been broken. Until a few years ago, WPAv1 was believed to be secure and only being able to be broken into if your key was short. That is not so anymore, there are now three methods in cracking a WPAv1 passkey. WPAv1 is vulnerable during client association and is very susceptible to dictionary attacks against weak passphrases. Cracking a password with a dictionary attack is only successful if the password or passphrase is weak or relatively short. If you are using Aircrack, the Linux must be installed on the pc you are trying to hack from. You will need to make sure you have the ESSID of your network and the BSSID and channel. “The idea is that when a client connects to a WPA secured network, the wireless access point and client computer will "handshake" and mutually exchange a PSK (Pre Shared Key) in a 4-way exchange. If you happen to be capturing data, you can save a packet of the encrypted handshake taking place. Once you have captured this handshake, you can run an offline dictionary attack and break the key” (http://sites.google.com/site/clickdeathsquad/Home/cds-wpacrack). To run the Aircrack you will need to make sure your program has monitor mode enabled to begin to crack the WPAv1 passkey. Capturing the traffic is similar to what you would do if you are hacking a WEP network; make sure you have the correct channel to monitor and then start dumping packets. The time it takes to complete the last step will vary, but just leave the computer on and running for a while and let it just continually dump packets. Once you have a destination host or target you need to make sure you can get a “handshake” from the target. There is specific coding you must type to deauthenticate the target, but most of the coding is easy to find on Google or in books on the internet. Once you deauthenticate the target, the target will automatically re-exchange the WPA key. When the target re-exchanges the WPA key and we are monitoring the “handshake” we will have the packet we need to crack the WPA key. There are many dictionary libraries of words, dates, names, and numbers which are popular passwords which are needed to finish cracking a WPAv1 key with this method. The software I used to crack the WEP key was the same software I will use to crack the WPAv1 key. When you run the aircrack program you just need to select the packet captured and upload the dictionary file, depending on the speed of the computer will depend on how fast it is able to crack the passkey. Dictionary attack vulnerability has nothing to do with encryption type. It can also be launched against AES encryption if the passphrase is weak.
The second method of cracking a WPAv1 key does not involve using a dictionary. The attack is called the “Beck-Tews” attack. The /Beck-Tews attack’s method involves making minor changes to packets encrypted with TKIP and then sending the packets back to the access point. The vulnerability was in the way that the checksum was used. While I was never able to use the Beck-Tews attack it is said to take about 12-15 minutes to hack. “The Beck-Tews attack [3] presented in 2008 only targets the access point to client communication, retrieves the MIC Key for that direction, allowing validation of packets and injection of a very few and short new packets. Injection and decryption of packets towards the client is now possible without the previous limitation, arbitrary packets can be sent and decrypted” (http://download.aircrack-ng.org/wiki-files/doc/enhanced_tkip_michael.pdf). “The Beck-Tews attack, had several weaknesses: it only worked on WPA implementations that supported 802.11 quality of service (QOS) features, it only worked on short packets, and it took about 15 minutes” (http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2009/08/one-minute-wifi-crack-puts-further-pressure-on-wpa/).
The last and newest WPAv1 attack has led the Wi-Fi alliance to make plans to deprecate WPAv1 along with WEP. The newest attack combines the Beck-Tews attack method with the man-in-the-middle attack method, and has allowed users to hack a WPAv1 key in about a minute. A man-in-the-middle attack, or MITM, “is a form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack). “A man-in-the-middle attack can succeed only when the attacker can impersonate each endpoint to the satisfaction of the other — it is an attack on mutual authentication (or lack thereof)” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack). The newest attack does not work against systems using WPA2 but it does give hackers a much stronger method to crack WiFi networks. Also, business that rely on WPA to protect their information will definitely need to upgrade. The Wi-Fi Alliance has required since 2006 that Wi-Fi-certified products support WPA 2, a much more powerful encryption system that is not vulnerable to these attacks, but users have been slow to upgrade. Hacking a WPAv2 network is still very difficult and there is not any practical and very few ways to actually attack any AES encryption. “As our attacks are of high computational complexity, they do not threaten the practical use of AES in any way” (http://www.kotfu.net/2011/08/what-does-it-take-to-hack-aes/). It is very important to make sure your network and information is secure. Not just for your safety, but the safety of anyone using your network. “80 percent of spam e-mail messages originate from home computers! They have been secretly taken over by spammers and are known as zombie PCs. Spammers and cybercriminals can control thousands of these zombies, which together form a ‘bot network’… 95 percent of viruses are sent through email” (http://www.guard-privacy-and-online-security.com/how-do-you-stay-safe-on-the-internet.html). When information isn’t secure, data is more susceptible to being breached. There are multiple ways you can be protect from your data being breached, and a Business News Daily article had tips: “Locking and securing sensitive customer, patient or employee data, restricting employee access to sensitive data, shredding and securely disposing of customer, patient or employee data, using password protection and data encryption, having a privacy policy, updating systems and software on a regular basis, and using firewalls to control access and lock out hackers” (http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2654-prevent-data-breach.html).
There are many ways to improve your security, types of passkeys, changing passwords, anti-viruses, and staying informed. It is important to use WPAv2 using the AES encryption, because the other encryptions have all been broken and cracked. Also, make sure your passkey is long and is a bunch of random characters and symbols which will protect you against dictionary attacks. Making sure your passkey is changed on the regular basis is also important so that in the case that someone is successful, they will not be have long-term success because your key will be changed. Having an anti-virus is important because it keeps unwanted files from being downloaded to your pc and helps deter users from breaking in. Keeping an active subscription of an anti-virus program is also extremely important because viruses are designed to disrupt, and sometimes even destroy, files and programs on your computer. Having an active anti-virus keeps you protected and will help detect malicious types of network activity and will suspend it until you decide whether or not to allow it. Most anti-viruses will have firewalls, which is software that monitors, detects, and warns you of unusual traffic that passes to and from your computer via a network or the internet. You also want to make sure your anti-virus has incoming and outgoing protection, this is important because there are many ways you can contract a virus and when there is no protection for outgoing activity you can forward that virus to other users. Lastly, read current events about new technologies that are available to help keep your system up-to date. There are always new and improved security patches and updates which helps further protect your computer and network against new attacks and viruses.

Works Cited
"8 Ways to Prevent a Data Breach." BusinessNewsDaily.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2654-prevent-data-breach.html>.
"Aircrack-ng against WPA - Clickdeathsquad." Aircrack-ng against WPA - Clickdeathsquad. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://sites.google.com/site/clickdeathsquad/Home/cds-wpacrack>.
"ArsTechnica." Ars Technica. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2009/08/one-minute-wifi-crack-puts-further-pressure-on-wpa>.
"Hacking & Solutions: Cracking WEP and WPA2-PSK." CWNP. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cwnp.com/cwnp_wifi_blog/hacking-solutions-cracking-wep-and-wpa2-psk>.
"How Do You Stay Safe On The Internet?" First, Be Aware Of The Risks. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.guard-privacy-and-online-security.com/how-do-you-stay-safe-on-the-internet.html>.
"Security Wireless Network - Improve the Security of a Wireless Network." - Passkey, Wep, Wpav1, and Key. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/cog1c7rm85/Security-Wireless-Network-Improve-Security-Wireless-Network.html>.
"Temporal Key Integrity Protocol." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporal_Key_Integrity_Protocol>.
"WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)." TechFAQ WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tech-faq.com/wep-wired-equivalent-privacy.html>.
"What Does It Take to Hack AES?" Kotfunet. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.kotfu.net/2011/08/what-does-it-take-to-hack-aes>.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Difference Between Truncate and Delete

...1. What is different between TRUNCATE and DELETE? The Delete command will log the data changes in the log file where as the truncate will simply remove the data without it. Hence Data removed by Delete command can be rolled back but not the data removed by TRUNCATE. Truncate is a DDL statement whereas DELETE is a DML statement. 2. What are ORACLE PRECOMPILERS? A precompiler is a tool that allows programmers to embed SQL statements in high-level source programs like C, C++, COBOL, etc. The precompiler accepts the source program as input, translates the embedded SQL statements into standard Oracle runtime library calls, and generates a modified source program that one can compile, link, and execute in the usual way. Examples are the Pro*C Precompiler for C, Pro*Cobol for Cobol, SQLJ for Java etc. 3. What is difference between procedure and function. A function always returns a value, while a procedure does not. When you call a function you must always assign its value to a variable. 4. What are things you do to reduce patch timing ? You can take advantage of following - # Merging patches via admrgpch # Use various adpatch options like nocompiledb or nocompilejsp # Use defaults file # Staged APPL_TOP during upgrades # Increase batch size (Might result into negative ) 5. What is the purpose of a cluster? A cluster provides an optional method of storing table data. A cluster is comprised of a group of tables that share the same data blocks, which...

Words: 3117 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Wpa 2

...In April 2003, the Wi-Fi Alliance introduced an interoperable security protocol known as WiFi Protected Access (WPA), based on draft 3 of the IEEE 802.11i amendment. WPA was designed to be a replacement for WEP networks without requiring hardware replacements, using a subset IEEE 802.11i amendment. Organizations who adopt WPA can take advantage of the following features: * Strong cryptography support from the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), based on the RC4 cipher; * WPA-Enterprise, a mechanism for network authentication using IEEE 802.1x and a supported EAP type, one of EAP/TLS, TTLS or PEAP; * WPA-Personal, a mechanism for using TKIP without IEEE 802.1x authentication by using a shared passphrase, intended for consumer networks. In July 2004, the IEEE approved the full IEEE 802.11i specification, which was quickly followed by a new interoperability testing certification from the WiFi Alliance known as WPA2. WPA2 is based on the Robust Security Network (RSN) mechanism, which provided support for all of the mechanisms available in WPA, as well as: * Strong encryption and authentication support for infrastructure and ad-hoc networks (WPA is limited to infrastructure networks); * Reduced overhead in key derivation during the wireless LAN authentication exchange; * Support for opportunistic key caching to reduce the overhead in roaming between access points; * Support for pre-authentication, where a station completes the IEEE 802.1X authentication......

Words: 407 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Wep Cracking Steps

...Basic steps to get you cracking WEP (for scriptkiddies) Once you got your tools ready it is time to get cracking. Routers especially those given out by our local ISP have their default security settings set to WEP to encrypt their traffic. This can be easily cracked by aircrack-ng suite in about 5 min once you are “au fait” with the setup. For those who want to jump straight into the cracking process here are the basic steps you need to take. Step 0: Spoof MAC address Open terminal and run the command: sudo ifconfig < attacker’s wlan interface > hw ether Step 1: Gather essential background data about yourself and your target. target_router SSID -> target_router target_router MAC address -> 00:14:7F:99:EB:99 target router channel-> 6 attacker’s MAC address -> 00:0f:b5:ff:ff:f9 attacker’s wlan interface: wlan0 attacker’s monitoring interface name (spawned from wlan0): mon0 Note: Replace the above variables with your own. These were mine for my setup. Step 2: Using aircrack-ng suite to crack WEP. sudo airmon-ng start wlan0 -> spawn a monitoring interface from wlan0. sudo airodump-ng mon0 -> survey / scan for your target router. sudo airmon-ng stop mon0 -> stop the monitoring interface so that you can start it again to listen on channel 6. sudo airmon-ng start wlan0 6 -> This starts the mon0 interface listening to only channel 6 [Important step!]. sudo airodump-ng -c6 -w outputfile mon0 -> pump output to a file called......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

What Is the Difference Between a “Dashboard” and a “Scorecard”? Why Is It Important That Managers Know the Difference Between the Two? What Can They Learn from Each of Them?

...|[pic] [pic] | | | MISY 3310 Management Information Systems Section W01: Online Course; 2013 Spring Semester Instructor: Dr. Tim Klaus Office: OCNR 385 Telephone: Office: (361) 825-2379 Cell Phone: (361) 248-8495 – feel free to call Mon-Sat between 9AM-10PM (I’ll be able to receive or return your call quicker than if you call the office) E-mail: tim.klaus@tamucc.edu Office Hours: Monday 8:30-8:55 AM, 9:55-10:55 AM, 12:00-3:10 PM Wednesday 8:30-8:55 AM, 9:55-10:55 AM Other days and times by appointment Course Website (Blackboard): http://iol.tamucc.edu/ Course Materials 1. Required Text: O’Brien, James and George Marakas, Introduction to Information Systems: Essentials for the E-Business Enterprise, 16th ed., Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Print - ISBN: 0073376884 eText – ISBN: 0077506413 2. Course material through http://iol.tamucc.edu/ Optional Materials None Prerequisites MISY 2305 or equivalent and Junior standing or above. Course Description: Provides an understanding of the importance of computer-based information in the success of the firm. Illustrates ways in which companies utilize computer systems to strategically compete within certain......

Words: 2297 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

How to Protect Kids from Online Predators

...How to Protect Kids from Online Predators Child Sexual Exploitation occurs in any group of people whether it’s economic, religious, social or ethnic groups. The internet is the main source of communication in today’s society, so you need to make sure you have taken the appropriate steps to protect your children. There are three major steps that you should take to protect your children against online predators. The first thing to do is make sure your computer or laptop is in the main part of your house. Do not allow teenagers or children to have access to computers in their bedrooms. Also, make sure they do not have access to a webcam on the computer. A webcam now comes installed on most laptops and computers. It is a camera that is used to take pictures or videos of yourself while you sit in front of the computer. Today’s teenagers take a lot of pictures, and you do not want them to be on the internet. Make sure you have your children’s passwords for the social network sites such as Facebook.com and Twitter.com. This way you can monitor who they are talking to. Tell your children to never reveal personal information such as home address or phone number. Check the information that your child has written about themselves on their biographies on their social sites to make sure it is true and will not exploit them and draw predators towards them. Make sure their accounts are set to private. Do this by going to the settings section, and change it to only allow people they......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Differences Between Wine from Burgundy and That from Bordeaux

...Differences between Wine from Burgundy and that from Bordeaux These two types of wine come from France. Red wines are very popular in European countries. In the article “History of Red Wine”, Coffey discuss the history of Red Wine. In the early decades, European explorers travel around the World with their own wine because they really love red wine. Since then, the history of red wine infiltrates the history of many European countries. Today, red wines are worth in its healthiness and popularity that brings to us. In 6000BC places between Europe and Asia, are famous for the production of red wine. Grapes that used to make red wines are brewed by Egyptians and Romans and make their wine to 25 years old. The wines are shipped from the Bordeaux regions to the United Kingdom. Most of the wines made in Bordeaux are shipped to United Kingdom. Therefore, merchants from England, France and German take control of the production of red wine in the 17th century. (Coffey 2011) There are eight major types of red wine and those are Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet sauvignon, Malbec, Pinot noir, Zinfandel, Sangiovese and Barbera. Among those eight, Merlot is the most popular. Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot comes from Bordeaux. Bordeaux is located in the Gironde on the Southwest France coast. Two river the Garonne and the Dordogne hit the north of Bordeaux. Let’s discuss Bordeaux first. When discussing about Bordeaux, I may have to tell a story about this red wine. In Ancient Rome, Julius......

Words: 1242 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Could You Protect Your Eis from Unethical Users?

...Graduating from cross-sectional to longitudinal designs enables researchers to make more rigorous inferences about the causal relations implied by such models. In this transition, misconceptions and erroneous assumptions are the norm. First, we describe some of the questions that arise (and misconceptions that sometimes emerge) in longitudinal tests of mediational models. We also provide a collection of tips for structural equation modeling (SEM) of mediational processes. Finally, we suggest a series of 5 steps when using SEM to test mediational processes in longitudinal designs: testing the measurement model, testing for added components, testing for omitted paths, testing the stationarity assumption, and estimating the mediational effects. Tests of mediational models have been an integral component of research in the behavioral sciences for decades. Perhaps the prototypical example of mediation was Woodsworth’s (1928) S-O-R model, which suggested that active organismic processes are responsible for the connection between stimulus and response. Since then, propositions about mechanisms of action have pervaded the social sciences. Psychopathology theory and research are no exceptions. For example, Kanner, Coyne, Schaeffer, and Lazarus (1981) proposed that minor life events or hassles mediate the effect of major negative life events on physical and psychological illness. A second example was the proposition that norepinephrine depletion mediates the relation between......

Words: 15598 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Wireless Networks & Network Security

...Wireless Networks & Network Security ISSC 340 Professor Vijay Venkatesh James Lange 08/13/2013 Wireless Networks are somewhat new technology in comparison to the know-how that makes them possible. The knowledge regarding wireless technology goes back about 200 years. One of the first individuals deserving recognition for today’s wireless networks is a scientist, inventor and politician named Benjamin Franklin. In 1747 he had built a model that showed how electricity could move through the air unaided by any type of wiring. In the early 1750’s Mr. Franklin started experimenting with electricity and the rest is history. Franklin was under the belief that lightening was an electrical current. So with the famous kite and key experiment he proved to himself and others that he was right. His fascination with electricity led him to later experiments with an electrical tube given to him by a friend. A second individual that played a part in today’s wireless technology is Hans Christian Oersted. In 1819 he had found that a compass needle had movement if it was presented with electrical current. This relationship between the needle and the electricity is an essential part of electromagnetism. It is said that this discovery by Oersted happened completely by chance. While preparing for one of his lectures he was setting up some of his equipment. The compass and battery were in close proximity to each other and the needle moved from magnetic north whenever the switch to......

Words: 3213 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

How to Protect Wireless Networks

... How to Protect Home Wireless Network The following are methods used in ensuring home wireless networks are safe and secure from unauthorized access. Check the SSID (Service Set Identifier) if it is the default one, and change to something unique. Manufacturers give their wireless routers a preset SSID. Changing the SSID to something unique is a good practice. The default SSID will show to a hacker that a novice set the network and that the other settings such as passwords are default. Enable encryption of the wireless router. The routers often come with the encryption disabled. Use 128-bit encryption or higher to increase security. The recommended encryption scheme is WPA2 encryption. Also use longer passwords that use a combination of numbers, letters, and symbols. Enable the MAC Address Filter so that the wireless router screens MAC addresses of devices that connect to the wireless network. The wireless network can be configured in such way that it accepts a connection from wireless devices with allowed MAC addresses. Change the default access password that comes with the wireless router. The default password is for administering the router’s settings. Use a random sequence of the maximum possible character length. Firewalls protect networks from hardware-based and software-based harmful intrusion. The recommended setting is that you enable the built-in firewall of the wireless router. Turn off the setting that allows administering the router through a wireless connection...

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How to Protect Your Network from Cybersecurity

...How to Protect Your Network From Cyber Attacks There are three measures network administrators can take to avoid the types of network attacks that plagued U.S. and South Korean websites including www.whitehouse.gov, NASDAQ, NYSE, Yahoo!'s financial page and the Washington Post. The three areas to focus on are network based mitigation, host based mitigation and proactive measures. Network based mitigation * Install IDS/IPS with the ability to track floods (such as SYN, ICMP, etc.) * Install a firewall that has the ability to drop packets rather than have them reach the internal server. The nature of a web server is such that you will allow HTTP to the server from the Internet. You will need to monitor your server to know where to block traffic. * Have contact numbers for your ISP's emergency management team (or response team, or the team that is able to respond to such an event). You will need to contact them in order to prevent the attack from reaching your network's perimeter in the first place. Host based mitigation * Ensure that HTTP open sessions time out at a reasonable time. When under attack, you will want to reduce this number. * Ensure that TCP also time out at a reasonable time. * Install a host-based firewall to prevent HTTP threads from spawning for attack packets Proactive measures For those with the know-how, it would be possible to "fight back" with programs that can neutralize the threat. This method is used mostly by......

Words: 2314 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Network Design

...Pam Marshall Christopher Montgomery ITT Technical Institute Network Systems Administration Capstone Project Ryan Rucker May 17, 2015 Part 1 - Structure of WAN In this design of a high level network for ABC Company we will provide a basic written infrastructure of both the local and wide area networks we are to build for them, being such an early stage this document is subject to change. This design includes the infrastructure for the corporate headquarters located in San Francisco, as well as the other design centers in Detroit, Paris, Tokyo, and Sao Paulo. We then follow up by explaining the infrastructure of the sales offices, which may not require as high grade of equipment as the design centers depending on its requirements. Finishing with the overview of the entire wide area network, connecting each site to the corporate headquarters which is where we will begin our design. The corporate office being the main headquarters will include many services such as file, print, email, directory, and application. These services will be separated onto at least two different servers due to the constant strain we may see from directory and email services. If necessary we will implement an application server as well to run any in-house programs the company may be familiar with. We also suggest the use of a database server dedicated to storing and providing access to its information throughout the network, which would also need to maintain a backup located nearby or......

Words: 5812 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

How Protect Yourself from Hpv

... How to protect yourself from HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Speech 1A Lisseth GomezFranco Mt. SAC Outline Title: How to protect yourself from HPV (Human Papillomavirus) General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience on how to prevent themselves from acquiring HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Time: 5-7 minutes I. Introduction A. How many people in this class know what HPV is? Or have at least heard of it? B. Those of you who raised your hand to either of those questions know that Human Papillomavirus does not have a cure; but the good news is that the infection often clears on its own, if does not; the treatment is need it, there are many HPV treatment options. C. Of persons infected with mucosal HPV, 5% to 30% are infected with multiple types of the virus. D. Although we know Human Papillomavirus is one of the most common sexually-transmitted infection in the US, and one of the ones that does not have a cure, however; HPV often clears on its own, in case it does not, and there are treatments options. E. Things you need to know about HPV. What they are and their symptoms? What causes them? How to protect yourself from acquiring HPV? And what are the consequences if you don’t protect yourself? Transition***The first among of these points is what Human Papillomavirus is and what the symptoms are. II. Body A. We all know that around 80% of sexually active man and women will contract the HPV virus at some point......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How to Protect Our Kids from Viewing Inappropriate Materials

...especially too someone who spends a lot of time using the Internet. The Internet is a very useful tool that is used for everything such as advertisement, communication, shopping, researching and also for educational purpose. On the Internet, there’re some websites that needs to be censored in order to protect our children from viewing inappropriate websites that promote drug usage, violence and pornography. Parents and school officials are the first ones who need to begin the process of censoring out those inappropriate websites. The Internet is an easy way to access all sorts of information. Because the Internet has become so popular in such a short period of time, the opportunity to censor it has passed by almost as quickly as the public discovered its usefulness to our everyday lives. The Internet has some bad source of information that’s not helpful to our kids. Parents and schools officials are the ones who should start the process of censoring those websites that our kids view each and every day of their lives. Because they are ones who know what sorts of information on the Internet that is best for our kids. So that’s why, Internet censorship should be enacted to prevent teenagers from viewing inappropriate websites that promote drug usages, violence and pornography. The first reason as to why Internet censorship should be enacted is that our teenagers use websites that promote the use of drugs. Using drugs at a young stage in your life is very dangerous to......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How to Protect Our Kids from Viewing Inappropriate Materials

...Nickolas Galaviz Ms. Medina INRW 0376 M09 8 November 2015 Why Donald Trump Should Be President? Donald Trump should be president because of his political experience. Trump is a tough dealmaker and unafraid to have an honest debate even though some may not agree. Trump becoming president will be the best solution for America’s future. Donald is first and foremost an experienced businessman that established a multi-billion dollar real estate empire all by himself. He’s known as an American hustler who built all of his fortunes from the ground up. His business experience has helped him be involved with negotiations behind scenes with political candidates. Therefore, giving him key insights in different parts of the world, pursue trade agreements, and is aware of financial global competitors. Undeniably being a great negotiator, he has had experience with a variety of industries, businesses, and investors. All his life he has been dedicated to business industry, so he will manage the budget fairly well. With this being said, as president, there is a large portion of negotiating in favor of the U.S. and by applying his skills would be very helpful to this country. Trump has the confidence and personality that will work perfectly in politics, and make it less likely to let his personal power be manipulated by outsiders. Donald has experience creating jobs, which make him more aware of the problems that occur in the workforce. His views on immigration are what America......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Wireless Network Security

...Wireless Network Security Wireless networks in personal homes are becoming more and more popular. With the ease of using no wires and the signal being broadcasted throughout the house, the new printers coming out that are network ready, and along with the new gaming systems like Playstation 3 and Xbox 360 all have wireless network settings. A wireless network is the most vulnerable network out if the precautions of taking time to set up the security properly. Everyone saves personal important information on their computer systems. When there is a wireless network with the settings not set right the computer system is fair game for any, who would like to look at information stored on the computer system. Viruses are not the only thing to protect against. Outsiders or even a neighbor can easily get into a computer’s information though a wireless network. Identity theft can even get implemented with wireless security, if you have a lot of personal information. Credit card information and bank account information can all be stolen from the system and then used for evil. Not only are personal homes affected, but businesses can be too. WarDriving is a big fad among the computer ‘hackers.’ WarDriving came from the movie “WarGames” staring Matthew Broderick. In the movie he did what was called “wardialing”. Wardialing is to keep dialing numbers that would access a computer system’s modem until you find a modem and gain access. WarDriving is where someone can drive around in a......

Words: 3576 - Pages: 15