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Taruc Harvard Referencing

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Harvard
Referencing
System
Tunku Abdul Rahman College

Compiled by Dr Chook Ka Joo
Quality Assurance Department
Tunku Abdul Rahman College and Mr Johnny Chin Fui Chung
School of Social Science and Humanities
Tunku Abdul Rahman College 2010
For Internal Circulation Only

CONTENTS

Page

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1

THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES

1

REFERENCING SYSTEM

1

THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

2

CITATION IN THE TEXT

2

THE REFERENCE LIST

6

EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING

9

2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 REFERENCES

For Internal Circulation Only

TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

1.0 INTRODUCTION Referencing or citing means acknowledging the source of information and ideas you have used in your assignments (e.g. essay, report, project, research paper, etc.). This is a standard practice at all institutions of higher learning including
Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) College. This learning guide on Harvard referencing system was developed based on the following references:  Curtin University Library 2007, Harvard Referencing.
 Fisher, D & Hanstock, T 1998, Citing References.
 Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2005, Research Methods for Business
Students.
 University of Bournemouth 2005, Citing References.
 University of South Australia 2006, Referencing using the Harvard author–date system. 2.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES The following are reasons why referencing is needed:  to acknowledge debts to other writers
 to demonstrate the body/scope of knowledge upon which your research is based on
 to enable all those who read your work to locate the sources easily More importantly, by using appropriate references, you will show the breadth and quality of your assignments and avoid plagiarism. For further details on plagiarism, please refer to the TAR College guide on Avoiding Plagiarism.

3.0 REFERENCING SYSTEM The two most common types of referencing systems used are: i. Author‐date system such as the Harvard referencing system, American
Psychological Association (APA) referencing system and Modern Language
Association (MLA) referencing system ii. Numerical system such as the Chicago or Turabian, Vancouver and footnote.
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The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard referencing system for all of the Schools except the School of Social Science and Humanities, which is using the APA referencing system.

4.0 THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM In the Harvard referencing system, cited publications are referred to as citation in the text by giving the author’s family name and the year of publication, and the details are listed in the reference list at the end of the text/work (see page 9 for examples). The process of citing references consists of two inter‐related parts: i. Citing ‐ the way a writer refers from the text to the sources used in the assignment. ii. Referencing ‐ the process of creating a reference list of each source a writer has used in writing the assignment. All statements, opinions, conclusion, etc. taken from another writer’s work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised. 5.0 CITATION IN THE TEXT When writing a piece of work, you will need to refer to materials written or produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. The system that you have used to cite the sources must be consistent and accurate to enable readers to identify and locate the materials to which you have referred to.
The same set of rules should be followed every time you cite a reference. When you cite references in the text of your assignment include:  the author or editor’s family name (or organisation responsible) ‐ do NOT include given names or initials
 the year of publication
 page(s) of publication (if appropriate and where available) 5.1 In many cases, you just need to use the author’s family name and date. For example:

Many factors are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level (Saunders 2005).

OR
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5.2

5.3

Saunders (2003, p. 21) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level. In these two examples, the sentences summarise the main view expressed in an article written by Saunders. Also note that the first example highlights the information but the second example highlights or gives prominence to the author of the article. i. If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in parentheses: In a popular study, Harvey (2005) argued that we have to teach good practices… As Harvey (1992, p. 21) said, ‘good practices must be taught’ and so we… ii. If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses: A more recent study (Stevens 2002) has shown the way theory and practical work interact… Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or explain the practice (Stevens 2002).
There are cases when you need to include a page number in the parentheses. For example: Ramli (2006, p. 7) showed that 63 percent of workers was found to be affected by work­related stress. You need to include the page number when you:
i. use a direct quote from an original source ii. summarise an idea from a particular page iii. include tables, figures, charts or illustrations from other sources in your work
Use ‘p.’ when you are citing the information from a single page and ‘pp.’ when the information is cited from more than one page.
When there are four or more authors for a reference, you need to include all their names in your first in‐text citation of their work. When the same source is cited again, use ‘et al.’ (which is Latin for ‘and the others’).
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5.4

5.5

Saunders, Jones, Cooper and Steinmark (2006, p. 7) postulate that 54 percent of the students do not use proper referencing system… As a result of this,
Saunders et al. (2006) listed a few major problems that students face in doing project work.
The names of all the authors are listed in the reference list in the same order they are listed in the original reference. Personal communication such as interviews, telephone calls, video conferencing and internet chat do not provide recoverable data; therefore, they are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communication in the text citation only. Provide initials as well as the family name (full name for Asians) of the communicator and provide the exact date. Many designers do not understand the needs of the young people according to Toi (2007, pers. comm. 19 April) because... Additional Information Quotations – As a rule, if the quote is less than a line, it may be included in the body of the text in quotation marks. Summaries or paraphrases – Give the citation where it occurs naturally or at the end of the relevant piece of writing. Tables, charts, diagrams or illustrations – These should be referenced as though they were a quotation if they have been taken from a published work. If details of particular parts of a document are required, e.g. page numbers, they should be given after the year within the parentheses. Rules for citation in text for printed documents also apply to electronic documents except where pagination is absent. If an electronic document does not include pagination or an equivalent internal referencing system, the extent of the item may be indicated in terms such as the total number of lines, screens, etc., e.g. “[21 lines]” or “[approx 8 screens]”.

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5.6

Writing convention The following conventions are not prescribed by national or international standards but have been included because they are usually adhered to by the academic community.
If you are quoting a few words, the usual practice is as follows: Example A: Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003, p. 93) argued that grounded theory is best defined as ‘theory building’ compared to the assertion of Glaser and
Strauss (1967) of inductive approach to research.

Example B: Robson (2002, p. 178) defines case study as ‘a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon [current issues] …using multiple sources of evidence.’
The quotation forms part of your text and is indicated by enclosing it using either single apostrophe ‘ ’ or double apostrophe “ ”.  The … indicates word or words from the original source have been left out.  Square brackets [ ] tell your reader you have added your own words to the quotation.
 If you are quoting a longer quotation, it is a common practice for the whole quotation to be indented: “There is no doubt that Internet technology has changed and is changing the way organizations do business. Using the
Internet, companies have, for instance, (1) created knowledge bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere; (2) turned customers into collaborated partners who design, test and launch new products; (3) become virtually paperless in specific tasks such as purchasing and filling expense reports;
(4) managed logistics in real time; and (5) changed the nature of numerous work tasks throughout the organization …”
(Robbins & Coulter 2005, p. 197)

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6.0 THE REFERENCE LIST 6.1 The reference list in the Harvard referencing system:  is titled ‘References’
 is arranged alphabetically by author’s family name
 is a single list – books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged in a separate list
 includes the full details of your citation in the text
 is NOT a bibliography – you do not need to produce a bibliography for your assignments unless specifically asked to do so by your lecturer. A bibliography lists everything you may have read but did NOT use it in the course of doing the assignment while a reference list is limited to the citation in the text references used in your assignment. 6.2 Steps involved in referencing a. Note down the full details of the source including page number from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, the details included are author(s) of the book, year, title, edition, publisher and place of publication as found on the front and back of the title page. In the case of a journal article, the details included are author(s) of the article, date of publication, title of article, title of journal, volume and issue number of journal and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above, you should note the date you accessed the information and database or website address (URL). b. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document. c. Provide a reference list at the end of your assignment. 6.3 Whenever possible, elements needed for the reference list should be taken from the title page of the publication.  For place of publication, provide the city.
 If more than one town/city is listed, list the first one or the location of the publisher’s head office.
 If the town is not well known, you may add a county, region or state.
Note that in the United States of America, states are denoted by a two‐ letter code, for example ‘Hillsdale, NJ’.
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 For the publisher’s name, omit superfluous terms such as ‘Publishers’,
‘Co.’ or ‘Inc.’ but always retain the word ‘Books’ or ‘Press’.
 Where the publisher is a university and the place or the location is not included in the name of the university, do not repeat the place of publication. 6.4 Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of work you may have cited.
Underlining is an acceptable alternative to italics when references are handwritten. 6.5 The reference list is arranged alphabetically by authors’ family names.
When an item has no author (e.g. newspaper report, annual company report, brochure), it is cited by its title and sequenced in the reference list by the first significant word of the title. 6.6 The Harvard referencing system does not require the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented. 6.7 Setting out the items in a Reference List using the Harvard referencing system The main elements required for a reference are set out in this order: 6.7.1 Example of a book The main elements required for referencing a book are set out in this order: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication. Author’s family name
Year of publication
Title of the book in italics followed by a comma, followed by a comma ‐ followed by a comma ‐ upper then initial(s) no brackets case used only for the first word Cameron, SK 2002, Business student’s handbook: Learning skills for study and employment, Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Place of publication
Publisher followed followed by a full stop by a comma

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6.7.2 Example of an academic journal
The main elements required for referencing a journal article are set out in this order: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, ‘Title of article’, Title of journal, volume number, issue number, page number.
Author’s family name followed by a comma, then initial(s)

Year of publication followed by a comma ‐ no brackets

Title of the article in single inverted comma ‐ upper case for the first word only, a comma after the second inverted comma

Bilosvalavo, RL & Lynn, M 2006, ‘Mission statements in Slovene enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation’,
Management Decision, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 773‐788.

Title of the

Volume number
Issue number
Page number (pp.) of journal in italics followed by a comma followed by a comma followed by a comma the article followed by a full stop at the end

6.7.3 Example of an electronic publication
The main elements required for referencing an electronic publication are set out in this order: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of document or website, date viewed, .
Author’s family name followed by a comma, then initial(s)

Year of publication followed by a comma ‐ no brackets

Title of the article in italics, followed by a comma ‐ upper case used for first word

Potter, JB 2005, The big five personality test, viewed 11 July 2007,
.
The internet address (URL) is enclosed in with the full address and followed by a full stop

Date the document is accessed followed by a comma TAR College Harvard Referencing System

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7.0 EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING 7.1 Books Basic format for books:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication. Books
Single author

An example of citation in the text

The entry in the reference list

An important factor is… (Cameron Cameron, SS 2002, Business student’s handbook: Learning skills for study and employment, Prentice Hall, Harlow.
2002, p. 158)

Khoo (1977, p. 45) argues that…
Two or three authors Khoo, KK 1977, The western Malay states, Oxford University Press,
Kuala Lumpur.

According to Kim and Mauborgne Kim, WC & Mauborgne, R 2005, Blue ocean strategy: How to create
(2005), … uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant,
Harvard Business School, Boston.

Guelich, S, Gundavaram, S & Birznieks, G 2000, CGI programming with pel, O’Reilly, Cambridge.

Four or more authors As suggested by Sandler et al. (1995, Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ &
Hoffere, PB 1995, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, Williams & Wilkins,
p. 14) …
Baltimore.

The industry… (Leeders et al. 1996)

Leeders, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Mathews, PS,
Williams, A & Marriot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry,
Dominion, Adelaide.

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Books

An example of citation in the text

The entry in the reference list

Book with no author As shown in Networking Essential Networking essential plus, 2000, 3rd edn, Microsoft Press, Redmond.
Plus (2000), …

Book with no date This has been emphasized by Seah Seah, R n.d., Micro­computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond.
(n.d.) when… .

Electronic book Gottshalk and Solli‐sather (2006) Gottschalk, P & Solli‐saether, H 2006, Managing successful IT contend that… outsourcing relationship, viewed 30
July
2007,
.

Translated book Popularity of the novel ‘Les Enfants Cocteau, J 1961, Les enfantrs terribles, trans. R Lehmann, Penguin,
Terribles’ increased after translation London.
(Cocteau 1961).

Second edition ...Jeremy (ed. 2001) states that... or later edition of a book

Jeremy, H (ed.) 2001, Management today, 2nd edn, Century Learning,
London.

…Walpole and Evans (eds 2001) Walpole, M & Evans, C (eds) 2001, Tax administration in the 21st question whether century, 3rd edn, Prospect Media, St Leonards, New South Wales.
One volume of It has been implied (Einax 1995) Einax, J 1995, Chemometrics in environmental chemistry: Application, a multi‐volume that… vol. 2, Handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Berlin. set of books
Chapter in an edited book

Ezhar (2001) notes that…

Ezhar, T 2001, ‘Working with foreigners’, in Understanding
Malaysian workforce, eds Asma Abdullah & A Low, Malaysian
Institute of Management, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 179‐196.

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Books

An example of citation in the text

The entry in the reference list

Encyclopaedia Collins Cobuild English Dictionary No entry is required in the reference list because you have the name or dictionary ‐ (1995) defines ethics as… and date of the dictionary as an in‐text citation. with no author
Encyclopaedia Hawkins (1997, p. 128) defines ethics Hawkins, JG 1995, Kamus dwibahasa Oxford Fajar, 2nd edn, Fajar or dictionary ‐ as…
Bakti, Kuala Lumpur, p.128. with author

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7.2

Journal articles
Basic format for journal articles:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, ‘Title of article’, Title of journal, volume number, issue number, page no.

Journal

The entry in the reference list

An example of citation in the text

Single author

Ho (2007, p. 2) argues tha …

Ho, S 2007. ‘Knowledge sharing ‐ a fear factor’, Malaysian
Management Review, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 1‐22.

Two or three authors Bilosvalavo and Lynn (2006, p. Bilosvalavo, R & Lynn, M 2006, ‘Mission statements in Slovene
774) acknowledge… enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation’,
Management Decision, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 773‐788.

The impact of IT… (Li & Clifford Li, G & Clifford, N 2007, ‘When a talking computer agent is half human and half humanoid’, Human Communication Research, vol. 33, no. 2,
2007, p. 163). pp. 163‐193.
More than four authors 2nd citation onwards
George et al. (2007) claim that…

George, B, Sims, P, Mclean, AN & Mayer, D 2007, ‘Discovering your authentic leadership’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 129‐
138.

Journal article with It is a growing problem in the UK ‘Anorexia nervosa’ 1969, British Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. no author
(‘Anorexia Nervosa’ p. 530)…
529‐536.
Journal article from …and this has been established by an electronic
Eisend and Schucherta (2006). journal using electronic database

Eisend, M & Schucherta, P 2006, ‘Explaining counterfeit purchases: A review and preview’, Academy of Marketing Service, vol. 2006, no. 2, viewed 31
July
2007,
.

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7.3

Electronic publications
Basic format for electronic publications:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year date, Title of document or website, date viewed, .

Electronic publications An example of citation in the text

The entry in the reference list

A World Wide Web The result of the test can… (Potter Potter, J 2005, The big five personality test, viewed 11 July 2007, site 2005).
.
Document on
World Wide Web with no author

Harvard referencing is a format of Wikipedia 2007, ‘Harvard referencing’, viewed 23 July 2007,
… (Wikipedia 2007).
.

Electronic book

Holland (2004) maintains that…

Holland, M 2004, Guide to citing internet sources, 2nd edn, updated 2
November
2005, viewed 10
July
2007,
.

Electronic thesis

Crain (2000) postulates that…

Crain, J 2000, ‘The effects of a formal induction program on newly hired teachers’ perceptions on self‐efficacy’, Department of Teaching and
Leadership, PhD thesis, University of Kansas, viewed 30 July 2007, UMI
Proquest
Dissertation
ATT990068,
.

Media releases on the World Wide
Web

Ong (2007) notes that sustainable Ong, KT (Minister of Housing and Local Government) 2007, Sustainable living… living in Malaysia, media release, 16 June, Ministry of Housing and Local
Government,
Kuala
Lumpur,
viewed
30
July
2007,
.
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Electronic publications An example of citation in the text

The entry in the reference list

Discussion lists or newsgroups Marsh (2007) postulates that…

Email

Amir confirmed this by email on 1 Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal
July 2007… email messages are not included in a reference list.

Computer programme A programme was developed… MathWorks 2001, MATLAB, ver. 6, computer programme, The
(MathWorks 2001).
MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA.

Marsh, A 2007, ‘Time management’, list server,
28 March, Google Recreational Gardens, viewed 30 July 2007,
.

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7.4

Special publications and materials
Basic format:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of item, description of item, Publisher, Place of publication.

Special publications
An example of citation in the text and materials

The entry in the reference list

Conference paper

It has been shown (Chang 2003) Chang, CC 2003, ‘Malaysia’s outline perspective plan towards that… prosperity in the trend of globalisation’, in Proceedings of the Seventh
World Chinese Entrepreneurs Convention, 21‐26 July 2003, Sunway Resort, Petaling Jaya, The Associated Chinese Chambers of
Chang (2003) contends that…
Commerce and Industry of Malaysia, ACCIM, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 28‐
38.

Newspaper article with author

As Fernandez (2007) notes in his Fernandez, T 2007, ‘I didn’t make any threats: Kayveas’, Sun 31 July, articles, …
p. 2.
Note: ‘The’ in the English language newspaper titles is omitted.

Newspaper article with no author

…in the Sun (31 July 2007, p. 3).

Sun 2007, ‘Master plan boost for northern corridor’, 31 July, p. 3.

Publication from a corporate body

The plans include… (UNESCO
1995).

UNESCO 1995, General information programme and UNISIST,
UNESCO, Paris.

Genting Berhad 2007, Genting Berhad annual report 2006, Genting
Berhad, Kuala Lumpur.
Government article

The strategic approaches include…
(Ministry of Agriculture 1998).

Ministry of Agriculture 1998, The third national agriculture policy,
Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur.

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Special publications
An example of citation in the text and materials

The entry in the reference list

Patent

Tadayuki, Kazuhsia and Atushi Tadayuki, O, Kazuhsia, Y & Atsushi, N 1999, Hard butter composition
(1999) show that… and its production, Japanese Patent 99‐78710.

Video or television recording The process involves three stages… Mild steel with low current 1987, video recording, MIG Welding
(Mild steel with low curren, 1987).
Institute, Cambridge, 5 January.

Pamphlet or brochure TAR College’s philosophy is… (TAR TAR College Prospectus 2007/2008 2007, Tunku Abdul Rahman
College Prospectus 2007/2008 College, Kuala Lumpur.
2007).

Audio cassette

The original broadcast (War of the War of the worlds 1999, Mercury Theatre on the air, audio CD, Radio
Worlds 1999) in 1938 is said to Spirits, ASIN: B00002R145. have caused mass panic amongst listeners. CD ROMs and DVDs

Hawkings (1994) states that…

Standard

The standards set by SIRIM (2003) SIRIM 2003, Code of practices for access of disabled persons outside states that … buildings (MS13311:2003), SIRIM Berhad, Shah Alam:

Personal communication It has been confirmed by Seow Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal
(2007, pers. comm. 10 July) that email messages are not included in a reference list. this practice….

Thesis

Lee (1995) recommends that …

Hawking, SW 1994, A brief history of time: An interactive adventure,
CD‐ROM, London, Crunch Media.

Lee, CW 1995, ‘Characteristics of rubber products for mining applications’, Unpublished final year advanced diploma project,
Tunku Abdul Rahman College.

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Special publications
An example of citation in the text and materials

The entry in the reference list

Document on microfiche Ball, Lee, Phan and Ra (2001) Ball, K, Lee, YH, Phan, O & Ra, YS 2001, Adult retraining and reskilling suggest that… in Australia and South Korea, microfiche, National Centre for
Vocational Education Research, Leabrook, Australia, Korea Research
Institute for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul, ED451368.

Acts of Parliament

The Service Tax (Amendments) Service Tax (Amendments) 2002.
(2000) states that … Industrial Relations Act 1967.

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7.5

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Here are some of the FAQs on referencing. Question 1
If I read a book or a journal article by one author (Author 1) and he mentions an idea by another author (Author 2), whose idea do I refer to? How do I reference that? You must mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your in‐text citations; and in your reference list, you only need to list the item you have read, that is Author 1. For example, if you read about an idea by Lim (Author 2) in a book by
Saunders (Author 1), you need to mention both the authors in your in‐text citations. Your in‐text citations would appear as: or Lim (Saunders 2003, p. 71) states that …
Lim’s study (cited in Saunders 2003, p. 71) indicates that … or
Saunders (2003, p. 71), in reporting Lim’s study, emphasized the aspect …
In the reference list, you list only Saunders’ (the source you read) and not
Lim’s (whose idea you only read about in Saunders’).
Question 2
How do I cite the authors’ names if they have the same family name in the reference list? How do I show in my in­text reference which idea belongs to which author? You distinguish between the two authors in your assignment by adding their initials to the in‐text reference (which usually only has the family name and date). For example:
The theory was first suggested in 1970 (Johnson, HT 1971) but since then, many researchers, including DE Johnson (2001), have rejected the idea.
Question 3
How do I cite an author who has written more than one work in the same year? How do I show which idea comes from which reference? You put a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the year or date and keep these letters in your reference list as well. TAR College Harvard Referencing System

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For example:
In a recent publication, Bart (2004b) argued that mission statements of most organization are underutilised and most organization had jumped on the bandwagon of creating mission statements without knowing the true purpose of the statement (Bart 2004a).

The order of sequence in which you attach the letters is based on the alphabetical order of the title of the work by the author.

Question 4
How do I cite information from my lectures, tutorials or study guides? You do NOT cite your lectures, tutorials or study guides as sources unless your lecturer has particularly said this is acceptable. This is because lectures, tutorials and study guides are intended to give you an introduction to a topic. In assignments where you undertake research, you are expected to read widely and identify for yourself the main ideas that are relevant from various sources. In addition, oral communication is not generally referenced. Your lecturers and tutors do not reference their comments. If you cite them as your source of an idea, it could be inaccurate, possibly even plagiarism, because the lecturers might be referring to someone else’s idea, not one of their own.

Question 5
What if I cannot find the author or a date in a website?  When there is no name on a webpage, look for a sponsoring body like an organisation or a government department responsible for the information.  Where there is no sponsoring body, use the title of the article or document on the screen as the ‘author’.
 Where there is no date, use ‘n.d.’ (no date). If a resource has no author and no date, you need to consider whether it is a suitable source for academic work, as your work will suffer from lack of credibility. Question 6
How do I reference a graph or a figure that I copy or adapt? A basic principle of Harvard referencing is providing the author and date as an in‐text reference. This also applies when you use other people’s

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pictures, graphs or figures. You also need to make it clear if you have adapted the picture or graph for your own purposes. For example:

The Process

(AACSB 2006, p. 6)

Question 7
How do I cite Malaysian or Asian names? You will need to be aware of the various ways to cite Asian names. For
Chinese and Japanese names, use the writers’ family names when you are citing them in your text. As for your reference list, put the writers’ family names first followed by their initials. For example:
Full name

In­text
Reference List citation Chinese Name Sheng (2003) Sheng, YL 2003, The Chinese
Sheng Ye Lin dilemma, East West Ltd, New South Wales.
Japanese
Kimbara
Kimbara, T 2007, The digital
Name
(2007) collapse, Penguin, London.
Tatsyo

Kimbara TAR College Harvard Referencing System

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However, for Malay and Indian names, use the writers’ full names in both the in‐text citation and reference list.
For example:
Full name
Malay Name
Mahathir
Mohammad
Indian Name
Bala
Ramasamy

In­text citation Mahathir
Mohammad
(1982) Bala
Ramasamy
(2004)

Reference List
Mahathir Mohammad 1982, The
Malay
dilemma,
Federal
Publications, Petaling Jaya.
Bala Ramasamy 2003, ‘FDI and uncertainty: The Malaysian case study’, Journal of Asia Pacific
Economy, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 75‐79.

For names of other Asian writers such as Thai names, Cambodian names, etc., you need to find out how other writers within your academic world cite these names. Always refer to current journals or publications to see how these Asian names are cited. If you are still unsure about this, refer to various referencing guides which are available online. Question 8
In the reference list, do I separate the various sources of references that I have used in my in­text citations? All references that you have referred to in your assignment or project should be arranged in alphabetical order in one list with NO separation of the sources into categories like books, journals, etc.

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REFERENCES

Curtin University Library 2007, Harvard referencing, viewed 4 July 2007,
.

Fisher, D & Hanstock, T 1998, Citing references, Balckwell’s Bookshops,
Nottingham.

Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2005, Research methods for business students, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall, Harlow. University of Bournemouth 2005, Citing references, viewed 4 July 2007,
.

University of South Australia 2006, Referencing using the Harvard author­date system, viewed 4 July 2007, .

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...Harvard Referencing Style BOOKS IN-TEXT EXAMPLE REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE NOTES Single author whose name occurs naturally in the sentence In a popular study, Kadolph (2007) explained how different fibres react when approaching a flame. OR Kadolph, S.J. (2007) Textiles, 10th edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Two books by the same author in the same year 2 authors As Kadolph (2007: 34) states, ‘During a burn test, cotton does not fuse or shrink from the flame’. According to Napier (1993b), a surprising number of sailors are unable to swim. Swales and Feak (2004) explore the types of essay organisation and characteristic functions. Napier, A. (1993a) Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b) Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Swales, J. and Feak, C. (2004) Academic Writing for Graduate Students. 2nd edition, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991) Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business. 3 authors Fisher, Ury and Patton (1994: 36) suggest that when emotional issues cloud negotiation, ‘some thoughts are best left unsaid.’ OR ‘When anger and misperception are high, some thoughts are best left said.’ (Fisher, Ury and Patton, 1991: 36). Reference list: state the edition if not the first. In-text: put the page number for a direct quotation. Single inverted commas ‘’ are now preferred. Note the letters a and b to differentiate......

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...Page 1 Department of Lifelong Learning: Study Skills Series Referencing - The Harvard System (Download pdf version) Introduction As a student, it is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author. The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system. At the Department of Lifelong Learning you are required to use the Harvard referencing system. The following guide tells you why you need to use a referencing system, shows you how to insert references in the text of your assignments, and shows you how to compile a reference list. While there are many variations on the ‘Harvard’ system, the one presented in this guide is the most simple. It does away with most usages of ‘p’ and ‘pp’ to signify page numbers and it replaces some of the commas with colons. Also, this guide is by no means an exhaustive list of all the referencing conventions that you will require in your academic life. Why you should use a referencing system As a part of an academic community, it is important that you show the reader where you have used someone else’s ideas or words. Failure to properly reference using the Harvard system may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone else’s work as your own. In the academic environment, we call this plagiarism and it is seen as a very serious offence. Please remember that plagiarism is not just when you directly copy words from......

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...A Guide to Harvard Referencing The following is a guide to writing references in essays and reports. There are several different ways of writing references according to whether they come from a book, edited book or journal article. What is the Harvard System of Referencing? Harvard referencing is a system of in–text referencing which is used by academics and others to illustrate ideas, concepts, theories and arguments by drawing attention to supporting published evidence both in the text of any essay or report and at the end in a references section. 1 How to write references in the text of an essay/report Examples of Text: Benson, Roberts and Smith (1993) have suggested that there is a relationship between academic excellence and shoe size. They have argued that a student with large feet has the capacity to learn more in a lecture than a student with small feet. Support for this theory has come from Dawson (1976) and Franks and Miller (1991) who have found that men who wear size 8–10 shoes tend to score three points higher on Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) tests than men with shoe size ranges from 5–7. However, research suggests that women obtain a higher I.Q. score if their shoe size ranges from 3–4 in comparison to those with shoe sizes ranging from 5–7 (Bunion and Foot 1987). Despite such gender differences, Benson et al. believe that the relationship between I.Q. and foot size only occurs in industrialised societies and so “we should consider why foot......

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...Department of Library Services www.library.dmu.ac.uk The Harvard system of referencing Contents 1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plagiarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citation styles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collecting and organising references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. Citations in the text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference List/Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 3.1 References – Books (including electronic books) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 References – other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journal articles (including electronic journals)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers (including electronic newspapers)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......

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...2010 Edition 1 A GUIDE TO REFERENCING with examples in the Harvard style A GUIDE TO REFERENCING with examples in the Harvard style RMIT International University Vietnam 2010 Edition 1 Learning Skills Unit RMIT International University Vietnam 702 Nguyen Van Linh Blvd. District 7, HCMC, Vietnam Tel: +84 8 3776 1300 Fax: +84 8 3776 1399 Website: www.rmit.edu.vn Acknowledgements The following RMIT Vietnam lecturers and staff assisted with this project: Christopher Barker Christopher Leute David Feliz Dominic Mahon Robert Hollenbeck Oanh, Pham Thi Hoang Tin, Nguyen Minh Tri Thuy, Le Mong Thank you very much for giving so generously of your time. Robyn Keech Coordinator, Learning Skills Unit February 2010 A softcopy of this referencing guide is available on Blackboard. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..…………….… 5 I. Which referencing style should I use?........................................................................... 5 II. Why must I cite and reference my sources?.................................................................. 5 III. What is plagiarism?........................................................................................................ 5 IV. Is there plagiarism in sources on the Internet?.............................................................. 6 V. What is paraphrasing?................................................................................................... 6 VI. What is summarising?........

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...University of Abertay Dundee Guide to Harvard Referencing 2009 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 What is Harvard referencing? .............................................................................. 4 What is the difference between a bibliography and a list of references? ........ 5 What is a bibliography? .................................................................................... 5 What is the reference list? ................................................................................ 5 Citing references in-text ....................................................................................... 6 How do I cite references in-text? ..................................................................... 6 General advice on in-text citation .................................................................... 6 Quoting directly from the book, journal or website ....................................... 7 Paraphrasing (rewriting what has been said in the book, journal or website) .............................................................................................................. 7 General advice on the reference list (and bibliography) ................................... 8 Referencing books ................................................................................................ 9 What information do I need to include? ................................

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...Harvard referencing: a guide for SoM students Introduction Academic work demands that you consider the work of other writers and researchers. To use their work without acknowledgement is to steal the ideas of other people and is called plagiarism. You should acknowledge the sources which have informed your work by citing them in the text of your work, and referencing them at the end of your essay, project report, dissertation or thesis. Otherwise, you run the risk of being accused of academic misconduct. There are several widely used methods for writing references. The School of Management uses the Harvard system. If you do not use this method properly you will lose marks. What sources of information should I be reading? Before you use any document, you should consider the quality of the information it provides. Articles published in refereed academic journals are the most authoritative, because they have been through a thorough checking process known as peer review. Books may not have been checked so rigorously by their publishers. Articles in newspapers and trade magazines are not checked as carefully as those in refereed academic journals so may not be as reliable. And information found on the Internet needs to be treated with caution, as anyone can put material there, accurate or otherwise! How do I put a citation in my text? To avoid being accused of plagiarism, you need to put a citation in the text you are writing whenever you mention another person’s work.......

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...Referencing - The Harvard System Introduction As a student, it is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author.  The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system.  Within the Business School you are required to use the Harvard referencing system. This guide therefore describes the Harvard referencing style, which uses an ‘alphabetical-by-author’ approach. What is referencing? It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and carried out appropriate reading. Equally, referencing is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to other authors in your own work. There are many styles that can be used to reference. Why you should use a referencing system As a part of an academic community, it is important that you show the reader where you have used someone else’s ideas or words.  Failure to properly reference using the Harvard system may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone else’s work as your own.  In the academic environment, we call this plagiarism and it is seen as a very serious offence.  Please remember that plagiarism is not just when you directly copy words from another student’s or expert’s work.  Plagiarism also occurs when you re-word someone else’s ideas in your own work and you do not give credit to the original......

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...L3 Language Literacies Learning Harvard referencing guide UniSA This guide will help you apply the Harvard referencing style to your writing at UniSA. It is designed to help you understand the conventions and principles of this style and make decisions about referencing. There are many different versions of the Harvard style. This guide presents one consistent version for use at UniSA, which conforms to the Australian Government standard guidelines presented in Snooks & Co (eds) 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, Wiley & Sons, Australia. Table of contents What is referencing? ......................................................................................................................... 2 How do we reference? ...................................................................................................................... 3 Sample extract from an essay ............................................................................................................ 5 What if your source does not match? ................................................................................................ 7 Harvard referencing UniSA examples ................................................................................................. 8 Print ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Book ..............................................

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...An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre Academic Communication The Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style (author-date) is based on Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual: for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. This document can be found on CQUniversity’s referencing Web site at http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing (click on Harvard). Other information about academic writing is available via the Academic Learning Centre’s Moodle site. Maintained by Academic Learning Services Unit Edition T1 2014 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic Table of Contents Why reference/cite? .....................................................................................................1 How to reference ..........................................................................................................1 In-text references.....................................................................................

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...arvInformation Services Academic Skills Know-how Harvard Reference examples The Harvard referencing system is the most frequently used style at Staffordshire and is also known as the Author-Date style. It emphasises the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your piece of work. Some Faculties or subject areas use a different style of referencing, so you should check your module handbook for confirmation of what style is required by your tutor for a particular assignment. This guide provides examples of how a wide range of information sources should be referenced according to the Harvard style, including the order of the elements and punctuation used. For each source there are examples of how to cite within the text and how to write your list of references. If you cannot find the type of information you wish to reference included in this document please contact us at ask@staffs.ac.uk. Punctuation when using Harvard Punctuation can vary when using Harvard. Hence you might find that some Harvard references will have complete full stops after each part of the reference and some may not. The generally accepted rule when using Harvard is to be consistent with your style and use of punctuation throughout your assignment. References used: Harvard formats used in this document have been based on the following texts which can be found in the Library: BRITISH STANDARDS......

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Harvard Referencing

...Harvard Referencing There are 2 stages, these include: 1) Citing – What you do in the text of your essay e.g. highlighting words you’ve incorporated from someone else’s work 2) Referencing – All the details of the source of information you’ve used at the end of your work in a separate section For both directly copying, and changing an idea into your own words, you need to indicate the source of information in brackets at the end of your sentence. For a direct quote, these brackets must contain 3 pieces of information: * The authors name * The year their work was published * The page number i.e (Kovmi, 2009, p.5) For an indirect quote (changed into your own words), you just need to include the authors name and year of publication. The reference section at the end of your work must include all the information of the source of information. Each source of information in your reference section should always start with the same information as the citation in your essay. When writing your reference section, ensure you order it alphabetically by the author’s names. Referencing a book The order of information for referencing a book is: 1) Author/s/Editor 2) Year of publication in round brackets 3) Title in italics 4) Edition (if relevant i.e. not the first edition) 5) Place of publication: publisher 6) Series and volume number (if relevant) For example: Pears, Richard, and Shields, Graham. (2010) Cite the right: the essential......

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...1.1 Introduction to Referencing Referencing is the process of recording details of the secondary sources (books, journal articles, electronic sources etc) you refer to in a piece of work. You need to acknowledge these sources for two reasons – • firstly to protect yourself against any accusations of plagiarism. The University of Hertfordshire’s UPR 17-1 defines plagiarism as “ the representation of another person's work as the candidate's own, either by extensive unacknowledged quotation or paraphrasing or by direct copying of another person's work” • secondly to allow you and whoever is assessing your work to be able to easily trace the original source if need be. You need to refer to your sources in two places- • in the body of your work • in the list of references at the end. What follows shows you how to do this for various types of material: books, journals and electronic resources, preceded by a section on how to deal with quotes. The Harvard system of referencing is used for printed sources. At present, this does not cover electronic sources, but we will be using a commonly used set of guidelines for the latter. Please read through the handout, and try the practical exercises in Parts 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 1.2 Using Quotations The following guidance on using quotations applies to all forms of material – books, journals and electronic items. It is appropriate to use quotations to support or illustrate points you wish to make in your assessed work...

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...Harvard Referencing 2007 Note: this page is only an introduction to the Harvard referencing system. Curtin University Library provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual: For authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, n.p. For referencing electronic sources, refer to the American Psychological Association's Publication manual: American Psychological Association 2001, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC. Note: A modified APA style is used for electronic sources to fit in with the Harvard referencing style provided by Curtin University Library as the Style manual does not cover this area fully. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above publications. It is very important that you check your department or school's assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements. What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the......

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