Premium Essay

The 3d Party Doctrine and Technology

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jlupo30
Words 1297
Pages 6
The Third Party Doctrine: An Unreasonable Method for Determining Unreasonable Fourth Amendment Searches in an Ever Advancing Technological World

The Fourth Amendment provides, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” Viewed through the specific lens of criminal procedure, there is a long list of jurisprudence that sought to determine the most efficient manner to balance two very important, but competing, interests: the public’s interest in preserving its privacy rights and expectations, and the government’s interest in its ability to investigate and subsequently prosecute criminals. However, the methods and rules previously established have yet to be fully tested in our ever-evolving world of technological advances. This raises the question of whether certain well-established rules, specifically the Third-Party Doctrine, are ill-suited to address modern issues. As it has been applied since 1979, and in the absence of reevaluation, the Third-Party Doctrine is likely to impede, severely, on the privacies guaranteed by the Fourth Amendment.
In order to fully understand the gravity of this predicament, the evolution of Fourth Amendment analysis must also be understood. In 1949, the Court established that the Fourth Amendment applies to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment. However, it was not until 1961 that the Court held that the exclusionary rule also applied to the states. And, in 1984, the Court explained that because the exclusionary rule was a judicially created remedy to deter Fourth Amendment violations the costs of excluding inherently trustworthy evidence…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Eisenhower Doctrine

...POL 300 – International Relations Dr. Barsegian June 3, 2012 Eisenhower “Revised” Introduction In the United States, the term "doctrine" has been applied to a particular set of presidential statements, usually consisting only of several sentences. (Micheals, 2011)Presidential doctrines have also been defined as "a grand strategy or a master set of principles and guidelines controlling policy decisions. (Micheals, 2011) Eisenhower “Man” Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890 in Denison, Texas and raised in Kansas. He was born to a poor family and attended public schools his entire life, finally graduating high school in 1909. (Dwight D Eisenhower) Inspired by the example of a friend who was going to the U.S. Naval Academy, Eisenhower won an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. (Chester J. Pach) Many have said that Eisenhower was a born leader becoming one of America’s greatest military commanders. As early as 1943 Eisenhower was mentioned as a possible presidential candidate. (Micheals, 2011) Presidents Eisenhower' began his first term in 1952 and his first task upon assuming office was to fulfill his campaign promise to end the Korean War. (Dwight D Eisenhower) Within six months of his assuming office, an armistice agreement was signed. Eisenhower instituted a new military policy for the US Armed Forces, that policy was called the "New Look". ...

Words: 2931 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Party Plates Wireless Technology Proposal

...Party Plates is growing every day. We have increased our sales with the implementation of our new collaboration software and we want to take another step, by introducing wireless technology to the business. Wireless technology is impacting the way in which business operates and provides us with excellent opportunities to exponentially grow our business. By introducing two new wireless technologies into our business that benefits all of our departments we can further streamline our systems and potentially increase sales. The introduction of iPhones to the business will allow all of our employee’s access to our database, contact lists and everything they need to get their job done in an efficient and productive manner, wherever they may be. As you know many of our sales reps travel frequently and having an iPhone will enable them to virtually work anywhere and stay in contact with head office on a regular basis. The other wireless technology that we’d like to implement is the use of a GPS system. This will enable all of our delivery drivers to find our customers easily when they are out on the road. By purchasing a GPS tracking system that monitors our company vehicles we can monitor each driver and provide our customers with up-to-date information on their delivery times and location. Also with the implementation of both of these technologies, the sales department would be able to respond to customer’s issues, create solutions outside the work environment, respond to email......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

3d Technology

...| | Home | 3D Internet | i3D Advantage | SilverStream | Partners | News | Contact | | SLCN.TV We offer 8 channels of content filmed in Second Life. Weekly live shows include fashion, business, sports, shopping and lifestyle. More information at www.slcn.tv | | empulse GmbH, Cologne, Germany Our Mission is to help our clients to be more successful. We focus on the application of modern internet concepts and technologies to realize outstanding business capabilities for medium to large companies. We offer high quality and result oriented consulting, project management and delivery services to build-up business capabilities as a combination of the right strategy, processes, people and technology.We have successfully completed over 50 projects in tourism, logistics, automotive, financial services and other business domains - the two managing directors alone have 30 years of professional services and IT experience. www.empulse.de | | SL Exchange The premier Second Life®-integrated commerce website featuring real-time shopping, real estate listings, and full-fledged currency exchange. Our core services include the Marketplace, an Auction Block, Real Estate Listings, and a Currency Exchange. To complete your SL Exchange experience, we provide a Forum for discussions and technical help, as well as Member Blogs for those who like to take a peek behind the scenes. www.slexchange.com | | Joysco Studio Joysco is a derivative word derive from the joy of......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

3d Printing Technology

...3D Printing Technology To anyone who hasn’t seen it demonstrated, 3-D printing sounds space-age, like the meals that turn up in the Jetson’s oven at the touch of a keypad. The technology is quite straightforward and is a small evolutionary step from spraying toner on paper to putting down layers of something more substantial (such as plastic resin) until the layers add up to an object. And yet, by enabling a machine to produce objects of any shape, on the spot and as needed, 3-D printing really is leading in a new era. (Barnatt, 2013) The use of 3D printing is quickly becoming a very affordable option for producing physical objects. The term ‘‘3D printing’’ covers a number of closely related technologies, all of which produce a 3-dimensional physical object from a computer model by building it up in successive layers. These technologies were developed primarily for use in rapid prototyping for industrial design; they allow a designer to convert a computer model of a prototype into a physical object quickly in comparison to most previously available technologies. (Massis, 2013) The 3D printers use standard inkjet printing technology to create parts layer-by-layer by depositing a liquid binder onto thin layers of powder. Instead of feeding paper under the print heads like a 2D printer, a 3D printer moves the print heads over a bed of powder upon which it prints the cross-sectional data sent from the 3D printer software. The 3d printing system......

Words: 1086 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

3d Printing

...3D printing economic questions and considerations Charles Hope DeVry University 3D printing economic questions and considerations Definition Three dimensional printing refers to a procedure that employs the formation of solid three dimensional objects that can take the form of any shape desired based on the designs of a digital model. In order to achieve a three dimensional print output, one is required to utilize the additive procedure that involves the use of successive material layers that are laid in arrangement such that different shapes are displayed. There have been considerations of three dimensional printing as technique of traditional machining that greatly relies on material removal through use of methods such as drilling and cutting which is part of the subtractive procedure. I) History of 3D printing technology The historical development and context of 3D printing technology Three dimensional printing has existed for over thirty years, long before it was popularized. From the 1980s this technology utilized the inclusion of a layer fused in powdered material with the combination of a laser as well as dispersion of plastic that was melted through a nozzle system and resin that was photo-cursed. Nonetheless, three dimensional printers remained expense ice and where characterized as being sluggish with inefficiencies as the industry redeveloped at a slow pace during that era (Lanzetta & Sachs, 2003). The rapid popularization and growth of three......

Words: 2939 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Food 3d Printing

...University of Applied Sciences Fulda and University of Kassel International Food Business and Consumer Studies Innovation Management for the Food Industry 3D Systems Inc. “ChefJet” first commercial 3D food printer: an innovative new product in the food industry Examiner: Prof.Dr. Tonia Ruppenthal Ing.Agr. Emilio José Martínez Pietri 02.07.1981, Valencia, Venezuela. Matriculation Number: 32253922 emiliomarpie@gmail.com Witzenhausen, 07.02.2014 Student Declaration Hereby I assure that I have completed the written test independently and without unauthorized help and have not used aids other than those cited in the written test. I have marked all places which are taken verbatim or analogously from published or unpublished writings. No part of this work has been used in another written test. The citation standard used was APA (6th edition) __________________________ ________________________________ Place, Date Signature Table of contents 1. Historical Background and their products 3 2. Types of innovation the company applies/applied 3 3. Why the ChefJet is innovative 4 4. The innovation potential of the company and the product 5 5. The factors for success 6 6. The factors for Failure 7 7. The process of innovation 7 8. Map of the innovation process 8 9. Innovation Phases 9 10. Possible barriers to innovation 9 11. Analyse the market /......

Words: 3429 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

3d Printing

...3D Printing: Manufacturing Randall Ballard, Jerry Boggs, Bol Bol, and Jiro Newton DeVry University LAS 432 Professor Lynn Wallace April 19, 2014 Table of Contents I. 3D Printing: Manufacturing – Randall, Jerry, Bol, and Jiro 4 II. How 3D Printing Works – Randall 4 a. 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing? 5 b. Commercial Manufacturing 5 III. The Historical Development and Context of the Technology – Randall 6 c. Chuck Hall 6 i. Time line. 7 d. A 3D Printer in Every Home 7 IV. How New is the Technology? – Jerry 8 e. Is it Really Printing? 8 V. The Technology’s Potential to Disrupt Industries – Jerry 9 VI. Communicating With the 3D Printer – Jerry 9 f. The Process 10 ii. The 8-step process. 10 g. Reducing the Development Time 11 VII. Economic Considerations – Jerry 11 h. Rapid Prototyping 12 i. What Is the ROI? 12 j. Manufacturing Processes 13 iii. Economies of scale. 13 k. The Level of Interest 14 iv. Digitizing creative content. 14 v. Is it your creation? 15 l. Localization vs. Outsourcing 15 VIII. The Psychological Perspective & Social Effect – Jerry 16 m. A Paradigm......

Words: 9864 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

At Will Doctrine

...Assignment 2: Employment at Will Doctrine LEG500 Legal, Ethics and Corporate Governance August 3, 2014 Referring to the Employment-At-Will doctrine, which states that both employer and employee can terminate their relationship as employee and employer for good cause, for no cause, for cause morally wrong or for no cause at all, some of these employees seems to have crossed the line that gives all the possible reason for the company to fire them (Halbert & Inguilli, 2012, pg 46). Considering that the company operates, as any at will employer it can be assessed that it has the full authority to terminate most of these employees since they have committed a breach of contract with their actions. However, even though the doctrine gives the absolute right for both stakeholders to terminate their contract for a cause or for no cause at all, there are still some limitations to the law that companies need to consider before firing an employee if they wish to minimize their liabilities and litigation costs. If there's no contract covering termination, you're free to fire an employee at any time, for any reason or for no reason at all. That law still applies today, but the "at-will" rule is subject to many limitations. For example, despite the "at-will" rule, a fired employee may claim one or more of the following grounds in a wrongful-discharge case (Steingold, 1997, para 4)). In light of this I will try to assess the actions of these employees one by one to determine the......

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Will at Doctrine

...Assignment Two: Employment-at-Will Doctrine Linda M Zaccarillo LEG500 Law, Ethics and Corporate Governance Note: This assignment is submitted on July 31, 2014 to Professor Sliben in fulfillment of a requirement for successful course completion. Assignment One: Employment-at-Will Doctrin In this paper I will be acting as a recently-hired Chief Operating Officer in a midsize company preparing for an Initial Public Offering. I will also I will analyze the emoloyment-at-will doctrine, determine if any exceptions and liabilities exist, and give a brief definition. I will also discuss Pennsylvania employement-at-will doctrine. Employment-at-Will Doctrine Employment-at-will doctrine means the common law rule that holds that whenever an employment relationship is of an indefinate duration, either party- the employer or the employee-may terminate the relationship at any time,for good cause or bad, in good faith or with malice(Halbert & Ingulli, 2012. p 46). John John is not protected by the employment-at will doctrine. The reason that I can fire him is because his interent blasting is a direct violation of company policy. There is no privacy when posting on the internet. When you post things on the interent you are posting for the whole world to see. John is not covered by any laws to protect him from being fired. There is also no way that he ccan contest the firing because he is violatiating......

Words: 1931 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Doctrine

...LII. An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes, communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S. Dear Sir, Read Dec. 23, 1763. I now send you an essay which I have found among the papers of our deceased friend Mr. Bayes, and which, in my opinion, has great merit, and well deserves to be preserved. Experimental philosophy, you will find, is nearly interested in the subject of it; and on this account there seems to be particular reason for thinking that a communication of it to the Royal Society cannot be improper. He had, you know, the honour of being a member of that illustrious Society, and was much esteemed by many as a very able mathematician. In an introduction which he has writ to this Essay, he says, that his design at first in thinking on the subject of it was, to find out a method by which we might judge concerning the probability that an event has to happen, in given circumstances, upon supposition that we know nothing concerning it but that, under the same circumstances, it has happened a certain number of times, and failed a certain other number of times. He adds, that he soon perceived that it would not be very difficult to do this, provided some rule could be found, according to which we ought to estimate the chance that the probability for the happening of an event perfectly unknown, should lie between any two named degrees of probability, antecedently to any experiments made about it; and......

Words: 14334 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

3d Printing

...Manufacturing Process From Your Living Room As many of us may know, the world we live in has been and will always continue to advance in technology. You cannot escape from the outburst in technology because of the dependency that we have created due to the lazy mentality imbedded in our brains. One advancement that is on the rise is three dimensional printing. Three dimensional printers are machines that can take a shapefile or design created in a computer-aided design software, CAD, and produce the custom designed image into a working test product. Three dimensional printing has taken manufacturing to a new level due to the ease of producing prototypes. Companies have harnessed this technology and used it to produce actual size prototypes that can be physically held and interpreted before producing. These prototypes can also benefit by being a “dummy” for creating injection molds. Indeed this technological advance is a great hype and improvement in the world of production saving time and money in the long run; however, the question is raised, can this epidemic be harnessed by everyday users in their home? There are both pros and cons to the use of three dimensional printers that need to be addressed before the decision can be made of whether this advancement is sensible or not. Nick Allen from Gizmodo.com is very strong on his article expressing the cons to the issue. On the other hand, Christopher Barnatt, from his website Explainingthefuture.com, takes more of......

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Doctrine

...UNIVERSITATEA “DUNĂREA DE JOS”, GALAȚI FACULTATEA DE ECONOMIE ȘI ADMINISTRAREA AFACERILOR SPECIALIZAREA: AFACERI INTERNAȚIONALE REFERAT LA DISCIPLINA „DOCTRINE ECONOMICE CONTEMPORANE” tEMĂ: Modelul economic creat de J. M. Keynes pentru explicarea dezechilibrelor din economia de piață contemporană tEMĂ: Modelul economic creat de J. M. Keynes pentru explicarea dezechilibrelor din economia de piață contemporană Cadru didactic coordonator: Lect. dr. Ludmila Daniela MANEA Student: Genoveva Virginia GROSU Anul III 2015 Cuprins Introducere 2 1. Modelul economic creat de J.M. Keynes 3 1.1. Caracteristicile modelului creat de Keynes 3 2. Componentele definitorii ale modelului economico-matematic al lui J. M. Keynes 4 2.1. Variabilele 4 2.1.1. Variabilele endogene 4 2.1.2. Variabile exogene 5 2.2. Relațiile dintre variabile 7 2.3. Parametrul, “multiplicatorul investițonal” (K) 8 Bibliografie 10 Introducere De-a lungul evoluţiei sale istorice, ştiinţa a căutat să analizeze fenomenele complexe cu ajutorul modelelor abstracte. Natura umană şi variaţia relaţiilor care se stabilesc într-o societate formează un câmp de cercetare întins şi pasionant, propice declanşării unor multiple controverse. Utilizarea matematicii pentru rezolvarea unor probleme economice suscită reticenţe profunde şi nejustificate. Mulţi teoreticieni sau practicieni economişti ignoră noile descoperiri din teoria matematică care le-ar putea fi utile. Pe de......

Words: 3065 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

3d Printing

...3D printing economic questions and considerations 3D printing economic questions and considerations Definition Three dimensional printing refers to a procedure that employs the formation of solid three dimensional objects that can take the form of any shape desired based on the designs of a digital model. In order to achieve a three dimensional print output, one is required to utilize the additive procedure that involves the use of successive material layers that are laid in arrangement such that different shapes are displayed. There have been considerations of three dimensional printing as technique of traditional machining that greatly relies on material removal through use of methods such as drilling and cutting which is part of the subtractive procedure. I) History of 3D printing technology The historical development and context of 3D printing technology Three dimensional printing has existed for over thirty years, long before it was popularized. From the 1980s this technology utilized the inclusion of a layer fused in powdered material with the combination of a laser as well as dispersion of plastic that was melted through a nozzle system and resin that was photo-cursed. Nonetheless, three dimensional printers remained expense ice and where characterized as being sluggish with inefficiencies as the industry redeveloped at a slow pace during that era (Lanzetta & Sachs, 2003). The rapid popularization and growth of three dimensional printing begun only after the......

Words: 2929 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

3d Printers

...3-D PRINTERS Your name Author’s note INTRODUCTION A 3D printer is a machine used to create 3D objects from digital files. The designer creates a 3D image of the object in a CAD software or scans the object using a 3D scanner then uploads the file to the 3D printer (3D Printing, n.d.). The printer then slices the object into layers which are then used to print out the object. 3D printers were initially known as rapid prototyping technology as they emerged into the manufacturing industry in the early 1980’s. Little was known about this technology but it was promising because as an additive manufacturing technique, it reduced lead time. The lead time is the time between the ordering and the getting of a product by the consumer (Definition of Lead Time and Cycle Time, 2010). This is highly reduced due to little or no machining of the component. 3D printing reduces material wastage and finishing operations on the manufactured object. This has encouraged the manufacturing sector to welcome it with open arms because it also saves on money, maximizes profits and reduces any needed man power compared to the subtractive techniques (welding, filing, drilling etc.) being employed. Printing in 3D is essential in the upcoming world. Till recently, a designer does not need to design and then manufacture the component in order to sell or present it to potential consumers. This technique has enabled creating of Open Source Hardware platforms, where an idea created in Russia can be......

Words: 1448 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Reagan Doctrine

...The Reagan Doctrine: Assisting the Overthrow of Pro-Soviet Regimes. Jonathan Burton November 2nd 2011 Strayer University POL300 Professor Popova-Nowak In April of 1978 the pro-Soviet People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew a corrupted Afghan Republic and would begin a domino effect that would culminate on September 11th 2001 in the New York skyline. Jimmy Carter had put into effect a doctrine of stating out loud that the Persian Gulf was vital to United States foreign political interest but showed no open displays of force. Behind the scenes the CIA had be involved with the movement to oust the PDPA. This forced the Russian government to send in 5,000 troops. Their aim was to place a Soviet chosen leader into power and after twelve hours of intense fighting, Barbrak Karmal was put in a plane and flown back to Moscow. This would begin a decade long occupation by the Russians and the United States got what it wanted; A Soviet Vietnam. The United States went to great lengths to supply this war against Communism and the hatred of the Soviets. China, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and others poured in money, weapons, and military advisors to aid the Mujahideen, the new name of the resistance fighters the CIA was backing. This covert operation was run out of the CIA until March of 1985. February 6th of 1985, President Ronald Reagan laid out his doctrine in the State of the Union Address. “WE must not break faith with those who are risking their lives on every......

Words: 2293 - Pages: 10