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Study Habits

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CHILDREN`S STUDY HABITS AND PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
TIFFANY YOUNG
Department of Psychology
Missouri Western State University
Sponsored by: BRIAN CRONK (cronk@missouriwestern.edu)

ABSTRACT
Children`s study habits have been related to parental involvement for many years. Parental involvement includes many different situational factors, such as, how much time a parent studies with their child, how much time a parent allows a child to watch television, and if the parents smoke. In this study fourth grade children were given a survey about situational factors in relationship to their parents. The demographic information that was included was their age and gender. There were some significant differences of situational factors parents participate in compared to the study habits a child retains.

INTRODUCTION
Children’s study habits and the degree of parental involvement in studying seem to show differences in how they learn and how serious they are about learning. Some examples of what can influence children and their scholastic achievement are if their parents study with them, how much television they watch, and if they even like school. Luster and McAdoo (1996) believe that parents influence what a child brings to school and how well a child acquires school related skill throughout the school years such as working with a child on homework and this can influence other behaviors such as study habits that will affect the child’s achievement.
Parent training interventions are highly promising for young children (Webster-Stratton, 1993). Parents have many different influences on their children and parents are needing more intervention programs because of all the problems children are faced with today. Parents who have these training’s show that only 30% to 40% have continued to show child behavior problems in the clinical range (Forehand & Long, 1986 as cited in Webster-Stratton, 1990).
Children who attend preschool are more likely than there peers to have favorable experiences in early elementary grades and, ultimately to achieve desirable outcomes (Berrueta-Clement, Schweinhart, Barnett, Epstein & Weikert, 1984 as cited in Luster & McAdoo, 1996). Playing is an important activity in the school setting, and that they also learn that work is important (Ferne, 1988 as cited Marshall, 1993). In elementary school setting, schools should become more \"playlike\" rather than worklike (Block, 1984 as cited in Marshall, 1993). This type of learning is in the student as learner role, which shows that children learn by playing and other activities. Children who are sent to preschool will adapt to schoolwork routines quicker which will act out through the rest of their school years (Edwards & Merter, 1987 as cited in Marshall, 1993). Children who are involved in sports are also more likely to be better in mental skills (Kreiner-Phillips & Orlick, 1993; McCaffrey & Orlick, 1989; Orlick & Lee-Gartner, 1993; Orlick & Parington, 1986, 1988 as cited in Gilber & Orlick, 1996). Orlick (1993) believes that elementary schools should develop a program on mental skill and this will help them to effectively lower their heart rates, which will help them in both psychological and physiological states.
Socioeconomic and racial status also play a role in learning and in how much children want to know and learn. One-fourth of high schools serving low-income neighborhoods have dropout rates of 50% or higher (Braddock & McPartland, 1992 as cited in Luster & McAdoo, 1996). There is no relation to the race and the socioeconomic status, because there are whites in both classes and African-Americans in both classes. According to the National Academy of Sciences (1993) African American children from poor families succeed in school, but there are no known factors that contribute to this. Parents are not the only ones to blame for school failure, the communities have low funding, expectations and high levels of stress and peer pressure. With these findings it is clear that we need to use intervention programs not only for parent but also for students and teachers as well. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of health problems for not only those who are active smokers but for passive smokers as well (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 1980, 1988, 1989). Smoking also produces physiological effects as well as biological and psychological problems. Smoking may also interact with other parental characteristics that take away form the parent child interactions, such as the amount of time they study with them or if they even study with them Leftwich & Collins, Jr., 1994). Children whose parents smoke show a number of behavioral symptoms such as irritability, decreased self-control and lack interest or attention (USDHHS, 1980 as cited in Leftwich & Collins, Jr., 1994).
Viewing television for more than four hours a day is related to poor school achievement (Williams, Haertel, Haertel & Walberg, 1982 as cited in Truglio, Murphy, Oppenheimer, Huston, & Wright, 1996). According to Rice, Huston, Truglio, and Wright (1990) educational programs are associated with better academic skills and prosocial behavior, however, most children watch more cartoons than anything. Families in lower economic classes watch television more than those in higher classes (Condry, 1989 as cited in Truglio, Murphy, Oppenheimer, Huston, & Wright, 1996). Children who attend an after school program are also less likely to watch as much television, and boys are more likely to watch more television than girls (Nielson, 1990 as cited in Truglio, Murphy, Oppenheimer, Huston, & Wright, 1996). The purpose of this study is to determine if parental involvement and other parental influences have an effect on children`’ study habits and attitudes. The hypothesis is parents who smoke will have less interactions with their children such as they will spend less time studying with their children. Children who are involved in sports are more likely to do their homework and children who go to an after school program are more likely to watch less television leading to better scholastic achievement.

METHOD

PARTICIPANTS
This study used 59 fourth grade students from two local schools in St. Joseph Missouri, located in the northwestern region of the state. The two schools being used are of different economic statuses. Demographic information that was gathered was their age and gender.
APPARATUS/MATERIALS
The classroom teachers gave me the permission slips, so I knew the children who were able to participate in the study. I gave them a short survey consisting of 14 questions.
PROCEDURE
The classroom teachers read the names of the children who were able to participate, and when their name was read the child came and got a survey and then took it back and completed it. After they completed the survey they turned it back into me and the permission slips were also given to me in a sealed envelope.

RESULTS

For the 59 participants I used a Spearman Rho correlation, for all 14 questions I represented in the survey. There were 10 significant correlation’s found in this study. Parents who smoke had children who watch more television (Rho(58)=.355,p<.05). There was also a positive correlation between children who like school with their parents smoking (Rho(58)=.334,p<.05), and smoking also correlated with the school the children go to(Rho(58)=-.372,p<.05). The school the child goes to had a positive correlation with them attending an after school program (Rho(58)=.299,p<.05). The children who were at the lower income school were less likely to attend an after school program. There was a significant correlation between the age of the child with the school they attended (Rho(58)=-.342,p<.05). The children in the higher income school had less of an age range in their students. There was a significant correlation between a child doing their homework with the parents being divorced (Rho(58)=-.273,p<.05). There was a higher divorce rate in the lower income school. Another correlation observed was the school the child attends with if they do their homework (Rho(58)=-.344,p<.05). The children in the higher income school do their homework more often than children in the lower income school. There was a positive correlation between children who do their homework with if they do their homework when their parents are not there to help them, (Rho(58)=.276,p<.05). The time studied correlated with if they did their homework (Rho(58)=-.298,p<.05). The time they studied also correlated with if they studied when their parents were not able to study with them,
(Rho(58)=-.296,p<.05). There were no other significant correlation’s found. This study consisted of 28 girls and 31 boys and there were 31 nine year olds, 27 ten year olds and 1 eleven year old.

DISCUSSION

The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s study habits, their parent’s involvement and other situational factors. It was found that the school the child went to determined how often they did their homework, it was also found that the children at the lower income school had more parents who smoked. It was also found that the children who had parents who smoked the child watched more television. This is interesting when examined with the fact that parents who smoke do not spend as much time studying with their children, allowing them more time to watch television. This leads to lower grades because they do not do their homework as often leading them not to like school as well.
I also expected to find a relationship between the sex of the child and whether he or she did his or her homework, the results were insignificant. There was also no significant relationship between doing homework and playing sports. If there were older students as participants we may have found that playing sports leads to doing homework, because of competitiveness and better mental skills.
There may have been some limitations to this study such as, the way the teacher acted, or if they were suppose to be somewhere else. One class had a teacher hurrying them so they could go to another class. Another possible limitation could have been a reward, one class received extra recess if they brought back their permission slip and participated in the study. There may have also been a limitation of if they read the questions and did the survey themselves or if by me reading the questions to them they answered differently. There may have also been another limitation to the fact that some did not know some of the words in the survey.
There were students who were not able to participate in the study because they forgot to bring their permission slip back. Some of the others were not able to participate because they were absent. One school had nine children out because of headlice, and the other school had 12 absent for various reasons and 9 in special programs.
In conclusion, many aspects involving the parental relationship were discovered in this study. There are many different aspects to look into for future studies in this area. There are many different situational factors that affect children’s study habits and we can only assume the possibilities because it is so complicated to test. There are too many interactions that are involved in determining the truth, but there are a lot of factors, for researchers to work with in the near future.

REFERENCES

Gilbert, J. N., Orlick, T. (1996). Evaluation of a life skills program with grade who children. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 31, 139-152.
Leftwich, M.J.T., Collins, F.L. (1994). Parental Smoking, depression, and child development: Persistent and unanswered questions. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19, 557-569.
Luster, T., McAdoo, H. (1996). Family and child influences on educational attainment: a secondary analysis of the high/scope Perry Preschool data. Developmental Psychology, 32, 26-39.
Marshall, H.H. (1994). Children’s understanding of academic tasks: Work, play, or learning. Journal of Research in childhood Education, 9, 35-46.
Truglio, R.T., Murphy, K.C., Oppenheimer, S., Huston, A.C. (1996). Predictors of children’s entertainment television viewing: why are they tuning in?. Journal of applied Developmental Psychology, 17, 475-493.
Webster-Stratton, C., Hammond, M. (1997). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 93-109.

APPENDIX A

Nonparametric correlations
Spearman’s Rho
Correlation
Do your parents smoke? How much television .355** do you watch?
What school do you attend? Do you go to an after
School program? .299*
What school do you attend? How old are you? -.342**
Do you do your homework? Are your parents divorced? -.273*
What school do you attend? Do you do your homework? -.344**
Do you study when your parents cannot study with you? Do you do your homework? .276*
How often do you study a night? Do you do your homework? -.298*
Do your parents smoke? Do you like school? .334**
Do your parents smoke? What school do you go to? -.372**
How much time do you Do you study when your
Study each night? Parents can’t study with you? -.296*
**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (1-tailed).

APPENDIX B

Circle the one that best fits you.
1.How old are you?
8 9 10 11
2.Are you a boy or girl?
Boy Girl
3.Do your parents study with you?
Always Sometimes Never
4.Do you do your homework?
Always Sometimes Never
5.Do you study when your parents can’t study with you?
Always Sometimes Never
6.How long do you study each night?
Less than 1 hour 1-2 Hours More than 2 hours
7.Did you go to preschool?
Yes No
8.Do you go to an afterschool program?
Yes No
9.Are your parents divorced?
Yes No
10.How often do you watch t.v. a night?
Less than 1 hour 1-2 hours More than 2 hours
11.How many of your parents smoke?
None One Both
12.How many meals do you eat a day?
One Two Three
13.Do you play sports?
Yes No
14.Do you like school?
Yes No

What are the factors that can affect the study habits of the students?
In: Learning Theories, Education, Learning Tips [Edit categories]
Answer:
Anything can affect study habits! Your ability to study and concentrate can be increased by finding a quiet place where you can concentrate. Distractions such as phones, chat rooms, IM and text messaging, TV, video games, music, and computers can all decrease your ability to learn. Whatever is going on around you and inside your own mind is going to affect your study habits.

Here are some more factors from our WikiReaders:

Age: if you are very young, it's harder to concentrate for long periods

Determination: If you want to succeed, you will work harder than if you don't really care about something
Social Factors: sometimes you don't have a lot of money, and you end up living somewhere noisy and distracting. In this case, you can study at the library, or at school. Sometimes your friends want to distract you from your studies, and you have to resist temptation.

Other Factors affecting study habits
1. Surrounding such as entertainment center, games center etc.
2. The rule of the schools or the universities
3. The teaching style of the educators
4. Leisure of the students
5. Some activities in schools or universities
6. The Library corpus
7. Friends and families
8. Assignments and homework restriction
The Factors affecting study habit
1. Surrounding such as entertainment center, games center etc.
2. The rule of the schools or the universities
3. The teaching style of the educators
4. Leisure of the students
5. Some activities in schools or universities
6. The Library corpus
7. Friends and families
8. Assignments and homework restriction
-------------------------------------------------

Study Habits and Homework
Many of the issues concerning success in school revolve around developing good study habits and expectations regarding homework. Parents can certainly play a major role in providing the encouragement, environment, and materials necessary for successful studying to take place.
Some general things adults can do, include: * Establish a routine for meals, bedtime and study/homework * Provide books, supplies, and a special place for studying * Encourage the child to "ready" himself for studying (refocus attention and relax) * Offer to study with the child periodically (call out spelling words or do flash cards)
An established study routine is very important, especially for younger school age children. If a child knows, for example, that he is expected to do homework immediately after supper prior to watching television, he will be better able to adjust and ready himself than if he is allowed to do homework any time he pleases.
Connected to the idea of a study routine is the concept of a homework chart. This type of visual system tends to work very well, especially with children ages 9-12. The chart might look something like this:
All children need their own place at home to do homework. The space does not need to be big or fancy, but it needs to be personal so that they feel it is their "study place."
-------------------------------------------------
Remember, learning styles differ from child to child, so the study place should allow for these differences. Parents can take a walk through the house with their child to find that special corner that is just right.

To learn effectively and progress through school, a child needs good study habits. School assignments often necessitate that a youngster spends time outside school to complete them. Kids also need to prepare for tests by studying course material. As a parent, you have an important role in helping your child develop positive study habits. By instituting these skills early, you equip your child for academic success.

_____________________________________________________

Many capable children at all grade levels experience frustration and failure in school. It's not because they lack ability, but because they do not have adequate study skills. Good study habits are important for success in school. Knowing how to study effectively fosters feelings of competence, develops positive attitudes, and helps children realize they can control how well they do in school and in life. Good study habits also lay the groundwork for successful work habits as an adult.
Teachers and parents must work together to help children learn good study skills. Preferred learning styles vary from child to child. Children need to discover how they learn best, work out a study system that fits their learning style, and use that system regularly. Parents of elementary students usually help their children more than parents of adolescents. However, older students also need parental support and encouragement throughout high school.
Four Basic Principles to Enhance Study Skills
1. Make doing homework a positive experience: associate it with love and affection, freedom, fun and self-control.
2. Make homework a high priority.
3. Use homework to teach organization skills and improve learning skills. Remember that the primary purpose of homework is to improve learning and foster work habits.
4. Set expectations for homework, then provide and enforce logical, meaningful consequences if those expectations are not met.…...

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Study Habits

...Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Study habits are the behaviors use when preparing for tests or learning academic material. Students have their own habitual practices that they used to help them study and learn. Good study habits can help students achieve and/or maintain good grades. Study habit of every student is one of the most important factors that affect his or her understanding regarding a certain subject. It means, if a student possesses poor study habits, she has a greater chance of getting failing grades, if compare to a student who has a good study habit. In this study, the students will know the better techniques and discipline on having a proper study habits, therefore their academic status will improve and they will have a chance to have a high grades. Statement of the problem The study aimed to know the Study Habits of the CBE students in TIP-QC. Specifically it sought answers to the following questions; 1. What is the profile of respondents? 2. Social economic status 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; 1.3 Civil status; 3. What is their learning materials available at home / learning facilities available at home? 4. What is the nature of relationship between students study habit and their family background? Assumption This study is conducted based on the following assumptions: 1.) That the students will set aside their study; 2.) That the students will be aware to their study habits; Importance of the Study Students.......

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Study Habits

...ready to fail. Relationship between Study habit and Education has been proven since day 1. Since, study habit refers to the method or technique used by a certain student that effectively helps him or her in anchoring him or her on his studies. Given with this definition good study habit can literally mean a positive result on academic performance while inefficiency in study habit usually leads to academic failure. Several types of study habits, and several methods but this is all about their effectiveness in helping each student. Background of the study Study habit has a great effect in achieving a degree. A Good Study Habit is the key and this research aims to understand it in a deeper and more informative way. The study was conducted inside the Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College. With 49 respondents that answered survey questionnaires confidentially it shows a result that answers the questions formulated by the researchers. References had been gotten from internet and book from the Library of the Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College and also from other researchers particularly the students who’s currently in their 1st-3rd year. The researchers aim to investigate what appears to be one of the most helpful habits in studying. Statement of the problem This research aims to answer what is the most helpful or effective study habit of DCLC – BS Marine Engineering students to pass their courses. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following......

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Study Habits

...STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education of Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan) Cagayan de Oro City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research Presented by: Amora, Sharicka Anne Veronica P. Bonote, Paulyn Y. Dupende, Dan Anthony M. Lopez, Conie Grace D. Retes, Hazel Mae P. Salapang, Junelyn March 16, 2013 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013” prepared and submitted by Sharicka Anne P. Veronica Amora, Paulyn Y. Bonote, Dan Anthony M. Dupende, Conie Grace D. Lopez, Hazel Mae P. Retes and Junelyn Salapang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research, has been examined and is recommended for Oral Examination. Ms. Charity Rose B. Absin Adviser ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee on Oral Examination with a grade of......

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Study Habit

...INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY 1560–8530/2002/04–3–370–371 http://www.ijab.org Relationship of Study Habits with Educational Achievements AISHA RIAZ, ASMA KIRAN AND NIAZ H. MALIK Division of Education and Extension, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–38040, Pakistan ABSTRACT Study implies investigation for the mastery of facts, ideas or procedures that are yet unknown or only partially known to the individuals. A number of factors are associated with this cause, out of which the effectiveness of study habits occupies a pivotal place. In order to check the influence of study habits on the learning out comes of the students, a survey was conducted in the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad by interviewing all the 150 B.Sc. and M.Sc. Home Economics students. The results indicate a strong impact of study habits on the educational performance of learners. Key Words: Educational achievements; Schedule of study; Study habits INTRODUCTION The low understanding level accompanied by discouraging achievements of the students has become cause of great concern of our country and has bothered badly the educationists, parents, government and even the foreign countries at the eve of evaluating our students’ knowledge. The educationists have made a number of systematic efforts to find out the causes of deterioration and suggested remedies thereof. Almost all the commissions and education policies including 1999-2000 have not only acknowledged the......

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