Premium Essay

Superposition

In: English and Literature

Submitted By amanbre
Words 1306
Pages 6
Page 1 of 2

INDUSTRY 1

DECISION ENTRIES — C Company

YEAR 20

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CITIZENSHIP
Use of "Green" Footwear-Making Materials
Use of Recycled Boxing / Packaging
Energy Efficiency Initiative

Yes
Yes
1,000

($000s per distribution center and per million pairs of plant capacity)

BRANDED SALES FORECAST (internet and wholesale)
Factors Affecting
Internet Sales
Retail Price ($/pair)
Models Offered
Free Shipping

Co. C's Estimated
Proposed Ind. Avg.
Marketing Marketing
Effort
Effort
70.00
69.37
100
223
No
No

In Year 20 the Internet
Market will account for
15% of total branded footwear demand.

Europe-Africa
Market

Asia-Pacific
Market

Latin America
Market

Estimated Co. C's Estimated Co. C's Estimated Co. C's Estimated
Ind. Avg. Proposed Ind. Avg. Proposed Ind. Avg. Proposed Ind. Avg.
Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing
Effort
Effort
Effort
Effort
Effort
Effort
Effort
55.75
60.00
57.75
60.00
51.50
60.00
55.62
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
275
100
266
100
292
100
292
8,313
9,000
8,913
7,000
7,963
5,000
6,156
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
2,146
2,071
2,081
1,203
1,352
1,219
1,050
656
400
678
400
674
400
381
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
106
70
106
65
106
75
106
8
8
8
8
0%

0%

0%

0%

Superior Materials Usage (0% to 100%)
Number of Models (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 350, or 500)
Enhanced Styling / Features ($0 to $25k per model)
TQM / Six-Sigma Quality Program ($0.00-$2.00 per pair of capacity)
Compensation and Training
Change in Annual Base Wage (%)
Incentive Pay ($ per non-rejected pair)
Best Practices Training ($ per worker)
Branded Pairs to be Manufactured in Year 20 (000s)

BRANDED SHIPPING
North America Warehouse
Europe-Africa Warehouse
Asia-Pacific Warehouse
Latin America Warehouse

Europe-Africa
Plant…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Op-Amps

...difference between the two input signals. Few cases can be done in the difference op-amp. Example like the two input voltage have the same magnitude and the output voltage will be zero which will be the most common. There are no amplification take places when all the external resistors value is the same. Hence, the amplification of the difference op-amp is depends on the ratio of the resistor value. V+ V- B A The output voltage equation can be derived using super position theorem and voltage divider. At first, we will ground the V2 causing the non-inverting terminal and inverting terminal to be zero volt. Hence, at node A Vo1=-R2R1V1 When V1 is grounded, V+=R2R1+R2V2 V+=V- Vo2=1+R2R1V- Vo2=(1+R2R1)R2R1+R2V2 V02=R2R1V2 By superposition theorem Vo=Vo1+Vo2 Vo=-R2R1V1+R2R1V2 Vo=R2R1(V2-V1) Part 4.1 During the experiment, one of the simplest inverting op-amp was build. In the experiment, the non-inverting terminal is connected to the ground result in the terminal to be 0V. There are no current or very little current to be passing into the op-amp. In the deal case, the inverting and non-inverting terminal is connected with an infinity high resistor. Hence, the potential difference between the input and out is very low and can be ignored. The input impedance for the inverting op-amp is input resistor. For the output resistor, the impedance is very low and it is 0 for ideal cases. The formula for the inverting op-amp can be derived using Kirchhoff current law......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Consciousness

...borderline (Penrose, 1994; 1996). Within the OR scheme, we consider that consciousness occurs if an appropriately organized system is able to develop and maintain quantum coherent superposition until a specific "objective" criterion (a threshold related to quantum gravity) is reached; the coherent system then self-reduces (objective reduction: OR). We contend that this type of objective self-collapse introduces non-computability, an essential feature of consciousness. OR is taken as an instantaneous event--the climax of a self-organizing process in fundamental space-time--and a candidate for a conscious Whitehead "occasion" of experience. How could an OR process occur in the brain, be coupled to neural activities, and account for other features of consciousness? We nominate an OR process with the requisite characteristics to be occurring in cytoskeletal microtubules within the brain's neurons (Penrose and Hameroff, 1995; Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996). In this model, quantum-superposed states develop in microtubule subunit proteins ("tubulins"), remain coherent and recruit more superposed tubulins until a mass-time-energy threshold (related to quantum gravity) is reached. At that point, self-collapse, or objective reduction (OR) abruptly occurs. We equate the pre-reduction, coherent superposition ("quantum computing") phase with pre-conscious processes, and each instantaneous (and non-computable) OR, or self-collapse, with a discrete conscious event. Sequences of OR events...

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Physics

...outward from its source, rather than converging back toward the source. In other words, Huygens overlooks the fact that the wave front formed by the back half of the wavelets implies a light disturbance traveling in the opposite direction. Also, it does not account for diffraction of the light into the region of geometric shadow, when light is incident on obstacles. Figure 8. 14. State the Huygens-Fresnel Principle, discuss its physical significance and give its analytical expression. S P The Huygens-Fresnel Principle states: Every unobstructed point of a wave front is a source of spherical secondary wavelets with the same frequency as that of the primary. The amplitude of the resultant wave at any forward point is the superposition of these wavelets, considering their amplitudes and relative phase. In other words, the secondary waves mutually interfere and this accounts for light diffraction, as we are going to show in the following chapters. Figure 9. According to Huygens-Fresnel Principle, the equation which expresses the electric field intensity in the spherical wavelet emitted by an arbitrary elementary area of an arbitrary wave front at a point of observation P, located at the distance from , at any time , can be written as , where and are the amplitude and initial phase of the electric field oscillation, and are the angular frequency and the wave number of the wavelets (figure 9). The quantity is a constant of proportionality which......

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Quantum Computing - the Qubit

...laws of quantum mechanics, the principles of superposition and entanglement. The qubit, with its arsenal of quantum phenomena, can vastly outperform the standard bit meaning a QC with relatively few qubits, compared to the number of bits contained in a standard computer, can perform the same calculations much faster. This is due to the qubits ability to basically be in all positions between one and zero simultaneously as shown in figure 1. Figure 1: Qubits explained (Universe Review, N.D) Figure 1 shows how a typical qubit can use a superposition of states to process more data than a traditional computer bit by increasing the number of states possible. Superposition Superposition is the principle of quantum theory that describes the nature and behaviour of particles at the sub atomic level. The principle says that while an objects state is unknown it occupies all possible states simultaneously. This means it is possible for the qubit to exist as a one, a zero and all the states in-between simultaneously. (Nielsen and Chuang, 2011) The pitfall of this superposition is that the qubits have a tendency to revert from their quantum state back into their classic state causing the reading to be simply a one or a zero. This is called decoherence and can be caused by even the simplest interactions with the outside environment such as observation or measurement. (Nielsen and Chuang, 2011) Successfully reading a qubit in superposition would lead to far greater......

Words: 2247 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Quantum Computing: Overview

...quantum mechanics”. Both of these revolutionary thinkers understood the complexity of the subject and while Feynman went on to make great progress in the area, Einstein died trying to figure out how his general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics would fit together. So where does the complexity come from? Quantum computing gains its advantage through the peculiar properties at the nano scale. At the subatomic level, properties such as superposition, entanglement and coherence take effect and the wonders of the quantum world emerge (Gildert, 2007). The qubit, or the quantum bit, is analogous to the bit discussed in classical information, the only difference is that a qubit can be a number of things including a nucleus, a single photon or an electron, all of which have the ability to represent the 0 and 1’s discussed in binary code (McMahon, 2007). The key difference is that qubits can be a 0 and 1 at the same time, that is until they are measured (Altepeter, 2010). This is where the expression superposition comes from. Superposition means exactly that, the qubit is in two positions simultaneously and this is where the computational power of quantum machines can exhibit its unique processing capabilities (Altepeter, 2010). Some researchers have been applying clever physics to their advantage and using phosphorus (P15) atoms to create a qubit. By using the atoms valence electrons, which are the electrons furthest away from the nucleus, they are able to manipulate the......

Words: 5884 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Quantum Computer

...built. This potential has made quantum computing a national security concern. Yet at the same time, quantum computers will also revolutionize large parts of science in a more benevolent way. Simulating large quantum systems, something a quantum computer can easily do, is not practically possible on a traditional computer. A technology of quantum computers is also very different. For operation, quantum computer uses quantum bits (qubits). Qubit has a quaternary nature. Quantum mechanic’s laws are completely different from the laws of a classical physics. A qubit can exist not only in the states corresponding to the logical values 0 or 1 as in the case of a classical bit, but also in a superposition state. A qubit is a bit of information that can be both zero and one simultaneously (Superposition state). Thus, a computer working on a qubit rather than a standard bit can make calculations using both values simultaneously. A qubyte is made up of eight qubits and can have all values from zero to 255 simultaneously. “Multi-qubyte systems have a power beyond anything possible with classical computers.” (Quantum Computers & Moore's Law, p.1) From detailed simulations of biological molecules which will advance the health sciences, to aiding research into novel materials for harvesting electricity from light, a quantum computer will likely be an essential tool for future progress in chemistry, physics, and engineering. Finally, quantum computers represent a fundamentally new......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fourier Transform

...input is applied Hence, if input to an LTI system consists of a linear combination of signals x (t) = a_1 x_1 (t) + a_2 x_2 (t)+ … Then by superposition the response is given by y (t)= a_1 y_1 (t) + a_2 y_2 (t)+…. [1, p. 69] Hence it is possible to represent input signals to LTI systems in terms of basic signals and use the superposition property of the system to calculate the response. Signals can be represented in terms of impulses by decomposing them into weighted sum of shifted impulses. Figure 1 show how a discrete time signal can be represented as a sum of shifted impulse response. [1, p. 71] (a) Shows the original signal and the other five are generated by multiplying the scaled time shifted impulses with the original signal. Figure 1 Hence an arbitrary signal can be expressed as x[n]= ∑_(k= -∞)^(+∞)▒〖x[k]δ[n-k]〗 Where δ[n-k] is the time shifted impulse function, and x[k] is the amplitude (for scaling). If we know the impulse response h[n] of the system to input impulse δ [n], we can determine the output by applying h[n] to δ [n] and then superposing the output as a linear combination of outputs to individual shifted scaled impulse x[n]. Hence the response of a system to an input x[n] can be represented by [1, p. 72] y[n]= ∑_(k= -∞)^(+∞)▒〖x[k]h[n-k]〗 This result is the convolution sum or superposition sum Figure 2 (a) [1, p.76]shows an input signal which is non zero for t = -1,0,1 Figure 2 (b) shows impulse response of the LTI......

Words: 2584 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Quanta

...disagree about which questions lie at its heart. From my point of view, the central goal of quantum information science is to develop general principles, like the laws of entanglement, that will enable us to understand complexity in quantum systems. Overview/Quantum Information Information is not purely mathematical. Instead it always has a physical embodiment. In traditional information science the embodiment follows classical, or nonquantum, physics. The burgeoning field of quantum information science puts information in a quantum context. ■ The basic resource of classical information is the bit, which is always either a 0 or a 1. Quantum information comes in quantum bits, or qubits (pronounced “cue-bits”). Qubits can exist in superpositions, which simultaneously involve 0 and 1, and groups of qubits can be “entangled,” which gives them counterintuitive correlations. ■ Quantum computers processing qubits, particularly entangled qubits, can outperform classical computers. Entanglement behaves like a resource, similar to energy, that can be used to do quantum information processing. ■ The goal of quantum information science is to understand the general high-level principles that govern complex quantum systems such as quantum computers. These principles relate to the laws of quantum mechanics in the way that heuristics for skillful play at chess relate to the game’s basic rules. ■ Complexity and Quanta NUMEROUS STUDIES in complexity concentrate on systems, such as......

Words: 5675 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Quantum Computer

..."nerds" seem to care and understand this wonder. What if all of the theories, concepts, and everything else that makes up what quantum computers are and will be, a way to have it so that everyone can understand. The way that quantum computers can be divided is into three main areas: quantum physics, quantum bits (qubits), and their future goals. To better understand how quantum computers work, you need to start with what clearly defines a quantum computer: "A quantum computer is a computer design which uses the principles of quantum physics to increase the computational power beyond what is attainable by a traditional computer" (Jones, 2014, p. 1). Quantum computers use two fundamental principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. Quantum superposition is where the state of a physical system exists in all possible states at the same time. Then when the physical system is only one state is give to the collection device. A good example of this is the famous Schrödinger's Cat, a thought experiment purposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1935, where Schrödinger talks about having a cat in a closed box with a vial of poisonous acid with a hammer that will break the vial if any radioactivity is detected (Schrödinger, E., 1935). After a period and if the box stays completely sealed, you cannot one hundred percent know the current state of the cat; it is both alive and dead at the same time, until the box is opened and inspected. Only then would you know the current state......

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Poop

...vocabulary, or specialist vocabulary may be used incorrectly. The form and style of writing is less appropriate. Mentions waves travelling in opposite directions (accept ‘waves reflect/ rebound back or from clamp’) or superposition/addition/interference of waves or waves of same frequency/wavelength. Low Level (poor to limited) 1 or 2 marks The information conveyed by the answer is poorly organised and may not be relevant or coherent. There is little correct use of specialist vocabulary. The form and style of writing may only be partly appropriate. One correct key feature or one relevant remark regarding formation given. The explanation expected in a competent answer should include a coherent account of the following points concerning the physical principles involved and their consequences in this case. • • • • • • • • • • 4 nodes where there is no movement/zero amplitude 3 antinodes where amplitude is maximum wavelength 0.80 m end antinodes in phase/middle and ends in antiphase between node and antinode, amplitude of oscillation increases waves reflect off the clamp (and the rod) waves travelling in opposite directions superpose/add/interfere wave have same wavelength and frequency (similar amplitude) always cancellation at nodes/always constructive superposition at antinodes energy is not transferred along string [6] Page 9 of 12 M4. (a) maximum displacement from equilibrium/mean position/mid-point/etc (1) 1 (b) (i) any one from: surface of water/water......

Words: 1329 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Engr 244

...Free-body diagram of the barbell pictured in the chapter opening photo and (b) Free-body diagram of the center bar portion showing pure bending. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4-2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Other Loading Types Seventh Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Fig. 4.3 (a) Free-body diagram of a clamp, (b) freebody diagram of the upper portion of the clamp. • Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which does not pass through section centroid produces internal forces equivalent to an axial force and a couple • Transverse Loading: Concentrated or distributed transverse load produces internal forces equivalent to a shear force and a couple • Principle of Superposition: The normal stress due to pure bending may be combined with the normal stress due to axial loading and shear stress due to shear loading to find the complete state of stress. 4-3 Fig. 4.4 (a) Cantilevered beam with end loading. (b) As portion AC shows, beam is not in pure bending. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Symmetric Member in Pure Bending Seventh Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent to a couple. The moment of the couple is the section bending moment. • From statics, a couple M consists of two equal and opposite forces. Fig. 4.5 (a) A member in a state of pure......

Words: 2230 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Future of Computers

...only computer "nerds" seem to care and understand this wonder. What if all of the theories, concepts, and everything else that makes up what quantum computers are and will be, is presented in a way that everyone can understand. The way that quantum computers can be divided is into three main areas: quantum physics, quantum bits or (qubits), and their future goals. To better understand how quantum computers work, you need to start with what clearly defines a quantum computer: A quantum computer is a computer design which uses the principles of quantum physics to increase the computational power beyond what is attainable by a traditional computer. Quantum computers use two fundamental principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. Quantum superposition is where the state of a physical system exists in all possible states at the same time. Then the physical system is only giving one state to the collection device. A good example of this is the famous Schrödinger's Cat, a thought experiment purposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1935, where Schrödinger talks about having a cat in a closed box with a vial of poisonous acid with a hammer that will break the vial if any radioactivity is detected (Schrödinger, E., 1935). After a period and if the box stays completely sealed, you cannot one hundred percent know the current state of the cat; it is both alive and dead at the same time, until the box is opened and inspected. Only then would you know the current state of the......

Words: 1342 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Heart Definitions

...Peripheral resistance is the resistance of the arteries to blood flow. As the arteries constrict, the resistance increases and as they dilate, resistance decreases. Blood viscosity: increased viscosity increases resistance. Heart rate, or heart pulse, is the speed of theheartbeat measured by the number of poundings of the heart per unit of time Venous return is the rate of blood flow back to the heart. It normally limits cardiac output. Superposition of the cardiac function curve andvenous return curve is used in one hemodynamic model. Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one contraction. Although stroke volume can refer to either left or right side of the heart, it is most associated with the left side. It is measured in ml/beat and generally has a normal value of about 1 cc/kg. Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min). Cardiac output is a function of heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is simply the number of heart beats per minute. The stroke volume is the volume of blood, in milliliters (mL), pumped out of the heart with each beat. Heart failure (HF), often referred to as chronic heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heartis unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. systolic pressure is the pressure caused by the contraction of the left ventricle pumping oxygenated blood into the aorta. diastolic pressure is the pressure in the......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Quantum

...represented by either a one or a zero. A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. What is qubits A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition of 8 states. In general, a quantum computer with n qubits can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to 2^n different states simultaneously (this compares to a normal computer that can only be in one of these 2^n states at any one time). A quantum computer operates by setting the qubits in a controlled initial state that represents the problem at hand and by manipulating those qubits with a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates. The sequence of gates to be applied is called a quantum algorithm. The calculation ends with a measurement, collapsing the system of qubits into one of the 2^n pure states, where each qubit is zero or one, decomposing into a classical state. The outcome can therefore be at most n classical bits of information. Quantum algorithms are often non-deterministic, in that they provide the correct solution only with a certain known probability. Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas digital......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Quantum Computers

...operate in quantum bits or qubits, which are usually represented by such particles like atoms, ions, electrons, and photons. All of these particles have a property called superposition, which means that they can be of two states at the same time, that is a qubit can represent both 1 and 0 at the same time. To put it simply we can illustrate superposition with a famous physicist’s Erwin Schrodinger’s thought experiment: if we put a living cat in a closed box rigged with a device that can randomly release poison (there is equal probability that it will release and won’t) we can say that until we open the box to check the state of the cat, it’s both dead and alive at the same time. And that’s the whole reason why quantum computers are superior to classical ones. For example, a 3 bit register can save only one of the 8 (23) possible bit combinations at the time, but a quantum register of the same size could save all of the combinations at the same time. To take another example, only 500 qubit quantum register could save a number of possible combinations equal to the amount of all of the atoms in our universe. However, one of the drawbacks of the superposition is a property called decoherence, that is if we tried to measure the state of the qubit, or because of disturbance caused by other particles, superposition of the qubit would collapse, the qubit would gain only one of the two states, and become just a classical bit. Lets use Schrodinger’s example again: if we opened the box......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7