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Study Smart

In: People

Submitted By callmejoejo
Words 1257
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Belajar Berkumpulan

Pernahkah kita membaca buku, tetapi apa yang dibaca tidak dapat disimpan di dalam ingatan?. Pernahkah kita merasa kecewa atas segala usaha yang kita telah laksanakan tersebut?.

Jika ini berlaku kepada diri kita, sebenarnya teknik belajar kita adalah tidak sistematik. Belajar cara untuk belajar adalah amat penting. Kaedah dalam belajar adalah kita mempalajari sesuatu ilmu dan teknik belajar yang berkesan untuk mendapat ingatan yang maksimum.Mengingat merupakan satu perkara yang boleh dipelajari. Apabila sesuatu perkar ayang kita baca tetapi tidak boleh kita ingati, ia akan mnjadi hanya proses ingatan jangka pendek.
Namun apa yang kita mahukan adalah segala fakta menjadi ingatan jangka panjang. Sebagai contoh jikalau kita membaca buku dan kita cuba mangingat. apabila kawan bertanya kita, selalunya ada perkara yang kita boleh ingat dan sebahagiannya kita terlupa.

Contoh yang kedua pula misalnya nombor kad pengenalan yang kita ingat.
Nombor kad pengenalan yang kita ingati iitu adalah proses ingaan jangka panjang. Contoh proses ingatan jangka panjang yang lain adalah seperti nombor telefon rumah sendiri, nonbor telefon rumah teman rapat, warna kereta dan sebagainya. Ingatan jangka pendek akan mudah lupus dari ingatan kita.
Justeru ingatan menjadi perkara penting, lebih-lebih lagi apabila mahu menghadapi peperiksaan. Maka satu kaedah mengingat yang sistematik amat diperlukan. Proses ingatan dalam pembelajaran amat penting. Oleh yang demikian terdapat pelbagai kaedah untuk mengekalkan ingatan. Sebagai pelajar, setelah kita mempunyai motivasi yang tinggi, kita juga mesti mempunyai kemahiran pembelajaran yang berkesan.
Mengapa dilihat pelajar yang mempunyai kesungguhan yang tinggi tetapi apabila keputusan yang diumumkan, mereka tidak mencapai keputusan yang cemerlang. Sebenarnya disamping motivasi yang tinggi kemahiran belajar yang berkesan perlu ada pada diri pelajar. Kemahiran ini sebagai contohnya termasuklah kemahiran membuat nota secara peta minda, mengambil nota secara neumonik, teknik belajar secara berkumpulan, teknik imaginasi dan lain-lain.

Apabila kita katakan sebagai kemahiran, ia menuntut kita tahu apakah kemahiran yang kita akan belajar. Ia lebih tepat kita sebut sebagai belajar cara untuk belajar.
Selalu kita sebut sebagai "smart study" iaitu belajar dengan kaedah yang betul ditambah dengan minat, motivasi serta kesungguhan yang tinggi. Apabila disebut sebagai kemahiran ia juga perlukan ulangan.

Teknik Belajar

Teknik belajar berkumpulan adalah antara teknik belajar yang begitu popular di kalangan pelajar serta mahasiswa adalah secara berkumpulan. Apabila ditanya kepada kita, apakah kita tahu tentang teknik belajar secara kumpulan. Ramai antara kita yang akan mengatakan mereka tahu tentang apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan belajar berkumpulan, tetapi sejauh manakah pengetahuan serta pemahaman kita dalam aspek ini. Apabila ditanya tentang belajar berkumpulan ini, ramai mengatakan bahawa ia hanya sekadar dilaksanakan bersama kawan-kawan. Belajar berkumpulan harus dihalusi dan diteliti. Ini kerana ada segelintir yang mengatakan bahawa belajar berkumpulan hanya membuang masa sahaja. Apabila keluar dari sesi belajar secara berkumpulan, tidak banyak manfaat yang diperolehi. Ini merupakan tanggapan yang salah.

Menurut Mohd Yusof Othman (1998), menyatakan satu kaedah yang boleh dilakukan dalam usaha untuk meningkat dan menjana ilmu adalah belajar secara kumpulan. Belajar secara berkumpulan boleh dalam bentuk yang formal seperti membentuk dalam kumpulan tertentu (study circle) dengan matlamat yang sama, atau kumpulan yang tidak formal dana mempunyai ahli-ahli yang terdiri daripada pelbagai latarbelakang yang berbeza. Belajar secara berkumpulan sebenarnya lebih berkesan berbanding dengan belajar bersendirian. Ini kerana dalam belajar secara berkumpulan, idea atau pemikiran dapat dikongsi bersama. Misalnya ada sebahagian ahli yang membaca buku yang berbeza daripada kita, pandangan daripada buku tersebut dapat diperolehi dengan segera. Begitu juga dengan pengalaman yang berbeza yang dialami oleh setiap ahli kumpulan. namun demikian, belajar berkumpulan memerlukana adab dan disiplin diri yang tinggi. Misalnya perlu mengemukakan pandangan secara teratur, bersedia untuk berbeza pendapat, menggunakan kumpulan sebagai wadah untuk
"sumbang saran" atau menyemarakkan idea.

Perkara lain yang juga perlu diberi perhatian dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan ilmu pengetahuan adalah kesanggupan untuk berfikir secara aktif. Yakni kesanggupan untuk berhujjah dalam minda dengan melakukan analisis dan hipotesis secara kritis dengan penuh adab dan akhlak disamping menyakini wibawa diri orang yang menyampaikan maklumat. Dengan semikian, pemikir yang baik bukanlah pemikir yang stereotype yang tidak boleh menghormati kaedah bagaimana orang yang tidak sealiran dengannya berfikir. Sebagai contoh katakanlah seorang pelajar yang bijak menyenaraikan isi-isi penting dalam topik "Gejala sosial di kalangan remaja". Pelajar ini mendapat 10 isi. Kemudian tajuk ini diberikan juga kepada kumpulan (5 hingga 7 orang) pelajar. Mereka ini dapat menyenaraikan sekurang-kurangnya 15 isi penting.

Secara luarannya dapat dilihat bahawa kumpulan dapat memberikan sumbangan yang besar jika dibandingkan dengan seorang. Namun yang menjadi dilemanya adalah kaedah yang tersusun, sistematik dan sempurna. Di sini dipaparkan kaedah yang betul tentang belajar berkumpulan.

Peranan Belajar Berkumpulan

1. Agihkan setiap ahli dengan satu tajuk.
Setiap ahli perlu diberi tanggungjawab. Jika kita menjadi ahli dalam kumpulan tersebut, kita mesti mempunyai satu tanggungjawab yang mesti dipegang. Ini membolehkan kita mengambil berat dan merasakan bahawa kita mempunyai peranan di dalam kumpulan.
2. Ahli mesti sehaluan.

Ahli yang dipilih dalam kumpulan mesti mempunyai matlamat yang sama iaitu cemerlang dalam pelajaran. Kita tidak mahu ahli yang ada di dalam kumpulan untuk mencukupkan bilangan. Ahli mesti mempunyai matlamat yang jelas dan bukan hanya kerana ia sahabat karib sahaja. Dikhuatiri jika ahli seumpama ini ada, ia akan menyebabkan kumpulan kita tidak akan mencapai matlamatnya.

3. Setiap ahli perlu menjiwai tajuk tersebut.

Apabila kita telah menyediakan ahli dengan setiap tajuk, kita mestilah juga memastikan bahawa kita bersedia dengan tajuk tersebut.Ini sangat penting kerana jika kita telah bersedia maka persoalan yang timbul hasil kemusykilan dari ahli yang lain dapat kita jelaskan.

4. Berbincang dengan guru atau orang yang lebih arif.

Sebelum melaksanakan teknik belajar secara berkumpulan ini, sila pastikan kalau-kalau ada perkara yang tidak faham tentang topik yang dipertanggungjawabkan. Oleh yang demikian berbincanglah dahulu dengan guru.
Ini bertujuan untuk kita lebih mendalami tentang topik tersebut. Dengan yang demikian kita akan lebih bersedia semasa perbincangan.

5. Penumpuan semasa ahli membentang.

Penglibatana semua ahli membawa implikasi yang besar. Berikan penumpuan yang sewajarnya kepada ahli yang sedang membentang. janganlah ada dia antara kita semasa ahli sedang membentang, kita tidak memberikan perhatian. Andaikan apabila kita sedang bercakap, ada orang yang tidak memberi perhatian kepada kita.
Bagaimanakah
perasaan kita ketika itu? Sudah tentu kita merasai kita tidak dihargai, justeru itu berikan sepenuh-penuh penumpuan semasa rakan sedang membentang dalam kumpulan. Pengormatan dan kesediaan mendengar pembentangan ahli lain merupakan seni dalam aktiviti belajar berkumpulan ini.

6. Bersoal jawab.

Kumpulan yang dinamik dan berkembang adalah kumpulan yang wujudnya perbincangan dan soal jawab. Semakin banyak perkara yan relevan dibaincangkan semakin bertambah dinamik kumpulan itu. Ahli kumpulan bukan sahaja mendengat kumpulan lain membentang semata-mata , tetapi sentiasa bersoal jawab atas perkara yang menimbulkan ketidak fahaman. ini sebenarnya membuka minda kita agar lebih memberikan penelitian atas isu dan tajuk yang dibincangkan. Ini menjadikan kita individu yang kritikal dan analitikal dalam membincangkan tajuk tersebut.
Minda yang kritikal dan analitikal merupakan minda yang cemerlang. Galakkan diri bertanya hal-hal yang berkaitan yang tidak difahami atau bercanggah dengan pemahaman kita.

7. Agihkan bahan

Di dalam belajar berkumpulan lantik seorang ketua, setiausaha dan bendahari secara bergilir-gilir, iaitu bagi mata pelajaran yang berbeza-beza mempunyai ketua yang berbeza-beza. ini adalah untuk memberikan peluang dan tanggungjawab kepada semua ahli. Maka laksanakanlah tugas seperti tugas mengagihkan bahan-bahan kepada ahli-ahli di mana dilakukan oleh setiausaha.
Ketua akan menetapkan masa perjumpaan serta berbincang tentang pembahagian tajuk-tajuk. Secara ringkasnya belajar berkumpulan banyak membantu pelajar menguasai sesuatu mata pelajaran jika dilaksanakan dengan betul.

K = Kerjasama diperlukan
U = Untuk semua ahli
M = Mesra menjadi faktor penting
P = Prihatin kepada setiap ahli
U = Ulangkaji terlebih dahulu
L = Laksanakan sebaik mungkin
A = Anggapan antara ahli mestilah positif
N = Natijah cemerlang diperolehi

Kombinasi huruf-huruf di atas diharapkan memberikan celik akal kepada kita untuk melaksanakan teknik ini sebaik mungkin.…...

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A Study on the Smart Home Technologies and Their Applications for the Disabled and Ageing

...A Study on the Smart Home Technologies and their Applications for the Disabled and Ageing Swati Khuraniya Student, Manipal University Dubai swati.khuraniya@gmail.com M.I. Jawid Nazir Manipal University Dubai jawid_nazir@manipaldubai.com Abstract In an ageing world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential especially for the elderly and the disabled who need to rely on others to take care of them. Now, due to advances in technology, inhabitants of these smart homes do not have to depend on anybody but with the help of these smart homes, these individuals can manage their daily lives specific to their own needs. Thus, the “Home of the Future” is now not only a possibility but also a reality. Smart home technology is a collective term for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as used in houses. The technology can be used to monitor, warn and carry out functions according to selected criteria by the disabled people. Smart home technology makes the automatic communication, via the Internet, fixed telephones lines and mobile phones. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technologies used to help people to overcome their dependence and health problems. Keywords: Assistive technology, Disabilities, Ethical issues, Smart homes, Technology acceptance 1. Introduction As we outgrow each phase of human life not only do our needs and requirements change but so do our views and beliefs on life. One integral part of our......

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