Free Essay

“Surrealist Artists, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso Were Clearly Influenced by Their Experiences of the Spanish Civil War” to What Extent Is This Statement Accurate?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By mdlnkly
Words 2063
Pages 9
“Surrealist artists, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso were clearly influenced by their experiences of the Spanish Civil War” To what extent is this statement accurate? The rise of a revolution in 1930 Spain provoked artistic nightmarish visions in many European artists. Individual Surrealist artists responded differently, some abandoned peaceful propaganda for weapons and violence, while others, like Joan Miró, involved their artistic innovation directly in the service of the war efforts. However, artistic expressionism was the main forum by which Surrealist artists such as Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso expressed their opinions and depictions regarding the Spanish Civil War. The artists explored diverse views of fascism, death, despair, desire and hope through intricately detailed paintings heavily influenced by the war.

1930s Spain was deeply politically divided between the Nationalist and the Republicans. Generals Franco and Sanjujo led the Nationalists, right wing, with the support of the cities of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia. Whereas the Republican parties, left wing, led by Azana were supported by the cities of Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos. Nationalists embodied monarchists, landowners, employers, the Roman Catholic Church and the army, whereas Republicans consisted of the workers, trade union, socialists and the peasantry. The Great Depression took a heavy economic toll on Spain causing the collapse of the military dictatorship in 1929 that had ruled the country since 1923. As a result, the King abdicated in 1931 after the Republicans came to power. The country’s divisions grew and became so threateningly unstable that the army rebelled against the Republicans in 1936, forcibly removing them from power, evolving into the Spanish Civil War, lasting for three years, until 1939. Deep ideological confrontations of the war resulted in harsh loyalty of all participants towards their supporting parties and the loss of many Spanish lives inspired various Surrealist artists of the time. The Surrealist Movement was officially founded in 1924 after World War I when André Breton published his “Manifesto of Surrealism” as a reaction to Dadaism, with Dadaism “itself [being] a reaction to ‘logic’ that Dadaists believed had caused the war”. Surrealism, however, was dedicated to the expression of the imagination, relying on the flexibility of dream-like images, free of conscious control of reasoning and rule. Surrealism was the first movement in the twentieth century to envision political, philosophical and aesthetics through the idea of a coherent combination of the Freudian theory with Marxist theory, depicting that pictures might, as Theodor Adorno suggests “embody [society’s] contradictions, pure and uncompromised, in [their] innermost structure” as a “fore of protest.” The artistic techniques and freedom of Surrealism allowed artists within the movement to consider the irrationality of human suffering and the act of coping of such human tragedy brought upon by the war. The artists portrayed their vision of political ideologies and illusions, social idealism and military take on modern warfare. As Surrealism’s primary concern was artistic and literary expressionism as a mode through which revolutionary social change could be affected there was little involvement or interest in the intricacies of Spanish politics by the Surrealist Movement until the outbreak of the war in July 1936. The artists responded by publishing several frantic tracts calling upon the French to support the Republicans against General Franco. Due to geographical placement of Spain, neither Germany nor Italy wanted Spain to become a ‘Soviet-backed stronghold’. The opposing force, the Republicans, feared that if Spain came under the Nationalist’s control then the country would become an important ally for the two countries in future conflict. Furthermore, with the rise of fascism, if Spain adopted the ‘Fascist creed’, it would strengthen the message that the ‘Fascists were a power to be reckoned with’. With the threat of the ever expanse of Communist countries, Hitler and Mussolini - Italy's Fascist leader sent thousands of their troops, estimated to 50 000 volunteers from Mussolini’s Italy, and the Condor Legion from the Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force, to Spain in order to aide the Nationalists in their battle. Whereas the Republican’s received assistance from Russia as Stalin sent advisers and technicians and an International Brigade of volunteers from various countries. However, due to Mussolini’s military assistance, the Nationalists held an advantage over the Republicans, who relied on genuine volunteers that had minimal to no military training. As a result, the Nationalists held a greater sense of power, enduring until the conclusion of 1936 with 50% of Spain under military control. Their power continued as they ceased Bilbao in 1937 and Catalan in 1938. By 1939 the Republican resistance all but collapsed, as Russia withdrew their support. Barcelona fell in January 1939 and Valencia and Madrid surrendered in March 1939. The Republicans surrendered on April 1st 1939, concluding with a death toll estimated at 500 000 lives, however official figures showed the casualty rate to be as high as 1 000 000. With the rise of the Nationalists Hitler’s position in Europe strengthened as General Franco, dictator of Spain became a potential ally. Furthermore, the participation and co-operation of both Italy and Germany in the Spanish Civil War strengthened their bond and resulted in the formation of the Rome-Berlin Axis. Joan Miró was influenced to express his resulting emotions from these events inspiring him to create detailed paintings of the war, such as the mural The Reaper (fig. 1).

Surrealist artist Joan Miró originally ignored the increasingly polarized political and social factioning in Spain. However in 1937, Miró, 1893 Spanish born artist, was heavily influenced by the political issues involved in the Spanish Civil War and accepted the commission for the mural. In the early summer he erected scaffolding against the only space in the Pavilion large enough to accommodate his planned painting The Reaper. Historian Robin Greeley reports that the Pavilion was “a version of Spain ideologically in tune with Republican views on the Spanish Civil War: a united people battling against the invading fascist forces to defend freedom, social justice, and material prosperity.” The mural in collaboration with the Pavilion introduced Spain to a largely foreign audience through a deliberate evocation of Catalan nationalism (Catalanisme) meant to coincide with the political aims of Republican Spain and its popular front government. The symbolism of the mural, the inclusion of the Spanish Pavilion, and the fact that Miró claimed that “when [he] painted it during the Civil War, [he] wanted to represent the revolt of the Catalan peasants” depicts that he intended The Reaper as a heroic call to defend his homeland (Catalonia) and Spain as a whole against the fascist forces. The Spanish Civil War significantly influenced Surrealist artist Salvador Dalí to create gruesomely detailed artwork depicting the unique horrors of the war. Dalí, the famously multitalented artist born in 1904, known for his unique involvement in the Surrealist Movement, and unlike many surrealists, refused to conform to either status of becoming a “Stalinist or Hitlerite”; he remained, as he describes a “Dalinain”. He claimed to believe in neither the Nationalists-socialist revolution, nor any kind of revolution, believing only in the “supreme reality of tradition.” However, Dalí did turn his attention to the social and political tragedy that consumed his homeland. Painted only a few months prior to the outbreak of the Civil War Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War (fig. 2) Dalí presents his awareness of the mounting tensions in Spain between left and right. The painting displays a monstrous, decaying figure looming over the Spanish landscape. The figure is soiled in, as Greeley articulates, scabrous mutilation and smooth limp fleshiness that characterised his concept of revolution. Dalí believed that his grotesquely savage image of Spain clawing itself to pieces prophetically foreshadowed the correlative killings and inhumane brutality committed by both of the opposing sides as he later stated, "The Spanish corpse was soon to let the world know what its guts smelled like." The contrasting ideologies in Spain effected Dalí’s position within the Surrealist Movement. Due to his refusal of conformity to take a political stand against fascism, the commercialisation of his talent and his obscene obsession with Hitler caused by his involvement in the Spanish Civil War recognised in several of his works, namely The Enigma of Hitler (fig. 3), Dalí was expelled from the movement. Ultimately, the influence of the Civil War saw the end of Dalí’s involvement within the Surrealist Movement. In April 1937, Guernica was deliberately targeted for aerial bombing by the German Air force. Guernica was the ancient capital of the Basques, a group who had withstood the advances of the army since the beginning of the war. The city came under attack as punishment for their resilience against Franco’s advances. Franco’s Nationalists were weak in terms of the air force, however, with the development of Luftwaffe, Nazi Germany was eager to help Franco and inturn test its developing Luftwaffe. Guernica was chosen due to its great importance to the Basques, and the bombing would send a clear message of military power of the Nationalists to the Republicans. For over three hours Germany’s bombers, accompanied by approximately twenty more Messerschmitt and Fiat Fighters dropped 100 000 pounds of high-explosive and flammable bombs on the village, slowly and systematically destroying the town. Greatly affected and influenced by the bombing Pablo Picasso, a famous Italian artist, painted one of his most distinguished artworks - Guernica (fig. 4). Although Picasso was not of Spanish heritage, his painting, Guernica’s brutal portrayal of the war presents how not only Spanish born Surrealist artists were significantly influenced by the war, but also many international artists who were involved in the Surrealist Movement. The painting was a result of his own infuriation towards the bombing of Guernica in Spain by German and Italian fighter planes, and has come to stand for its statement of the specific horrors of the war and for the catastrophe of warfare. Through the haunting imagery of destruction and turmoil Picasso allowed the painting to go on a brief world tour to ensure that people across the globe would be aware of the horrendous act being carried out in Spain. Picasso expressed his disgust of the brutal force during the conflict of the intimidation attack on Guernica by the Nationalists. He makes reference to his disbelief in God, as a man attempts to pray to the light bulb sun, appealing to God for help. However, Picasso exhibits his belief that God is only a manmade item, like a light bulb, and that there is no promise of savior from the horrors of the Civil War. This lack of hope amongst the painting demonstrates Picasso’s uncertainty of whether Spain will be able to recover after the war’s conclusion. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War influenced grotesque responses from Surrealist artists. Fighting against fascism, the Surrealists responded violently in actions and mainly through artistic propaganda. Artists, with deep personal connection utilized their artwork to notify the world of the gruesome and inhumane destruction of Spain. Although Picasso was not of Spanish heritage, his depiction of the war in Guernica presents the great extent in which the Civil War influenced both Spanish born and international Surrealist artists. Despite not being physically involved in the war Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso were clearly influenced by its outbreak, their artwork depicting their own frustration and reflecting on their experiences.

Reference List BBC - Higher Bitesize History - The Spanish Civil War : Revision. 2013. Access: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/history/roadwar/spancivil/revision/1/. Dalí, S (1942). The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. New York: Sial Press. The Gale Group (2003). Surrealism. United States of America: Gale and Design, Inc and Thomas Learning, Inc. Greeley, R (2006). Surrealism and the Spanish Civil War. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. The Spanish Civil War. 2013. Available: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/spanish_civil_war1.htm.

Images Dalí, Salvador. Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War. 1936. Available: http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=277x180 Dalí, Salvador. The Enigma of Hitler. 1938. Available: http://yuguangzhang.com/blog/the-enigma-of-hitler-salvador-dali/ Miró, Joan: The Reaper (El Segador), 1937. Image 1 Available: http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2012/miro/imagesl/reaper.jpg Miró, Joan: The Reaper (El Segador), 1937. Image 2 Available: http://discardstudies.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/imagegen.jpg Picasso, Pablo. Guernica. 1937. Available: http://www.pablopicasso.org/images/paintings/guernica.jpg…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Joan Miro

...Joan Miro was born on 1893 in Spain and he was a Spanish artist for the twentieth century. When he moved to Spain in 1919 after the World War I he met other struggling artist including Pablo Picasso who is also a Spaniard like Miro. Most of the artists there were Surrealist which is working with dreams, memory, and abstract. Joan Miro was a surrealist who created abstract art of people. He would use simple lines and flat, bright colored shapes to create his work. The reason Joan miro used abstract symbols was because after he graduated high school at the age of 17 he got sick and had to go to a families barn to recover but while he was there he used his surrounding such as the sun, plants, a ladder, and animals which was represented as realistically. In most of his art you will see a circle or lots of circles, this was his favorite shape. In one of his artworks called dog barking in the moon he created an image of a ladder going into the dark sky of going nowhere, the grotesque looking dog who is howling at the distorted moon, and a mysterious bird like figure above the ladder. He creates images like this to let the viewers use their imagination to figure out the haunting visual image. Joan Miro became famous for making a self portrait out of the style of abstract and then later he painted another self portrait of himself but more realistic but still has a little abstract. People loved his artwork because of the shapes and the bright colors and the thick bold lines in his...

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Surrealism and Salvador Dali

...minds confer on certain objects and aspects of life.” g. de Chirico Surrealism is a style of art in which the artist use the element of surprise and unexpected juxtapositions to evoke the imagination and mystery of the subconscious mind. Its intent was to create a liberated mind by the portrayal of everyday reality in an imaginative, dream-like manner. The surrealism art movement is one that included Freudian theories of the unconscious mind, and defy the standards society dictates through questioning what we know as logic, and exploring the fantasies of our imaginations. The surrealist movement, beginning in the 1920's, was based largely on the Dada movement preceding it and which produced works of art that deliberately defied reason. Surrealism developed primarily from the activities during World War I with the most important center of the movement beingParis. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory. Surrealists feasted on the unconscious. They believed that Freud's theories on dreams, ego, superego and the id opened doors to the authentic self and a truer reality -the "surreal". The surrealist movement was founded in Paris, France by a group of artists and writers seeking to tap into the power of the imagination through the unconcious mind. They believed the psyche had......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Pablo Picasso Gerencia, Compairson

...powerful that they have influenced the world and created a new perspective and understanding of the pains and horrors of war. Pablo Picasso’s Guernica shows the catastrophes of war and the torment it inflicts upon the individual, particularly on civilians. This work has gained massive status, becoming a continuous reminder of the heartbreaks of war, and a model for peace. In 1937 a Basque town in the province of Biscay, Guernica was subjected to three hours of destruction by dozens of German and Italian bombers lead by General Francisco Franco, a Spanish military leader and statesman who ruled as the dictator of Spain from 1936 until his death in 1975. He came to power during the Spanish Civil War. More than 1,500 people were killed in a cruel act of war unmatched in European history. Picasso was asked to create an artwork by Republican Spain that would go in the Paris World Exposition. Up until two months before the exposition Picasso found himself uninspired. But as soon as knowledge of Guernica was exposed to the public Picasso swiftly made it clear to that Guernica would be his subject for the Paris Expo. He worked non stop for two months to produce the devastating display of the horrors of war in harsh black and white, measuring eleven feet high by twenty-five feet long so large that Picasso had to attach his paint brushes to long sticks to complete it. It is an oil painting on canvas, and is on display at the Museo Reina Sofía in Madrid. Picasso completed the work......

Words: 1983 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Salvador Dali

...Salvador Dali Salvador Dali’s bizarre nature and talent made him the most dominant figure of the surrealist movement and widely recognized artists in the world. Throughout his art, he clearly elaborates on juxtaposition, disposition and the morphing of objects. He created images that were nonexistent to mankind. He was born May 11, 1904 in Figures, Spain in the foothills of the Pyranies Mountains, sixteen miles from the French border. Dali had an older brother, less then a year older then him, also named Salvador, who died of gastroenteritis. When Dali turned five, his parents brought him to his brother’s grave; he figured he was a recreation of his older brother. Dali reminisced, "[we] resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was probably a first version of myself, but conceived too much in the absolute."
 During the summer, Dali and his family would often spend time in their second house in the coastal village of Cadaques. This scenery is very apparent in most of Dali’s works because this was where his talent started to emerge. As a child he was encouraged to practice his art, his parents even built an art studio, so he can advance within an academy. When Dali was sixteen his mother passed away, due to breast cancer, and this had a profound affect on him. The biggest tragedy was that she was going to be forgotten, and he vowed to never be forgotten. In 1922 he moved to Madrid, and studied in the Academia de Fernando. He...

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pablo Picasso

...Pablo Picasso [pic] http://www.pablopicasso.org/before1901.jsp [1] http://www.biography.com/people/pablo-picasso-9440021 [2] http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/picasso-gallery.php [3] Perceiving The Arts: An Introduction To The Humanities 10th Edition, Dennnis J. Sporre [4] Http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0681444/bio [5] Pablo Picasso was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. Almost every art enthusiast in the world, knew and respected him. “Picasso was Born Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Crispiniano de la Santísima Trinidad on the 25th October 1881 in Malago, in southern Spain.”[1] Added to these were Ruiz and Picasso, for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. “He later dropped his father's surname to become simply Pablo Picasso.” [1] Even though he was born Catholic, Picasso later became an atheist. A serious and prematurely world-weary child, the young Picasso possessed a pair of piercing, watchful black eyes that seemed to mark him destined for greatness. "When I was a child, my mother said to me, 'If you become a soldier, you'll be a general. If you become a monk you'll end up as the pope,'" he later recalled. "Instead, I became a painter and wound up as Picasso."[2] Some sources say his first words were “piz, piz,” a childs attempt to say “lapiz” which means pencil in Spanish. His father was himself an artist...

Words: 1138 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

To What Extent Were the Army Generals Responsible for the Outbreak of Civil War in 1936?

...by General Mola on this date because of the assassination of a leading monarchist, Jose Calvo Sotelo by the Assault Guard. However the outbreak of civil war also had underlying long-term causes such as social divisions in Spain and more short-term ones such as a lack of political consensus during the time of the Second Republic. This essay will consider the extent to which the different factors were responsible for the outbreak of civil war in 1936. The assassination of Calvo Sotelo, a leading monarchist who opposed the Popular Front, by the Assault Guard was responsible for General Mola ordering his instructions for the coup to go ahead that ultimately led to civil war. On 13th July 1936, in reprisal for the murder of a Jose Castillo, a left-wing member of the Assault Guard, his colleagues drew up a list of prominent right-wing targets, arrested Sotelo and later murdered him. The assassination made up Mola’s and the other army general’s minds over whether to launch the coup and on the 17th July 1936, just five days later the coup was launched in Morocco. The assassination of Sotelo was partially responsible for the outbreak of civil war because it gave Mola the justification he needed to launch the coup and thus plunge Spain into civil war. Mola could now argue that the army had a responsibility to step in and restore peace and order to an increasingly violent situation. Also the fact that the assassinations were carried out by the Assault Guard, who were the Second......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Joan Miro

...Joan Miro was born on 1893 in Spain and he was a Spanish artist for the twentieth century. When he moved to Spain in 1919 after the World War I he met other struggling artist including Pablo Picasso who is also a Spaniard like Miro. Most of the artists there were Surrealist which is working with dreams, memory, and abstract. Joan Miro was a surrealist who created abstract art of people. He would use simple lines and flat, bright colored shapes to create his work. The reason Joan miro used abstract symbols was because after he graduated high school at the age of 17 he got sick and had to go to a families barn to recover but while he was there he used his surrounding such as the sun, plants, a ladder, and animals which was represented as realistically. In most of his art you will see a circle or lots of circles, this was his favorite shape. In one of his artworks called dog barking in the moon he created an image of a ladder going into the dark sky of going nowhere, the grotesque looking dog who is howling at the distorted moon, and a mysterious bird like figure above the ladder. He creates images like this to let the viewers use their imagination to figure out the haunting visual image. Joan Miro became famous for making a self portrait out of the style of abstract and then later he painted another self portrait of himself but more realistic but still has a little abstract. People loved his artwork because of the shapes and the bright colors and the thick bold lines in......

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hieronymus Bosch vs. Salvador Dali

...Hieronymus Bosch vs. Salvador Dali Thesis Statement: Hieronymus Bosch is like a 15th century version of Salvador Dali. Dali is a 20th century version of Bosch. The Idea of fantasy and surrealism has been around as long as man has. Hieronymus Bosch, famous for his fantastical, often monstrous, hybrid creatures, might in some ways be seen as a forerunner of the Surrealists. However, while the Surrealists played in the realms of dreams and the unconscious, Bosch was steeped in the religiosity of his age and the worlds he conjured up demonstrated what were believed to be the very real, and sobering, consequences of earthly behavior. The life of Bosch is an intriguing mystery – little is known of his early life, or where he studied in painting and arts. He wrote little in the form of letters and had no diaries accompanying his work – in fact all we know of him is either through his paintings, or through brief references to him through other people’s writing – we don’t even know for certain when he was born. Part of the Early Renaissance, Bosch lived all of his life in the Netherlands, and is known to have come from a family of artists and painters, though none of their works can be found today. But the mystery isn’t all that makes him so interesting – his art is a marvel to behold, and in my opinion his work is the most detailed and interesting I’ve ever seen. He was fond of triptychs, a series of paintings that slotted in beside each other to create a combined scene,......

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Picasso

...Spanish sculptor and painter Picasso Ruiz Picasso is considered for the artistic genius in the 20th century nomination. Picasso style is one of a genius; his techniques were like a breath of fresh air. He held a variety of ideas during the 20th centuries. His ambition and the magnitude of his art work is what make him out to be the greatest of his time. Picasso created more than 20,000 art works. He became famous in his own life time he is known for becoming the first artist to successfully utilize mass media to gain popularity. He also introduced the notable case of Cubism, created, almost all the art movements during the twentieth century. What is interesting is that the viewers are able to grasp what Picasso see through his paintings. In Picasso’s paintings he visibly expresses his emotions and shared his personal feelings the way he saw things. His work displays an unlimited and vast nous of vitality and penchant for variation and innovation. Picasso once said that, “Painting is just another way of keeping a diary”. I feel as if his work was his diary he used art to capture specific moments of his life. Picasso was born on October 25, 1881, in Malaga, Spain Pablo Picasso, also known as Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, was extraordinary in the world of art. Picasso's father taught as an art teacher during this time his dad quickly took noticed that his son was a genius, therefore he caught young Picasso everything he knew. At the young age of 14, Picasso took an entrance exam to......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Legacy of Pablo Picasso

...The Legacy of Pablo Picasso Michelle Wade HUM/102 May 4, 2015 Nye Clinton The Legacy of Pablo Picasso The nominated figure that stands out in my mind as a genius of Western culture would have to be, Pablo Ruiz Picasso he was a very dominant and dramatic artist during the beginning of the 20th century. His art referenced cubism, with the assistance of Georges Braque, collages and was influential with his contributions to symbolism and surrealism as well. Picasso viewed himself as a painter first, and then all other areas of interest just seemed to follow in suit, which were sculpture, ceramics, and print-making. The Spanish painter, sculptor, and graphic artist; Pablo Picasso was one of the most productive and revolutionary artists in the history of Western painting (Boigraphies, 2015). Picasso was born on October 25, 1881, in Malaga, Spain to a creative an artistic family where he quickly grew in his fascination of painting. At a very young age he showed interest in his father’s painting and began his study of art by age eleven. One of Picasso’s first paintings that still exists today is named “The Communion.” and is dated to 1895. His early life was initiated by the best schools his family could provide for him in his chosen career, and he studied the famous Spanish Art Masters works for style and pose to integrate into his own works of art. When his family moved to Barcelona, his art seemed to blossom. He was intrigued by the ‘Art Nouveau of the......

Words: 1595 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Pablo Picasso

...Pablo Picasso arrived in Paris with great talent. Picasso wanted to create something different from the art of the high and powerful royalty. Schama says “Modern arts was modern because it turns its back on those grand standing histories painted for aristocrats and kings”. “Portrait of King Philip IV of Spain” by Diego Velasquez depicts royalty and honor on a horse with pride in King Philip’s eye. Pablo Picasso paints a related piece called “Boy Leading a Horse”. It is of a naked boy leading a barebacked horse. This painting does not imply a hero like in “Portrait of King Philip IV of Spain”. This is only one example of how Pablo Picasso went against the art norms. Around 1910 Picasso switches from beauty and history to something even more impressive. Picasso started painting in “a different vision from what things really are - cubism” (Schama). He felt that everything contained hard lines and images that can be put into boxes. In Paris, in the 1920’s, Pablo Picasso was a highly praised and successful artist. He lived in and elegant apartment with his wife, Olga, and son, and “all of art was his kingdom” (Schama). Schama says that Picasso was “drunk on self confidence and cleverness, he could take it wherever he fancied” (Schama). In 1927, Picasso meets Marie-Thérèse, and she becomes his lover and inspiration. The first painting of here is titled “The Dream” and depicts her sensually and gently masturbating. While Marxism is rising to power and politics are on......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pablo Picasso

...PABLO PICASSO Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso ; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish expatriatepainter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. He is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during theSpanish Civil War. The enormous body of Picasso’s work remains, and the legend lives on—a tribute to the vitality of the “disquieting” Spaniard with the “sombre…piercing” eyes who superstitiously believed that work would keep him alive. For nearly 80 of his 91 years Picasso devoted himself to an artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the whole development of modern art in the 20th century. Picasso’s art from the time of the Demoiselles was radical in nature, virtually no 20th-century artist could escape his influence. Moreover, while other masters such as Matisse or Braque tended to stay within the bounds of a style they had developed in their youth, Picasso continued to be an innovator into the last decade of his life. This led to misunderstanding and criticism both in his lifetime and since, and it was only in......

Words: 4347 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Guernica Does Not Affect Picasso, Picasso Effects Guernica

...Guernica does not Affect Picasso, Picasso Effects Guernica Guernica (1937) by artist Pablo Picasso is one of the most powerful and disturbing anti-war paintings ever produced. Like so many famous works of art, the meaning of Picasso's Guernica is not immediately clear and left wide open to analysis and interpretation. What is the meaning of Guernica, the mural by Pablo Picasso? Guernica is unique and unlike any other photograph or painting of a historical war scene. According to Herschel B. Chipp, historical photographs show scenes and capture moments in time, but when viewing them an intangible “wall” exists between the viewer and the photograph. The difference between photographs and original paintings is that the painting allows the viewer to break through the “wall” and actually experience the feelings and emotions expressed in the painting.[1] Guernica was a unique painting for Picasso to create because he never wanted to be influenced by the outside world. Historians argue that Guernica is the exception and Picasso allowed him-self to be influenced and expressed his views. However, after deeply known about Guernica and Picasso, you may think that Guernica does not affect Picasso, instead, Picasso effects Guernica. Guernica is a town in the province of Biscay in Basque Country. During the Spanish Civil War, it was regarded as the northern bastion of the Republican resistance movement and the epicenter of Basque culture, adding to its......

Words: 1971 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

As Good as It Gets

...subconscious mind of the artist. This style of painting involved creating fantastic imagery and ideas that seemed to contradict each other. In a surrealistic work of art, the world of dream and the world of fantasy are joined in the everyday. Surrealistic work can have a very rational, along with an irrational style. The surrealistic movement was first founded by Andre Breton in his painting titled Manifesto of Surrealism. Along with Breton, many other artists who have used surrealism in their paintings have previously belonged to the Dada movement. Surrealism was practiced with the use of various forms of expression. Salvador Dali, for example, used dreamlike perceptions of space as well as dream inspired images in order to create surrealistic images. Such artists have been labeled by the name of "verists" because their paintings were perceived as transformations of the real world. Salvador Dali's contribution to the surrealistic world was a "paranoiac-critical method." As it is stated by Aaron Ross; "The paranoiac critical method provides a window into that unknown world of unconscious, and yet does not present the danger of psychic inundation". This method was responsible for Dali's famous double images. It required the artist to perceive and paint different images within a single shape. "Dali was capable of examining his own 'paranoiac' perceptions and interpretations" (Ross, 5). A perfect example which represents how many images are melted into one shape is Salvador......

Words: 2860 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Pablo Picasso

...PABLO PICASSO PAULA SCOTT ASHFORD UNIVERSITY ART 101 ELIA HAGGAR 03/26/2012 The Art of the early 20th century was reshaped by Pablo Picasso, because the 20th century was years of rich artistic exploration and great productivity. Picasso was born October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain son to professor of drawing José Ruiz Blasco and Maria Picasso Lopez. Instead of taking his father’s name he took his mothers, he became one of the greatest and most influential artist of the 20th century and creator (with George Braque) of Cubism. Picasso fell ill in the spring of 1898 and spent most of the remaining year convalescing in the Catalan village of Horta de Ebro in the company of his Barcelona friend Manuel Pallars. When Picasso returned to Barcelona in early 1899, he was a changed man; he had put on weight, he had learned to live on his own in the open countryside, he spoke Catalan, and most importantantly he had made the decision to break with his art school training and to reject his family’s plans for his future. In his work he was a painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramist and stage designer, Picasso was considered radical in his work, after a long career he died April 8, 1973 in Mougins. Most of his work remains, for 80 of his 91 years Picasso devoted himself to an artistic production......

Words: 2800 - Pages: 12