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SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ( DRS 3283 )

Name : Norsyafinaz Binti Shah Rizal Thomas ID No : 012011110183 Lecturer name : Sir Anuar Sulaiman A research paradigm for international business communication On this journal that can sumarize with this conceptual paper aims to present a research paradigm for international business communication research, with special reference to the problems of Japanese corporations and to develop a paradigm, the obstacles Japanese corporations face in international business as methods used to deal with obstacles and foster bettel global mangement and interculture comunication. International business prescribes the “arena” for international business communication and is shaped by international business transactions and international management. The reason for this is found in the special characteristics of international business transactions. The beginnings of international business transactions were nothing other than trading between cultures and peoples with different commercial practices. On the second point arena of international business communication and illustrates the following situations although we are speaking of international business communication or Intercultural business communication, it does not necessarily mean that this Communication occurs between countries, cultures, or businesses. the agents of international business communication are the actual people inside. A country, culture, or company with differing cultures, customs, and languages. People in the midst of international business communication are affected by the Cultures of their company This leads to differences in both persons’ thoughts and actions. However, those people share many commonalities that make communication Easier. These commonalities can be: participation in the subculture of international business, work in the same type of industry, and similar Professional specialties. In arenas where international business happens, it is strongly affected by treaties And various international rules, as well as the laws and regulations of th respective countries. There are two ways to view this relationship. Communication can be thought of as the exchange of knowledge and information between two distinct individuals who remain independent from one another or it can be thought of as uniting two individuals to create a new individual.International management culture can be based on the culture of the head office (including corresponding culture of the region), culture of a subsidiary or it can come from another source. Whichever management type, separate individuals “become one” as a result of sharing the same business ideas and working under the same management system, which promotes cooperation to reach shared goals. Together, they advance their sales competitiveness as one individual at least for the duration of their coalition. When two individuals are united and become one individual, it means a sharing of information, knowledge, and the value brought about from those things. This is the definition of the communication referred to as the same thing being shared by all or joint ownership or separate things becoming one. Although we are speaking of international business communication or intercultural business communication, it does not necessarily mean that this communication occurs between countries, cultures, or businesses. The agents of international business communication are the actual people inside a country, culture, or company with differing cultures, customs, and languages. People in the midst of international business communication are affected by the cultures of their company This leads to differences in both persons’ thoughts and actions. On the other hand globalization and intercultural communication of japanese companies they have three type which is, first Obstacles to accomplishing international business people in the japanese business world often say that assuring a mutual understanding of purpose is the most important thing for collaboration with foreign companies to go smoothly. That assurance of a mutual understanding means effective communication with people from countries other than Japan. Secondly, is global management and intercultural communication plans of Japanese multinational aim is to accomplish international business goals, improving intercultural communication ability is thought to be the solutioncorporations. Lastly is International business communication training and management In international management it is becoming increasingly important for Japanese managers to create communication training programs for employees. These programs should raise ability to use language connected with business management and improve workplace communication with local employees. On the Direction of international business communication research is Systemization of international business communication, Study of the meanings of international business, English as an international business language and study of its relation to users. English as an international business language and study of its relation to users. Language begins to take meaning when people use that language. Consider the various power relationships such as seller and buyer, creditor and debtor, and boss and subordinate, which exist between business users. The most important thins is the three fields study of grammatical correctness and proper usage in international english, study of the meanings of international business terms and english as an international business language On the conclusion what they get on this research is an increasingly shrinking Earth, the world is becoming increasingly globalized. Unfortunately, it appears that one local language which 400 years ago had only 7 million speakers, English, will be the agent of this globalization. If Japanese enterprises are to continue doing business in the international marketplace with other companies, they cannot escape from this reality. Along with the recognition of that reality comes the fear held by many informed people that the world will leave Japan behind if Japan is unable to change. This article chose not to focus on that sense of danger, but rather to indicate a path for Japanese enterprises aspiring to have global operations in a world of business English. Here, it was also an attempt to systemize international business communication so it can stand as a theoretical basis for real world corporate policies. International business communication research is often applied purely pragmatically. However, the introduction of a semiotic viewpoint gives such research a theoretical basis

An integrated framework for understanding the driving forces behind non-sequential process of internationalisation among firms Efforts are made to highlight the yardstick for operationalisation of the driving forces behind non-sequential internationalization process which is. * Globalization forces.
Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and functioning together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces. Globalization, as a term, is very often used to refer to economic globalization, that is integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and spread of technology.
The word globalization is also used, in a doctrinal sense to describe the neoliberal form of economic globalization.Globalization is also defined as internationalism, however such usage is typically incorrect as "global" implies "one world" as a single unit, while "international" (between nations) recognizes that different peoples, cultures, languages, nations, borders, economies, and ecosystems exist Globalization has two components: the globalization of market and globalization of production
The extent to which firms investigated in this study take advantage of the forces driving globalization of markets and production was investigated. However, globalization, trend toward greater interdependence among national institutions and economies making it easier, faster, and less costly to move data, goods, people and equipment due to advancement in information technology.
Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium globalization has been in, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.
Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

* Networking.
In this study, business networks are defined as a set of interconnected business relationships, in which each exchange relation between firms is conceptualized as collective actors And that a firm does not act alone in relation to other actors in a market. Hence, the network in which the firm is active enables the internationalization. All the actors in a network are interdependent and interact with each other in one way or another. This makes it possible for a firm to have a high degree of internationalization without a high degree of assets in a specific foreign market

Best for Business is one of the worlds fastest growing business networking and support platforms, built by business people for business people, to provide you with a state of the art social gateway to connect, engage and communicate with a world of like minded business owners whilst gaining free access to genuine business support through the Best for Business resource centres.
Business networking is an effective low-cost marketing method for developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and introductions - either face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, and increasingly social and business networking websites. The shortened term 'networking' can be confused with computer networking/networks, which is different terminology, relating to connection and accessibility of multiple computer systems.
A business network of contacts is both a route to market for you, and a marketing method. Business networking offers a way to reach decision-makers which might otherwise be very difficult to engage with using conventional advertising methods.
In addition, business networking brings with it the added advantage of recommendation and personal introduction, which are always very helpful for developing business opportunities. The principles and techniques of business networking are mostly common sense. Many of the behavioural principles apply also to business and relationships generally, and specifically to selling, managing, coaching and facilitating.

* Entrepreneurial prowess.
Assessed the role of entrepreneur along the dimension of leadership, vision, innovativeness, managerial or organizational ability, team-building in international growth. Moreover, an entrepreneur is defined here as someone who seeks to capitalise on new and profitable endeavours or business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.

Other characteristics used to operationalise entrepreneurial prowess and managerial factors are magnitude (strong or low) belief about opportunities and willingness to accept a high level of personal, professional and financial risks to pursue that opportunity, level of education, magnitude of international exposure, including travels, education and knowledge in foreign languages as well as Global mindset which implies a mental attitude characterized by tolerance and a minimal level of knowledge about international business management

Countries that are munificent in terms of entrepreneurial resources and opportunities are argued to have a forward position in terms of job creation, competitiveness, and, ultimately, economic growth. Entrepreneurship may also play a role in the recovery process of countries when they are in periods of economic downturn

The process view of entrepreneurship, central to this thesis, is of particular interest for government policy. Governments may intervene at positions in the entrepreneurial process where certain characteristics, such as perceptions about the entrepreneurial environment, hinder the entrepreneurial progress of individuals. Hence, it is important to know whether and where these perceptions play a role in the advancement in the entrepreneurial process. Governments can then intervene at specific positions on the “entrepreneurial ladder” where (potential) entrepreneurs are hindered in their progress

For example, urbanization is negatively related to exit before start-up and positivel related to exit after start-up. This finding points at the presence of overoptimistic entrepreneurs and strong selection mechanisms in these areas. Furthermore, individuals are inclined to enter the entrepreneurial process again after having experienced an exit. This finding holds true for positive as well as negative exit experiences.

* Technological tools.
Influences that have an impact on how an organization operates that are related to the equipment used within the organization's environment. Due to increased reliance on equipment, technological factors currently exert a considerably more important effect on the success of a business. The point of departure is that information and communication technologies (ICT) facilitate globalization in general and internationalization in particular. To what extent do firms investigated make use of technological innovation in general and ICT in particular enabler of
Internationalization.
Technology has many benefits for the businesses of today, including tools for every aspect of running, owning, managing, marketing and expanding a business. More technology tools, however, do not guarantee a more efficient or productive business. It's the right tools used in the right way that make the difference. The speed of technological advances means that existing electronic equipment, IT processes and systems will quickly become dated. To remain competitive a business must ensure that its processes and systems support innovation and creativity for itself and its customers. Logica has embraced recent advances in technology to offer its clients the most advanced and sustainable services possible.
Technology can also help businesses to meet the issues of sustainability. Sustainability is now a high priority and businesses are keen to reduce waste and be more energy-efficient. Using more efficient IT systems can help reduce waste, recycle more or cut carbon emissions. For example Logica has created innovative software for Ford which monitors vehicle emissions. If drivers behave in an environmentally efficient way, they may benefit from fuel discounts. Systems like this help businesses save money through reduced fuel consumption whilst also reducing emissions.
Business Technology is the increase reliance on information technology by business of all various types to handle and optimize their processes. It makes use of information technology to improve organizational performance and individual qualities of life and it also integrate information with business to create various and diversified opportunities. It can be simply be defined as an integrated system that provides information to support business and the operations of an organization. It involves the use of information and communication technologies that can improve the organizational performance and effective productivity.

* Business-specific factors.
These imply the characteristics of the firms and products the firms are offering, in relation to their impact on the development of non sequential internationalization processes. It is assumed that niche orientation could be a driver of early and accelerated internationalization processes, because micro-segmenting potential markets are by definition a world-based proce The paper investigates the common dynamic properties of business cycle fluctuations across countries, regions, and the world. Factor model to estimate common components in the main macroeconomic aggregates (output, consumption and investment) in a sixty-country sample covering seven regions of the world. In particular, we simultaneously estimate (i) a dynamic factor common to all aggregates, regions, and countries (the world factor); (ii) a set of 7 regional dynamic factors common across aggregates within a region; (iii) 60 country factors to capture dynamic comovement across aggregates within each country; and (iv) a component for each aggregate that captures idiosyncratic dynamics.
Decompose the volatility in each aggregate into the fraction due to the world, region, country, and idiosyncratic components. The results indicate that the world factor is an important source of volatility for aggregates in most countries, providing evidence for a world business cycle. Find that the region-specific factor plays only a minor role in explaining fluctuations in economic activity. While the world and regional factors together account for a larger share of fluctuations in output than in consumption, the country-specific and idiosyncratic components play much larger roles in explaining investment dynamics. Explore how the three aggregates in each country relate to the world, region and country factors, and document similarities and differences across regions, countries and aggregates. We link the empirical results to the economic structures of the countries…...

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