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CONCEPTS OF

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
TENTH EDITION

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CONCEPTS OF

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
TENTH EDITION

R OB E RT W. S EB ES TA
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sebesta, Robert W.
Concepts of programming languages / Robert W. Sebesta.—10th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-13-139531-2 (alk. paper)
1. Programming languages (Electronic computers) I. Title.
QA76.7.S43 2009
005.13—dc22

2008055702

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-139531-9
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-139531-2

New to the Tenth Edition
Chapter 5: a new section on the let construct in functional programming languages was added
Chapter 6: the section on COBOL's record operations was removed; new sections on lists, tuples, and unions in F# were added
Chapter 8: discussions of Fortran's Do statement and Ada's case statement were removed; descriptions of the control statements in functional programming languages were moved to this chapter from
Chapter 15
Chapter 9: a new section on closures, a new section on calling subprograms indirectly, and a new section on generic functions in F# were added; the description of Ada's generic subprograms was removed
Chapter 11: a new section on Objective-C was added, the chapter was substantially revised
Chapter 12: a new section on Objective-C was added, five new figures were added
Chapter 13: a section on concurrency in functional programming languages was added; the discussion of Ada's asynchronous message passing was removed
Chapter 14: a section on C# event handling was added
Chapter 15: a new section on F# and a new section on support for functional programming in primarily imperative languages were added; discussions of several different constructs in functional programming languages were moved from Chapter 15 to earlier chapters

Preface
Changes for the Tenth Edition

T

he goals, overall structure, and approach of this tenth edition of Concepts of Programming Languages remain the same as those of the nine earlier editions. The principal goals are to introduce the main constructs of contemporary programming languages and to provide the reader with the tools necessary for the critical evaluation of existing and future programming languages. A secondary goal is to prepare the reader for the study of compiler design, by providing an in-depth discussion of programming language structures, presenting a formal method of describing syntax and introducing approaches to lexical and syntatic analysis.
The tenth edition evolved from the ninth through several different kinds of changes. To maintain the currency of the material, some of the discussion of older programming languages has been removed. For example, the description of COBOL’s record operations was removed from Chapter 6 and that of
Fortran’s Do statement was removed from Chapter 8. Likewise, the description of Ada’s generic subprograms was removed from Chapter 9 and the discussion of Ada’s asynchronous message passing was removed from Chapter 13.
On the other hand, a section on closures, a section on calling subprograms indirectly, and a section on generic functions in F# were added to Chapter 9; sections on Objective-C were added to Chapters 11 and 12; a section on concurrency in functional programming languages was added to Chapter 13; a section on C# event handling was added to Chapter 14; a section on F# and a section on support for functional programming in primarily imperative languages were added to Chapter 15.
In some cases, material has been moved. For example, several different discussions of constructs in functional programming languages were moved from Chapter 15 to earlier chapters. Among these were the descriptions of the control statements in functional programming languages to Chapter 8 and the lists and list operations of Scheme and ML to Chapter 6. These moves indicate a significant shift in the philosophy of the book—in a sense, the mainstreaming of some of the constructs of functional programming languages. In previous editions, all discussions of functional programming language constructs were segregated in Chapter 15.
Chapters 11, 12, and 15 were substantially revised, with five figures being added to Chapter 12.
Finally, numerous minor changes were made to a large number of sections of the book, primarily to improve clarity. vi Preface

vii

The Vision
This book describes the fundamental concepts of programming languages by discussing the design issues of the various language constructs, examining the design choices for these constructs in some of the most common languages, and critically comparing design alternatives.
Any serious study of programming languages requires an examination of some related topics, among which are formal methods of describing the syntax and semantics of programming languages, which are covered in Chapter 3.
Also, implementation techniques for various language constructs must be considered: Lexical and syntax analysis are discussed in Chapter 4, and implementation of subprogram linkage is covered in Chapter 10. Implementation of some other language constructs is discussed in various other parts of the book.
The following paragraphs outline the contents of the tenth edition.

Chapter Outlines
Chapter 1 begins with a rationale for studying programming languages. It then discusses the criteria used for evaluating programming languages and language constructs. The primary influences on language design, common design tradeoffs, and the basic approaches to implementation are also examined.
Chapter 2 outlines the evolution of most of the important languages discussed in this book. Although no language is described completely, the origins, purposes, and contributions of each are discussed. This historical overview is valuable, because it provides the background necessary to understanding the practical and theoretical basis for contemporary language design. It also motivates further study of language design and evaluation. In addition, because none of the remainder of the book depends on Chapter 2, it can be read on its own, independent of the other chapters.
Chapter 3 describes the primary formal method for describing the syntax of programming language—BNF. This is followed by a description of attribute grammars, which describe both the syntax and static semantics of languages.
The difficult task of semantic description is then explored, including brief introductions to the three most common methods: operational, denotational, and axiomatic semantics.
Chapter 4 introduces lexical and syntax analysis. This chapter is targeted to those colleges that no longer require a compiler design course in their curricula.
Like Chapter 2, this chapter stands alone and can be read independently of the rest of the book.
Chapters 5 through 14 describe in detail the design issues for the primary constructs of programming languages. In each case, the design choices for several example languages are presented and evaluated. Specifically, Chapter 5 covers the many characteristics of variables, Chapter 6 covers data types, and Chapter 7 explains expressions and assignment statements. Chapter 8 describes control

viii

Preface

statements, and Chapters 9 and 10 discuss subprograms and their implementation. Chapter 11 examines data abstraction facilities. Chapter 12 provides an indepth discussion of language features that support object-oriented programming
(inheritance and dynamic method binding), Chapter 13 discusses concurrent program units, and Chapter 14 is about exception handling, along with a brief discussion of event handling.
The last two chapters (15 and 16) describe two of the most important alternative programming paradigms: functional programming and logic programming.
However, some of the data structures and control constructs of functional programming languages are discussed in Chapters 6 and 8. Chapter 15 presents an introduction to Scheme, including descriptions of some of its primitive functions, special forms, and functional forms, as well as some examples of simple functions written in Scheme. Brief introductions to ML, Haskell, and F# are given to illustrate some different directions in functional language design. Chapter 16 introduces logic programming and the logic programming language, Prolog.

To the Instructor
In the junior-level programming language course at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, the book is used as follows: We typically cover Chapters 1 and 3 in detail, and though students find it interesting and beneficial reading,
Chapter 2 receives little lecture time due to its lack of hard technical content.
Because no material in subsequent chapters depends on Chapter 2, as noted earlier, it can be skipped entirely, and because we require a course in compiler design, Chapter 4 is not covered.
Chapters 5 through 9 should be relatively easy for students with extensive programming experience in C++, Java, or C#. Chapters 10 through 14 are more challenging and require more detailed lectures.
Chapters 15 and 16 are entirely new to most students at the junior level.
Ideally, language processors for Scheme and Prolog should be available for students required to learn the material in these chapters. Sufficient material is included to allow students to dabble with some simple programs.
Undergraduate courses will probably not be able to cover all of the material in the last two chapters. Graduate courses, however, should be able to completely discuss the material in those chapters by skipping over parts of the early chapters on imperative languages.

Supplemental Materials
The following supplements are available to all readers of this book at www
.pearsonhighered.com/cssupport.
• A set of lecture note slides. PowerPoint slides are available for each chapter in the book.
• PowerPoint slides containing all the figures in the book.

Preface

ix

A companion Website to the book is available at www.pearsonhighered.com/sebesta. This site contains mini-manuals (approximately 100-page tutorials) on a handful of languages. These proceed on the assumption that the student knows how to program in some other language, giving the student enough information to complete the chapter materials in each language. Currently the site includes manuals for C++, C, Java, and Smalltalk.
Solutions to many of the problem sets are available to qualified instructors in our Instructor Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
Please contact your school’s Pearson Education representative or visit www.pearsonhighered.com/irc to register.

Language Processor Availability
Processors for and information about some of the programming languages discussed in this book can be found at the following Websites:
C, C++, Fortran, and Ada

gcc.gnu.org

C# and F#

microsoft.com

Java

java.sun.com

Haskell

haskell.org

Lua

www.lua.org

Scheme

www.plt-scheme.org/software/drscheme

Perl

www.perl.com

Python

www.python.org

Ruby

www.ruby-lang.org

JavaScript is included in virtually all browsers; PHP is included in virtually all
Web servers.
All this information is also included on the companion Website.

Acknowledgments
The suggestions from outstanding reviewers contributed greatly to this book’s present form. In alphabetical order, they are:
Matthew Michael Burke
I-ping Chu
Teresa Cole
Pamela Cutter
Amer Diwan
Stephen Edwards
David E. Goldschmidt
Nigel Gwee

DePaul University
Boise State University
Kalamazoo College
University of Colorado
Virginia Tech
Southern University–Baton Rouge

x

Preface

Timothy Henry
Paul M. Jackowitz
Duane J. Jarc
K. N. King
Donald Kraft
Simon H. Lin
Mark Llewellyn
Bruce R. Maxim
Robert McCloskey
Curtis Meadow
Gloria Melara
Frank J. Mitropoulos
Euripides Montagne
Serita Nelesen
Bob Neufeld
Charles Nicholas
Tim R. Norton
Richard M. Osborne
Saverio Perugini
Walter Pharr
Michael Prentice
Amar Raheja
Hossein Saiedian
Stuart C. Shapiro
Neelam Soundarajan
Ryan Stansifer
Nancy Tinkham
Paul Tymann
Cristian Videira Lopes
Sumanth Yenduri
Salih Yurttas

University of Rhode Island
University of Scranton
University of Maryland, University College
Georgia State University
Louisiana State University
California State University–Northridge
University of Central Florida
University of Michigan–Dearborn
University of Scranton
University of Maine
California State University–Northridge
Nova Southeastern University
University of Central Florida
Calvin College
Wichita State University
University of Maryland-Baltimore County
University of Colorado-Colorado Springs
University of Colorado-Denver
University of Dayton
College of Charleston
SUNY Buffalo
California State Polytechnic University–Pomona
University of Kansas
SUNY Buffalo
Ohio State University
Florida Institute of Technology
Rowan University
Rochester Institute of Technology
University of California–Irvine
University of Southern Mississippi
Texas A&M University

Numerous other people provided input for the previous editions of
Concepts of Programming Languages at various stages of its development. All of their comments were useful and greatly appreciated. In alphabetical order, they are: Vicki Allan, Henry Bauer, Carter Bays, Manuel E. Bermudez, Peter
Brouwer, Margaret Burnett, Paosheng Chang, Liang Cheng, John Crenshaw,
Charles Dana, Barbara Ann Griem, Mary Lou Haag, John V. Harrison, Eileen
Head, Ralph C. Hilzer, Eric Joanis, Leon Jololian, Hikyoo Koh, Jiang B. Liu,
Meiliu Lu, Jon Mauney, Robert McCoard, Dennis L. Mumaugh, Michael G.
Murphy, Andrew Oldroyd, Young Park, Rebecca Parsons, Steve J. Phelps,
Jeffery Popyack, Raghvinder Sangwan, Steven Rapkin, Hamilton Richard,
Tom Sager, Joseph Schell, Sibylle Schupp, Mary Louise Soffa, Neelam
Soundarajan, Ryan Stansifer, Steve Stevenson, Virginia Teller, Yang Wang,
John M. Weiss, Franck Xia, and Salih Yurnas.

Preface

xi

Matt Goldstein, editor; Chelsea Kharakozova, editorial assistant; and,
Marilyn Lloyd, senior production manager of Addison-Wesley, and Gillian
Hall of The Aardvark Group Publishing Services, all deserve my gratitude for their efforts to produce the tenth edition both quickly and carefully.

About the Author
Robert Sebesta is an Associate Professor Emeritus in the Computer Science
Department at the University of Colorado–Colorado Springs. Professor Sebesta received a BS in applied mathematics from the University of Colorado in Boulder and MS and PhD degrees in computer science from Pennsylvania State University.
He has taught computer science for more than 38 years. His professional interests are the design and evaluation of programming languages.

Contents

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

1

1.1

Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages ............... 2

1.2

Programming Domains ..................................................................... 5

1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria ........................................................... 7

1.4

Influences on Language Design ....................................................... 18

1.5

Language Categories ...................................................................... 21

1.6

Language Design Trade-Offs ........................................................... 23

1.7

Implementation Methods ................................................................ 23

1.8

Programming Environments ........................................................... 31

Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set .............................................. 31

Chapter 2

Evolution of the Major Programming Languages

35

2.1

Zuse’s Plankalkül .......................................................................... 38

2.2

Pseudocodes .................................................................................. 39

2.3

The IBM 704 and Fortran .............................................................. 42

2.4

Functional Programming: LISP...................................................... 47

2.5

The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60 ........................... 52

2.6

Computerizing Business Records: COBOL ........................................ 58

2.7

The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC ........................................... 63

Interview: ALAN COOPER—User Design and Language Design................. 66

2.8

Everything for Everybody: PL/I ...................................................... 68

2.9

Two Early Dynamic Languages: APL and SNOBOL ......................... 71

2.10 The Beginnings of Data Abstraction: SIMULA 67 ........................... 72
2.11 Orthogonal Design: ALGOL 68 ....................................................... 73
2.12 Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs ......................................... 75 xii Contents

xiii

2.13 Programming Based on Logic: Prolog ............................................. 79
2.14 History’s Largest Design Effort: Ada .............................................. 81
2.15 Object-Oriented Programming: Smalltalk ........................................ 85
2.16 Combining Imperative and Object-Oriented Features: C++................ 88
2.17 An Imperative-Based Object-Oriented Language: Java ..................... 91
2.18 Scripting Languages....................................................................... 95
2.19 The Flagship .NET Language: C# ................................................. 101
2.20 Markup/Programming Hybrid Languages ...................................... 104
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 106

Chapter 3

Describing Syntax and Semantics

113

3.1

Introduction................................................................................. 114

3.2

The General Problem of Describing Syntax.................................... 115

3.3

Formal Methods of Describing Syntax........................................... 117

3.4

Attribute Grammars ..................................................................... 132
History Note

3.5

..................................................................................... 133

Describing the Meanings of Programs: Dynamic Semantics ............ 139
History Note

..................................................................................... 154

Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set ........... 161

Chapter 4

Lexical and Syntax Analysis

167

4.1

Introduction................................................................................. 168

4.2

Lexical Analysis ........................................................................... 169

4.3

The Parsing Problem .................................................................... 177

4.4

Recursive-Descent Parsing............................................................ 181

4.5

Bottom-Up Parsing ...................................................................... 190

Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 197

Chapter 5

Names, Bindings, and Scopes

203

5.1

Introduction................................................................................. 204

5.2

Names ......................................................................................... 205
History Note

..................................................................................... 205

xiv

Contents

5.3

Variables ..................................................................................... 207

5.4

The Concept of Binding ................................................................ 209

5.5

Scope .......................................................................................... 218

5.6

Scope and Lifetime ...................................................................... 229

5.7

Referencing Environments ............................................................ 230

5.8

Named Constants ......................................................................... 232

Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 234

Chapter 6

Data Types

243

6.1

Introduction................................................................................. 244

6.2

Primitive Data Types .................................................................... 246

6.3

Character String Types ................................................................. 250
History Note

..................................................................................... 251

6.4

User-Defined Ordinal Types ........................................................... 255

6.5

Array Types .................................................................................. 259
History Note
History Note

6.6

..................................................................................... 260
..................................................................................... 261

Associative Arrays........................................................................ 272
Interview: ROBERTO IERUSALIMSCHY—Lua ........................... 274

6.7

Record Types ................................................................................ 276

6.8

Tuple Types .................................................................................. 280

6.9

List Types .................................................................................... 281

6.10 Union Types ................................................................................. 284
6.11 Pointer and Reference Types ......................................................... 289
History Note

..................................................................................... 293

6.12 Type Checking .............................................................................. 302
6.13 Strong Typing ............................................................................... 303
6.14 Type Equivalence.......................................................................... 304
6.15 Theory and Data Types ................................................................. 308
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 310

Contents

Chapter 7

Expressions and Assignment Statements

xv

317

7.1

Introduction................................................................................. 318

7.2

Arithmetic Expressions ................................................................ 318

7.3

Overloaded Operators ................................................................... 328

7.4

Type Conversions .......................................................................... 329
History Note

7.5

..................................................................................... 332

Relational and Boolean Expressions.............................................. 332
History Note

..................................................................................... 333

7.6

Short-Circuit Evaluation .............................................................. 335

7.7

Assignment Statements ................................................................ 336
History Note

7.8

..................................................................................... 340

Mixed-Mode Assignment .............................................................. 341

Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 341

Chapter 8

Statement-Level Control Structures

347

8.1

Introduction................................................................................. 348

8.2

Selection Statements.................................................................... 350

8.3

Iterative Statements ..................................................................... 362

8.4

Unconditional Branching .............................................................. 375
History Note

..................................................................................... 376

8.5

Guarded Commands ..................................................................... 376

8.6

Conclusions.................................................................................. 379

Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 380

Chapter 9

Subprograms

387

9.1

Introduction................................................................................. 388

9.2

Fundamentals of Subprograms ..................................................... 388

9.3

Design Issues for Subprograms ..................................................... 396

9.4

Local Referencing Environments ................................................... 397

9.5

Parameter-Passing Methods ......................................................... 399
History Note

..................................................................................... 407

History Note

..................................................................................... 407

xvi

Contents

9.6

Parameters That Are Subprograms ............................................... 417

9.7

Calling Subprograms Indirectly..................................................... 419
History Note

..................................................................................... 419

9.8

Overloaded Subprograms .............................................................. 421

9.9

Generic Subprograms ................................................................... 422

9.10 Design Issues for Functions .......................................................... 428
9.11 User-Defined Overloaded Operators ............................................... 430
9.12 Closures ...................................................................................... 430
9.13 Coroutines ................................................................................... 432
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 435

Chapter 10

Implementing Subprograms

441

10.1 The General Semantics of Calls and Returns.................................. 442
10.2 Implementing “Simple” Subprograms ........................................... 443
10.3 Implementing Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables ... 445
10.4 Nested Subprograms .................................................................... 454
10.5 Blocks ......................................................................................... 460
10.6 Implementing Dynamic Scoping .................................................... 462
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 466

Chapter 11

Abstract Data Types and Encapsulation Constructs

473

11.1 The Concept of Abstraction .......................................................... 474
11.2 Introduction to Data Abstraction .................................................. 475
11.3 Design Issues for Abstract Data Types ........................................... 478
11.4 Language Examples ..................................................................... 479
Interview: BJARNE STROUSTRUP—C++: Its Birth,
Its Ubiquitousness, and Common Criticisms ............................................. 480

11.5 Parameterized Abstract Data Types ............................................... 503
11.6 Encapsulation Constructs ............................................................. 509
11.7 Naming Encapsulations ................................................................ 513
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 517

Contents

Chapter 12

Support for Object-Oriented Programming

xvii

523

12.1 Introduction................................................................................. 524
12.2 Object-Oriented Programming ...................................................... 525
12.3 Design Issues for Object-Oriented Languages ................................. 529
12.4 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Smalltalk ................. 534
Interview: BJARNE STROUSTRUP—On Paradigms and Better
Programming ......................................................................................... 536

12.5 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in C++ ......................... 538
12.6 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Objective-C .............. 549
12.7 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Java ......................... 552
12.8 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in C# ........................... 556
12.9 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Ada 95 .................... 558
12.10 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Ruby ........................ 563
12.11 Implementation of Object-Oriented Constructs............................... 566
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises .... 569

Chapter 13

Concurrency

575

13.1 Introduction................................................................................. 576
13.2 Introduction to Subprogram-Level Concurrency............................. 581
13.3 Semaphores ................................................................................. 586
13.4 Monitors...................................................................................... 591
13.5 Message Passing .......................................................................... 593
13.6 Ada Support for Concurrency ....................................................... 594
13.7 Java Threads ................................................................................ 603
13.8 C# Threads .................................................................................. 613
13.9 Concurrency in Functional Languages ........................................... 618
13.10 Statement-Level Concurrency ....................................................... 621
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 623

xviii

Contents

Chapter 14

Exception Handling and Event Handling

629

14.1 Introduction to Exception Handling .............................................. 630
History Note

..................................................................................... 634

14.2 Exception Handling in Ada ........................................................... 636
14.3 Exception Handling in C++........................................................... 643
14.4 Exception Handling in Java .......................................................... 647
14.5 Introduction to Event Handling..................................................... 655
14.6 Event Handling with Java ............................................................. 656
14.7 Event Handling in C# ................................................................... 661
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 664

Chapter 15

Functional Programming Languages

671

15.1 Introduction................................................................................. 672
15.2 Mathematical Functions ............................................................... 673
15.3 Fundamentals of Functional Programming Languages ................... 676
15.4 The First Functional Programming Language: LISP ..................... 677
15.5 An Introduction to Scheme ........................................................... 681
15.6 Common LISP ............................................................................. 699
15.7 ML .............................................................................................. 701
15.8 Haskell ........................................................................................ 707
15.9 F# ............................................................................................... 712
15.10 Support for Functional Programming in Primarily
Imperative Languages .................................................................. 715

15.11 A Comparison of Functional and Imperative Languages ................. 717
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 720

Chapter 16

Logic Programming Languages

727

16.1 Introduction................................................................................. 728
16.2 A Brief Introduction to Predicate Calculus .................................... 728
16.3 Predicate Calculus and Proving Theorems ..................................... 732

Contents

xix

16.4 An Overview of Logic Programming .............................................. 734
16.5 The Origins of Prolog ................................................................... 736
16.6 The Basic Elements of Prolog....................................................... 736
16.7 Deficiencies of Prolog .................................................................. 751
16.8 Applications of Logic Programming .............................................. 757
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises ........................................................................... 758

Bibliography ................................................................................ 763
Index ........................................................................................... 773

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1
Preliminaries

1.1 Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages
1.2 Programming Domains
1.3 Language Evaluation Criteria
1.4 Influences on Language Design
1.5 Language Categories
1.6 Language Design Trade-Offs
1.7 Implementation Methods
1.8 Programming Environments

1

2

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

B

efore we begin discussing the concepts of programming languages, we must consider a few preliminaries. First, we explain some reasons why computer science students and professional software developers should study general concepts of language design and evaluation. This discussion is especially valuable for those who believe that a working knowledge of one or two programming languages is sufficient for computer scientists. Then, we briefly describe the major programming domains. Next, because the book evaluates language constructs and features, we present a list of criteria that can serve as a basis for such judgments.
Then, we discuss the two major influences on language design: machine architecture and program design methodologies. After that, we introduce the various categories of programming languages. Next, we describe a few of the major trade-offs that must be considered during language design.
Because this book is also about the implementation of programming languages, this chapter includes an overview of the most common general approaches to implementation. Finally, we briefly describe a few examples of programming environments and discuss their impact on software production.

1.1 Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages
It is natural for students to wonder how they will benefit from the study of programming language concepts. After all, many other topics in computer science are worthy of serious study. The following is what we believe to be a compelling list of potential benefits of studying concepts of programming languages:
• Increased capacity to express ideas. It is widely believed that the depth at which people can think is influenced by the expressive power of the language in which they communicate their thoughts. Those with only a weak understanding of natural language are limited in the complexity of their thoughts, particularly in depth of abstraction. In other words, it is difficult for people to conceptualize structures they cannot describe, verbally or in writing. Programmers, in the process of developing software, are similarly constrained. The language in which they develop software places limits on the kinds of control structures, data structures, and abstractions they can use; thus, the forms of algorithms they can construct are likewise limited.
Awareness of a wider variety of programming language features can reduce such limitations in software development. Programmers can increase the range of their software development thought processes by learning new language constructs.
It might be argued that learning the capabilities of other languages does not help a programmer who is forced to use a language that lacks those capabilities. That argument does not hold up, however, because often, language constructs can be simulated in other languages that do not support those constructs directly. For example, a C programmer who had learned the structure and uses of associative arrays in Perl (Wall et al., 2000) might design structures that simulate associative arrays in that language. In other

1.1

Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages

3

words, the study of programming language concepts builds an appreciation for valuable language features and constructs and encourages programmers to use them, even when the language they are using does not directly support such features and constructs.
• Improved background for choosing appropriate languages. Many professional programmers have had little formal education in computer science; rather, they have developed their programming skills independently or through inhouse training programs. Such training programs often limit instruction to one or two languages that are directly relevant to the current projects of the organization. Many other programmers received their formal training years ago. The languages they learned then are no longer used, and many features now available in programming languages were not widely known at the time.
The result is that many programmers, when given a choice of languages for a new project, use the language with which they are most familiar, even if it is poorly suited for the project at hand. If these programmers were familiar with a wider range of languages and language constructs, they would be better able to choose the language with the features that best address the problem.
Some of the features of one language often can be simulated in another language. However, it is preferable to use a feature whose design has been integrated into a language than to use a simulation of that feature, which is often less elegant, more cumbersome, and less safe.
• Increased ability to learn new languages. Computer programming is still a relatively young discipline, and design methodologies, software development tools, and programming languages are still in a state of continuous evolution. This makes software development an exciting profession, but it also means that continuous learning is essential. The process of learning a new programming language can be lengthy and difficult, especially for someone who is comfortable with only one or two languages and has never examined programming language concepts in general. Once a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of languages is acquired, it becomes far easier to see how these concepts are incorporated into the design of the language being learned. For example, programmers who understand the concepts of object-oriented programming will have a much easier time learning Java
(Arnold et al., 2006) than those who have never used those concepts.
The same phenomenon occurs in natural languages. The better you know the grammar of your native language, the easier it is to learn a second language. Furthermore, learning a second language has the benefit of teaching you more about your first language.
The TIOBE Programming Community issues an index (http://www
.tiobe.com/tiobe_index/index.htm) that is an indicator of the relative popularity of programming languages. For example, according to the index, Java, C, and C++ were the three most popular languages in use in August 2011.1 However, dozens of other languages were widely used at
1. Note that this index is only one measure of the popularity of programming languages, and its accuracy is not universally accepted.

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the time. The index data also show that the distribution of usage of programming languages is always changing. The number of languages in use and the dynamic nature of the statistics imply that every software developer must be prepared to learn different languages.
Finally, it is essential that practicing programmers know the vocabulary and fundamental concepts of programming languages so they can read and understand programming language descriptions and evaluations, as well as promotional literature for languages and compilers. These are the sources of information needed in order to choose and learn a language.
• Better understanding of the significance of implementation. In learning the concepts of programming languages, it is both interesting and necessary to touch on the implementation issues that affect those concepts. In some cases, an understanding of implementation issues leads to an understanding of why languages are designed the way they are. In turn, this knowledge leads to the ability to use a language more intelligently, as it was designed to be used.
We can become better programmers by understanding the choices among programming language constructs and the consequences of those choices.
Certain kinds of program bugs can be found and fixed only by a programmer who knows some related implementation details. Another benefit of understanding implementation issues is that it allows us to visualize how a computer executes various language constructs. In some cases, some knowledge of implementation issues provides hints about the relative efficiency of alternative constructs that may be chosen for a program. For example, programmers who know little about the complexity of the implementation of subprogram calls often do not realize that a small subprogram that is frequently called can be a highly inefficient design choice.
Because this book touches on only a few of the issues of implementation, the previous two paragraphs also serve well as rationale for studying compiler design.
• Better use of languages that are already known. Many contemporary programming languages are large and complex. Accordingly, it is uncommon for a programmer to be familiar with and use all of the features of a language he or she uses. By studying the concepts of programming languages, programmers can learn about previously unknown and unused parts of the languages they already use and begin to use those features.
• Overall advancement of computing. Finally, there is a global view of computing that can justify the study of programming language concepts. Although it is usually possible to determine why a particular programming language became popular, many believe, at least in retrospect, that the most popular languages are not always the best available. In some cases, it might be concluded that a language became widely used, at least in part, because those in positions to choose languages were not sufficiently familiar with programming language concepts.
For example, many people believe it would have been better if ALGOL
60 (Backus et al., 1963) had displaced Fortran (Metcalf et al., 2004) in the

1.2

Programming Domains

5

early 1960s, because it was more elegant and had much better control statements, among other reasons. That it did not, is due partly to the programmers and software development managers of that time, many of whom did not clearly understand the conceptual design of ALGOL 60. They found its description difficult to read (which it was) and even more difficult to understand. They did not appreciate the benefits of block structure, recursion, and well-structured control statements, so they failed to see the benefits of
ALGOL 60 over Fortran.
Of course, many other factors contributed to the lack of acceptance of
ALGOL 60, as we will see in Chapter 2. However, the fact that computer users were generally unaware of the benefits of the language played a significant role.
In general, if those who choose languages were well informed, perhaps better languages would eventually squeeze out poorer ones.

1.2 Programming Domains
Computers have been applied to a myriad of different areas, from controlling nuclear power plants to providing video games in mobile phones. Because of this great diversity in computer use, programming languages with very different goals have been developed. In this section, we briefly discuss a few of the areas of computer applications and their associated languages.

1.2.1

Scientific Applications
The first digital computers, which appeared in the late 1940s and early 1950s, were invented and used for scientific applications. Typically, the scientific applications of that time used relatively simple data structures, but required large numbers of floating-point arithmetic computations. The most common data structures were arrays and matrices; the most common control structures were counting loops and selections. The early high-level programming languages invented for scientific applications were designed to provide for those needs.
Their competition was assembly language, so efficiency was a primary concern.
The first language for scientific applications was Fortran. ALGOL 60 and most of its descendants were also intended to be used in this area, although they were designed to be used in related areas as well. For some scientific applications where efficiency is the primary concern, such as those that were common in the
1950s and 1960s, no subsequent language is significantly better than Fortran, which explains why Fortran is still used.

1.2.2

Business Applications
The use of computers for business applications began in the 1950s. Special computers were developed for this purpose, along with special languages. The first successful high-level language for business was COBOL (ISO/IEC, 2002),

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the initial version of which appeared in 1960. It is still the most commonly used language for these applications. Business languages are characterized by facilities for producing elaborate reports, precise ways of describing and storing decimal numbers and character data, and the ability to specify decimal arithmetic operations.
There have been few developments in business application languages outside the development and evolution of COBOL. Therefore, this book includes only limited discussions of the structures in COBOL.

1.2.3

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad area of computer applications characterized by the use of symbolic rather than numeric computations. Symbolic computation means that symbols, consisting of names rather than numbers, are manipulated. Also, symbolic computation is more conveniently done with linked lists of data rather than arrays. This kind of programming sometimes requires more flexibility than other programming domains. For example, in some AI applications the ability to create and execute code segments during execution is convenient.
The first widely used programming language developed for AI applications was the functional language LISP (McCarthy et al., 1965), which appeared in 1959. Most AI applications developed prior to 1990 were written in LISP or one of its close relatives. During the early 1970s, however, an alternative approach to some of these applications appeared—logic programming using the Prolog (Clocksin and Mellish, 2003) language. More recently, some
AI applications have been written in systems languages such as C. Scheme
(Dybvig, 2003), a dialect of LISP, and Prolog are introduced in Chapters 15 and 16, respectively.

1.2.4

Systems Programming
The operating system and the programming support tools of a computer system are collectively known as its systems software. Systems software is used almost continuously and so it must be efficient. Furthermore, it must have lowlevel features that allow the software interfaces to external devices to be written.
In the 1960s and 1970s, some computer manufacturers, such as IBM,
Digital, and Burroughs (now UNISYS), developed special machine-oriented high-level languages for systems software on their machines. For IBM mainframe computers, the language was PL/S, a dialect of PL/I; for Digital, it was
BLISS, a language at a level just above assembly language; for Burroughs, it was Extended ALGOL. However, most system software is now written in more general programming languages, such as C and C++.
The UNIX operating system is written almost entirely in C (ISO, 1999), which has made it relatively easy to port, or move, to different machines. Some of the characteristics of C make it a good choice for systems programming.
It is low level, execution efficient, and does not burden the user with many

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7

safety restrictions. Systems programmers are often excellent programmers who believe they do not need such restrictions. Some nonsystems programmers, however, find C to be too dangerous to use on large, important software systems. 1.2.5

Web Software
The World Wide Web is supported by an eclectic collection of languages, ranging from markup languages, such as HTML, which is not a programming language, to general-purpose programming languages, such as Java. Because of the pervasive need for dynamic Web content, some computation capability is often included in the technology of content presentation. This functionality can be provided by embedding programming code in an HTML document.
Such code is often in the form of a scripting language, such as JavaScript or
PHP. There are also some markup-like languages that have been extended to include constructs that control document processing, which are discussed in
Section 1.5 and in Chapter 2.

1.3 Language Evaluation Criteria
As noted previously, the purpose of this book is to examine carefully the underlying concepts of the various constructs and capabilities of programming languages. We will also evaluate these features, focusing on their impact on the software development process, including maintenance. To do this, we need a set of evaluation criteria. Such a list of criteria is necessarily controversial, because it is difficult to get even two computer scientists to agree on the value of some given language characteristic relative to others. In spite of these differences, most would agree that the criteria discussed in the following subsections are important. Some of the characteristics that influence three of the four most important of these criteria are shown in Table 1.1, and the criteria themselves are discussed in the following sections. 2 Note that only the most important characteristics are included in the table, mirroring the discussion in the following subsections. One could probably make the case that if one considered less important characteristics, virtually all table positions could include “bullets.”
Note that some of these characteristics are broad and somewhat vague, such as writability, whereas others are specific language constructs, such as exception handling. Furthermore, although the discussion might seem to imply that the criteria have equal importance, that implication is not intended, and it is clearly not the case.

2. The fourth primary criterion is cost, which is not included in the table because it is only slightly related to the other criteria and the characteristics that influence them.

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Table 1.1

Language evaluation criteria and the characteristics that affect them
CRITERIA

Characteristic

READABILITY

WRITABILITY

RELIABILITY























Simplicity
Orthogonality
Data types
Syntax design
Support for abstraction
Expressivity
Type checking
Exception handling
Restricted aliasing

1.3.1

Readability
One of the most important criteria for judging a programming language is the ease with which programs can be read and understood. Before 1970, software development was largely thought of in terms of writing code. The primary positive characteristic of programming languages was efficiency. Language constructs were designed more from the point of view of the computer than of the computer users. In the 1970s, however, the software life-cycle concept
(Booch, 1987) was developed; coding was relegated to a much smaller role, and maintenance was recognized as a major part of the cycle, particularly in terms of cost. Because ease of maintenance is determined in large part by the readability of programs, readability became an important measure of the quality of programs and programming languages. This was an important juncture in the evolution of programming languages. There was a distinct crossover from a focus on machine orientation to a focus on human orientation.
Readability must be considered in the context of the problem domain. For example, if a program that describes a computation is written in a language not designed for such use, the program may be unnatural and convoluted, making it unusually difficult to read.
The following subsections describe characteristics that contribute to the readability of a programming language.

1.3.1.1 Overall Simplicity
The overall simplicity of a programming language strongly affects its readability. A language with a large number of basic constructs is more difficult to learn than one with a smaller number. Programmers who must use a large language often learn a subset of the language and ignore its other features. This learning pattern is sometimes used to excuse the large number of language constructs,

1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria

9

but that argument is not valid. Readability problems occur whenever the program’s author has learned a different subset from that subset with which the reader is familiar.
A second complicating characteristic of a programming language is feature multiplicity—that is, having more than one way to accomplish a particular operation. For example, in Java, a user can increment a simple integer variable in four different ways: count = count + 1 count += 1 count++ ++count

Although the last two statements have slightly different meanings from each other and from the others in some contexts, all of them have the same meaning when used as stand-alone expressions. These variations are discussed in
Chapter 7.
A third potential problem is operator overloading, in which a single operator symbol has more than one meaning. Although this is often useful, it can lead to reduced readability if users are allowed to create their own overloading and do not do it sensibly. For example, it is clearly acceptable to overload + to use it for both integer and floating-point addition. In fact, this overloading simplifies a language by reducing the number of operators. However, suppose the programmer defined + used between single-dimensioned array operands to mean the sum of all elements of both arrays. Because the usual meaning of vector addition is quite different from this, it would make the program more confusing for both the author and the program’s readers. An even more extreme example of program confusion would be a user defining + between two vector operands to mean the difference between their respective first elements. Operator overloading is further discussed in Chapter 7.
Simplicity in languages can, of course, be carried too far. For example, the form and meaning of most assembly language statements are models of simplicity, as you can see when you consider the statements that appear in the next section. This very simplicity, however, makes assembly language programs less readable. Because they lack more complex control statements, program structure is less obvious; because the statements are simple, far more of them are required than in equivalent programs in a high-level language. These same arguments apply to the less extreme case of high-level languages with inadequate control and data-structuring constructs.

1.3.1.2 Orthogonality
Orthogonality in a programming language means that a relatively small set of primitive constructs can be combined in a relatively small number of ways to build the control and data structures of the language. Furthermore, every possible combination of primitives is legal and meaningful. For example, consider

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data types. Suppose a language has four primitive data types (integer, float, double, and character) and two type operators (array and pointer). If the two type operators can be applied to themselves and the four primitive data types, a large number of data structures can be defined.
The meaning of an orthogonal language feature is independent of the context of its appearance in a program. (the word orthogonal comes from the mathematical concept of orthogonal vectors, which are independent of each other.) Orthogonality follows from a symmetry of relationships among primitives. A lack of orthogonality leads to exceptions to the rules of the language.
For example, in a programming language that supports pointers, it should be possible to define a pointer to point to any specific type defined in the language.
However, if pointers are not allowed to point to arrays, many potentially useful user-defined data structures cannot be defined.
We can illustrate the use of orthogonality as a design concept by comparing one aspect of the assembly languages of the IBM mainframe computers and the VAX series of minicomputers. We consider a single simple situation: adding two 32-bit integer values that reside in either memory or registers and replacing one of the two values with the sum. The IBM mainframes have two instructions for this purpose, which have the forms
A Reg1, memory_cell
AR Reg1, Reg2

where Reg1 and Reg2 represent registers. The semantics of these are
Reg1 ← contents(Reg1) + contents(memory_cell)
Reg1 ← contents(Reg1) + contents(Reg2)

The VAX addition instruction for 32-bit integer values is
ADDL

operand_1, operand_2

whose semantics is operand_2 ← contents(operand_1) + contents(operand_2)

In this case, either operand can be a register or a memory cell.
The VAX instruction design is orthogonal in that a single instruction can use either registers or memory cells as the operands. There are two ways to specify operands, which can be combined in all possible ways. The IBM design is not orthogonal. Only two out of four operand combinations possibilities are legal, and the two require different instructions, A and AR. The IBM design is more restricted and therefore less writable. For example, you cannot add two values and store the sum in a memory location. Furthermore, the IBM design is more difficult to learn because of the restrictions and the additional instruction. 1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria

11

Orthogonality is closely related to simplicity: The more orthogonal the design of a language, the fewer exceptions the language rules require. Fewer exceptions mean a higher degree of regularity in the design, which makes the language easier to learn, read, and understand. Anyone who has learned a significant part of the English language can testify to the difficulty of learning its many rule exceptions (for example, i before e except after c).
As examples of the lack of orthogonality in a high-level language, consider the following rules and exceptions in C. Although C has two kinds of structured data types, arrays and records (structs), records can be returned from functions but arrays cannot. A member of a structure can be any data type except void or a structure of the same type. An array element can be any data type except void or a function. Parameters are passed by value, unless they are arrays, in which case they are, in effect, passed by reference (because the appearance of an array name without a subscript in a C program is interpreted to be the address of the array’s first element).
As an example of context dependence, consider the C expression a + b

This expression often means that the values of a and b are fetched and added together. However, if a happens to be a pointer, it affects the value of b. For example, if a points to a float value that occupies four bytes, then the value of b must be scaled—in this case multiplied by 4—before it is added to a. Therefore, the type of a affects the treatment of the value of b. The context of b affects its meaning.
Too much orthogonality can also cause problems. Perhaps the most orthogonal programming language is ALGOL 68 (van Wijngaarden et al.,
1969). Every language construct in ALGOL 68 has a type, and there are no restrictions on those types. In addition, most constructs produce values. This combinational freedom allows extremely complex constructs. For example, a conditional can appear as the left side of an assignment, along with declarations and other assorted statements, as long as the result is an address. This extreme form of orthogonality leads to unnecessary complexity. Furthermore, because languages require a large number of primitives, a high degree of orthogonality results in an explosion of combinations. So, even if the combinations are simple, their sheer numbers lead to complexity.
Simplicity in a language, therefore, is at least in part the result of a combination of a relatively small number of primitive constructs and a limited use of the concept of orthogonality.
Some believe that functional languages offer a good combination of simplicity and orthogonality. A functional language, such as LISP, is one in which computations are made primarily by applying functions to given parameters.
In contrast, in imperative languages such as C, C++, and Java, computations are usually specified with variables and assignment statements. Functional languages offer potentially the greatest overall simplicity, because they can accomplish everything with a single construct, the function call, which can be

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combined simply with other function calls. This simple elegance is the reason why some language researchers are attracted to functional languages as the primary alternative to complex nonfunctional languages such as C++. Other factors, such as efficiency, however, have prevented functional languages from becoming more widely used.

1.3.1.3 Data Types
The presence of adequate facilities for defining data types and data structures in a language is another significant aid to readability. For example, suppose a numeric type is used for an indicator flag because there is no Boolean type in the language. In such a language, we might have an assignment such as the following: timeOut = 1

The meaning of this statement is unclear, whereas in a language that includes
Boolean types, we would have the following: timeOut = true

The meaning of this statement is perfectly clear.

1.3.1.4 Syntax Design
The syntax, or form, of the elements of a language has a significant effect on the readability of programs. Following are some examples of syntactic design choices that affect readability:
• Special words. Program appearance and thus program readability are strongly influenced by the forms of a language’s special words (for example, while, class, and for). Especially important is the method of forming compound statements, or statement groups, primarily in control constructs. Some languages have used matching pairs of special words or symbols to form groups.
C and its descendants use braces to specify compound statements. All of these languages suffer because statement groups are always terminated in the same way, which makes it difficult to determine which group is being ended when an end or a right brace appears. Fortran 95 and Ada make this clearer by using a distinct closing syntax for each type of statement group. For example, Ada uses end if to terminate a selection construct and end loop to terminate a loop construct. This is an example of the conflict between simplicity that results in fewer reserved words, as in C++, and the greater readability that can result from using more reserved words, as in Ada.
Another important issue is whether the special words of a language can be used as names for program variables. If so, the resulting programs can be very confusing. For example, in Fortran 95, special words, such as Do and End, are legal variable names, so the appearance of these words in a program may or may not connote something special.

1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria

13

• Form and meaning. Designing statements so that their appearance at least partially indicates their purpose is an obvious aid to readability. Semantics, or meaning, should follow directly from syntax, or form. In some cases, this principle is violated by two language constructs that are identical or similar in appearance but have different meanings, depending perhaps on context. In
C, for example, the meaning of the reserved word static depends on the context of its appearance. If used on the definition of a variable inside a function, it means the variable is created at compile time. If used on the definition of a variable that is outside all functions, it means the variable is visible only in the file in which its definition appears; that is, it is not exported from that file.
One of the primary complaints about the shell commands of UNIX
(Raymond, 2004) is that their appearance does not always suggest their function. For example, the meaning of the UNIX command grep can be deciphered only through prior knowledge, or perhaps cleverness and familiarity with the UNIX editor, ed. The appearance of grep connotes nothing to UNIX beginners. (In ed, the command /regular_expression/ searches for a substring that matches the regular expression. Preceding this with g makes it a global command, specifying that the scope of the search is the whole file being edited. Following the command with p specifies that lines with the matching substring are to be printed. So g/regular_expression/p, which can obviously be abbreviated as grep, prints all lines in a file that contain substrings that match the regular expression.)

1.3.2

Writability
Writability is a measure of how easily a language can be used to create programs for a chosen problem domain. Most of the language characteristics that affect readability also affect writability. This follows directly from the fact that the process of writing a program requires the programmer frequently to reread the part of the program that is already written.
As is the case with readability, writability must be considered in the context of the target problem domain of a language. It is simply not reasonable to compare the writability of two languages in the realm of a particular application when one was designed for that application and the other was not. For example, the writabilities of Visual BASIC (VB) and C are dramatically different for creating a program that has a graphical user interface, for which VB is ideal.
Their writabilities are also quite different for writing systems programs, such as an operation system, for which C was designed.
The following subsections describe the most important characteristics influencing the writability of a language.

1.3.2.1 Simplicity and Orthogonality
If a language has a large number of different constructs, some programmers might not be familiar with all of them. This situation can lead to a misuse of some features and a disuse of others that may be either more elegant or more

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efficient, or both, than those that are used. It may even be possible, as noted by Hoare (1973), to use unknown features accidentally, with bizarre results.
Therefore, a smaller number of primitive constructs and a consistent set of rules for combining them (that is, orthogonality) is much better than simply having a large number of primitives. A programmer can design a solution to a complex problem after learning only a simple set of primitive constructs.
On the other hand, too much orthogonality can be a detriment to writability. Errors in programs can go undetected when nearly any combination of primitives is legal. This can lead to code absurdities that cannot be discovered by the compiler.

1.3.2.2 Support for Abstraction
Briefly, abstraction means the ability to define and then use complicated structures or operations in ways that allow many of the details to be ignored.
Abstraction is a key concept in contemporary programming language design.
This is a reflection of the central role that abstraction plays in modern program design methodologies. The degree of abstraction allowed by a programming language and the naturalness of its expression are therefore important to its writability. Programming languages can support two distinct categories of abstraction, process and data.
A simple example of process abstraction is the use of a subprogram to implement a sort algorithm that is required several times in a program. Without the subprogram, the sort code would need to be replicated in all places where it was needed, which would make the program much longer and more tedious to write. Perhaps more important, if the subprogram were not used, the code that used the sort subprogram would be cluttered with the sort algorithm details, greatly obscuring the flow and overall intent of that code.
As an example of data abstraction, consider a binary tree that stores integer data in its nodes. Such a binary tree would usually be implemented in a language that does not support pointers and dynamic storage management with a heap, such as Fortran 77, as three parallel integer arrays, where two of the integers are used as subscripts to specify offspring nodes. In C++ and Java, these trees can be implemented by using an abstraction of a tree node in the form of a simple class with two pointers (or references) and an integer. The naturalness of the latter representation makes it much easier to write a program that uses binary trees in these languages than to write one in Fortran 77. It is a simple matter of the problem solution domain of the language being closer to the problem domain.
The overall support for abstraction is clearly an important factor in the writability of a language.

1.3.2.3 Expressivity
Expressivity in a language can refer to several different characteristics. In a language such as APL (Gilman and Rose, 1976), it means that there are very powerful operators that allow a great deal of computation to be accomplished

1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria

15

with a very small program. More commonly, it means that a language has relatively convenient, rather than cumbersome, ways of specifying computations. For example, in C, the notation count++ is more convenient and shorter than count = count + 1. Also, the and then Boolean operator in Ada is a convenient way of specifying short-circuit evaluation of a Boolean expression.
The inclusion of the for statement in Java makes writing counting loops easier than with the use of while, which is also possible. All of these increase the writability of a language.

1.3.3

Reliability
A program is said to be reliable if it performs to its specifications under all conditions. The following subsections describe several language features that have a significant effect on the reliability of programs in a given language. 1.3.3.1 Type Checking
Type checking is simply testing for type errors in a given program, either by the compiler or during program execution. Type checking is an important factor in language reliability. Because run-time type checking is expensive, compile-time type checking is more desirable. Furthermore, the earlier errors in programs are detected, the less expensive it is to make the required repairs. The design of Java requires checks of the types of nearly all variables and expressions at compile time. This virtually eliminates type errors at run time in Java programs. Types and type checking are discussed in depth in
Chapter 6.
One example of how failure to type check, at either compile time or run time, has led to countless program errors is the use of subprogram parameters in the original C language (Kernighan and Ritchie, 1978). In this language, the type of an actual parameter in a function call was not checked to determine whether its type matched that of the corresponding formal parameter in the function. An int type variable could be used as an actual parameter in a call to a function that expected a float type as its formal parameter, and neither the compiler nor the run-time system would detect the inconsistency. For example, because the bit string that represents the integer 23 is essentially unrelated to the bit string that represents a floating-point 23, if an integer 23 is sent to a function that expects a floating-point parameter, any uses of the parameter in the function will produce nonsense. Furthermore, such problems are often difficult to diagnose.3 The current version of C has eliminated this problem by requiring all parameters to be type checked. Subprograms and parameterpassing techniques are discussed in Chapter 9.

3. In response to this and other similar problems, UNIX systems include a utility program named lint that checks C programs for such problems.

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1.3.3.2 Exception Handling
The ability of a program to intercept run-time errors (as well as other unusual conditions detectable by the program), take corrective measures, and then continue is an obvious aid to reliability. This language facility is called exception handling. Ada, C++, Java, and C# include extensive capabilities for exception handling, but such facilities are practically nonexistent in many widely used languages, including C and Fortran. Exception handling is discussed in Chapter 14.

1.3.3.3 Aliasing
Loosely defined, aliasing is having two or more distinct names that can be used to access the same memory cell. It is now widely accepted that aliasing is a dangerous feature in a programming language. Most programming languages allow some kind of aliasing—for example, two pointers set to point to the same variable, which is possible in most languages. In such a program, the programmer must always remember that changing the value pointed to by one of the two changes the value referenced by the other. Some kinds of aliasing, as described in Chapters 5 and 9 can be prohibited by the design of a language.
In some languages, aliasing is used to overcome deficiencies in the language’s data abstraction facilities. Other languages greatly restrict aliasing to increase their reliability.

1.3.3.4 Readability and Writability
Both readability and writability influence reliability. A program written in a language that does not support natural ways to express the required algorithms will necessarily use unnatural approaches. Unnatural approaches are less likely to be correct for all possible situations. The easier a program is to write, the more likely it is to be correct.
Readability affects reliability in both the writing and maintenance phases of the life cycle. Programs that are difficult to read are difficult both to write and to modify.

1.3.4

Cost
The total cost of a programming language is a function of many of its characteristics. First, there is the cost of training programmers to use the language, which is a function of the simplicity and orthogonality of the language and the experience of the programmers. Although more powerful languages are not necessarily more difficult to learn, they often are.
Second, there is the cost of writing programs in the language. This is a function of the writability of the language, which depends in part on its closeness in purpose to the particular application. The original efforts to design and

1.3

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17

implement high-level languages were driven by the desire to lower the costs of creating software.
Both the cost of training programmers and the cost of writing programs in a language can be significantly reduced in a good programming environment.
Programming environments are discussed in Section 1.8.
Third, there is the cost of compiling programs in the language. A major impediment to the early use of Ada was the prohibitively high cost of running the first-generation Ada compilers. This problem was diminished by the appearance of improved Ada compilers.
Fourth, the cost of executing programs written in a language is greatly influenced by that language’s design. A language that requires many run-time type checks will prohibit fast code execution, regardless of the quality of the compiler. Although execution efficiency was the foremost concern in the design of early languages, it is now considered to be less important.
A simple trade-off can be made between compilation cost and execution speed of the compiled code. Optimization is the name given to the collection of techniques that compilers may use to decrease the size and/or increase the execution speed of the code they produce. If little or no optimization is done, compilation can be done much faster than if a significant effort is made to produce optimized code. The choice between the two alternatives is influenced by the environment in which the compiler will be used. In a laboratory for beginning programming students, who often compile their programs many times during development but use little code at execution time (their programs are small and they must execute correctly only once), little or no optimization should be done.
In a production environment, where compiled programs are executed many times after development, it is better to pay the extra cost to optimize the code.
The fifth factor in the cost of a language is the cost of the language implementation system. One of the factors that explains the rapid acceptance of
Java is that free compiler/interpreter systems became available for it soon after its design was released. A language whose implementation system is either expensive or runs only on expensive hardware will have a much smaller chance of becoming widely used. For example, the high cost of first-generation Ada compilers helped prevent Ada from becoming popular in its early days.
Sixth, there is the cost of poor reliability. If the software fails in a critical system, such as a nuclear power plant or an X-ray machine for medical use, the cost could be very high. The failures of noncritical systems can also be very expensive in terms of lost future business or lawsuits over defective software systems.
The final consideration is the cost of maintaining programs, which includes both corrections and modifications to add new functionality. The cost of software maintenance depends on a number of language characteristics, primarily readability. Because maintenance is often done by individuals other than the original author of the software, poor readability can make the task extremely challenging.
The importance of software maintainability cannot be overstated. It has been estimated that for large software systems with relatively long lifetimes, maintenance costs can be as high as two to four times as much as development costs (Sommerville, 2005).

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Of all the contributors to language costs, three are most important: program development, maintenance, and reliability. Because these are functions of writability and readability, these two evaluation criteria are, in turn, the most important.
Of course, a number of other criteria could be used for evaluating programming languages. One example is portability, or the ease with which programs can be moved from one implementation to another. Portability is most strongly influenced by the degree of standardization of the language. Some languages, such as BASIC, are not standardized at all, making programs in these languages very difficult to move from one implementation to another. Standardization is a time-consuming and difficult process. A committee began work on producing a standard version of C++ in 1989. It was approved in 1998.
Generality (the applicability to a wide range of applications) and welldefinedness (the completeness and precision of the language’s official defining document) are two other criteria.
Most criteria, particularly readability, writability, and reliability, are neither precisely defined nor exactly measurable. Nevertheless, they are useful concepts and they provide valuable insight into the design and evaluation of programming languages.
A final note on evaluation criteria: language design criteria are weighed differently from different perspectives. Language implementors are concerned primarily with the difficulty of implementing the constructs and features of the language. Language users are worried about writability first and readability later. Language designers are likely to emphasize elegance and the ability to attract widespread use. These characteristics often conflict with one another.

1.4 Influences on Language Design
In addition to those factors described in Section 1.3, several other factors influence the basic design of programming languages. The most important of these are computer architecture and programming design methodologies.

1.4.1

Computer Architecture
The basic architecture of computers has had a profound effect on language design. Most of the popular languages of the past 50 years have been designed around the prevalent computer architecture, called the von Neumann architecture, after one of its originators, John von Neumann (pronounced “von
Noyman”). These languages are called imperative languages. In a von Neumann computer, both data and programs are stored in the same memory. The central processing unit (CPU), which executes instructions, is separate from the memory. Therefore, instructions and data must be transmitted, or piped, from memory to the CPU. Results of operations in the CPU must be moved back to memory. Nearly all digital computers built since the 1940s have been based on the von Neumann architecture. The overall structure of a von Neumann computer is shown in Figure 1.1.

1.4

Influences on Language Design

19

Figure 1.1
The von Neumann computer architecture

Memory (stores both instructions and data)

Results of operations Arithmetic and logic unit

Instructions and data

Control unit Input and output devices

Central processing unit

Because of the von Neumann architecture, the central features of imperative languages are variables, which model the memory cells; assignment statements, which are based on the piping operation; and the iterative form of repetition, which is the most efficient way to implement repetition on this architecture. Operands in expressions are piped from memory to the CPU, and the result of evaluating the expression is piped back to the memory cell represented by the left side of the assignment. Iteration is fast on von Neumann computers because instructions are stored in adjacent cells of memory and repeating the execution of a section of code requires only a branch instruction.
This efficiency discourages the use of recursion for repetition, although recursion is sometimes more natural.
The execution of a machine code program on a von Neumann architecture computer occurs in a process called the fetch-execute cycle. As stated earlier, programs reside in memory but are executed in the CPU. Each instruction to be executed must be moved from memory to the processor. The address of the next instruction to be executed is maintained in a register called the program counter. The fetch-execute cycle can be simply described by the following algorithm: initialize the program counter repeat forever fetch the instruction pointed to by the program counter increment the program counter to point at the next instruction decode the instruction execute the instruction end repeat

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The “decode the instruction” step in the algorithm means the instruction is examined to determine what action it specifies. Program execution terminates when a stop instruction is encountered, although on an actual computer a stop instruction is rarely executed. Rather, control transfers from the operating system to a user program for its execution and then back to the operating system when the user program execution is complete. In a computer system in which more than one user program may be in memory at a given time, this process is far more complex.
As stated earlier, a functional, or applicative, language is one in which the primary means of computation is applying functions to given parameters.
Programming can be done in a functional language without the kind of variables that are used in imperative languages, without assignment statements, and without iteration. Although many computer scientists have expounded on the myriad benefits of functional languages, such as Scheme, it is unlikely that they will displace the imperative languages until a non–von Neumann computer is designed that allows efficient execution of programs in functional languages.
Among those who have bemoaned this fact, the most eloquent is John Backus
(1978), the principal designer of the original version of Fortran.
In spite of the fact that the structure of imperative programming languages is modeled on a machine architecture, rather than on the abilities and inclinations of the users of programming languages, some believe that using imperative languages is somehow more natural than using a functional language. So, these people believe that even if functional programs were as efficient as imperative programs, the use of imperative programming languages would still dominate.

1.4.2

Programming Design Methodologies
The late 1960s and early 1970s brought an intense analysis, begun in large part by the structured-programming movement, of both the software development process and programming language design.
An important reason for this research was the shift in the major cost of computing from hardware to software, as hardware costs decreased and programmer costs increased. Increases in programmer productivity were relatively small. In addition, progressively larger and more complex problems were being solved by computers. Rather than simply solving sets of equations to simulate satellite tracks, as in the early 1960s, programs were being written for large and complex tasks, such as controlling large petroleum-refining facilities and providing worldwide airline reservation systems.
The new software development methodologies that emerged as a result of the research of the 1970s were called top-down design and stepwise refinement. The primary programming language deficiencies that were discovered were incompleteness of type checking and inadequacy of control statements
(requiring the extensive use of gotos).
In the late 1970s, a shift from procedure-oriented to data-oriented program design methodologies began. Simply put, data-oriented methods emphasize data design, focusing on the use of abstract data types to solve problems.

1.5

Language Categories

21

For data abstraction to be used effectively in software system design, it must be supported by the languages used for implementation. The first language to provide even limited support for data abstraction was SIMULA 67
(Birtwistle et al., 1973), although that language certainly was not propelled to popularity because of it. The benefits of data abstraction were not widely recognized until the early 1970s. However, most languages designed since the late 1970s support data abstraction, which is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.
The latest step in the evolution of data-oriented software development, which began in the early 1980s, is object-oriented design. Object-oriented methodology begins with data abstraction, which encapsulates processing with data objects and controls access to data, and adds inheritance and dynamic method binding. Inheritance is a powerful concept that greatly enhances the potential reuse of existing software, thereby providing the possibility of significant increases in software development productivity. This is an important factor in the increase in popularity of object-oriented languages. Dynamic (run-time) method binding allows more flexible use of inheritance.
Object-oriented programming developed along with a language that supported its concepts: Smalltalk (Goldberg and Robson, 1989). Although
Smalltalk never became as widely used as many other languages, support for object-oriented programming is now part of most popular imperative languages, including Ada 95 (ARM, 1995), Java, C++, and C#. Object-oriented concepts have also found their way into functional programming in CLOS
(Bobrow et al., 1988) and F# (Syme, et al., 2010), as well as logic programming in Prolog++ (Moss, 1994). Language support for object-oriented programming is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.
Procedure-oriented programming is, in a sense, the opposite of dataoriented programming. Although data-oriented methods now dominate software development, procedure-oriented methods have not been abandoned.
On the contrary, in recent years, a good deal of research has occurred in procedure-oriented programming, especially in the area of concurrency.
These research efforts brought with them the need for language facilities for creating and controlling concurrent program units. Ada, Java, and C# include such capabilities. Concurrency is discussed in detail in Chapter 13.
All of these evolutionary steps in software development methodologies led to new language constructs to support them.

1.5 Language Categories
Programming languages are often categorized into four bins: imperative, functional, logic, and object oriented. However, we do not consider languages that support object-oriented programming to form a separate category of languages. We have described how the most popular languages that support object-oriented programming grew out of imperative languages. Although the object-oriented software development paradigm differs significantly from the procedure-oriented paradigm usually used with imperative languages, the

22

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Preliminaries

extensions to an imperative language required to support object-oriented programming are not intensive. For example, the expressions, assignment statements, and control statements of C and Java are nearly identical. (On the other hand, the arrays, subprograms, and semantics of Java are very different from those of C.) Similar statements can be made for functional languages that support object-oriented programming.
Another kind of language, the visual language, is a subcategory of the imperative languages. The most popular visual languages are the .NET languages. These languages (or their implementations) include capabilities for drag-and-drop generation of code segments. Such languages were once called fourth-generation languages, although that name has fallen out of use. The visual languages provide a simple way to generate graphical user interfaces to programs. For example, using
Visual Studio to develop software in the .NET languages, the code to produce a display of a form control, such as a button or text box, can be created with a single keystroke. These capabilities are now available in all of the .NET languages.
Some authors refer to scripting languages as a separate category of programming languages. However, languages in this category are bound together more by their implementation method, partial or full interpretation, than by a common language design. The languages that are typically called scripting languages, among them Perl, JavaScript, and Ruby, are imperative languages in every sense.
A logic programming language is an example of a rule-based language.
In an imperative language, an algorithm is specified in great detail, and the specific order of execution of the instructions or statements must be included.
In a rule-based language, however, rules are specified in no particular order, and the language implementation system must choose an order in which the rules are used to produce the desired result. This approach to software development is radically different from those used with the other two categories of languages and clearly requires a completely different kind of language. Prolog, the most commonly used logic programming language, and logic programming are discussed in Chapter 16.
In recent years, a new category of languages has emerged, the markup/ programming hybrid languages. Markup languages are not programming languages. For instance, HTML, the most widely used markup language, is used to specify the layout of information in Web documents. However, some programming capability has crept into some extensions to HTML and XML.
Among these are the Java Server Pages Standard Tag Library ( JSTL) and eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). Both of these are briefly introduced in Chapter 2.Those languages cannot be compared to any of the complete programming languages and therefore will not be discussed after Chapter 2.
A host of special-purpose languages have appeared over the past 50 years.
These range from Report Program Generator (RPG), which is used to produce business reports; to Automatically Programmed Tools (APT), which is used for instructing programmable machine tools; to General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS), which is used for systems simulation. This book does not discuss

1.7

Implementation Methods

23

special-purpose languages, primarily because of their narrow applicability and the difficulty of comparing them with other languages.

1.6 Language Design Trade-Offs
The programming language evaluation criteria described in Section 1.3 provide a framework for language design. Unfortunately, that framework is self-contradictory. In his insightful paper on language design, Hoare (1973) stated that “there are so many important but conflicting criteria, that their reconciliation and satisfaction is a major engineering task.”
T criteria that conflict are reliability and cost of execution. For example, the wo Java language definition demands that all references to array elements be checked to ensure that the index or indices are in their legal ranges. This step adds a great deal to the cost of execution of Java programs that contain large numbers of references to array elements. C does not require index range checking, so C programs execute faster than semantically equivalent Java programs, although Java programs are more reliable. The designers of Java traded execution efficiency for reliability.
As another example of conflicting criteria that leads directly to design trade-offs, consider the case of APL. APL includes a powerful set of operators for array operands. Because of the large number of operators, a significant number of new symbols had to be included in APL to represent the operators.
Also, many APL operators can be used in a single, long, complex expression.
One result of this high degree of expressivity is that, for applications involving many array operations, APL is very writable. Indeed, a huge amount of computation can be specified in a very small program. Another result is that
APL programs have very poor readability. A compact and concise expression has a certain mathematical beauty but it is difficult for anyone other than the programmer to understand. Well-known author Daniel McCracken (1970) once noted that it took him four hours to read and understand a four-line APL program. The designer of APL traded readability for writability.
The conflict between writability and reliability is a common one in language design. The pointers of C++ can be manipulated in a variety of ways, which supports highly flexible addressing of data. Because of the potential reliability problems with pointers, they are not included in Java.
Examples of conflicts among language design (and evaluation) criteria abound; some are subtle, others are obvious. It is therefore clear that the task of choosing constructs and features when designing a programming language requires many compromises and trade-offs.

1.7 Implementation Methods
As described in Section 1.4.1, two of the primary components of a computer are its internal memory and its processor. The internal memory is used to store programs and data. The processor is a collection of circuits that provides

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a realization of a set of primitive operations, or machine instructions, such as those for arithmetic and logic operations. In most computers, some of these instructions, which are sometimes called macroinstructions, are actually implemented with a set of instructions called microinstructions, which are defined at an even lower level. Because microinstructions are never seen by software, they will not be discussed further here.
The machine language of the computer is its set of instructions. In the absence of other supporting software, its own machine language is the only language that most hardware computers “understand.” Theoretically, a computer could be designed and built with a particular high-level language as its machine language, but it would be very complex and expensive. Furthermore, it would be highly inflexible, because it would be difficult (but not impossible) to use it with other high-level languages. The more practical machine design choice implements in hardware a very low-level language that provides the most commonly needed primitive operations and requires system software to create an interface to programs in higher-level languages.
A language implementation system cannot be the only software on a computer. Also required is a large collection of programs, called the operating system, which supplies higher-level primitives than those of the machine language.
These primitives provide system resource management, input and output operations, a file management system, text and/or program editors, and a variety of other commonly needed functions. Because language implementation systems need many of the operating system facilities, they interface with the operating system rather than directly with the processor (in machine language).
The operating system and language implementations are layered over the machine language interface of a computer. These layers can be thought of as virtual computers, providing interfaces to the user at higher levels. For example, an operating system and a C compiler provide a virtual C computer. With other compilers, a machine can become other kinds of virtual computers. Most computer systems provide several different virtual computers. User programs form another layer over the top of the layer of virtual computers. The layered view of a computer is shown in Figure 1.2.
The implementation systems of the first high-level programming languages, constructed in the late 1950s, were among the most complex software systems of that time. In the 1960s, intensive research efforts were made to understand and formalize the process of constructing these high-level language implementations. The greatest success of those efforts was in the area of syntax analysis, primarily because that part of the implementation process is an application of parts of automata theory and formal language theory that were then well understood.

1.7.1

Compilation
Programming languages can be implemented by any of three general methods.
At one extreme, programs can be translated into machine language, which can be executed directly on the computer. This method is called a compiler

1.7

Figure 1.2

Virtual
VB .NET computer Layered interface of virtual computers, provided by a typical computer system

T
NE
VB. piler m co

C compiler C# compiler ...

Virtual
Scheme
computer
Scheme
interpreter

Operating system

Macroinstruction interpreter Java compiler Virtual Java computer Virtual C# computer .NET common language run time

Virtual
C
computer

25

Implementation Methods

Operating system command interpreter Bare machine Java Virtual
Machine

Assembler

Ada compiler ...
Virtual
Ada computer Virtual assembly language computer implementation and has the advantage of very fast program execution, once the translation process is complete. Most production implementations of languages, such as C, COBOL, C++, and Ada, are by compilers.
The language that a compiler translates is called the source language. The process of compilation and program execution takes place in several phases, the most important of which are shown in Figure 1.3.
The lexical analyzer gathers the characters of the source program into lexical units. The lexical units of a program are identifiers, special words, operators, and punctuation symbols. The lexical analyzer ignores comments in the source program because the compiler has no use for them.
The syntax analyzer takes the lexical units from the lexical analyzer and uses them to construct hierarchical structures called parse trees. These parse trees represent the syntactic structure of the program. In many cases, no actual parse tree structure is constructed; rather, the information that would be required to build a tree is generated and used directly. Both lexical units and parse trees are further discussed in Chapter 3. Lexical analysis and syntax analysis, or parsing, are discussed in Chapter 4.

26

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Preliminaries

Figure 1.3

Source program The compilation process

Lexical analyzer Lexical units

Syntax analyzer Parse trees

Symbol table Intermediate code generator and semantic analyzer Optimization
(optional)

Intermediate code Code generator Machine language Input data

Computer

Results

The intermediate code generator produces a program in a different language, at an intermediate level between the source program and the final output of the compiler: the machine language program.4 Intermediate languages sometimes look very much like assembly languages, and in fact, sometimes are actual assembly languages. In other cases, the intermediate code is at a level
4. Note that the words program and code are often used interchangeably.

1.7

Implementation Methods

27

somewhat higher than an assembly language. The semantic analyzer is an integral part of the intermediate code generator. The semantic analyzer checks for errors, such as type errors, that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect during syntax analysis.
Optimization, which improves programs (usually in their intermediate code version) by making them smaller or faster or both, is often an optional part of compilation. In fact, some compilers are incapable of doing any significant optimization. This type of compiler would be used in situations where execution speed of the translated program is far less important than compilation speed. An example of such a situation is a computing laboratory for beginning programmers. In most commercial and industrial situations, execution speed is more important than compilation speed, so optimization is routinely desirable.
Because many kinds of optimization are difficult to do on machine language, most optimization is done on the intermediate code.
The code generator translates the optimized intermediate code version of the program into an equivalent machine language program.
The symbol table serves as a database for the compilation process. The primary contents of the symbol table are the type and attribute information of each user-defined name in the program. This information is placed in the symbol table by the lexical and syntax analyzers and is used by the semantic analyzer and the code generator.
As stated previously, although the machine language generated by a compiler can be executed directly on the hardware, it must nearly always be run along with some other code. Most user programs also require programs from the operating system. Among the most common of these are programs for input and output. The compiler builds calls to required system programs when they are needed by the user program. Before the machine language programs produced by a compiler can be executed, the required programs from the operating system must be found and linked to the user program. The linking operation connects the user program to the system programs by placing the addresses of the entry points of the system programs in the calls to them in the user program. The user and system code together are sometimes called a load module, or executable image. The process of collecting system programs and linking them to user programs is called linking and loading, or sometimes just linking. It is accomplished by a systems program called a linker.
In addition to systems programs, user programs must often be linked to previously compiled user programs that reside in libraries. So the linker not only links a given program to system programs, but also it may link it to other user programs.
The speed of the connection between a computer’s memory and its processor usually determines the speed of the computer, because instructions often can be executed faster than they can be moved to the processor for execution.
This connection is called the von Neumann bottleneck; it is the primary limiting factor in the speed of von Neumann architecture computers. The von
Neumann bottleneck has been one of the primary motivations for the research and development of parallel computers.

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1.7.2

Preliminaries

Pure Interpretation
Pure interpretation lies at the opposite end (from compilation) of implementation methods. With this approach, programs are interpreted by another program called an interpreter, with no translation whatever. The interpreter program acts as a software simulation of a machine whose fetch-execute cycle deals with high-level language program statements rather than machine instructions. This software simulation obviously provides a virtual machine for the language.
Pure interpretation has the advantage of allowing easy implementation of many source-level debugging operations, because all run-time error messages can refer to source-level units. For example, if an array index is found to be out of range, the error message can easily indicate the source line and the name of the array. On the other hand, this method has the serious disadvantage that execution is 10 to 100 times slower than in compiled systems. The primary source of this slowness is the decoding of the high-level language statements, which are far more complex than machine language instructions (although there may be fewer statements than instructions in equivalent machine code).
Furthermore, regardless of how many times a statement is executed, it must be decoded every time. Therefore, statement decoding, rather than the connection between the processor and memory, is the bottleneck of a pure interpreter.
Another disadvantage of pure interpretation is that it often requires more space. In addition to the source program, the symbol table must be present during interpretation. Furthermore, the source program may be stored in a form designed for easy access and modification rather than one that provides for minimal size.
Although some simple early languages of the 1960s (APL, SNOBOL, and
LISP) were purely interpreted, by the 1980s, the approach was rarely used on high-level languages. However, in recent years, pure interpretation has made a significant comeback with some Web scripting languages, such as JavaScript and PHP, which are now widely used. The process of pure interpretation is shown in Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4
Pure interpretation

Source program Input data

Interpreter

Results

1.7

1.7.3

Implementation Methods

29

Hybrid Implementation Systems
Some language implementation systems are a compromise between compilers and pure interpreters; they translate high-level language programs to an intermediate language designed to allow easy interpretation. This method is faster than pure interpretation because the source language statements are decoded only once. Such implementations are called hybrid implementation systems.
The process used in a hybrid implementation system is shown in
Figure 1.5. Instead of translating intermediate language code to machine code, it simply interprets the intermediate code.

Figure 1.5
Hybrid implementation system Source program Lexical analyzer Lexical units

Syntax analyzer Parse trees

Intermediate code generator
Intermediate
code
Input data

Interpreter

Results

30

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

Perl is implemented with a hybrid system. Perl programs are partially compiled to detect errors before interpretation and to simplify the interpreter.
Initial implementations of Java were all hybrid. Its intermediate form, called byte code, provides portability to any machine that has a byte code interpreter and an associated run-time system. Together, these are called the
Java Virtual Machine. There are now systems that translate Java byte code into machine code for faster execution.
A Just-in-Time ( JIT) implementation system initially translates programs to an intermediate language. Then, during execution, it compiles intermediate language methods into machine code when they are called. The machine code version is kept for subsequent calls. JIT systems are now widely used for Java programs. Also, the .NET languages are all implemented with a JIT system.
Sometimes an implementor may provide both compiled and interpreted implementations for a language. In these cases, the interpreter is used to develop and debug programs. Then, after a (relatively) bug-free state is reached, the programs are compiled to increase their execution speed.

1.7.4

Preprocessors
A preprocessor is a program that processes a program immediately before the program is compiled. Preprocessor instructions are embedded in programs.
The preprocessor is essentially a macro expander. Preprocessor instructions are commonly used to specify that the code from another file is to be included.
For example, the C preprocessor instruction
#include "myLib.h"

causes the preprocessor to copy the contents of myLib.h into the program at the position of the #include.
Other preprocessor instructions are used to define symbols to represent expressions. For example, one could use
#define max(A, B) ((A) > (B) ? (A) : (B))

to determine the largest of two given expressions. For example, the expression x = max(2 * y, z / 1.73);

would be expanded by the preprocessor to x = ((2 * y) > (z / 1.73) ? (2 * y) : (z / 1.73);

Notice that this is one of those cases where expression side effects can cause trouble. For example, if either of the expressions given to the max macro have side effects—such as z++—it could cause a problem. Because one of the two expression parameters is evaluated twice, this could result in z being incremented twice by the code produced by the macro expansion.

Summary

31

1.8 Programming Environments
A programming environment is the collection of tools used in the development of software. This collection may consist of only a file system, a text editor, a linker, and a compiler. Or it may include a large collection of integrated tools, each accessed through a uniform user interface. In the latter case, the development and maintenance of software is greatly enhanced. Therefore, the characteristics of a programming language are not the only measure of the software development capability of a system. We now briefly describe several programming environments.
UNIX is an older programming environment, first distributed in the middle
1970s, built around a portable multiprogramming operating system. It provides a wide array of powerful support tools for software production and maintenance in a variety of languages. In the past, the most important feature absent from UNIX was a uniform interface among its tools. This made it more difficult to learn and to use. However, UNIX is now often used through a graphical user interface
(GUI) that runs on top of UNIX. Examples of UNIX GUIs are the Solaris Common Desktop Environment (CDE), GNOME, and KDE. These GUIs make the interface to UNIX appear similar to that of Windows and Macintosh systems.
Borland JBuilder is a programming environment that provides an integrated compiler, editor, debugger, and file system for Java development, where all four are accessed through a graphical interface. JBuilder is a complex and powerful system for creating Java software.
Microsoft Visual Studio .NET is a relatively recent step in the evolution of software development environments. It is a large and elaborate collection of software development tools, all used through a windowed interface. This system can be used to develop software in any one of the five .NET languages:
C#, Visual BASIC .NET, JScript (Microsoft’s version of JavaScript), F# (a functional language), and C++/CLI.
NetBeans is a development environment that is primarily used for Java application development but also supports JavaScript, Ruby, and PHP. Both
Visual Studio and NetBeans are more than development environments—they are also frameworks, which means they actually provide common parts of the code of the application.

S U M M A R Y

The study of programming languages is valuable for some important reasons: It increases our capacity to use different constructs in writing programs, enables us to choose languages for projects more intelligently, and makes learning new languages easier.
Computers are used in a wide variety of problem-solving domains. The design and evaluation of a particular programming language is highly dependent on the domain in which it is to be used.

32

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Preliminaries

Among the most important criteria for evaluating languages are readability, writability, reliability, and overall cost. These will be the basis on which we examine and judge the various language features discussed in the remainder of the book.
The major influences on language design have been machine architecture and software design methodologies.
Designing a programming language is primarily an engineering feat, in which a long list of trade-offs must be made among features, constructs, and capabilities. The major methods of implementing programming languages are compilation, pure interpretation, and hybrid implementation.
Programming environments have become important parts of software development systems, in which the language is just one of the components.

R E V I E W

Q U E S T I O N S

1. Why is it useful for a programmer to have some background in language design, even though he or she may never actually design a programming language? 2. How can knowledge of programming language characteristics benefit the whole computing community?
3. What programming language has dominated scientific computing over the past 50 years?
4. What programming language has dominated business applications over the past 50 years?
5. What programming language has dominated artificial intelligence over the past 50 years?
6. In what language is most of UNIX written?
7. What is the disadvantage of having too many features in a language?
8. How can user-defined operator overloading harm the readability of a program? 9. What is one example of a lack of orthogonality in the design of C?
10. What language used orthogonality as a primary design criterion?
11. What primitive control statement is used to build more complicated control statements in languages that lack them?
12. What construct of a programming language provides process abstraction? 13. What does it mean for a program to be reliable?
14. Why is type checking the parameters of a subprogram important?
15. What is aliasing?

Problem Set

33

16. What is exception handling?
17. Why is readability important to writability?
18. How is the cost of compilers for a given language related to the design of that language?
19. What have been the strongest influences on programming language design over the past 50 years?
20. What is the name of the category of programming languages whose structure is dictated by the von Neumann computer architecture?
21. What two programming language deficiencies were discovered as a result of the research in software development in the 1970s?
22. What are the three fundamental features of an object-oriented programming language?
23. What language was the first to support the three fundamental features of object-oriented programming?
24. What is an example of two language design criteria that are in direct conflict with each other?
25. What are the three general methods of implementing a programming language? 26. Which produces faster program execution, a compiler or a pure interpreter? 27. What role does the symbol table play in a compiler?
28. What does a linker do?
29. Why is the von Neumann bottleneck important?
30. What are the advantages in implementing a language with a pure interpreter? P R O B L E M

S E T

1. Do you believe our capacity for abstract thought is influenced by our language skills? Support your opinion.
2. What are some features of specific programming languages you know whose rationales are a mystery to you?
3. What arguments can you make for the idea of a single language for all programming domains?
4. What arguments can you make against the idea of a single language for all programming domains?
5. Name and explain another criterion by which languages can be judged
(in addition to those discussed in this chapter).

34

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

6. What common programming language statement, in your opinion, is most detrimental to readability?
7. Java uses a right brace to mark the end of all compound statements.
What are the arguments for and against this design?
8. Many languages distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters in user-defined names. What are the pros and cons of this design decision?
9. Explain the different aspects of the cost of a programming language.
10. What are the arguments for writing efficient programs even though hardware is relatively inexpensive?
11. Describe some design trade-offs between efficiency and safety in some language you know.
12. In your opinion, what major features would a perfect programming language include?
13. Was the first high-level programming language you learned implemented with a pure interpreter, a hybrid implementation system, or a compiler? (You may have to research this.)
14. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of some programming environment you have used.
15. How do type declaration statements for simple variables affect the readability of a language, considering that some languages do not require them? 16. Write an evaluation of some programming language you know, using the criteria described in this chapter.
17. Some programming languages—for example, Pascal—have used the semicolon to separate statements, while Java uses it to terminate statements. Which of these, in your opinion, is most natural and least likely to result in syntax errors? Support your answer.
18. Many contemporary languages allow two kinds of comments: one in which delimiters are used on both ends (multiple-line comments), and one in which a delimiter marks only the beginning of the comment (oneline comments). Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of these with respect to our criteria.

2
Evolution of the Major
Programming Languages
2.1 Zuse’s Plankalkül
2.2 Pseudocodes
2.3 The IBM 704 and Fortran
2.4 Functional Programming: LISP
2.5 The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60
2.6 Computerizing Business Records: COBOL
2.7 The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC
2.8 Everything for Everybody: PL/I
2.9 Two Early Dynamic Languages: APL and SNOBOL
2.10 The Beginnings of Data Abstraction: SIMULA 67
2.11 Orthogonal Design: ALGOL 68
2.12 Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs
2.13 Programming Based on Logic: Prolog
2.14 History’s Largest Design Effort: Ada
2.15 Object-Oriented Programming: Smalltalk
2.16 Combining Imperative and Object-Oriented Features: C++
2.17 An Imperative-Based Object-Oriented Language: Java
2.18 Scripting Languages
2.19 The Flagship .NET Language: C#
2.20 Markup/Programming Hybrid Languages

35

36

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Evolution of the Major Programming Languages

T

his chapter describes the development of a collection of programming languages. It explores the environment in which each was designed and focuses on the contributions of the language and the motivation for its development.
Overall language descriptions are not included; rather, we discuss only some of the new features introduced by each language. Of particular interest are the features that most influenced subsequent languages or the field of computer science.
This chapter does not include an in-depth discussion of any language feature or concept; that is left for later chapters. Brief, informal explanations of features will suffice for our trek through the development of these languages.
This chapter discusses a wide variety of languages and language concepts that will not be familiar to many readers. These topics are discussed in detail only in later chapters. Those who find this unsettling may prefer to delay reading this chapter until the rest of the book has been studied.
The choice as to which languages to discuss here was subjective, and some readers will unhappily note the absence of one or more of their favorites. However, to keep this historical coverage to a reasonable size, it was necessary to leave out some languages that some regard highly. The choices were based on our estimate of each language’s importance to language development and the computing world as a whole. We also include brief discussions of some other languages that are referenced later in the book.
The organization of this chapter is as follows: The initial versions of languages generally are discussed in chronological order. However, subsequent versions of languages appear with their initial version, rather than in later sections. For example,
Fortran 2003 is discussed in the section with Fortran I (1956). Also, in some cases, languages of secondary importance that are related to a language that has its own section appear in that section.
This chapter includes listings of 14 complete example programs, each in a different language. These programs are not described in this chapter; they are meant simply to illustrate the appearance of programs in these languages. Readers familiar with any of the common imperative languages should be able to read and understand most of the code in these programs, except those in LISP, COBOL, and Smalltalk.
(A Scheme function similar to the LISP example is discussed in Chapter 15.) The same problem is solved by the Fortran, ALGOL 60, PL/I, BASIC, Pascal, C, Perl, Ada, Java,
JavaScript, and C# programs. Note that most of the contemporary languages in this list support dynamic arrays, but because of the simplicity of the example problem, we did not use them in the example programs. Also, in the Fortran 95 program, we avoided using the features that could have avoided the use of loops altogether, in part to keep the program simple and readable and in part just to illustrate the basic loop structure of the language.
Figure 2.1 is a chart of the genealogy of the high-level languages discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 2
1957
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11

Fortran I
Fortran II

Evolution of the Major Programming Languages

37

FLOW-MATIC
ALGOL 58
ALGOL 60

LISP
APL

COBOL
CPL

Fortran IV

SNOBOL

SIMULA I
PL/I

BASIC
ALGOL W
SIMULA 67
ALGOL 68

BCPL
B
C

Pascal
Prolog

Scheme
MODULA-2
Fortran 77

awk

ML

Smalltalk 80
ICON
Miranda

Ada 83

C++ COMMON LISP
Perl
MODULA-3

Haskell
ANSI C (C89)

QuickBASIC

Oberon
Eiffel

Fortran 90

Visual BASIC
Python

PHP

Lua
Fortran 95

Ruby

Ada 95

Java

Javascript
C99
C#

Python 2.0

Visual Basic.NET
Fortran 2003

Ruby 1.8
Ada 2005

Fortran 2008

Figure 2.1
Genealogy of common high-level programming languages

Java 5.0
Java 6.0

C# 2.0
C# 3.0

Ruby 1.9
Java 7.0

C# 4.0

Python 3.0

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2.1 Zuse’s Plankalkül
The first programming language discussed in this chapter is highly unusual in several respects. For one thing, it was never implemented. Furthermore, although developed in 1945, its description was not published until 1972.
Because so few people were familiar with the language, some of its capabilities did not appear in other languages until 15 years after its development.

2.1.1

Historical Background
Between 1936 and 1945, German scientist Konrad Zuse (pronounced “Tsoozuh”) built a series of complex and sophisticated computers from electromechanical relays. By early 1945, Allied bombing had destroyed all but one of his latest models, the Z4, so he moved to a remote Bavarian village, Hinterstein, and his research group members went their separate ways.
Working alone, Zuse embarked on an effort to develop a language for expressing computations for the Z4, a project he had begun in 1943 as a proposal for his Ph.D. dissertation. He named this language Plankalkül, which means program calculus. In a lengthy manuscript dated 1945 but not published until 1972 (Zuse, 1972), Zuse defined Plankalkül and wrote algorithms in the language to solve a wide variety of problems.

2.1.2

Language Overview
Plankalkül was remarkably complete, with some of its most advanced features in the area of data structures. The simplest data type in Plankalkül was the single bit. Integer and floating-point numeric types were built from the bit type. The floating-point type used twos-complement notation and the “hidden bit” scheme currently used to avoid storing the most significant bit of the normalized fraction part of a floating-point value.
In addition to the usual scalar types, Plankalkül included arrays and records
(called structs in the C-based languages). The records could include nested records. Although the language had no explicit goto, it did include an iterative statement similar to the Ada for. It also had the command Fin with a superscript that specified an exit out of a given number of iteration loop nestings or to the beginning of a new iteration cycle. Plankalkül included a selection statement, but it did not allow an else clause.
One of the most interesting features of Zuse’s programs was the inclusion of mathematical expressions showing the current relationships between program variables. These expressions stated what would be true during execution at the points in the code where they appeared. These are very similar to the assertions of Java and in those in axiomatic semantics, which is discussed in
Chapter 3.

2.2

Pseudocodes

39

Zuse’s manuscript contained programs of far greater complexity than any written prior to 1945. Included were programs to sort arrays of numbers; test the connectivity of a given graph; carry out integer and floating-point operations, including square root; and perform syntax analysis on logic formulas that had parentheses and operators in six different levels of precedence. Perhaps most remarkable were his 49 pages of algorithms for playing chess, a game in which he was not an expert.
If a computer scientist had found Zuse’s description of Plankalkül in the early 1950s, the single aspect of the language that would have hindered its implementation as defined would have been the notation. Each statement consisted of either two or three lines of code. The first line was most like the statements of current languages. The second line, which was optional, contained the subscripts of the array references in the first line. The same method of indicating subscripts was used by Charles Babbage in programs for his Analytical Engine in the middle of the nineteenth century. The last line of each
Plankalkül statement contained the type names for the variables mentioned in the first line. This notation is quite intimidating when first seen.
The following example assignment statement, which assigns the value of the expression A[4] +1 to A[5], illustrates this notation. The row labeled V is for subscripts, and the row labeled S is for the data types. In this example, 1.n means an integer of n bits:
| A + 1 => A
V | 4
5
S | 1.n
1.n

We can only speculate on the direction that programming language design might have taken if Zuse’s work had been widely known in 1945 or even 1950.
It is also interesting to consider how his work might have been different had he done it in a peaceful environment surrounded by other scientists, rather than in Germany in 1945 in virtual isolation.

2.2 Pseudocodes
First, note that the word pseudocode is used here in a different sense than its contemporary meaning. We call the languages discussed in this section pseudocodes because that’s what they were named at the time they were developed and used (the late 1940s and early 1950s). However, they are clearly not pseudocodes in the contemporary sense.
The computers that became available in the late 1940s and early 1950s were far less usable than those of today. In addition to being slow, unreliable, expensive, and having extremely small memories, the machines of that time were difficult to program because of the lack of supporting software.
There were no high-level programming languages or even assembly languages, so programming was done in machine code, which is both tedious and

40

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error prone. Among its problems is the use of numeric codes for specifying instructions. For example, an ADD instruction might be specified by the code
14 rather than a connotative textual name, even if only a single letter. This makes programs very difficult to read. A more serious problem is absolute addressing, which makes program modification tedious and error prone. For example, suppose we have a machine language program stored in memory.
Many of the instructions in such a program refer to other locations within the program, usually to reference data or to indicate the targets of branch instructions. Inserting an instruction at any position in the program other than at the end invalidates the correctness of all instructions that refer to addresses beyond the insertion point, because those addresses must be increased to make room for the new instruction. To make the addition correctly, all instructions that refer to addresses that follow the addition must be found and modified. A similar problem occurs with deletion of an instruction. In this case, however, machine languages often include a “no operation” instruction that can replace deleted instructions, thereby avoiding the problem.
These are standard problems with all machine languages and were the primary motivations for inventing assemblers and assembly languages. In addition, most programming problems of that time were numerical and required floating-point arithmetic operations and indexing of some sort to allow the convenient use of arrays. Neither of these capabilities, however, was included in the architecture of the computers of the late 1940s and early 1950s. These deficiencies naturally led to the development of somewhat higher-level languages.

2.2.1

Short Code
The first of these new languages, named Short Code, was developed by John
Mauchly in 1949 for the BINAC computer, which was one of the first successful stored-program electronic computers. Short Code was later transferred to a UNIVAC I computer (the first commercial electronic computer sold in the
United States) and, for several years, was one of the primary means of programming those machines. Although little is known of the original Short Code because its complete description was never published, a programming manual for the UNIVAC I version did survive (Remington-Rand, 1952). It is safe to assume that the two versions were very similar.
The words of the UNIVAC I’s memory had 72 bits, grouped as 12 six-bit bytes. Short Code consisted of coded versions of mathematical expressions that were to be evaluated. The codes were byte-pair values, and many equations could be coded in a word. The following operation codes were included:
01
02
03
04

)
=
/

06
07
08
09

abs value
+
pause
(

1n
2n
4n
58

(n+2)nd power
(n+2)nd root if 0) .AND. (List_Len < 100)) Then
! Read input data into an array and compute its sum
Do Counter = 1, List_Len
Read *, Int_List(Counter)
Sum = Sum + Int_List(Counter)

2.4

Functional Programming: LISP

47

End Do
! Compute the average
Average = Sum / List_Len
! Count the values that are greater than the average
Do Counter = 1, List_Len
If (Int_List(Counter) > Average) Then
Result = Result + 1
End If
End Do
! Print the result
Print *, 'Number of values > Average is:', Result
Else
Print *, 'Error - list length value is not legal'
End If
End Program Example

2.4 Functional Programming: LISP
The first functional programming language was invented to provide language features for list processing, the need for which grew out of the first applications in the area of artificial intelligence (AI).

2.4.1

The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence and List Processing
Interest in AI appeared in the mid-1950s in a number of places. Some of this interest grew out of linguistics, some from psychology, and some from mathematics. Linguists were concerned with natural language processing. Psychologists were interested in modeling human information storage and retrieval, as well as other fundamental processes of the brain. Mathematicians were interested in mechanizing certain intelligent processes, such as theorem proving.
All of these investigations arrived at the same conclusion: Some method must be developed to allow computers to process symbolic data in linked lists. At the time, most computation was on numeric data in arrays.
The concept of list processing was developed by Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon at the RAND Corporation. It was first published in a classic paper that describes one of the first AI programs, the Logic Theorist,2 and a language in which it could be implemented (Newell and Simon, 1956). The language, named IPL-I (Information Processing Language I), was never implemented. The next version, IPL-II, was implemented on a RAND Johnniac computer. Development of IPL continued until 1960, when the description of IPL-V was published (Newell and Tonge, 1960). The low level of the IPL languages prevented their widespread use. They were actually assembly languages for a hypothetical computer, implemented with an interpreter, in which
2. Logic Theorist discovered proofs for theorems in propositional calculus.

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list-processing instructions were included. Another factor that kept the IPL languages from becoming popular was their implementation on the obscure
Johnniac machine.
The contributions of the IPL languages were in their list design and their demonstration that list processing was feasible and useful.
IBM became interested in AI in the mid-1950s and chose theorem proving as a demonstration area. At the time, the Fortran project was still underway. The high cost of the Fortran I compiler convinced IBM that their list processing should be attached to Fortran, rather than in the form of a new language. Thus, the Fortran List Processing Language (FLPL) was designed and implemented as an extension to Fortran. FLPL was used to construct a theorem prover for plane geometry, which was then considered the easiest area for mechanical theorem proving.

2.4.2

LISP Design Process
John McCarthy of MIT took a summer position at the IBM Information
Research Department in 1958. His goal for the summer was to investigate symbolic computations and to develop a set of requirements for doing such computations. As a pilot example problem area, he chose differentiation of algebraic expressions. From this study came a list of language requirements.
Among them were the control flow methods of mathematical functions: recursion and conditional expressions. The only available high-level language of the time, Fortran I, had neither of these.
Another requirement that grew from the symbolic-differentiation investigation was the need for dynamically allocated linked lists and some kind of implicit deallocation of abandoned lists. McCarthy simply would not allow his elegant algorithm for differentiation to be cluttered with explicit deallocation statements. Because FLPL did not support recursion, conditional expressions, dynamic storage allocation, or implicit deallocation, it was clear to McCarthy that a new language was needed.
When McCarthy returned to MIT in the fall of 1958, he and Marvin
Minsky formed the MIT AI Project, with funding from the Research Laboratory for Electronics. The first important effort of the project was to produce a software system for list processing. It was to be used initially to implement a program proposed by McCarthy called the Advice Taker.3 This application became the impetus for the development of the list-processing language LISP.
The first version of LISP is sometimes called “pure LISP” because it is a purely functional language. In the following section, we describe the development of pure LISP.
3. Advice Taker represented information with sentences written in a formal language and used a logical inferencing process to decide what to do.

2.4

2.4.3

Functional Programming: LISP

49

Language Overview
2.4.3.1 Data Structures
Pure LISP has only two kinds of data structures: atoms and lists. Atoms are either symbols, which have the form of identifiers, or numeric literals. The concept of storing symbolic information in linked lists is natural and was used in
IPL-II. Such structures allow insertions and deletions at any point, operations that were then thought to be a necessary part of list processing. It was eventually determined, however, that LISP programs rarely require these operations.
Lists are specified by delimiting their elements with parentheses. Simple lists, in which elements are restricted to atoms, have the form
(A B C D)

Nested list structures are also specified by parentheses. For example, the list
(A (B C) D (E (F G)))

is composed of four elements. The first is the atom A; the second is the sublist
(B C); the third is the atom D; the fourth is the sublist (E (F G)), which has as its second element the sublist (F G).
Internally, lists are stored as single-linked list structures, in which each node has two pointers and represents a list element. A node containing an atom has its first pointer pointing to some representation of the atom, such as its symbol or numeric value, or a pointer to a sublist. A node for a sublist element has its first pointer pointing to the first node of the sublist. In both cases, the second pointer of a node points to the next element of the list. A list is referenced by a pointer to its first element.
The internal representations of the two lists shown earlier are depicted in
Figure 2.2. Note that the elements of a list are shown horizontally. The last element of a list has no successor, so its link is NIL, which is represented in
Figure 2.2 as a diagonal line in the element. Sublists are shown with the same structure. 2.4.3.2 Processes in Functional Programming
LISP was designed as a functional programming language. All computation in a purely functional program is accomplished by applying functions to arguments.
Neither the assignment statements nor the variables that abound in imperative language programs are necessary in functional language programs. Furthermore, repetitive processes can be specified with recursive function calls, making iteration (loops) unnecessary. These basic concepts of functional programming make it significantly different from programming in an imperative language.

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Figure 2.2
Internal representation of two LISP lists

A

B

A

C

D

D

B

C

E

F

G

2.4.3.3 The Syntax of LISP
LISP is very different from the imperative languages, both because it is a functional programming language and because the appearance of LISP programs is so different from those in languages like Java or C++. For example, the syntax of Java is a complicated mixture of English and algebra, while LISP’s syntax is a model of simplicity. Program code and data have exactly the same form: parenthesized lists. Consider again the list
(A B C D)

When interpreted as data, it is a list of four elements. When viewed as code, it is the application of the function named A to the three parameters B, C, and D.

2.4.4

Evaluation
LISP completely dominated AI applications for a quarter century. Much of the cause of LISP’s reputation for being highly inefficient has been eliminated.
Many contemporary implementations are compiled, and the resulting code is much faster than running the source code on an interpreter. In addition to its success in AI, LISP pioneered functional programming, which has proven to be a lively area of research in programming languages. As stated in Chapter 1, many programming language researchers believe functional programming is a much better approach to software development than procedural programming using imperative languages.

2.4

Functional Programming: LISP

51

The following is an example of a LISP program:
;
;
;
;

LISP Example function
The following code defines a LISP predicate function that takes two lists as arguments and returns True if the two lists are equal, and NIL (false) otherwise
(DEFUN equal_lists (lis1 lis2)
(COND
((ATOM lis1) (EQ lis1 lis2))
((ATOM lis2) NIL)
((equal_lists (CAR lis1) (CAR lis2))
(equal_lists (CDR lis1) (CDR lis2)))
(T NIL)
)

)

2.4.5

Two Descendants of LISP
Two dialects of LISP are now widely used, Scheme and Common LISP. These are briefly discussed in the following subsections.

2.4.5.1 Scheme
The Scheme language emerged from MIT in the mid-1970s (Dybvig, 2003).
It is characterized by its small size, its exclusive use of static scoping (discussed in Chapter 5), and its treatment of functions as first-class entities. As first-class entities, Scheme functions can be assigned to variables, passed as parameters, and returned as the values of function applications. They can also be the elements of lists. Early versions of LISP did not provide all of these capabilities, nor did they use static scoping.
As a small language with simple syntax and semantics, Scheme is well suited to educational applications, such as courses in functional programming and general introductions to programming. Scheme is described in some detail in
Chapter 15.

2.4.5.2 Common LISP
During the 1970s and early 1980s, a large number of different dialects of LISP were developed and used. This led to the familiar problem of lack of portability among programs written in the various dialects. Common LISP (Graham,
1996) was created in an effort to rectify this situation. Common LISP was designed by combining the features of several dialects of LISP developed in the early 1980s, including Scheme, into a single language. Being such an amalgam,
Common LISP is a relatively large and complex language. Its basis, however, is pure LISP, so its syntax, primitive functions, and fundamental nature come from that language.

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Recognizing the flexibility provided by dynamic scoping as well as the simplicity of static scoping, Common LISP allows both. The default scoping for variables is static, but by declaring a variable to be special, that variable becomes dynamically scoped.
Common LISP has a large number of data types and structures, including records, arrays, complex numbers, and character strings. It also has a form of packages for modularizing collections of functions and data providing access control. Common LISP is further described in Chapter 15.

2.4.6

Related Languages
ML (MetaLanguage; Ullman, 1998) was originally designed in the 1980s by
Robin Milner at the University of Edinburgh as a metalanguage for a program verification system named Logic for Computable Functions (LCF; Milner et al., 1990). ML is primarily a functional language, but it also supports imperative programming. Unlike LISP and Scheme, the type of every variable and expression in ML can be determined at compile time. Types are associated with objects rather than names. Types of names and expressions are inferred from their context.
Unlike LISP and Scheme, ML does not use the parenthesized functional syntax that originated with lambda expressions. Rather, the syntax of ML resembles that of the imperative languages, such as Java and C++.
Miranda was developed by David Turner (1986) at the University of Kent in Canterbury, England, in the early 1980s. Miranda is based partly on the languages ML, SASL, and KRC. Haskell (Hudak and Fasel, 1992) is based in large part on Miranda. Like Miranda, it is a purely functional language, having no variables and no assignment statement. Another distinguishing characteristic of Haskell is its use of lazy evaluation. This means that no expression is evaluated until its value is required. This leads to some surprising capabilities in the language.
Caml (Cousineau et al., 1998) and its dialect that supports object-oriented programming, OCaml (Smith, 2006), descended from ML and Haskell. Finally,
F# is a relatively new typed language based directly on OCaml. F# (Syme et al.,
2010) is a .NET language with direct access to the whole .NET library. Being a
.NET language also means it can smoothly interoperate with any other .NET language. F# supports both functional programming and procedural programming. It also fully supports object-oriented programming.
ML, Haskell, and F# are further discussed in Chapter 15.

2.5 The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60
ALGOL 60 has had much influence on subsequent programming languages and is therefore of central importance in any historical study of languages.

2.5

2.5.1

The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60

53

Historical Background
ALGOL 60 was the result of efforts to design a universal programming language for scientific applications. By late 1954, the Laning and Zierler algebraic system had been in operation for over a year, and the first report on Fortran had been published. Fortran became a reality in 1957, and several other high-level languages were being developed. Most notable among them were IT, which was designed by Alan Perlis at Carnegie Tech, and two languages for the UNIVAC computers,
MATH-MATIC and UNICODE. The proliferation of languages made program sharing among users difficult. Furthermore, the new languages were all growing up around single architectures, some for UNIVAC computers and some for
IBM 700-series machines. In response to this blossoming of machine-dependent languages, several major computer user groups in the United States, including
SHARE (the IBM scientific user group) and USE (UNIVAC Scientific Exchange, the large-scale UNIVAC scientific user group), submitted a petition to the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) on May 10, 1957, to form a committee to study and recommend action to create a machine-independent scientific programming language. Although Fortran might have been a candidate, it could not become a universal language, because at the time it was solely owned by IBM.
Previously, in 1955, GAMM (a German acronym for Society for Applied
Mathematics and Mechanics) had formed a committee to design one universal, machine-independent algorithmic language. The desire for this new language was in part due to the Europeans’ fear of being dominated by IBM. By late
1957, however, the appearance of several high-level languages in the United
States convinced the GAMM subcommittee that their effort had to be widened to include the Americans, and a letter of invitation was sent to ACM. In April
1958, after Fritz Bauer of GAMM presented the formal proposal to ACM, the two groups officially agreed to a joint language design project.

2.5.2

Early Design Process
GAMM and ACM each sent four members to the first design meeting. The meeting, which was held in Zurich from May 27 to June 1, 1958, began with the following goals for the new language:
• The syntax of the language should be as close as possible to standard mathematical notation, and programs written in it should be readable with little further explanation.
• It should be possible to use the language for the description of algorithms in printed publications.
• Programs in the new language must be mechanically translatable into machine language.
The first goal indicated that the new language was to be used for scientific programming, which was the primary computer application area at that time.
The second was something entirely new to the computing business. The last goal is an obvious necessity for any programming language.

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The Zurich meeting succeeded in producing a language that met the stated goals, but the design process required innumerable compromises, both among individuals and between the two sides of the Atlantic. In some cases, the compromises were not so much over great issues as they were over spheres of influence. The question of whether to use a comma (the European method) or a period (the American method) for a decimal point is one example.

2.5.3

ALGOL 58 Overview
The language designed at the Zurich meeting was named the International
Algorithmic Language (IAL). It was suggested during the design that the language be named ALGOL, for ALGOrithmic Language, but the name was rejected because it did not reflect the international scope of the committee.
During the following year, however, the name was changed to ALGOL, and the language subsequently became known as ALGOL 58.
In many ways, ALGOL 58 was a descendant of Fortran, which is quite natural. It generalized many of Fortran’s features and added several new constructs and concepts. Some of the generalizations had to do with the goal of not tying the language to any particular machine, and others were attempts to make the language more flexible and powerful. A rare combination of simplicity and elegance emerged from the effort.
ALGOL 58 formalized the concept of data type, although only variables that were not floating-point required explicit declaration. It added the idea of compound statements, which most subsequent languages incorporated. Some features of Fortran that were generalized were the following: Identifiers were allowed to have any length, as opposed to Fortran I’s restriction to six or fewer characters; any number of array dimensions was allowed, unlike Fortran I’s limitation to no more than three; the lower bound of arrays could be specified by the programmer, whereas in Fortran it was implicitly 1; nested selection statements were allowed, which was not the case in Fortran I.
ALGOL 58 acquired the assignment operator in a rather unusual way.
Zuse used the form expression => variable for the assignment statement in Plankalkül. Although Plankalkül had not yet been published, some of the European members of the ALGOL 58 committee were familiar with the language. The committee dabbled with the Plankalkül assignment form but, because of arguments about character set limitations,4 the greater-than symbol was changed to a colon. Then, largely at the insistence of the Americans, the whole statement was turned around to the Fortran form variable := expression
The Europeans preferred the opposite form, but that would be the reverse of
Fortran.
4. The card punches of that time did not include the greater-than symbol.

2.5

2.5.4

The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60

55

Reception of the ALGOL 58 Report
In December 1958, publication of the ALGOL 58 report (Perlis and Samelson,
1958) was greeted with a good deal of enthusiasm. In the United States, the new language was viewed more as a collection of ideas for programming language design than as a universal standard language. Actually, the ALGOL 58 report was not meant to be a finished product but rather a preliminary document for international discussion. Nevertheless, three major design and implementation efforts used the report as their basis. At the University of Michigan, the MAD language was born (Arden et al., 1961). The U.S. Naval Electronics Group produced the NELIAC language (Huskey et al., 1963). At System Development
Corporation, JOVIAL was designed and implemented (Shaw, 1963). JOVIAL, an acronym for Jules’ Own Version of the International Algebraic Language, represents the only language based on ALGOL 58 to achieve widespread use
( Jules was Jules I. Schwartz, one of JOVIAL’s designers). JOVIAL became widely used because it was the official scientific language for the U.S. Air Force for a quarter century.
The rest of the U.S. computing community was not so kind to the new language. At first, both IBM and its major scientific user group, SHARE, seemed to embrace ALGOL 58. IBM began an implementation shortly after the report was published, and SHARE formed a subcommittee, SHARE IAL, to study the language. The subcommittee subsequently recommended that ACM standardize ALGOL 58 and that IBM implement it for all of the 700-series computers.
The enthusiasm was short-lived, however. By the spring of 1959, both IBM and SHARE, through their Fortran experience, had had enough of the pain and expense of getting a new language started, both in terms of developing and using the first-generation compilers and in terms of training users in the new language and persuading them to use it. By the middle of 1959, both IBM and
SHARE had developed such a vested interest in Fortran that they decided to retain it as the scientific language for the IBM 700-series machines, thereby abandoning ALGOL 58.

2.5.5

ALGOL 60 Design Process
During 1959, ALGOL 58 was furiously debated in both Europe and the United
States. Large numbers of suggested modifications and additions were published in the European ALGOL Bulletin and in Communications of the ACM. One of the most important events of 1959 was the presentation of the work of the Zurich committee to the International Conference on Information Processing, for there Backus introduced his new notation for describing the syntax of programming languages, which later became known as BNF (Backus-Naur form). BNF is described in detail in Chapter 3.
In January 1960, the second ALGOL meeting was held, this time in Paris.
The purpose of the meeting was to debate the 80 suggestions that had been formally submitted for consideration. Peter Naur of Denmark had become heavily involved in the development of ALGOL, even though he had not been

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a member of the Zurich group. It was Naur who created and published the
ALGOL Bulletin. He spent a good deal of time studying Backus’s paper that introduced BNF and decided that BNF should be used to describe formally the results of the 1960 meeting. After making a few relatively minor changes to
BNF, he wrote a description of the new proposed language in BNF and handed it out to the members of the 1960 group at the beginning of the meeting.

2.5.6

ALGOL 60 Overview
Although the 1960 meeting lasted only six days, the modifications made to
ALGOL 58 were dramatic. Among the most important new developments were the following:
• The concept of block structure was introduced. This allowed the programmer to localize parts of programs by introducing new data environments, or scopes.
• Two different means of passing parameters to subprograms were allowed: pass by value and pass by name.
• Procedures were allowed to be recursive. The ALGOL 58 description was unclear on this issue. Note that although this recursion was new for the imperative languages, LISP had already provided recursive functions in
1959.
• Stack-dynamic arrays were allowed. A stack-dynamic array is one for which the subscript range or ranges are specified by variables, so that the size of the array is set at the time storage is allocated to the array, which happens when the declaration is reached during execution. Stack-dynamic arrays are described in detail in Chapter 6.
Several features that might have had a dramatic impact on the success or failure of the language were proposed and rejected. Most important among these were input and output statements with formatting, which were omitted because they were thought to be machine-dependent.
The ALGOL 60 report was published in May 1960 (Naur, 1960). A number of ambiguities still remained in the language description, and a third meeting was scheduled for April 1962 in Rome to address the problems. At this meeting the group dealt only with problems; no additions to the language were allowed. The results of this meeting were published under the title “Revised
Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60” (Backus et al., 1963).

2.5.7

Evaluation
In some ways, ALGOL 60 was a great success; in other ways, it was a dismal failure. It succeeded in becoming, almost immediately, the only acceptable formal means of communicating algorithms in computing literature, and it remained that for more than 20 years. Every imperative programming language designed since 1960 owes something to ALGOL 60. In fact, most are direct

2.5

The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60

57

or indirect descendants; examples include PL/I, SIMULA 67, ALGOL 68, C,
Pascal, Ada, C++, Java, and C#.
The ALGOL 58/ALGOL 60 design effort included a long list of firsts. It was the first time that an international group attempted to design a programming language. It was the first language that was designed to be machine independent. It was also the first language whose syntax was formally described.
This successful use of the BNF formalism initiated several important fields of computer science: formal languages, parsing theory, and BNF-based compiler design. Finally, the structure of ALGOL 60 affected machine architecture. In the most striking example of this, an extension of the language was used as the systems language of a series of large-scale computers, the Burroughs B5000,
B6000, and B7000 machines, which were designed with a hardware stack to implement efficiently the block structure and recursive subprograms of the language. On the other side of the coin, ALGOL 60 never achieved widespread use in the United States. Even in Europe, where it was more popular than in the
United States, it never became the dominant language. There are a number of reasons for its lack of acceptance. For one thing, some of the features of
ALGOL 60 turned out to be too flexible; they made understanding difficult and implementation inefficient. The best example of this is the pass-by-name method of passing parameters to subprograms, which is explained in Chapter
9. The difficulties of implementing ALGOL 60 are evidenced by Rutishauser’s statement in 1967 that few, if any, implementations included the full ALGOL
60 language (Rutishauser, 1967, p. 8).
The lack of input and output statements in the language was another major reason for its lack of acceptance. Implementation-dependent input/output made programs difficult to port to other computers.
Ironically, one of the most important contributions to computer science associated with ALGOL 60, BNF, was also a factor in its lack of acceptance.
Although BNF is now considered a simple and elegant means of syntax description, in 1960 it seemed strange and complicated.
Finally, although there were many other problems, the entrenchment of
Fortran among users and the lack of support by IBM were probably the most important factors in ALGOL 60’s failure to gain widespread use.
The ALGOL 60 effort was never really complete, in the sense that ambiguities and obscurities were always a part of the language description (Knuth,
1967).
The following is an example of an ALGOL 60 program: comment ALGOL 60 Example Program
Input: An integer, listlen, where listlen is less than
100, followed by listlen-integer values
Output: The number of input values that are greater than the average of all the input values ; begin integer array intlist [1:99];

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integer listlen, counter, sum, average, result; sum := 0; result := 0; readint (listlen); if (listlen > 0) ∧ (listlen < 100) then begin comment Read input into an array and compute the average; for counter := 1 step 1 until listlen do begin readint (intlist[counter]); sum := sum + intlist[counter] end; comment Compute the average; average := sum / listlen; comment Count the input values that are > average; for counter := 1 step 1 until listlen do if intlist[counter] > average then result := result + 1; comment Print result; printstring("The number of values > average is:"); printint (result) end else printstring ("Error—input list length is not legal"; end 2.6 Computerizing Business Records: COBOL
The story of COBOL is, in a sense, the opposite of that of ALGOL 60. Although it has been used more than any other programming language, COBOL has had little effect on the design of subsequent languages, except for PL/I. It may still be the most widely used language,5 although it is difficult to be sure one way or the other. Perhaps the most important reason why COBOL has had little influence is that few have attempted to design a new language for business applications since it appeared. That is due in part to how well COBOL’s capabilities meet the needs of its application area. Another reason is that a great deal of growth in business computing over the past 30 years has occurred in small businesses. In these businesses, very little software development has taken place. Instead, most of the software used is purchased as off-the-shelf packages for various general business applications.

5. In the late 1990s, in a study associated with the Y2K problem, it was estimated that there were approximately 800 million lines of COBOL in use in the 22 square miles of Manhattan.

2.6

2.6.1

Computerizing Business Records: COBOL

59

Historical Background
The beginning of COBOL is somewhat similar to that of ALGOL 60, in the sense that the language was designed by a committee of people meeting for relatively short periods of time. At the time, in 1959, the state of business computing was similar to the state of scientific computing several years earlier, when Fortran was being designed. One compiled language for business applications, FLOW-MATIC, had been implemented in 1957, but it belonged to one manufacturer, UNIVAC, and was designed for that company’s computers.
Another language, AIMACO, was being used by the U.S. Air Force, but it was only a minor variation of FLOW-MATIC. IBM had designed a programming language for business applications, COMTRAN (COMmercial TRANslator), but it had not yet been implemented. Several other language design projects were being planned.

2.6.2

FLOW-MATIC
The origins of FLOW-MATIC are worth at least a brief discussion, because it was the primary progenitor of COBOL. In December 1953, Grace Hopper at Remington-Rand UNIVAC wrote a proposal that was indeed prophetic.
It suggested that “mathematical programs should be written in mathematical notation, data processing programs should be written in English statements”
(Wexelblat, 1981, p. 16). Unfortunately, in 1953, it was impossible to convince nonprogrammers that a computer could be made to understand English words.
It was not until 1955 that a similar proposal had some hope of being funded by UNIVAC management, and even then it took a prototype system to do the final convincing. Part of this selling process involved compiling and running a small program, first using English keywords, then using French keywords, and then using German keywords. This demonstration was considered remarkable by UNIVAC management and was instrumental in their acceptance of Hopper’s proposal.

2.6.3

COBOL Design Process
The first formal meeting on the subject of a common language for business applications, which was sponsored by the Department of Defense, was held at the Pentagon on May 28 and 29, 1959 (exactly one year after the Zurich
ALGOL meeting). The consensus of the group was that the language, then named CBL (Common Business Language), should have the following general characteristics: Most agreed that it should use English as much as possible, although a few argued for a more mathematical notation. The language must be easy to use, even at the expense of being less powerful, in order to broaden the base of those who could program computers. In addition to making the language easy to use, it was believed that the use of English would allow managers to read programs. Finally, the design should not be overly restricted by the problems of its implementation.

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One of the overriding concerns at the meeting was that steps to create this universal language should be taken quickly, as a lot of work was already being done to create other business languages. In addition to the existing languages,
RCA and Sylvania were working on their own business applications languages.
It was clear that the longer it took to produce a universal language, the more difficult it would be for the language to become widely used. On this basis, it was decided that there should be a quick study of existing languages. For this task, the Short Range Committee was formed.
There were early decisions to separate the statements of the language into two categories—data description and executable operations—and to have statements in these two categories be in different parts of programs. One of the debates of the Short Range Committee was over the inclusion of subscripts. Many committee members argued that subscripts were too complex for the people in data processing, who were thought to be uncomfortable with mathematical notation.
Similar arguments revolved around whether arithmetic expressions should be included. The final report of the Short Range Committee, which was completed in December 1959, described the language that was later named COBOL 60.
The language specifications for COBOL 60, published by the Government
Printing Office in April 1960 (Department of Defense, 1960), were described as “initial.” Revised versions were published in 1961 and 1962 (Department of
Defense, 1961, 1962). The language was standardized by the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) group in 1968. The next three revisions were standardized by ANSI in 1974, 1985, and 2002. The language continues to evolve today.

2.6.4

Evaluation
The COBOL language originated a number of novel concepts, some of which eventually appeared in other languages. For example, the DEFINE verb of COBOL 60 was the first high-level language construct for macros. More important, hierarchical data structures (records), which first appeared in Plankalkül, were first implemented in COBOL. They have been included in most of the imperative languages designed since then. COBOL was also the first language that allowed names to be truly connotative, because it allowed both long names (up to 30 characters) and word-connector characters (hyphens).
Overall, the data division is the strong part of COBOL’s design, whereas the procedure division is relatively weak. Every variable is defined in detail in the data division, including the number of decimal digits and the location of the implied decimal point. File records are also described with this level of detail, as are lines to be output to a printer, which makes COBOL ideal for printing accounting reports. Perhaps the most important weakness of the original procedure division was in its lack of functions. Versions of COBOL prior to the
1974 standard also did not allow subprograms with parameters.
Our final comment on COBOL: It was the first programming language whose use was mandated by the Department of Defense (DoD). This mandate came after its initial development, because COBOL was not designed specifically for the DoD. In spite of its merits, COBOL probably would not have

2.6

Computerizing Business Records: COBOL

61

survived without that mandate. The poor performance of the early compilers simply made the language too expensive to use. Eventually, of course, compilers became more efficient and computers became much faster and cheaper and had much larger memories. Together, these factors allowed COBOL to succeed, inside and outside DoD. Its appearance led to the electronic mechanization of accounting, an important revolution by any measure.
The following is an example of a COBOL program. This program reads a file named BAL-FWD-FILE that contains inventory information about a certain collection of items. Among other things, each item record includes the number currently on hand (BAL-ON-HAND) and the item’s reorder point
(BAL-REORDER-POINT). The reorder point is the threshold number of items on hand at which more must be ordered. The program produces a list of items that must be reordered as a file named REORDER-LISTING.
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. PRODUCE-REORDER-LISTING.
ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.
CONFIGURATION SECTION.
SOURCE-COMPUTER. DEC-VAX.
OBJECT-COMPUTER. DEC-VAX.
INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.
FILE-CONTROL.
SELECT BAL-FWD-FILE
ASSIGN TO READER.
SELECT REORDER-LISTING ASSIGN TO LOCAL-PRINTER.
DATA DIVISION.
FILE SECTION.
FD BAL-FWD-FILE
LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD
RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS.
01

FD

01

BAL-FWD-CARD.
02 BAL-ITEM-NO
PICTURE IS
02 BAL-ITEM-DESC
PICTURE IS
02 FILLER
PICTURE IS
02 BAL-UNIT-PRICE
PICTURE IS
02 BAL-REORDER-POINT PICTURE IS
02 BAL-ON-HAND
PICTURE IS
02 BAL-ON-ORDER
PICTURE IS
02 FILLER
PICTURE IS
REORDER-LISTING
LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD
RECORD CONTAINS 132 CHARACTERS.
REORDER-LINE.

9(5).
X(20).
X(5).
999V99.
9(5).
9(5).
9(5).
X(30).

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02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02

RL-ITEM-NO
FILLER
RL-ITEM-DESC
FILLER
RL-UNIT-PRICE
FILLER
RL-AVAILABLE-STOCK
FILLER
RL-REORDER-POINT
FILLER

WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01 SWITCHES.
02 CARD-EOF-SWITCH
01 WORK-FIELDS.
02 AVAILABLE-STOCK

PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE
PICTURE

IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS
IS

Z(5).
X(5).
X(20).
X(5).
ZZZ.99.
X(5).
Z(5).
X(5).
Z(5).
X(71).

PICTURE IS X.
PICTURE IS 9(5).

PROCEDURE DIVISION.
000-PRODUCE-REORDER-LISTING.
OPEN INPUT BAL-FWD-FILE.
OPEN OUTPUT REORDER-LISTING.
MOVE "N" TO CARD-EOF-SWITCH.
PERFORM 100-PRODUCE-REORDER-LINE
UNTIL CARD-EOF-SWITCH IS EQUAL TO "Y".
CLOSE BAL-FWD-FILE.
CLOSE REORDER-LISTING.
STOP RUN.
100-PRODUCE-REORDER-LINE.
PERFORM 110-READ-INVENTORY-RECORD.
IF CARD-EOF-SWITCH IS NOT EQUAL TO "Y"]
PERFORM 120-CALCULATE-AVAILABLE-STOCK
IF AVAILABLE-STOCK IS LESS THAN BAL-REORDER-POINT
PERFORM 130-PRINT-REORDER-LINE.
110-READ-INVENTORY-RECORD.
READ BAL-FWD-FILE RECORD
AT END
MOVE "Y" TO CARD-EOF-SWITCH.
120-CALCULATE-AVAILABLE-STOCK.
ADD BAL-ON-HAND BAL-ON-ORDER
GIVING AVAILABLE-STOCK.
130-PRINT-REORDER-LINE.
MOVE SPACE

TO REORDER-LINE.

2.7

The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC

MOVE BAL-ITEM-NO
MOVE BAL-ITEM-DESC
MOVE BAL-UNIT-PRICE
MOVE AVAILABLE-STOCK
MOVE BAL-REORDER-POINT
WRITE REORDER-LINE.

TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

63

RL-ITEM-NO.
RL-ITEM-DESC.
RL-UNIT-PRICE.
RL-AVAILABLE-STOCK.
RL-REORDER-POINT.

2.7 The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC
BASIC (Mather and Waite, 1971) is another programming language that has enjoyed widespread use but has gotten little respect. Like COBOL, it has largely been ignored by computer scientists. Also, like COBOL, in its earliest versions it was inelegant and included only a meager set of control statements. BASIC was very popular on microcomputers in the late 1970s and early
1980s. This followed directly from two of the main characteristics of early versions of BASIC. It was easy for beginners to learn, especially those who were not science oriented, and its smaller dialects can be implemented on computers with very small memories.6 When the capabilities of microcomputers grew and other languages were implemented, the use of BASIC waned. A strong resurgence in the use of BASIC began with the appearance of Visual Basic
(Microsoft, 1991) in the early 1990s.

2.7.1

Design Process
BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was originally designed at Dartmouth College (now Dartmouth University) in New Hampshire by two mathematicians, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, who, in the early 1960s, developed compilers for a variety of dialects of Fortran and
ALGOL 60. Their science students generally had little trouble learning or using those languages in their studies. However, Dartmouth was primarily a liberal arts institution, where science and engineering students made up only about 25 percent of the student body. It was decided in the spring of 1963 to design a new language especially for liberal arts students. This new language would use terminals as the method of computer access. The goals of the system were as follows:
1. It must be easy for nonscience students to learn and use.
2. It must be “pleasant and friendly.”
3. It must provide fast turnaround for homework.
6. Some early microcomputers included BASIC interpreters that resided in 4096 bytes of
ROM.

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4. It must allow free and private access.
5. It must consider user time more important than computer time.
The last goal was indeed a revolutionary concept. It was based at least partly on the belief that computers would become significantly cheaper as time went on, which of course they did.
The combination of the second, third, and fourth goals led to the timeshared aspect of BASIC. Only with individual access through terminals by numerous simultaneous users could these goals be met in the early 1960s.
In the summer of 1963, Kemeny began work on the compiler for the first version of BASIC, using remote access to a GE 225 computer. Design and coding of the operating system for BASIC began in the fall of 1963. At 4:00
A.M. on May 1, 1964, the first program using the timeshared BASIC was typed in and run. In June, the number of terminals on the system grew to 11, and by the fall it had ballooned to 20.

2.7.2

Language Overview
The original version of BASIC was very small and, oddly, was not interactive:
There was no way for an executing program to get input data from the user.
Programs were typed in, compiled, and run, in a sort of batch-oriented way.
The original BASIC had only 14 different statement types and a single data type—floating-point. Because it was believed that few of the targeted users would appreciate the difference between integer and floating-point types, the type was referred to as “numbers.” Overall, it was a very limited language, though quite easy to learn.

2.7.3

Evaluation
The most important aspect of the original BASIC was that it was the first widely used language that was used through terminals connected to a remote computer.7 Terminals had just begun to be available at that time. Before then, most programs were entered into computers through either punched cards or paper tape.
Much of the design of BASIC came from Fortran, with some minor influence from the syntax of ALGOL 60. Later, it grew in a variety of ways, with little or no effort made to standardize it. The American National Standards
Institute issued a Minimal BASIC standard (ANSI, 1978b), but this represented only the bare minimum of language features. In fact, the original BASIC was very similar to Minimal BASIC.
Although it may seem surprising, Digital Equipment Corporation used a rather elaborate version of BASIC named BASIC-PLUS to write significant

7. LISP initially was used through terminals, but it was not widely used in the early 1960s.

2.7

The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC

65

portions of their largest operating system for the PDP-11 minicomputers,
RSTS, in the 1970s.
BASIC has been criticized for the poor structure of programs written in it, among other things. By the evaluation criteria discussed in Chapter 1, specifically readability and reliability, the language does indeed fare very poorly.
Clearly, the early versions of the language were not meant for and should not have been used for serious programs of any significant size. Later versions are much better suited to such tasks.
The resurgence of BASIC in the 1990s was driven by the appearance of
Visual BASIC (VB). VB became widely used in large part because it provided a simple way of building graphical user interfaces (GUIs), hence the name
Visual BASIC. Visual Basic .NET, or just VB.NET, is one of Microsoft’s .NET languages. Although it is a significant departure from VB, it quickly displaced the older language. Perhaps the most important difference between VB and
VB.NET is that VB.NET fully supports object-oriented programming.
The following is an example of a BASIC program:
REM BASIC Example Program
REM Input: An integer, listlen, where listlen is less
REM
than 100, followed by listlen-integer values
REM Output: The number of input values that are greater
REM
than the average of all input values
DIM intlist(99) result = 0 sum = 0
INPUT listlen
IF listlen > 0 AND listlen < 100 THEN
REM Read input into an array and compute the sum
FOR counter = 1 TO listlen
INPUT intlist(counter) sum = sum + intlist(counter)
NEXT counter
REM Compute the average average = sum / listlen
REM Count the number of input values that are > average
FOR counter = 1 TO listlen
IF intlist(counter) > average
THEN result = result + 1
NEXT counter
REM Print the result
PRINT "The number of values that are > average is:"; result ELSE
PRINT "Error—input list length is not legal"
END IF
END

interview

User Design and Language Design
ALAN COOPER
Best-selling author of About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design, Alan
Cooper also had a large hand in designing what can be touted as the language with the most concern for user interface design, Visual Basic. For him, it all comes down to a vision for humanizing technology.

SOME INFORMATION ON THE BASICS
How did you get started in all of this? I’m a high school dropout with an associate degree in programming from a California community college. My first job was as a programmer for American President Lines
(one of the United States’ oldest ocean transportation companies) in San Francisco. Except for a few months here and there, I’ve remained self-employed.
What is your current job? Founder and chairman of Cooper, the company that humanizes technology
(www.cooper.com).
What is or was your favorite job? Interaction design consultant.

You are very well known in the fields of language design and user interface design. Any thoughts on designing languages versus designing software, versus designing anything else? It’s pretty much the same in the world of software: Know your user.

ABOUT THAT EARLY WINDOWS RELEASE
In the 1980s, you started using Windows and have talked about being lured by its plusses: the graphical user interface support and the dynamically linked library that let you create tools that configured themselves. What about the parts of
Windows that you eventually helped shape? I was very impressed by Microsoft’s inclusion of support for practical multitasking in Windows. This included dynamic relocation and interprocess communications.

66

MSDOS.exe was the shell program for the first few releases of Windows. It was a terrible program, and I believed that it could be improved dramatically, and I was the guy to do it. In my spare time, I immediately began to write a better shell program than the one
Windows came with. I called it Tripod. Microsoft’s original shell, MSDOS.exe, was one of the main stumbling blocks to the initial success of Windows. Tripod attempted to solve the problem by being easier to use and to configure.

When was that “Aha!” moment? It wasn’t until late in 1987, when I was interviewing a corporate client, that the key design strategy for Tripod popped into my head. As the IS manager explained to me his need to create and publish a wide range of shell solutions to his disparate user base, I realized the conundrum that there is no such thing as an ideal shell. Every user would need their own personal shell, configured to their own needs and skill levels. In an instant, I perceived the solution to the shell design problem: It would be a shell construction set; a tool where each user would be able to construct exactly the shell that he or she needed for a unique mix of applications and training.
What is so compelling about the idea of a shell that can be individualized? Instead of me telling the users what the ideal shell was, they could design their own, personalized ideal shell. With a customizable shell, a programmer would create a shell that was powerful and wide ranging but also somewhat dangerous, whereas an IT manager would create a shell that could be given to a desk clerk that exposed only those few application-specific tools that the clerk used.

How did you get from writing a shell program to collaborating with Microsoft? Tripod



MSDOS.exe was the shell program for the first few releases of Windows. It was a terrible program, and
I believed that it could be improved dramatically, and I was the guy to do it. In my spare time, I immediately began to write a better shell program than the one Windows came with.

and Ruby are the same thing.
After I signed a deal with Bill
Gates, I changed the name of the prototype from Tripod to
Ruby. I then used the Ruby prototype as prototypes should be used: as a disposable model for constructing release-quality code. Which is what I did. MS took the release version of Ruby and added QuickBASIC to it, creating VB. All of those original innovations were in Tripod/Ruby.

RUBY AS THE INCUBATOR FOR VISUAL BASIC
Let’s revisit your interest in early Windows and that DLL feature. The DLL wasn’t a thing, it was a facility in the OS. It allowed a programmer to build code objects that could be linked to at run time as opposed to only at compile time. This is what allowed me to invent the dynamically extensible parts of VB, where controls can be added by third-party vendors.
The Ruby product embodied many significant advances in software design, but two of them stand out as exceptionally successful. As I mentioned, the dynamic linking capability of Windows had always intrigued me, but having the tools and knowing what to do with them were two different things. With Ruby,
I finally found two practical uses for dynamic linking, and the original program contained both. First, the language was both installable and could be extended dynamically. Second, the palette of gizmos could be added to dynamically.

Was your language in Ruby the first to have a dynamic linked library and to be linked to a visual front end? As far as I know, yes.
Using a simple example, what would this enable a programmer to do with his or her program? Purchase a control, such as a grid control, from a thirdparty vendor, install it on his or her computer, and have the grid control appear as an integral part of the language, including the visual programming front end.



Why do they call you “the father of Visual
Basic”? Ruby came with a small language, one suited only for executing the dozen or so simple commands that a shell program needs. However, this language was implemented as a chain of DLLs, any number of which could be installed at run time. The internal parser would identify a verb and then pass it along the chain of DLLs until one of them acknowledged that it knew how to process the verb. If all of the DLLs passed, there was a syntax error. From our earliest discussions, both Microsoft and I had entertained the idea of growing the language, possibly even replacing it altogether with a “real” language. C was the candidate most frequently mentioned, but eventually, Microsoft took advantage of this dynamic interface to unplug our little shell language and replace it entirely with QuickBASIC. This new marriage of language to visual front end was static and permanent, and although the original dynamic interface made the coupling possible, it was lost in the process.

SOME FINAL COMMENTS ON NEW IDEAS
In the world of programming and programming tools, including languages and environments, what projects most interest you? I’m interested in creating programming tools that are designed to help users instead of programmers.

What’s the most critical rule, famous quote, or design idea to keep in mind? Bridges are not built by engineers. They are built by ironworkers.
Similarly, software programs are not built by engineers. They are built by programmers.

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2.8 Everything for Everybody: PL/I
PL/I represents the first large-scale attempt to design a language that could be used for a broad spectrum of application areas. All previous and most subsequent languages have focused on one particular application area, such as science, artificial intelligence, or business.

2.8.1

Historical Background
Like Fortran, PL/I was developed as an IBM product. By the early 1960s, the users of computers in industry had settled into two separate and quite different camps: scientific and business. From the IBM point of view, scientific programmers could use either the large-scale 7090 or the small-scale 1620 IBM computers. This group used floating-point data and arrays extensively. Fortran was the primary language, although some assembly language was also used.
They had their own user group, SHARE, and had little contact with anyone who worked on business applications.
For business applications, people used the large 7080 or the small 1401
IBM computers. They needed the decimal and character string data types, as well as elaborate and efficient input and output facilities. They used COBOL, although in early 1963 when the PL/I story begins, the conversion from assembly language to COBOL was far from complete. This category of users also had its own user group, GUIDE, and seldom had contact with scientific users.
In early 1963, IBM planners perceived the beginnings of a change in this situation. The two widely separated computer user groups were moving toward each other in ways that were thought certain to create problems. Scientists began to gather large files of data to be processed. This data required more sophisticated and more efficient input and output facilities. Business applications people began to use regression analysis to build management information systems, which required floating-point data and arrays. It began to appear that computing installations would soon require two separate computers and technical staffs, supporting two very different programming languages.8
These perceptions naturally led to the concept of designing a single universal computer that would be capable of doing both floating-point and decimal arithmetic, and therefore both scientific and business applications. Thus was born the concept of the IBM System/360 line of computers. Along with this came the idea of a programming language that could be used for both business and scientific applications. For good measure, features to support systems programming and list processing were thrown in. Therefore, the new language was to replace Fortran, COBOL, LISP, and the systems applications of assembly language. 8. At the time, large computer installations required both full-time hardware and full-time system software maintenance staff.

2.8

2.8.2

Everything for Everybody: PL/I

69

Design Process
The design effort began when IBM and SHARE formed the Advanced Language Development Committee of the SHARE Fortran Project in October
1963. This new committee quickly met and formed a subcommittee called the
3 × 3 Committee, so named because it had three members from IBM and three from SHARE. The 3 × 3 Committee met for three or four days every other week to design the language.
As with the Short Range Committee for COBOL, the initial design was scheduled for completion in a remarkably short time. Apparently, regardless of the scope of a language design effort, in the early 1960s the prevailing belief was that it could be done in three months. The first version of PL/I, which was then named Fortran VI, was supposed to be completed by December, less than three months after the committee was formed. The committee pleaded successfully on two different occasions for extensions, moving the due date back to January and then to late February 1964.
The initial design concept was that the new language would be an extension of Fortran IV, maintaining compatibility, but that goal was dropped quickly along with the name Fortran VI. Until 1965, the language was known as NPL (New Programming Language). The first published report on NPL was given at the SHARE meeting in March 1964. A more complete description followed in April, and the version that would actually be implemented was published in December 1964 (IBM, 1964) by the compiler group at the
IBM Hursley Laboratory in England, which was chosen to do the implementation. In 1965, the name was changed to PL/I to avoid the confusion of the name NPL with the National Physical Laboratory in England. If the compiler had been developed outside the United Kingdom, the name might have remained NPL.

2.8.3

Language Overview
Perhaps the best single-sentence description of PL/I is that it included what were then considered the best parts of ALGOL 60 (recursion and block structure), Fortran IV (separate compilation with communication through global data), and COBOL 60 (data structures, input/output, and report-generating facilities), along with an extensive collection of new constructs, all somehow cobbled together. Because PL/I is no longer a popular language, we will not attempt, even briefly, to discuss all the features of the language, or even its most controversial constructs. Instead, we will mention some of the language’s contributions to the pool of knowledge of programming languages.
PL/I was the first programming language to have the following facilities:
• Programs were allowed to create concurrently executing subprograms.
Although this was a good idea, it was poorly developed in PL/I.
• It was possible to detect and handle 23 different types of exceptions, or run-time errors.

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• Subprograms were allowed to be used recursively, but the capability could be disabled, allowing more efficient linkage for nonrecursive subprograms.
• Pointers were included as a data type.
• Cross-sections of arrays could be referenced. For example, the third row of a matrix could be referenced as if it were a single-dimensioned array.

2.8.4

Evaluation
Any evaluation of PL/I must begin by recognizing the ambitiousness of the design effort. In retrospect, it appears naive to think that so many constructs could have been combined successfully. However, that judgment must be tempered by acknowledging that there was little language design experience at the time. Overall, the design of PL/I was based on the premise that any construct that was useful and could be implemented should be included, with insufficient concern about how a programmer could understand and make effective use of such a collection of constructs and features. Edsger Dijkstra, in his Turing
Award Lecture (Dijkstra, 1972), made one of the strongest criticisms of the complexity of PL/I: “I absolutely fail to see how we can keep our growing programs firmly within our intellectual grip when by its sheer baroqueness the programming language—our basic tool, mind you!—already escapes our intellectual control.”
In addition to the problem with the complexity due to its large size, PL/I suffered from a number of what are now considered to be poorly designed constructs. Among these were pointers, exception handling, and concurrency, although we must point out that in all cases, these constructs had not appeared in any previous language.
In terms of usage, PL/I must be considered at least a partial success. In the
1970s, it enjoyed significant use in both business and scientific applications. It was also widely used during that time as an instructional vehicle in colleges, primarily in several subset forms, such as PL/C (Cornell, 1977) and PL/CS
(Conway and Constable, 1976).
The following is an example of a PL/I program:
/* PL/I PROGRAM EXAMPLE
INPUT: AN INTEGER, LISTLEN, WHERE LISTLEN IS LESS THAN
100, FOLLOWED BY LISTLEN-INTEGER VALUES
OUTPUT: THE NUMBER OF INPUT VALUES THAT ARE GREATER THAN
THE AVERAGE OF ALL INPUT VALUES
*/
PLIEX: PROCEDURE OPTIONS (MAIN);
DECLARE INTLIST (1:99) FIXED.
DECLARE (LISTLEN, COUNTER, SUM, AVERAGE, RESULT) FIXED;
SUM = 0;
RESULT = 0;
GET LIST (LISTLEN);
IF (LISTLEN > 0) & (LISTLEN < 100) THEN

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Two Early Dynamic Languages: APL and SNOBOL

71

DO;
/* READ INPUT DATA INTO AN ARRAY AND COMPUTE THE SUM */
DO COUNTER = 1 TO LISTLEN;
GET LIST (INTLIST (COUNTER));
SUM = SUM + INTLIST (COUNTER);
END;
/* COMPUTE THE AVERAGE */
AVERAGE = SUM / LISTLEN;
/* COUNT THE NUMBER OF VALUES THAT ARE > AVERAGE */
DO COUNTER = 1 TO LISTLEN;
IF INTLIST (COUNTER) > AVERAGE THEN
RESULT = RESULT + 1;
END;
/* PRINT RESULT */
PUT SKIP LIST ('THE NUMBER OF VALUES > AVERAGE IS:');
PUT LIST (RESULT);
END;
ELSE
PUT SKIP LIST ('ERROR—INPUT LIST LENGTH IS ILLEGAL');
END PLIEX;

2.9 Two Early Dynamic Languages: APL and SNOBOL
The structure of this section is different from that of the other sections because the languages discussed here are very different. Neither APL nor SNOBOL had much influence on later mainstream languages.9 Some of the interesting features of APL are discussed later in the book.
In appearance and in purpose, APL and SNOBOL are quite different.
They share two fundamental characteristics, however: dynamic typing and dynamic storage allocation. Variables in both languages are essentially untyped.
A variable acquires a type when it is assigned a value, at which time it assumes the type of the value assigned. Storage is allocated to a variable only when it is assigned a value, because before that there is no way to know the amount of storage that will be needed.

2.9.1

Origins and Characteristics of APL
APL (Brown et al., 1988) was designed around 1960 by Kenneth E. Iverson at
IBM. It was not originally designed to be an implemented programming language but rather was intended to be a vehicle for describing computer architecture.

9. However, they have some influence on some nonmainstream languages ( J is based on APL,
ICON is based on SNOBOL, and AWK is partially based on SNOBOL).

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APL was first described in the book from which it gets its name, A Programming
Language (Iverson, 1962). In the mid-1960s, the first implementation of APL was developed at IBM.
APL has a large number of powerful operators that are specified with a large number of symbols, which created a problem for implementors. Initially,
APL was used through IBM printing terminals. These terminals had special print balls that provided the odd character set required by the language. One reason APL has so many operators is that it provides a large number of unit operations on arrays. For example, the transpose of any matrix is done with a single operator. The large collection of operators provides very high expressivity but also makes APL programs difficult to read. Therefore, people think of
APL as a language that is best used for “throw-away” programming. Although programs can be written quickly, they should be discarded after use because they are difficult to maintain.
APL has been around for nearly 50 years and is still used today, although not widely. Furthermore, it has not changed a great deal over its lifetime.

2.9.2

Origins and Characteristics of SNOBOL
SNOBOL (pronounced “snowball”; Griswold et al., 1971) was designed in the early 1960s by three people at Bell Laboratories: D. J. Farber, R. E. Griswold, and I. P. Polonsky (Farber et al., 1964). It was designed specifically for text processing. The heart of SNOBOL is a collection of powerful operations for string pattern matching. One of the early applications of SNOBOL was for writing text editors. Because the dynamic nature of SNOBOL makes it slower than alternative languages, it is no longer used for such programs. However,
SNOBOL is still a live and supported language that is used for a variety of text-processing tasks in several different application areas.

2.10 The Beginnings of Data Abstraction: SIMULA 67
Although SIMULA 67 never achieved widespread use and had little impact on the programmers and computing of its time, some of the constructs it introduced make it historically important.

2.10.1

Design Process
Two Norwegians, Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl, developed the language SIMULA I between 1962 and 1964 at the Norwegian Computing Center (NCC) in Oslo. They were primarily interested in using computers for simulation but also worked in operations research. SIMULA I was designed exclusively for system simulation and was first implemented in late 1964 on a
UNIVAC 1107 computer.

2.11

Orthogonal Design: ALGOL 68

73

As soon as the SIMULA I implementation was completed, Nygaard and
Dahl began efforts to extend the language by adding new features and modifying some existing constructs in order to make the language useful for generalpurpose applications. The result of this work was SIMULA 67, whose design was first presented publicly in March 1967 (Dahl and Nygaard, 1967). We will discuss only SIMULA 67, although some of the features of interest in SIMULA
67 are also in SIMULA I.

2.10.2

Language Overview
SIMULA 67 is an extension of ALGOL 60, taking both block structure and the control statements from that language. The primary deficiency of ALGOL 60
(and other languages at that time) for simulation applications was the design of its subprograms. Simulation requires subprograms that are allowed to restart at the position where they previously stopped. Subprograms with this kind of control are known as coroutines because the caller and called subprograms have a somewhat equal relationship with each other, rather than the rigid master/slave relationship they have in most imperative languages.
To provide support for coroutines in SIMULA 67, the class construct was developed. This was an important development because the concept of data abstraction began with it. Furthermore, data abstraction provides the foundation for object-oriented programming.
It is interesting to note that the important concept of data abstraction was not developed and attributed to the class construct until 1972, when Hoare
(1972) recognized the connection.

2.11 Orthogonal Design: ALGOL 68
ALGOL 68 was the source of several new ideas in language design, some of which were subsequently adopted by other languages. We include it here for that reason, even though it never achieved widespread use in either Europe or the United States.

2.11.1

Design Process
The development of the ALGOL family did not end when the revised report on ALGOL 60 appeared in 1962, although it was six years until the next design iteration was published. The resulting language, ALGOL 68 (van Wijngaarden et al., 1969), was dramatically different from its predecessor.
One of the most interesting innovations of ALGOL 68 was one of its primary design criteria: orthogonality. Recall our discussion of orthogonality in
Chapter 1. The use of orthogonality resulted in several innovative features of
ALGOL 68, one of which is described in the following section.

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2.11.2

Language Overview
One important result of orthogonality in ALGOL 68 was its inclusion of userdefined data types. Earlier languages, such as Fortran, included only a few basic data structures. PL/I included a larger number of data structures, which made it harder to learn and difficult to implement, but it obviously could not provide an appropriate data structure for every need.
The approach of ALGOL 68 to data structures was to provide a few primitive types and structures and allow the user to combine those primitives into a large number of different structures. This provision for user-defined data types was carried over to some extent into all of the major imperative languages designed since then. User-defined data types are valuable because they allow the user to design data abstractions that fit particular problems very closely. All aspects of data types are discussed in Chapter 6.
As another first in the area of data types, ALGOL 68 introduced the kind of dynamic arrays that will be termed implicit heap-dynamic in Chapter 5.
A dynamic array is one in which the declaration does not specify subscript bounds. Assignments to a dynamic array cause allocation of required storage.
In ALGOL 68, dynamic arrays are called flex arrays.

2.11.3

Evaluation
ALGOL 68 includes a significant number of features that had not been previously used. Its use of orthogonality, which some may argue was overdone, was nevertheless revolutionary.
ALGOL 68 repeated one of the sins of ALGOL 60, however, and it was an important factor in its limited popularity. The language was described using an elegant and concise but also unknown metalanguage. Before one could read the language-describing document (van Wijngaarden et al., 1969), he or she had to learn the new metalanguage, called van Wijngaarden grammars, which were far more complex than BNF. To make matters worse, the designers invented a collection of words to explain the grammar and the language. For example, keywords were called indicants, substring extraction was called trimming, and the process of a subprogram execution was called a coercion of deproceduring, which might be meek, firm, or something else.
It is natural to contrast the design of PL/I with that of ALGOL 68, because they appeared only a few years apart. ALGOL 68 achieved writability by the principle of orthogonality: a few primitive concepts and the unrestricted use of a few combining mechanisms. PL/I achieved writability by including a large number of fixed constructs. ALGOL 68 extended the elegant simplicity of
ALGOL 60, whereas PL/I simply threw together the features of several languages to attain its goals. Of course, it must be remembered that the goal of PL/I was to provide a unified tool for a broad class of problems, whereas
ALGOL 68 was targeted to a single class: scientific applications.
PL/I achieved far greater acceptance than ALGOL 68, due largely to IBM’s promotional efforts and the problems of understanding and implementing

2.12

Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs

75

ALGOL 68. Implementation was a difficult problem for both, but PL/I had the resources of IBM to apply to building a compiler. ALGOL 68 enjoyed no such benefactor.

2.12 Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs
All imperative languages owe some of their design to ALGOL 60 and/or
ALGOL 68. This section discusses some of the early descendants of these languages. 2.12.1

Simplicity by Design: Pascal
2.12.1.1 Historical Background
Niklaus Wirth (Wirth is pronounced “Virt”) was a member of the International
Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 2.1, which was created to continue the development of ALGOL in the mid-1960s. In August
1965, Wirth and C. A. R. (“Tony”) Hoare contributed to that effort by presenting to the group a somewhat modest proposal for additions and modifications to ALGOL 60 (Wirth and Hoare, 1966). The majority of the group rejected the proposal as being too small an improvement over ALGOL 60. Instead, a much more complex revision was developed, which eventually became ALGOL 68.
Wirth, along with a few other group members, did not believe that the ALGOL
68 report should have been released, based on the complexity of both the language and the metalanguage used to describe it. This position later proved to have some validity because the ALGOL 68 documents, and therefore the language, were indeed found to be challenging by the computing community.
The Wirth and Hoare version of ALGOL 60 was named ALGOL-W. It was implemented at Stanford University and was used primarily as an instructional vehicle, but only at a few universities. The primary contributions of
ALGOL-W were the value-result method of passing parameters and the case statement for multiple selection. The value-result method is an alternative to
ALGOL 60’s pass-by-name method. Both are discussed in Chapter 9. The case statement is discussed in Chapter 8.
Wirth’s next major design effort, again based on ALGOL 60, was his most successful: Pascal.10 The original published definition of Pascal appeared in
1971 (Wirth, 1971). This version was modified somewhat in the implementation process and is described in Wirth (1973). The features that are often ascribed to Pascal in fact came from earlier languages. For example, userdefined data types were introduced in ALGOL 68, the case statement in
ALGOL-W, and Pascal’s records are similar to those of COBOL and PL/I.
10. Pascal is named after Blaise Pascal, a seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician who invented the first mechanical adding machine in 1642 (among other things).

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2.12.1.2 Evaluation
The largest impact of Pascal was on the teaching of programming. In 1970, most students of computer science, engineering, and science were introduced to programming with Fortran, although some universities used PL/I, languages based on PL/I, and ALGOL-W. By the mid-1970s, Pascal had become the most widely used language for this purpose. This was quite natural, because
Pascal was designed specifically for teaching programming. It was not until the late 1990s that Pascal was no longer the most commonly used language for teaching programming in colleges and universities.
Because Pascal was designed as a teaching language, it lacks several features that are essential for many kinds of applications. The best example of this is the impossibility of writing a subprogram that takes as a parameter an array of variable length. Another example is the lack of any separate compilation capability. These deficiencies naturally led to many nonstandard dialects, such as Turbo Pascal.
Pascal’s popularity, for both teaching programming and other applications, was based primarily on its remarkable combination of simplicity and expressivity. Although there are some insecurities in Pascal, it is still a relatively safe language, particularly when compared with Fortran or C. By the mid-1990s, the popularity of Pascal was on the decline, both in industry and in universities, primarily due to the rise of Modula-2, Ada, and C++, all of which included features not available in Pascal.
The following is an example of a Pascal program:
{Pascal Example Program
Input: An integer, listlen, where listlen is less than
100, followed by listlen-integer values
Output: The number of input values that are greater than the average of all input values } program pasex (input, output); type intlisttype = array [1..99] of integer; var intlist : intlisttype; listlen, counter, sum, average, result : integer; begin result := 0; sum := 0; readln (listlen); if ((listlen > 0) and (listlen < 100)) then begin { Read input into an array and compute the sum } for counter := 1 to listlen do begin readln (intlist[counter]); sum := sum + intlist[counter] end; 2.12

Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs

77

{ Compute the average } average := sum / listlen;
{ Count the number of input values that are > average } for counter := 1 to listlen do if (intlist[counter] > average) then result := result + 1;
{ Print the result } writeln ('The number of values > average is:', result) end { of the then clause of if (( listlen > 0 ... } else writeln ('Error—input list length is not legal') end. 2.12.2

A Portable Systems Language: C
Like Pascal, C contributed little to the previously known collection of language features, but it has been widely used over a long period of time. Although originally designed for systems programming, C is well suited for a wide variety of applications. 2.12.2.1 Historical Background
C’s ancestors include CPL, BCPL, B, and ALGOL 68. CPL was developed at
Cambridge University in the early 1960s. BCPL is a simple systems language, also developed at Cambridge, this time by Martin Richards in 1967 (Richards,
1969).
The first work on the UNIX operating system was done in the late 1960s by
Ken Thompson at Bell Laboratories. The first version was written in assembly language. The first high-level language implemented under UNIX was B, which was based on BCPL. B was designed and implemented by Thompson in 1970.
Neither BCPL nor B is a typed language, which is an oddity among high-level languages, although both are much lower-level than a language such as Java. Being untyped means that all data are considered machine words, which, although simple, leads to many complications and insecurities. For example, there is the problem of specifying floating-point rather than integer arithmetic in an expression. In one implementation of BCPL, the variable operands of a floating-point operation were preceded by periods. Variable operands not preceded by periods were considered to be integers. An alternative to this would have been to use different symbols for the floating-point operators.
This problem, along with several others, led to the development of a new typed language based on B. Originally called NB but later named C, it was designed and implemented by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in
1972 (Kernighan and Ritchie, 1978). In some cases through BCPL, and in other cases directly, C was influenced by ALGOL 68. This is seen in its for

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and switch statements, in its assigning operators, and in its treatment of pointers. The only “standard” for C in its first decade and a half was the book by
Kernighan and Ritchie (1978).11 Over that time span, the language slowly evolved, with different implementors adding different features. In 1989, ANSI produced an official description of C (ANSI, 1989), which included many of the features that implementors had already incorporated into the language.
This standard was updated in 1999 (ISO, 1999). This later version includes a few significant changes to the language. Among these are a complex data type, a Boolean data type, and C++-style comments (//). We will refer to the 1989 version, which has long been called ANSI C, as C89; we will refer to the 1999 version as C99.

2.12.2.2 Evaluation
C has adequate control statements and data-structuring facilities to allow its use in many application areas. It also has a rich set of operators that provide a high degree of expressiveness.
One of the most important reasons why C is both liked and disliked is its lack of complete type checking. For example, in versions before C99, functions could be written for which parameters were not type checked. Those who like
C appreciate the flexibility; those who do not like it find it too insecure. A major reason for its great increase in popularity in the 1980s was that a compiler for it was part of the widely used UNIX operating system. This inclusion in UNIX provided an essentially free and quite good compiler that was available to programmers on many different kinds of computers.
The following is an example of a C program:
/* C Example Program
Input: An integer, listlen, where listlen is less than
100, followed by listlen-integer values
Output: The number of input values that are greater than the average of all input values */ int main (){ int intlist[99], listlen, counter, sum, average, result; sum = 0; result = 0; scanf("%d", &listlen); if ((listlen > 0) && (listlen < 100)) {
/* Read input into an array and compute the sum */ for (counter = 0; counter < listlen; counter++) { scanf("%d", &intlist[counter]); sum += intlist[counter];
}
11. This language is often referred to as “K & R C.”

2.13

Programming Based on Logic: Prolog

79

/* Compute the average */ average = sum / listlen;
/* Count the input values that are > average */ for (counter = 0; counter < listlen; counter++) if (intlist[counter] > average) result++;
/* Print result */ printf("Number of values > average is:%d\n", result);
}
else printf("Error—input list length is not legal\n");
}

2.13 Programming Based on Logic: Prolog
Simply put, logic programming is the use of a formal logic notation to communicate computational processes to a computer. Predicate calculus is the notation used in current logic programming languages.
Programming in logic programming languages is nonprocedural. Programs in such languages do not state exactly how a result is to be computed but rather describe the necessary form and/or characteristics of the result. What is needed to provide this capability in logic programming languages is a concise means of supplying the computer with both the relevant information and an inferencing process for computing desired results. Predicate calculus supplies the basic form of communication to the computer, and the proof method, named resolution, developed first by Robinson (1965), supplies the inferencing technique.

2.13.1

Design Process
During the early 1970s, Alain Colmerauer and Phillippe Roussel in the Artificial Intelligence Group at the University of Aix-Marseille, together with Robert
Kowalski of the Department of Artificial Intelligence at the University of Edinburgh, developed the fundamental design of Prolog. The primary components of Prolog are a method for specifying predicate calculus propositions and an implementation of a restricted form of resolution. Both predicate calculus and resolution are described in Chapter 16. The first Prolog interpreter was developed at Marseille in 1972. The version of the language that was implemented is described in Roussel (1975). The name Prolog is from programming logic.

2.13.2

Language Overview
Prolog programs consist of collections of statements. Prolog has only a few kinds of statements, but they can be complex.

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One common use of Prolog is as a kind of intelligent database. This application provides a simple framework for discussing the Prolog language.
The database of a Prolog program consists of two kinds of statements: facts and rules. The following are examples of fact statements: mother(joanne, jake). father(vern, joanne).

These state that joanne is the mother of jake, and vern is the father of joanne. An example of a rule statement is grandparent(X, Z) :- parent(X, Y), parent(Y, Z).

This states that it can be deduced that X is the grandparent of Z if it is true that X is the parent of Y and Y is the parent of Z, for some specific values for the variables X, Y, and Z.
The Prolog database can be interactively queried with goal statements, an example of which is father(bob, darcie).

This asks if bob is the father of darcie. When such a query, or goal, is presented to the Prolog system, it uses its resolution process to attempt to determine the truth of the statement. If it can conclude that the goal is true, it displays “true.” If it cannot prove it, it displays “false.”

2.13.3

Evaluation
In the 1980s, there was a relatively small group of computer scientists who believed that logic programming provided the best hope for escaping from the complexity of imperative languages, and also from the enormous problem of producing the large amount of reliable software that was needed.
So far, however, there are two major reasons why logic programming has not become more widely used. First, as with some other nonimperative approaches, programs written in logic languages thus far have proven to be highly inefficient relative to equivalent imperative programs. Second, it has been determined that it is an effective approach for only a few relatively small areas of application: certain kinds of database management systems and some areas of AI.
There is a dialect of Prolog that supports object-oriented programming—
Prolog++ (Moss, 1994). Logic programming and Prolog are described in greater detail in Chapter 16.

2.14

History’s Largest Design Effort: Ada

81

2.14 History’s Largest Design Effort: Ada
The Ada language is the result of the most extensive and expensive language design effort ever undertaken. The following paragraphs briefly describe the evolution of Ada.

2.14.1

Historical Background
The Ada language was developed for the Department of Defense (DoD), so the state of their computing environment was instrumental in determining its form.
By 1974, over half of the applications of computers in DoD were embedded systems. An embedded system is one in which the computer hardware is embedded in the device it controls or for which it provides services. Software costs were rising rapidly, primarily because of the increasing complexity of systems. More than 450 different programming languages were in use for DoD projects, and none of them was standardized by DoD. Every defense contractor could define a new and different language for every contract.12 Because of this language proliferation, application software was rarely reused. Furthermore, no software development tools were created (because they are usually language dependent). A great many languages were in use, but none was actually suitable for embedded systems applications.
For these reasons, in 1974, the Army, Navy, and Air Force each independently proposed the development of a single high-level language for embedded systems.

2.14.2

Design Process
Noting this widespread interest, in January 1975, Malcolm Currie, director of
Defense Research and Engineering, formed the High-Order Language Working Group (HOLWG), initially headed by Lt. Col. William Whitaker of the
Air Force. The HOLWG had representatives from all of the military services and liaisons with Great Britain, France, and what was then West Germany. Its initial charter was to do the following:
• Identify the requirements for a new DoD high-level language.
• Evaluate existing languages to determine whether there was a viable candidate. • Recommend adoption or implementation of a minimal set of programming languages. In April 1975, the HOLWG produced the Strawman requirements document for the new language (Department of Defense, 1975a). This was distributed to military branches, federal agencies, selected industrial and university representatives, and interested parties in Europe.
12. This result was largely due to the widespread use of assembly language for embedded systems, along with the fact that most embedded systems used specialized processors.

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The Strawman document was followed by Woodenman (Department of
Defense, 1975b) in August 1975, Tinman (Department of Defense, 1976) in
January 1976, Ironman (Department of Defense, 1977) in January 1977, and finally Steelman (Department of Defense, 1978) in June 1978.
After a tedious process, the many submitted proposals for the language were narrowed down to four finalists, all of which were based on Pascal. In
May 1979, the Cii Honeywell/Bull language design proposal was chosen from the four finalists as the design that would be used. The Cii Honeywell/Bull design team in France, the only foreign competitor among the final four, was led by Jean Ichbiah.
In the spring of 1979, Jack Cooper of the Navy Materiel Command recommended the name for the new language, Ada, which was then adopted. The name commemorates Augusta Ada Byron (1815–1851), countess of Lovelace, mathematician, and daughter of poet Lord Byron. She is generally recognized as being the world’s first programmer. She worked with Charles Babbage on his mechanical computers, the Difference and Analytical Engines, writing programs for several numerical processes.
The design and the rationale for Ada were published by ACM in its
SIGPLAN Notices (ACM, 1979) and distributed to a readership of more than
10,000 people. A public test and evaluation conference was held in October
1979 in Boston, with representatives from over 100 organizations from the
United States and Europe. By November, more than 500 language reports had been received from 15 different countries. Most of the reports suggested small modifications rather than drastic changes and outright rejections. Based on the language reports, the next version of the requirements specification, the Stoneman document (Department of Defense, 1980a), was released in
February 1980.
A revised version of the language design was completed in July 1980 and was accepted as MIL-STD 1815, the standard Ada Language Reference Manual.
The number 1815 was chosen because it was the year of the birth of Augusta
Ada Byron. Another revised version of the Ada Language Reference Manual was released in July 1982. In 1983, the American National Standards Institute standardized Ada. This “final” official version is described in Goos and
Hartmanis (1983). The Ada language design was then frozen for a minimum of five years.

2.14.3

Language Overview
This subsection briefly describes four of the major contributions of the Ada language. Packages in the Ada language provide the means for encapsulating data objects, specifications for data types, and procedures. This, in turn, provides the support for the use of data abstraction in program design, as described in
Chapter 11.
The Ada language includes extensive facilities for exception handling, which allow the programmer to gain control after any one of a wide variety

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83

of exceptions, or run-time errors, has been detected. Exception handling is discussed in Chapter 14.
Program units can be generic in Ada. For example, it is possible to write a sort procedure that uses an unspecified type for the data to be sorted.
Such a generic procedure must be instantiated for a specified type before it can be used, which is done with a statement that causes the compiler to generate a version of the procedure with the given type. The availability of such generic units increases the range of program units that might be reused, rather than duplicated, by programmers. Generics are discussed in
Chapters 9 and 11.
The Ada language also provides for concurrent execution of special program units, named tasks, using the rendezvous mechanism. Rendezvous is the name of a method of intertask communication and synchronization. Concurrency is discussed in Chapter 13.

2.14.4

Evaluation
Perhaps the most important aspects of the design of the Ada language to consider are the following:
• Because the design was competitive, there were no limits on participation.
• The Ada language embodies most of the concepts of software engineering and language design of the late 1970s. Although one can question the actual approaches used to incorporate these features, as well as the wisdom of including such a large number of features in a language, most agree that the features are valuable.
• Although most people did not anticipate it, the development of a compiler for the Ada language was a difficult task. Only in 1985, almost four years after the language design was completed, did truly usable Ada compilers begin to appear.
The most serious criticism of Ada in its first few years was that it was too large and too complex. In particular, Hoare (1981) stated that it should not be used for any application where reliability is critical, which is precisely the type of application for which it was designed. On the other hand, others have praised it as the epitome of language design for its time. In fact, even Hoare eventually softened his view of the language.
The following is an example of an Ada program:
-- Ada Example Program
-- Input: An integer, List_Len, where List_Len is less
-than 100, followed by List_Len-integer values
-- Output: The number of input values that are greater
-than the average of all input values with Ada.Text_IO, Ada.Integer.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO, Ada.Integer.Text_IO;

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procedure Ada_Ex is type Int_List_Type is array (1..99) of Integer;
Int_List : Int_List_Type;
List_Len, Sum, Average, Result : Integer; begin Result:= 0;
Sum := 0;
Get (List_Len); if (List_Len > 0) and (List_Len < 100) then
-- Read input data into an array and compute the sum for Counter := 1 .. List_Len loop
Get (Int_List(Counter));
Sum := Sum + Int_List(Counter); end loop;
-- Compute the average
Average := Sum / List_Len;
-- Count the number of values that are > average for Counter := 1 .. List_Len loop if Int_List(Counter) > Average then
Result:= Result+ 1; end if; end loop;
-- Print result
Put ("The number of values > average is:");
Put (Result);
New_Line;
else
Put_Line ("Error—input list length is not legal"); end if; end Ada_Ex;

2.14.5

Ada 95 and Ada 2005
Two of the most important new features of Ada 95 are described briefly in the following paragraphs. In the remainder of the book, we will use the name Ada
83 for the original version and Ada 95 (its actual name) for the later version when it is important to distinguish between the two versions. In discussions of language features common to both versions, we will use the name Ada. The
Ada 95 standard language is defined in ARM (1995).
The type derivation mechanism of Ada 83 is extended in Ada 95 to allow adding new components to those inherited from a base class. This provides for inheritance, a key ingredient in object-oriented programming languages.
Dynamic binding of subprogram calls to subprogram definitions is accomplished through subprogram dispatching, which is based on the tag value of derived types through classwide types. This feature provides for polymorphism,

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85

another principal feature of object-oriented programming. These features of
Ada 95 are discussed in Chapter 12.
The rendezvous mechanism of Ada 83 provided only a cumbersome and inefficient means of sharing data among concurrent processes. It was necessary to introduce a new task to control access to the shared data. The protected objects of Ada 95 offer an attractive alternative to this. The shared data is encapsulated in a syntactic structure that controls all access to the data, either by rendezvous or by subprogram call. The new features of Ada 95 for concurrency and shared data are discussed in Chapter 13.
It is widely believed that the popularity of Ada 95 suffered because the Department of Defense stopped requiring its use in military software systems. There were, of course, other factors that hindered its growth in popularity. Most important among these was the widespread acceptance of
C++ for object-oriented programming, which occurred before Ada 95 was released. There were several additions to Ada 95 to get Ada 2005. Among these were interfaces, similar to those of Java, more control of scheduling algorithms, and synchronized interfaces.
Ada is widely used in both commercial and defense avionics, air traffic control, and rail transportation, as well as in other areas.

2.15 Object-Oriented Programming: Smalltalk
Smalltalk was the first programming language that fully supported objectoriented programming. It is therefore an important part of any discussion of the evolution of programming languages.

2.15.1

Design Process
The concepts that led to the development of Smalltalk originated in the Ph.D. dissertation work of Alan Kay in the late 1960s at the University of Utah (Kay,
1969). Kay had the remarkable foresight to predict the future availability of powerful desktop computers. Recall that the first microcomputer systems were not marketed until the mid-1970s, and they were only remotely related to the machines envisioned by Kay, which were seen to execute a million or more instructions per second and contain several megabytes of memory. Such machines, in the form of workstations, became widely available only in the early 1980s.
Kay believed that desktop computers would be used by nonprogrammers and thus would need very powerful human-interfacing capabilities. The computers of the late 1960s were largely batch oriented and were used exclusively by professional programmers and scientists. For use by nonprogrammers, Kay determined, a computer would have to be highly interactive and use sophisticated graphics in its user interface. Some of the graphics concepts came from

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the LOGO experience of Seymour Papert, in which graphics were used to aid children in the use of computers (Papert, 1980).
Kay originally envisioned a system he called Dynabook, which was meant to be a general information processor. It was based in part on the Flex language, which he had helped design. Flex was based primarily on SIMULA 67. Dynabook used the paradigm of the typical desk, on which there are a number of papers, some partially covered. The top sheet is often the focus of attention, with the others temporarily out of focus. The display of Dynabook would model this scene, using screen windows to represent various sheets of paper on the desktop. The user would interact with such a display both through keystrokes and by touching the screen with his or her fingers. After the preliminary design of Dynabook earned him a Ph.D., Kay’s goal became to see such a machine constructed.
Kay found his way to the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC) and presented his ideas on Dynabook. This led to his employment there and the subsequent birth of the Learning Research Group at Xerox. The first charge of the group was to design a language to support Kay’s programming paradigm and implement it on the best personal computer then available. These efforts resulted in an “Interim” Dynabook, consisting of a Xerox Alto workstation and Smalltalk-72 software. Together, they formed a research tool for further development. A number of research projects were conducted with this system, including several experiments to teach programming to children. Along with the experiments came further developments, leading to a sequence of languages that ended with Smalltalk-80. As the language grew, so did the power of the hardware on which it resided. By 1980, both the language and the Xerox hardware nearly matched the early vision of Alan Kay.

2.15.2

Language Overview
The Smalltalk world is populated by nothing but objects, from integer constants to large complex software systems. All computing in Smalltalk is done by the same uniform technique: sending a message to an object to invoke one of its methods. A reply to a message is an object, which either returns the requested information or simply notifies the sender that the requested processing has been completed. The fundamental difference between a message and a subprogram call is this: A message is sent to a data object, specifically to one of the methods defined for the object. The called method is then executed, often modifying the data of the object to which the message was sent; a subprogram call is a message to the code of a subprogram. Usually the data to be processed by the subprogram is sent to it as a parameter.13
In Smalltalk, object abstractions are classes, which are very similar to the classes of SIMULA 67. Instances of the class can be created and are then the objects of the program.
The syntax of Smalltalk is unlike that of most other programming language, in large part because of the use of messages, rather than arithmetic and
13. Of course, a method call can also pass data to be processed by the called method.

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logic expressions and conventional control statements. One of the Smalltalk control constructs is illustrated in the example in the next subsection.

2.15.3

Evaluation
Smalltalk has done a great deal to promote two separate aspects of computing: graphical user interfaces and object-oriented programming. The windowing systems that are now the dominant method of user interfaces to software systems grew out of Smalltalk. Today, the most significant software design methodologies and programming languages are object oriented. Although the origin of some of the ideas of object-oriented languages came from SIMULA
67, they reached maturation in Smalltalk. It is clear that Smalltalk’s impact on the computing world is extensive and will be long-lived.
The following is an example of a Smalltalk class definition:
"Smalltalk Example Program"
"The following is a class definition, instantiations of which can draw equilateral polygons of any number of sides" class name
Polygon
superclass
Object
instance variable names ourPen numSides sideLength "Class methods"
"Create an instance" new ^ super new getPen
"Get a pen for drawing polygons" getPen ourPen average) result++;
/* Print result */
System.out.println(
"\nNumber of values > average is:" + result);
} //** end of then clause of if ((listlen > 0) ... else System.out.println(
"Error—input list length is not legal\n");
} //** end of method main
} //** end of class IntSort

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95

2.18 Scripting Languages
Scripting languages have evolved over the past 25 years. Early scripting languages were used by putting a list of commands, called a script, in a file to be interpreted. The first of these languages, named sh (for shell), began as a small collection of commands that were interpreted as calls to system subprograms that performed utility functions, such as file management and simple file filtering. To this were added variables, control flow statements, functions, and various other capabilities, and the result is a complete programming language. One of the most powerful and widely known of these is ksh (Bolsky and Korn, 1995), which was developed by David Korn at Bell
Laboratories.
Another scripting language is awk, developed by Al Aho, Brian Kernighan, and Peter Weinberger at Bell Laboratories (Aho et al., 1988). awk began as a report-generation language but later became a more general-purpose language.

2.18.1

Origins and Characteristics of Perl
The Perl language, developed by Larry Wall, was originally a combination of sh and awk. Perl has grown significantly since its beginnings and is now a powerful, although still somewhat primitive, programming language. Although it is still often called a scripting language, it is actually more similar to a typical imperative language, since it is always compiled, at least into an intermediate language, before it is executed. Furthermore, it has all the constructs to make it applicable to a wide variety of areas of computational problems.
Perl has a number of interesting features, only a few of which are mentioned in this chapter and later discussed in the book.
Variables in Perl are statically typed and implicitly declared. There are three distinctive namespaces for variables, denoted by the first character of the variables’ names. All scalar variable names begin with dollar signs ($), all array names begin with at signs (@), and all hash names (hashes are briefly described below) begin with percent signs (%). This convention makes variable names in programs more readable than those of any other programming language. Perl includes a large number of implicit variables. Some of them are used to store Perl parameters, such as the particular form of newline character or characters that are used in the implementation. Implicit variables are commonly used as default parameters to built-in functions and default operands for some operators. The implicit variables have distinctive—although cryptic— names, such as $! and @_. The implicit variables’ names, like the user-defined variable names, use the three namespaces, so $! is a scalar.
Perl’s arrays have two characteristics that set them apart from the arrays of the common imperative languages. First, they have dynamic length, meaning that they can grow and shrink as needed during execution. Second, arrays can be sparse, meaning that there can be gaps between the elements. These

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gaps do not take space in memory, and the iteration statement used for arrays, foreach, iterates over the missing elements.
Perl includes associative arrays, which are called hashes. These data structures are indexed by strings and are implicitly controlled hash tables. The Perl system supplies the hash function and increases the size of the structure when necessary. Perl is a powerful, but somewhat dangerous, language. Its scalar type stores both strings and numbers, which are normally stored in double-precision floatingpoint form. Depending on the context, numbers may be coerced to strings and vice versa. If a string is used in numeric context and the string cannot be converted to a number, zero is used and there is no warning or error message provided for the user. This effect can lead to errors that are not detected by the compiler or run-time system. Array indexing cannot be checked, because there is no set subscript range for any array. References to nonexistent elements return undef, which is interpreted as zero in numeric context. So, there is also no error detection in array element access.
Perl’s initial use was as a UNIX utility for processing text files. It was and still is widely used as a UNIX system administration tool. When the World
Wide Web appeared, Perl achieved widespread use as a Common Gateway
Interface language for use with the Web, although it is now rarely used for that purpose. Perl is used as a general-purpose language for a variety of applications, such as computational biology and artificial intelligence.
The following is an example of a Perl program:
# Perl Example Program
# Input: An integer, $listlen, where $listlen is less
#
than 100, followed by $listlen-integer values.
# Output: The number of input values that are greater than
#
the average of all input values.
($sum, $result) = (0, 0);
$listlen = ; if (($listlen > 0) && ($listlen < 100)) {
# Read input into an array and compute the sum for ($counter = 0; $counter < $listlen; $counter++) {
$intlist[$counter] = ;
} #- end of for (counter ...
# Compute the average
$average = $sum / $listlen;
# Count the input values that are > average foreach $num (@intlist) { if ($num > $average) { $result++; }
} #- end of foreach $num ...
# Print result print "Number of values > average is: $result \n";
} #- end of if (($listlen ...

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else { print "Error--input list length is not legal \n";
}

2.18.2

Origins and Characteristics of JavaScript
Use of the Web exploded in the mid-1990s after the first graphical browsers appeared. The need for computation associated with HTML documents, which by themselves are completely static, quickly became critical. Computation on the server side was made possible with the Common Gateway Interface (CGI), which allowed HTML documents to request the execution of programs on the server, with the results of such computations returned to the browser in the form of HTML documents. Computation on the browser end became available with the advent of Java applets. Both of these approaches have now been replaced for the most part by newer technologies, primarily scripting languages. JavaScript (Flanagan, 2002) was originally developed by Brendan Eich at
Netscape. Its original name was Mocha. It was later renamed LiveScript. In late
1995, LiveScript became a joint venture of Netscape and Sun Microsystems and its name was changed to JavaScript. JavaScript has gone through extensive evolution, moving from version 1.0 to version 1.5 by adding many new features and capabilities. A language standard for JavaScript was developed in the late 1990s by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) as
ECMA-262. This standard has also been approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as ISO-16262. Microsoft’s version of JavaScript is named JScript .NET.
Although a JavaScript interpreter could be embedded in many different applications, its most common use is embedded in Web browsers. JavaScript code is embedded in HTML documents and interpreted by the browser when the documents are displayed. The primary uses of JavaScript in Web programming are to validate form input data and create dynamic HTML documents.
JavaScript also is now used with the Rails Web development framework.
In spite of its name, JavaScript is related to Java only through the use of similar syntax. Java is strongly typed, but JavaScript is dynamically typed
(see Chapter 5). JavaScript’s character strings and its arrays have dynamic length. Because of this, array indices are not checked for validity, although this is required in Java. Java fully supports object-oriented programming, but
JavaScript supports neither inheritance nor dynamic binding of method calls to methods.
One of the most important uses of JavaScript is for dynamically creating and modifying HTML documents. JavaScript defines an object hierarchy that matches a hierarchical model of an HTML document, which is defined by the Document Object Model. Elements of an HTML document are accessed through these objects, providing the basis for dynamic control of the elements of documents.

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Following is a JavaScript script for the problem previously solved in several languages in this chapter. Note that it is assumed that this script will be called from an HTML document and interpreted by a Web browser.
// example.js
//
Input: An integer, listLen, where listLen is less
//
than 100, followed by listLen-numeric values
// Output: The number of input values that are greater
//
than the average of all input values var intList = new Array(99); var listLen, counter, sum = 0, result = 0; listLen = prompt (
"Please type the length of the input list", ""); if ((listLen > 0) && (listLen < 100)) {
// Get the input and compute its sum for (counter = 0; counter < listLen; counter++) { intList[counter] = prompt (
"Please type the next number", ""); sum += parseInt(intList[counter]);
}
// Compute the average average = sum / listLen;
// Count the input values that are > average for (counter = 0; counter < listLen; counter++) if (intList[counter] > average) result++;
// Display the results document.write("Number of values > average is: ", result, "");
} else document.write( "Error - input list length is not legal ");

2.18.3

Origins and Characteristics of PHP
PHP (Converse and Park, 2000) was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf, a member of the Apache Group, in 1994. His initial motivation was to provide a tool to help track visitors to his personal Web site. In 1995, he developed a package called Personal Home Page Tools, which became the first publicly distributed version of PHP. Originally, PHP was an abbreviation for Personal Home Page.
Later, its user community began using the recursive name PHP: Hypertext

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Preprocessor, which subsequently forced the original name into obscurity. PHP is now developed, distributed, and supported as an open-source product. PHP processors are resident on most Web servers.
PHP is an HTML-embedded server-side scripting language specifically designed for Web applications. PHP code is interpreted on the Web server when an HTML document in which it is embedded has been requested by a browser. PHP code usually produces HTML code as output, which replaces the PHP code in the HTML document. Therefore, a Web browser never sees
PHP code.
PHP is similar to JavaScript, in its syntactic appearance, the dynamic nature of its strings and arrays, and its use of dynamic typing. PHP’s arrays are a combination of JavaScript’s arrays and Perl’s hashes.
The original version of PHP did not support object-oriented programming, but that support was added in the second release. However, PHP does not support abstract classes or interfaces, destructors, or access controls for class members.
PHP allows simple access to HTML form data, so form processing is easy with PHP. PHP provides support for many different database management systems. This makes it a useful language for building programs that need Web access to databases.

2.18.4

Origins and Characteristics of Python
Python (Lutz and Ascher, 2004) is a relatively recent object-oriented interpreted scripting language. Its initial design was by Guido van Rossum at
Stichting Mathematisch Centrum in the Netherlands in the early 1990s. Its development is now being done by the Python Software Foundation. Python is being used for the same kinds of applications as Perl: system administration,
CGI programming, and other relatively small computing tasks. Python is an open-source system and is available for most common computing platforms.
The Python implementation is available at www.python.org, which also has extensive information regarding Python.
Python’s syntax is not based directly on any commonly used language. It is type checked, but dynamically typed. Instead of arrays, Python includes three kinds of data structures: lists; immutable lists, which are called tuples; and hashes, which are called dictionaries. There is a collection of list methods, such as append, insert, remove, and sort, as well as a collection of methods for dictionaries, such as keys, values, copy, and has_key. Python also supports list comprehensions, which originated with the Haskell language. List comprehensions are discussed in Section 15.8.
Python is object oriented, includes the pattern-matching capabilities of
Perl, and has exception handling. Garbage collection is used to reclaim objects when they are no longer needed.
Support for CGI programming, and form processing in particular, is provided by the cgi module. Modules that support cookies, networking, and database access are also available.

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Python includes support for concurrency with its threads, as well as support for network programming with its sockets. It also has more support for functional programming than other nonfunctional programming languages.
One of the more interesting features of Python is that it can be easily extended by any user. The modules that support the extensions can be written in any compiled language. Extensions can add functions, variables, and object types. These extensions are implemented as additions to the Python interpreter.

2.18.5

Origins and Characteristics of Ruby
Ruby (Thomas et al., 2005) was designed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (aka Matz) in the early 1990s and released in 1996. Since then it has continually evolved. The motivation for Ruby was dissatisfaction of its designer with Perl and Python.
Although both Perl and Python support object-oriented programming,14 neither is a pure object-oriented language, at least in the sense that each has primitive (nonobject) types and each supports functions.
The primary characterizing feature of Ruby is that it is a pure objectoriented language, just as is Smalltalk. Every data value is an object and all operations are via method calls. The operators in Ruby are only syntactic mechanisms to specify method calls for the corresponding operations. Because they are methods, they can be redefined. All classes, predefined or user defined, can be subclassed.
Both classes and objects in Ruby are dynamic in the sense that methods can be dynamically added to either. This means that both classes and objects can have different sets of methods at different times during execution. So, different instantiations of the same class can behave differently. Collections of methods, data, and constants can be included in the definition of a class.
The syntax of Ruby is related to that of Eiffel and Ada. There is no need to declare variables, because dynamic typing is used. The scope of a variable is specified in its name: A variable whose name begins with a letter has local scope; one that begins with @ is an instance variable; one that begins with $ has global scope. A number of features of Perl are present in Ruby, including implicit variables with silly names, such as $_.
As is the case with Python, any user can extend and/or modify Ruby. Ruby is culturally interesting because it is the first programming language designed in Japan that has achieved relatively widespread use in the United States.

2.18.6

Origins and Characteristics of Lua
Lua15 was designed in the early 1990s by Roberto Ierusalimschy, Waldemar
Celes, and Luis Henrique de Figueiredo at the Pontifical University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It is a scripting language that supports procedural and

14. Actully, Python’s support for object-oriented programming is partial.
15. The name Lua is derived from the Portuguese word for moon.

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functional programming with extensibility as one of its primary goals. Among the languages that influenced its design are Scheme, Icon, and Python.
Lua is similar to JavaScript in that it does not support object-oriented programming but it was clearly influenced by it. Both have objects that play the role of both classes and objects and both have prototype inheritance rather than class inheritance. However, in Lua, the language can be extended to support object-oriented programming.
As in Scheme, Lua’s functions are first-class values. Also, Lua supports closures. These capabilities allow it to be used for functional programming.
Also like Scheme, Lua has only a single data structure, although in Lua’s case, it is the table. Lua’s tables extend PHP’s associate arrays, which subsume the arrays of traditional imperative languages. References to table elements can take the form of references to traditional arrays, associative arrays, or records.
Because functions are first-class values, they can be stored in tables, and such tables can serve as namespaces.
Lua uses garbage collection for its objects, which are all heap allocated. It uses dynamic typing, as do most of the other scripting languages.
Lua is a relatively small and simple language, having only 21 reserved words. The design philosophy of the language was to provide the bare essentials and relatively simple ways to extend the language to allow it to fit a variety of application areas. Much of its extensibility derives from its table data structure, which can be customized using Lua’s metatable concept.
Lua can conveniently be used as a scripting language extension to other languages. Like early implementations of Java, Lua is translated to an intermediate code and interpreted. It easily can be embedded simply in other systems, in part because of the small size of its interpreter, which is only about 150K bytes. During 2006 and 2007, the popularity of Lua grew rapidly, in part due to its use in the gaming industry. The sequence of scripting languages that have appeared over the past 20 years has already produced several widely used languages. Lua, the latest arrival among them, is quickly becoming one.

2.19 The Flagship .NET Language: C#
C#, along with the new development platform .NET,16 was announced by
Microsoft in 2000. In January 2002, production versions of both were released.

2.19.1

Design Process
C# is based on C++ and Java but includes some ideas from Delphi and Visual
BASIC. Its lead designer, Anders Hejlsberg, also designed Turbo Pascal and
Delphi, which explains the Delphi parts of the heritage of C#.

16. The .NET development system is briefly discussed in Chapter 1.

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The purpose of C# is to provide a language for component-based software development, specifically for such development in the .NET Framework. In this environment, components from a variety of languages can be easily combined to form systems. All of the .NET languages, which include C#, Visual
Basic .NET, Managed C++, F#, and JScript .NET,17 use the Common Type
System (CTS). The CTS provides a common class library. All types in all five
.NET languages inherit from a single class root, System.Object. Compilers that conform to the CTS specification create objects that can be combined into software systems. All .NET languages are compiled into the same intermediate form, Intermediate Language (IL).18 Unlike Java, however, the IL is never interpreted. A Just-in-Time compiler is used to translate IL into machine code before it is executed.

2.19.2

Language Overview
Many believe that one of Java’s most important advances over C++ lies in the fact that it excludes some of C++’s features. For example, C++ supports multiple inheritance, pointers, structs, enum types, operator overloading, and a goto statement, but Java includes none of these. The designers of C# obviously disagreed with this wholesale removal of features, because all of these except multiple inheritance have been included in the new language.
To the credit of C#’s designers, however, in several cases, the C# version of a C++ feature has been improved. For example, the enum types of C# are safer than those of C++, because they are never implicitly converted to integers. This allows them to be more type safe. The struct type was changed significantly, resulting in a truly useful construct, whereas in C++ it serves virtually no purpose. C#’s structs are discussed in Chapter 12. C# takes a stab at improving the switch statement that is used in C, C++, and Java. C#’s switch is discussed in
Chapter 8.
Although C++ includes function pointers, they share the lack of safety that is inherent in C++’s pointers to variables. C# includes a new type, delegates, which are both object-oriented and type-safe method references to subprograms. Delegates are used for implementing event handlers, controlling the execution of threads, and callbacks.19 Callbacks are implemented in Java with interfaces; in C++, method pointers are used.
In C#, methods can take a variable number of parameters, as long as they are all the same type. This is specified by the use of a formal parameter of array type, preceded by the params reserved word.
Both C++ and Java use two distinct typing systems: one for primitives and one for objects. In addition to being confusing, this leads to a frequent need to
17. Many other languages have been modified to be .NET languages.
18. Initially, IL was called MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language), but apparently many people thought that name was too long.
19. When an object calls a method of another object and needs to be notified when that method has completed its task, the called method calls its caller back. This is known as a callback.

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convert values between the two systems—for example, to put a primitive value into a collection that stores objects. C# makes the conversion between values of the two typing systems partially implicit through the implicit boxing and unboxing operations, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 12.20
Among the other features of C# are rectangular arrays, which are not supported in most programming languages, and a foreach statement, which is an iterator for arrays and collection objects. A similar foreach statement is found in Perl, PHP, and Java 5.0. Also, C# includes properties, which are an alternative to public data members. Properties are specified as data members with get and set methods, which are implicitly called when references and assignments are made to the associated data members.
C# has evolved continuously and quickly from its initial release in 2002.
The most recent version is C# 2010. C# 2010 adds a form of dynamic typing, implicit typing, and anonymous types (see Chapter 6).

2.19.3

Evaluation
C# was meant to be an improvement over both C++ and Java as a generalpurpose programming language. Although it can be argued that some of its features are a step backward, C# clearly includes some constructs that move it beyond its predecessors. Some of its features will surely be adopted by programming languages of the near future. Some already do.
The following is an example of a C# program:
// C# Example Program
// Input: An integer, listlen, where listlen is less than
//
100, followed by listlen-integer values.
// Output: The number of input values that are greater
//
than the average of all input values. using System; public class Ch2example { static void Main() { int[] intlist; int listlen, counter, sum = 0, average, result = 0; intList = new int[99]; listlen = Int32.Parse(Console.readLine()); if ((listlen > 0) && (listlen < 100)) {
// Read input into an array and compute the sum for (counter = 0; counter < listlen; counter++) {

20. This feature was added to Java in Java 5.0.

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intList[counter] =
Int32.Parse(Console.readLine());
sum += intList[counter];
} //- end of for (counter ...
// Compute the average average = sum / listlen;
// Count the input values that are > average foreach (int num in intList) if (num > average) result++;
// Print result
Console.WriteLine(
"Number of values > average is:" + result);
} //- end of if ((listlen ... else Console.WriteLine(
"Error--input list length is not legal");
} //- end of method Main
} //- end of class Ch2example

2.20 Markup/Programming Hybrid Languages
A markup/programming hybrid language is a markup language in which some of the elements can specify programming actions, such as control flow and computation. The following subsections introduce two such hybrid languages,
XSLT and JSP.

2.20.1

XSLT eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a metamarkup language. Such a language is used to define markup languages. XML-derived markup languages are used to define data documents, which are called XML documents. Although XML documents are human readable, they are processed by computers. This processing sometimes consists only of transformations to forms that can be effectively displayed or printed. In many cases, such transformations are to HTML, which can be displayed by a Web browser. In other cases, the data in the document is processed, just as with other forms of data files.
The transformation of XML documents to HTML documents is specified in another markup language, eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
(XSLT) (www.w3.org/TR/XSLT). XSLT can specify programming-like operations. Therefore, XSLT is a markup/programming hybrid language. XSLT was defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in the late 1990s.
An XSLT processor is a program that takes as input an XML data document and an XSLT document (which is also in the form of an XML document).
In this processing, the XML data document is transformed to another XML

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105

document,21 using the transformations described in the XSLT document. The
XSLT document specifies transformations by defining templates, which are data patterns that could be found by the XSLT processor in the XML input file.
Associated with each template in the XSLT document are its transformation instructions, which specify how the matching data is to be transformed before being put in the output document. So, the templates (and their associated processing) act as subprograms, which are “executed” when the XSLT processor finds a pattern match in the data of the XML document.
XSLT also has programming constructs at a lower level. For example, a looping construct is included, which allows repeated parts of the XML document to be selected. There is also a sort process. These lower-level constructs are specified with XSLT tags, such as .

2.20.2

JSP
The “core” part of the Java Server Pages Standard Tag Library ( JSTL) is another markup/programming hybrid language, although its form and purpose are different from those of XSLT. Before discussing JSTL, it is necessary to introduce the ideas of servlets and Java Server Pages ( JSP). A servlet is an instance of a Java class that resides on and is executed on a Web server system.
The execution of a servlet is requested by a markup document being displayed by a Web browser. The servlet’s output, which is in the form of an HTML document, is returned to the requesting browser. A program that runs in the
Web server process, called a servlet container, controls the execution of servlets. Servlets are commonly used for form processing and for database access.
JSP is a collection of technologies designed to support dynamic Web documents and provide other processing needs of Web documents. When a JSP document, which is often a mixture of HTML and Java, is requested by a browser, the JSP processor program, which resides on a Web server system, converts the document to a servlet. The document’s embedded Java code is copied to the servlet. The plain HTML is copied into Java print statements that output it as is. The JSTL markup in the JSP document is processed, as discussed in the following paragraph. The servlet produced by the JSP processor is run by the servlet container.
The JSTL defines a collection of XML action elements that control the processing of the JSP document on the Web server. These elements have the same form as other elements of HTML and XML. One of the most commonly used JSTL control action elements is if, which specifies a Boolean expression as an attribute.22 The content of the if element (the text between the opening tag () and its closing tag ()) is HTML code that will be included in the output document only if the Boolean expression evaluates to true. The if element is related to the C/C++ #if preprocessor command. The JSP
21. The output document of the XSLT processor could also be in HTML or plain text.
22. An attribute in HTML, which is embedded in the opening tag of an element, provides further information about that element.

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container processes the JSTL parts of JSP documents in a way that is similar to how the C/C++ preprocessor processes C and C++ programs. The preprocessor commands are instructions for the preprocessor to specify how the output file is to be constructed from the input file. Similarly, JSTL control action elements are instructions for the JSP processor to specify how to build the XML output file from the XML input file.
One common use of the if element is for the validation of form data submitted by a browser user. Form data is accessible by the JSP processor and can be tested with the if element to ensure that it is sensible data. If not, the if element can insert an error message for the user in the output document.
For multiple selection control, JSTL has choose, when, and otherwise elements. JSTL also includes a forEach element, which iterates over collections, which typically are form values from a client. The forEach element can include begin, end, and step attributes to control its iterations.

S U M M A R Y

We have investigated the development and the development environments of a number of programming languages. This chapter gives the reader a good perspective on current issues in language design. We have set the stage for an in-depth discussion of the important features of contemporary languages.

B I B L I O G R A P H I C

N O T E S

Perhaps the most important source of historical information about the development of early programming languages is History of Programming Languages, edited by Richard Wexelblat (1981). It contains the developmental background and environment of 13 important programming languages, as told by the designers themselves. A similar work resulted from a second “history” conference, published as a special issue of ACM SIGPLAN Notices (ACM, 1993a). In this work, the history and evolution of 13 more programming languages are discussed.
The paper “Early Development of Programming Languages” (Knuth and
Pardo, 1977), which is part of the Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, is an excellent 85-page work that details the development of languages up to and including Fortran. The paper includes example programs to demonstrate the features of many of those languages.
Another book of great interest is Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals, by Jean Sammet (1969). It is a 785-page work filled with details of
80 programming languages of the 1950s and 1960s. Sammet has also published several updates to her book, such as Roster of Programming Languages for
1974–75 (1976).

Review Questions

R E V I E W

107

Q U E S T I O N S

1. In what year was Plankalkül designed? In what year was that design published? 2. What two common data structures were included in Plankalkül?
3. How were the pseudocodes of the early 1950s implemented?
4. Speedcoding was invented to overcome two significant shortcomings of the computer hardware of the early 1950s. What were they?
5. Why was the slowness of interpretation of programs acceptable in the early 1950s?
6. What hardware capability that first appeared in the IBM 704 computer strongly affected the evolution of programming languages? Explain why.
7. In what year was the Fortran design project begun?
8. What was the primary application area of computers at the time Fortran was designed?
9. What was the source of all of the control flow statements of Fortran I?
10. What was the most significant feature added to Fortran I to get Fortran
II?
11. What control flow statements were added to Fortran IV to get Fortran
77?
12. Which version of Fortran was the first to have any sort of dynamic variables? 13. Which version of Fortran was the first to have character string handling?
14. Why were linguists interested in artificial intelligence in the late 1950s?
15. Where was LISP developed? By whom?
16. In what way are Scheme and Common LISP opposites of each other?
17. What dialect of LISP is used for introductory programming courses at some universities?
18. What two professional organizations together designed ALGOL 60?
19. In what version of ALGOL did block structure appear?
20. What missing language element of ALGOL 60 damaged its chances for widespread use?
21. What language was designed to describe the syntax of ALGOL 60?
22. On what language was COBOL based?
23. In what year did the COBOL design process begin?
24. What data structure that appeared in COBOL originated with
Plankalkül?
25. What organization was most responsible for the early success of
COBOL (in terms of extent of use)?

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26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.

What user group was the target of the first version of BASIC?
Why was BASIC an important language in the early 1980s?
PL/I was designed to replace what two languages?
For what new line of computers was PL/I designed?
What features of SIMULA 67 are now important parts of some objectoriented languages?
What innovation of data structuring was introduced in ALGOL 68 but is often credited to Pascal?
What design criterion was used extensively in ALGOL 68?
What language introduced the case statement?
What operators in C were modeled on similar operators in ALGOL 68?
What are two characteristics of C that make it less safe than Pascal?
What is a nonprocedural language?
What are the two kinds of statements that populate a Prolog database?
What is the primary application area for which Ada was designed?
What are the concurrent program units of Ada called?
What Ada construct provides support for abstract data types?
What populates the Smalltalk world?
What three concepts are the basis for object-oriented programming?
Why does C++ include the features of C that are known to be unsafe?
From what language does Objective-C borrow its syntax for method calls? What programming paradigm that nearly all recently designed languages support is not supported by Go?
What is the primary application for Objective-C?
What language designer worked on both C and Go?
What do the Ada and COBOL languages have in common?
What was the first application for Java?
What characteristic of Java is most evident in JavaScript?
How does the typing system of PHP and JavaScript differ from that of
Java?
What array structure is included in C# but not in C, C++, or Java?
What two languages was the original version of Perl meant to replace?
For what application area is JavaScript most widely used?
What is the relationship between JavaScript and PHP, in terms of their use? PHP’s primary data structure is a combination of what two data structures from other languages?

Problem Set

109

57. What data structure does Python use in place of arrays?
58. What characteristic does Ruby share with Smalltalk?
59. What characteristic of Ruby’s arithmetic operators makes them unique among those of other languages?
60. What data structures are built into Lua?
61. Is Lua normally compiled, purely interpreted, or impurely interpreted?
62. What feature of Delphi’s classes is included in C#?
63. What deficiency of the switch statement of C is addressed with the changes made by C# to that statement?
64. What is the primary platform on which C# is used?
65. What are the inputs to an XSLT processor?
66. What is the output of an XSLT processor?
67. What element of the JSTL is related to a subprogram?
68. To what is a JSP document converted by a JSP processor?
69. Where are servlets executed?

P R O B L E M

S E T

1. What features of Plankalkül do you think would have had the greatest influence on Fortran 0 if the Fortran designers had been familiar with
Plankalkül?
2. Determine the capabilities of Backus’s 701 Speedcoding system, and compare them with those of a contemporary programmable hand calculator. 3. Write a short history of the A-0, A-1, and A-2 systems designed by
Grace Hopper and her associates.
4. As a research project, compare the facilities of Fortran 0 with those of the Laning and Zierler system.
5. Which of the three original goals of the ALGOL design committee, in your opinion, was most difficult to achieve at that time?
6. Make an educated guess as to the most common syntax error in LISP programs. 7. LISP began as a pure functional language but gradually acquired more and more imperative features. Why?
8. Describe in detail the three most important reasons, in your opinion, why ALGOL 60 did not become a very widely used language.
9. Why, in your opinion, did COBOL allow long identifiers when Fortran and ALGOL did not?

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10. Outline the major motivation of IBM in developing PL/I.
11. Was IBM’s assumption, on which it based its decision to develop PL/I, correct, given the history of computers and language developments since
1964?
12. Describe, in your own words, the concept of orthogonality in programming language design.
13. What is the primary reason why PL/I became more widely used than
ALGOL 68?
14. What are the arguments both for and against the idea of a typeless language? 15. Are there any logic programming languages other than Prolog?
16. What is your opinion of the argument that languages that are too complex are too dangerous to use, and we should therefore keep all languages small and simple?
17. Do you think language design by committee is a good idea? Support your opinion.
18. Languages continually evolve. What sort of restrictions do you think are appropriate for changes in programming languages? Compare your answers with the evolution of Fortran.
19. Build a table identifying all of the major language developments, together with when they occurred, in what language they first appeared, and the identities of the developers.
20. There have been some public interchanges between Microsoft and
Sun concerning the design of Microsoft’s J++ and C# and Sun’s Java.
Read some of these documents, which are available on their respective
Web sites, and write an analysis of the disagreements concerning the delegates. 21. In recent years data structures have evolved within scripting languages to replace traditional arrays. Explain the chronological sequence of these developments. 22. Explain two reasons why pure interpretation is an acceptable implementation method for several recent scripting languages.
23. Perl 6, when it arrives, will likely be a significantly enlarged language.
Make an educated guess as to whether a language like Lua will also grow continuously over its lifetime. Support your answer.
24. Why, in your opinion, do new scripting languages appear more frequently than new compiled languages?
25. Give a brief general description of a markup/programming hybrid language. Programming Exercises

P R O G R A M M I N G

111

E X E R C I S E S

1. To understand the value of records in a programming language, write a small program in a C-based language that uses an array of structs that store student information, including name, age, GPA as a float, and grade level as a string (e.g., “freshmen,” etc.). Also, write the same program in the same language without using structs.
2. To understand the value of recursion in a programming language, write a program that implements quicksort, first using recursion and then without recursion.
3. To understand the value of counting loops, write a program that implements matrix multiplication using counting loop constructs. Then write the same program using only logical loops—for example, while loops.

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3
Describing Syntax and Semantics
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The General Problem of Describing Syntax
3.3 Formal Methods of Describing Syntax
3.4 Attribute Grammars
3.5 Describing the Meanings of Programs: Dynamic Semantics

113

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T

his chapter covers the following topics. First, the terms syntax and semantics are defined. Then, a detailed discussion of the most common method of describing syntax, context-free grammars (also known as Backus-Naur Form), is presented. Included in this discussion are derivations, parse trees, ambiguity, descriptions of operator precedence and associativity, and extended Backus-Naur
Form. Attribute grammars, which can be used to describe both the syntax and static semantics of programming languages, are discussed next. In the last section, three formal methods of describing semantics—operational, axiomatic, and denotational semantics—are introduced. Because of the inherent complexity of the semantics description methods, our discussion of them is brief. One could easily write an entire book on just one of the three (as several authors have).

3.1 Introduction
The task of providing a concise yet understandable description of a programming language is difficult but essential to the language’s success. ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 were first presented using concise formal descriptions; in both cases, however, the descriptions were not easily understandable, partly because each used a new notation. The levels of acceptance of both languages suffered as a result. On the other hand, some languages have suffered the problem of having many slightly different dialects, a result of a simple but informal and imprecise definition.
One of the problems in describing a language is the diversity of the people who must understand the description. Among these are initial evaluators, implementors, and users. Most new programming languages are subjected to a period of scrutiny by potential users, often people within the organization that employs the language’s designer, before their designs are completed. These are the initial evaluators. The success of this feedback cycle depends heavily on the clarity of the description.
Programming language implementors obviously must be able to determine how the expressions, statements, and program units of a language are formed, and also their intended effect when executed. The difficulty of the implementors’ job is, in part, determined by the completeness and precision of the language description.
Finally, language users must be able to determine how to encode software solutions by referring to a language reference manual. Textbooks and courses enter into this process, but language manuals are usually the only authoritative printed information source about a language.
The study of programming languages, like the study of natural languages, can be divided into examinations of syntax and semantics. The syntax of a programming language is the form of its expressions, statements, and program units. Its semantics is the meaning of those expressions, statements, and program units. For example, the syntax of a Java while statement is while (boolean_expr) statement

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115

The semantics of this statement form is that when the current value of the
Boolean expression is true, the embedded statement is executed. Otherwise, control continues after the while construct. Then control implicitly returns to the Boolean expression to repeat the process.
Although they are often separated for discussion purposes, syntax and semantics are closely related. In a well-designed programming language, semantics should follow directly from syntax; that is, the appearance of a statement should strongly suggest what the statement is meant to accomplish.
Describing syntax is easier than describing semantics, partly because a concise and universally accepted notation is available for syntax description, but none has yet been developed for semantics.

3.2 The General Problem of Describing Syntax
A language, whether natural (such as English) or artificial (such as Java), is a set of strings of characters from some alphabet. The strings of a language are called sentences or statements. The syntax rules of a language specify which strings of characters from the language’s alphabet are in the language. English, for example, has a large and complex collection of rules for specifying the syntax of its sentences. By comparison, even the largest and most complex programming languages are syntactically very simple.
Formal descriptions of the syntax of programming languages, for simplicity’s sake, often do not include descriptions of the lowest-level syntactic units. These small units are called lexemes. The description of lexemes can be given by a lexical specification, which is usually separate from the syntactic description of the language. The lexemes of a programming language include its numeric literals, operators, and special words, among others. One can think of programs as strings of lexemes rather than of characters.
Lexemes are partitioned into groups—for example, the names of variables, methods, classes, and so forth in a programming language form a group called identifiers. Each lexeme group is represented by a name, or token. So, a token of a language is a category of its lexemes. For example, an identifier is a token that can have lexemes, or instances, such as sum and total. In some cases, a token has only a single possible lexeme. For example, the token for the arithmetic operator symbol + has just one possible lexeme. Consider the following
Java statement: index = 2 * count + 17;

The lexemes and tokens of this statement are
Lexemes
index
=
2

Tokens identifier equal_sign int_literal 116

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* count +
17
;

mult_op identifier plus_op int_literal semicolon

The example language descriptions in this chapter are very simple, and most include lexeme descriptions.

3.2.1

Language Recognizers
In general, languages can be formally defined in two distinct ways: by recognition and by generation (although neither provides a definition that is practical by itself for people trying to learn or use a programming language). Suppose we have a language L that uses an alphabet ⌺ of characters. To define L formally using the recognition method, we would need to construct a mechanism R, called a recognition device, capable of reading strings of characters from the alphabet ⌺. R would indicate whether a given input string was or was not in L. In effect, R would either accept or reject the given string. Such devices are like filters, separating legal sentences from those that are incorrectly formed. If R, when fed any string of characters over ⌺, accepts it only if it is in L, then R is a description of L. Because most useful languages are, for all practical purposes, infinite, this might seem like a lengthy and ineffective process. Recognition devices, however, are not used to enumerate all of the sentences of a language—they have a different purpose.
The syntax analysis part of a compiler is a recognizer for the language the compiler translates. In this role, the recognizer need not test all possible strings of characters from some set to determine whether each is in the language. Rather, it need only determine whether given programs are in the language. In effect then, the syntax analyzer determines whether the given programs are syntactically correct. The structure of syntax analyzers, also known as parsers, is discussed in
Chapter 4.

3.2.2

Language Generators
A language generator is a device that can be used to generate the sentences of a language. We can think of the generator as having a button that produces a sentence of the language every time it is pushed. Because the particular sentence that is produced by a generator when its button is pushed is unpredictable, a generator seems to be a device of limited usefulness as a language descriptor.
However, people prefer certain forms of generators over recognizers because they can more easily read and understand them. By contrast, the syntax-checking portion of a compiler (a language recognizer) is not as useful a language description for a programmer because it can be used only in trial-and-error mode. For example, to determine the correct syntax of a particular statement using a compiler, the programmer can only submit a speculated version and note whether

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117

the compiler accepts it. On the other hand, it is often possible to determine whether the syntax of a particular statement is correct by comparing it with the structure of the generator.
There is a close connection between formal generation and recognition devices for the same language. This was one of the seminal discoveries in computer science, and it led to much of what is now known about formal languages and compiler design theory. We return to the relationship of generators and recognizers in the next section.

3.3 Formal Methods of Describing Syntax
This section discusses the formal language-generation mechanisms, usually called grammars, that are commonly used to describe the syntax of programming languages.

3.3.1

Backus-Naur Form and Context-Free Grammars
In the middle to late 1950s, two men, Noam Chomsky and John Backus, in unrelated research efforts, developed the same syntax description formalism, which subsequently became the most widely used method for programming language syntax.

3.3.1.1 Context-Free Grammars
In the mid-1950s, Chomsky, a noted linguist (among other things), described four classes of generative devices or grammars that define four classes of languages (Chomsky, 1956, 1959). Two of these grammar classes, named context-free and regular, turned out to be useful for describing the syntax of programming languages. The forms of the tokens of programming languages can be described by regular grammars. The syntax of whole programming languages, with minor exceptions, can be described by context-free grammars.
Because Chomsky was a linguist, his primary interest was the theoretical nature of natural languages. He had no interest at the time in the artificial languages used to communicate with computers. So it was not until later that his work was applied to programming languages.

3.3.1.2 Origins of Backus-Naur Form
Shortly after Chomsky’s work on language classes, the ACM-GAMM group began designing ALGOL 58. A landmark paper describing ALGOL 58 was presented by John Backus, a prominent member of the ACM-GAMM group, at an international conference in 1959 (Backus, 1959). This paper introduced a new formal notation for specifying programming language syntax. The new notation was later modified slightly by Peter Naur for the description of

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ALGOL 60 (Naur, 1960). This revised method of syntax description became known as Backus-Naur Form, or simply BNF.
BNF is a natural notation for describing syntax. In fact, something similar to BNF was used by Panini to describe the syntax of Sanskrit several hundred years before Christ (Ingerman, 1967).
Although the use of BNF in the ALGOL 60 report was not immediately accepted by computer users, it soon became and is still the most popular method of concisely describing programming language syntax.
It is remarkable that BNF is nearly identical to Chomsky’s generative devices for context-free languages, called context-free grammars. In the remainder of the chapter, we refer to context-free grammars simply as grammars. Furthermore, the terms BNF and grammar are used interchangeably.

3.3.1.3 Fundamentals
A metalanguage is a language that is used to describe another language. BNF is a metalanguage for programming languages.
BNF uses abstractions for syntactic structures. A simple Java assignment statement, for example, might be represented by the abstraction
(pointed brackets are often used to delimit names of abstractions). The actual definition of can be given by → =
The text on the left side of the arrow, which is aptly called the left-hand side
(LHS), is the abstraction being defined. The text to the right of the arrow is the definition of the LHS. It is called the right-hand side (RHS) and consists of some mixture of tokens, lexemes, and references to other abstractions.
(Actually, tokens are also abstractions.) Altogether, the definition is called a rule, or production. In the example rule just given, the abstractions and obviously must be defined for the definition to be useful. This particular rule specifies that the abstraction is defined as an instance of the abstraction , followed by the lexeme =, followed by an instance of the abstraction . One example sentence whose syntactic structure is described by the rule is total = subtotal1 + subtotal2

The abstractions in a BNF description, or grammar, are often called nonterminal symbols, or simply nonterminals, and the lexemes and tokens of the rules are called terminal symbols, or simply terminals. A BNF description, or grammar, is a collection of rules.
Nonterminal symbols can have two or more distinct definitions, representing two or more possible syntactic forms in the language. Multiple definitions can be written as a single rule, with the different definitions separated by

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the symbol|, meaning logical OR. For example, a Java if statement can be described with the rules → if ( ) → if ( ) else or with the rule → if ( )
| if ( ) else

In these rules, represents either a single statement or a compound statement. Although BNF is simple, it is sufficiently powerful to describe nearly all of the syntax of programming languages. In particular, it can describe lists of similar constructs, the order in which different constructs must appear, and nested structures to any depth, and even imply operator precedence and operator associativity.

3.3.1.4 Describing Lists
Variable-length lists in mathematics are often written using an ellipsis (. . .);
1, 2, . . . is an example. BNF does not include the ellipsis, so an alternative method is required for describing lists of syntactic elements in programming languages (for example, a list of identifiers appearing on a data declaration statement). For BNF, the alternative is recursion. A rule is recursive if its
LHS appears in its RHS. The following rules illustrate how recursion is used to describe lists: → identifier
| identifier,

This defines as either a single token (identifier) or an identifier followed by a comma and another instance of . Recursion is used to describe lists in many of the example grammars in the remainder of this chapter.

3.3.1.5 Grammars and Derivations
A grammar is a generative device for defining languages. The sentences of the language are generated through a sequence of applications of the rules, beginning with a special nonterminal of the grammar called the start symbol. This sequence of rule applications is called a derivation. In a grammar for a complete programming language, the start symbol represents a complete program and is often named . The simple grammar shown in
Example 3.1 is used to illustrate derivations.

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EXAMPLE 3.1

Describing Syntax and Semantics

A Grammar for a Small Language → begin end →
| ; → = → A | B | C → +
| –
|

The language described by the grammar of Example 3.1 has only one statement form: assignment. A program consists of the special word begin, followed by a list of statements separated by semicolons, followed by the special word end. An expression is either a single variable or two variables separated by either a + or - operator. The only variable names in this language are A,
B, and C.
A derivation of a program in this language follows: => begin end
=> begin ; end
=> begin = ; end
=> begin A = ; end
=> begin A = + ; end
=> begin A = B + ; end
=> begin A = B + C ; end
=> begin A = B + C ; end
=> begin A = B + C ; = end
=> begin A = B + C ; B = end
=> begin A = B + C ; B = end
=> begin A = B + C ; B = C end

This derivation, like all derivations, begins with the start symbol, in this case
. The symbol => is read “derives.” Each successive string in the sequence is derived from the previous string by replacing one of the nonterminals with one of that nonterminal’s definitions. Each of the strings in the derivation, including , is called a sentential form.
In this derivation, the replaced nonterminal is always the leftmost nonterminal in the previous sentential form. Derivations that use this order of replacement are called leftmost derivations. The derivation continues until the sentential form contains no nonterminals. That sentential form, consisting of only terminals, or lexemes, is the generated sentence.

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121

In addition to leftmost, a derivation may be rightmost or in an order that is neither leftmost nor rightmost. Derivation order has no effect on the language generated by a grammar.
By choosing alternative RHSs of rules with which to replace nonterminals in the derivation, different sentences in the language can be generated. By exhaustively choosing all combinations of choices, the entire language can be generated. This language, like most others, is infinite, so one cannot generate all the sentences in the language in finite time.
Example 3.2 is another example of a grammar for part of a typical programming language.

EXAMPLE 3.2

A Grammar for Simple Assignment Statements → = → A | B | C → +
| *
| ( )
|

The grammar of Example 3.2 describes assignment statements whose right sides are arithmetic expressions with multiplication and addition operators and parentheses. For example, the statement
A = B * ( A + C )

is generated by the leftmost derivation: => =
=> A =
=> A = *
=> A = B *
=> A = B * ( )
=> A = B * ( + )
=> A = B * ( A + )
=> A = B * ( A + )
=> A = B * ( A + C )

3.3.1.6 Parse Trees
One of the most attractive features of grammars is that they naturally describe the hierarchical syntactic structure of the sentences of the languages they define.
These hierarchical structures are called parse trees. For example, the parse tree in Figure 3.1 shows the structure of the assignment statement derived previously.

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Figure 3.1
A parse tree for the simple statement

=

A

*

B

(

+

A = B * (A + C)

A

)

C

Every internal node of a parse tree is labeled with a nonterminal symbol; every leaf is labeled with a terminal symbol. Every subtree of a parse tree describes one instance of an abstraction in the sentence.

3.3.1.7 Ambiguity
A grammar that generates a sentential form for which there are two or more distinct parse trees is said to be ambiguous. Consider the grammar shown in
Example 3.3, which is a minor variation of the grammar shown in Example 3.2.

EXAMPLE 3.3

An Ambiguous Grammar for Simple Assignment Statements → = → A | B | C → +
| *
| ( )
|

The grammar of Example 3.3 is ambiguous because the sentence
A = B + C * A

has two distinct parse trees, as shown in Figure 3.2. The ambiguity occurs because the grammar specifies slightly less syntactic structure than does the grammar of

3.3

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Formal Methods of Describing Syntax

Example 3.2. Rather than allowing the parse tree of an expression to grow only on the right, this grammar allows growth on both the left and the right.

Figure 3.2
Two distinct parse trees for the same sentence,

=

=

A

+

A

*

*

+

B

C

A

B

C

A = B + C * A

A

Syntactic ambiguity of language structures is a problem because compilers often base the semantics of those structures on their syntactic form. Specifically, the compiler chooses the code to be generated for a statement by examining its parse tree. If a language structure has more than one parse tree, then the meaning of the structure cannot be determined uniquely. This problem is discussed in two specific examples in the following subsections.
There are several other characteristics of a grammar that are sometimes useful in determining whether a grammar is ambiguous.1 They include the following: (1) if the grammar generates a sentence with more than one leftmost derivation and (2) if the grammar generates a sentence with more than one rightmost derivation.
Some parsing algorithms can be based on ambiguous grammars. When such a parser encounters an ambiguous construct, it uses nongrammatical information provided by the designer to construct the correct parse tree. In many cases, an ambiguous grammar can be rewritten to be unambiguous but still generate the desired language.

3.3.1.8 Operator Precedence
When an expression includes two different operators, for example, x + y * z, one obvious semantic issue is the order of evaluation of the two operators (for example, in this expression is it add and then multiply, or vice versa?). This semantic question can be answered by assigning different precedence levels to operators.
For example, if * has been assigned higher precedence than + (by the language
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designer), multiplication will be done first, regardless of the order of appearance of the two operators in the expression.
As stated previously, a grammar can describe a certain syntactic structure so that part of the meaning of the structure can be determined from its parse tree.
In particular, the fact that an operator in an arithmetic expression is generated lower in the parse tree (and therefore must be evaluated first) can be used to indicate that it has precedence over an operator produced higher up in the tree.
In the first parse tree of Figure 3.2, for example, the multiplication operator is generated lower in the tree, which could indicate that it has precedence over the addition operator in the expression. The second parse tree, however, indicates just the opposite. It appears, therefore, that the two parse trees indicate conflicting precedence information.
Notice that although the grammar of Example 3.2 is not ambiguous, the precedence order of its operators is not the usual one. In this grammar, a parse tree of a sentence with multiple operators, regardless of the particular operators involved, has the rightmost operator in the expression at the lowest point in the parse tree, with the other operators in the tree moving progressively higher as one moves to the left in the expression. For example, in the expression A + B * C, * is the lowest in the tree, indicating it is to be done first. However, in the expression A * B + C, + is the lowest, indicating it is to be done first.
A grammar can be written for the simple expressions we have been discussing that is both unambiguous and specifies a consistent precedence of the
+ and * operators, regardless of the order in which the operators appear in an expression. The correct ordering is specified by using separate nonterminal symbols to represent the operands of the operators that have different precedence. This requires additional nonterminals and some new rules. Instead of using for both operands of both + and *, we could use three nonterminals to represent operands, which allows the grammar to force different operators to different levels in the parse tree. If is the root symbol for expressions, + can be forced to the top of the parse tree by having directly generate only + operators, using the new nonterminal, , as the right operand of +. Next, we can define to generate * operators, using as the left operand and a new nonterminal, , as its right operand. Now, * will always be lower in the parse tree, simply because it is farther from the start symbol than + in every derivation. The grammar of
Example 3.4 is such a grammar.

3.3

EXAMPLE 3.4

Formal Methods of Describing Syntax

125

An Unambiguous Grammar for Expressions → = → A | B | C → +
|
→ *
|
→ ( )
|

The grammar in Example 3.4 generates the same language as the grammars of
Examples 3.2 and 3.3, but it is unambiguous and it specifies the usual precedence order of multiplication and addition operators. The following derivation of the sentence A = B + C * A uses the grammar of Example 3.4: => =
=> A =
=> A = +
=> A = +
=> A = +
=> A = +
=> A = B +
=> A = B + *
=> A = B + *
=> A = B + *
=> A = B + C *
=> A = B + C *
=> A = B + C * A

The unique parse tree for this sentence, using the grammar of Example 3.4, is shown in Figure 3.3.
The connection between parse trees and derivations is very close: Either can easily be constructed from the other. Every derivation with an unambiguous grammar has a unique parse tree, although that tree can be represented by different derivations. For example, the following derivation of the sentence
A = B + C * A is different from the derivation of the same sentence given previously. This is a rightmost derivation, whereas the previous one is leftmost.
Both of these derivations, however, are represented by the same parse tree.

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=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=> A = B

B + C * A
+ C * A

Figure 3.3
The unique parse tree for A = B + C * A using an unambiguous grammar + + * + * + * A + * A + * A + C * A + C * A + C * A + C * A

=

A

+

*

A

B

C

3.3.1.9 Associativity of Operators
When an expression includes two operators that have the same precedence (as
* and / usually have)—for example, A / B * C—a semantic rule is required to specify which should have precedence.2 This rule is named associativity.

2. An expression with two occurrences of the same operator has the same issue; for example,
A / B / C.

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127

As was the case with precedence, a grammar for expressions may correctly imply operator associativity. Consider the following example of an assignment statement: A = B + C + A

The parse tree for this sentence, as defined with the grammar of Example 3.4, is shown in Figure 3.4.
The parse tree of Figure 3.4 shows the left addition operator lower than the right addition operator. This is the correct order if addition is meant to be left associative, which is typical. In most cases, the associativity of addition in a computer is irrelevant. In mathematics, addition is associative, which means that left and right associative orders of evaluation mean the same thing. That is, (A + B) + C = A + (B + C). Floating-point addition in a computer, however, is not necessarily associative. For example, suppose floating-point values store seven digits of accuracy. Consider the problem of adding 11 numbers together, where one of the numbers is 107 and the other ten are 1. If the small numbers (the 1’s) are each added to the large number, one at a time, there is no effect on that number, because the small numbers occur in the eighth digit of the large number. However, if the small numbers are first added together and the result is added to the large number, the result in seven-digit accuracy is 1.000001 * 107. Subtraction and division are not associative, whether in mathematics or in a computer. Therefore, correct associativity may be essential for an expression that contains either of them.

Figure 3.4
A parse tree for A = B
+ C + A illustrating the associativity of addition =

A

+

+

A

C

B

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When a grammar rule has its LHS also appearing at the beginning of its
RHS, the rule is said to be left recursive. This left recursion specifies left associativity. For example, the left recursion of the rules of the grammar of
Example 3.4 causes it to make both addition and multiplication left associative. Unfortunately, left recursion disallows the use of some important syntax analysis algorithms. When such algorithms are to be used, the grammar must be modified to remove the left recursion. This, in turn, disallows the grammar from precisely specifying that certain operators are left associative. Fortunately, left associativity can be enforced by the compiler, even though the grammar does not dictate it.
In most languages that provide it, the exponentiation operator is right associative. To indicate right associativity, right recursion can be used. A grammar rule is right recursive if the LHS appears at the right end of the RHS. Rules such as → **
|
→ ( )
|id
could be used to describe exponentiation as a right-associative operator.

3.3.1.10 An Unambiguous Grammar for if-then-else
The BNF rules for an Ada if-then-else statement are as follows: → if then if then else

If we also have → , this grammar is ambiguous. The simplest sentential form that illustrates this ambiguity is if then if then else

The two parse trees in Figure 3.5 show the ambiguity of this sentential form.
Consider the following example of this construct: if done == true then if denom == 0 then quotient = 0; else quotient = num / denom;

The problem is that if the upper parse tree in Figure 3.5 is used as the basis for translation, the else clause would be executed when done is not true, which probably is not what was intended by the author of the construct. We will examine the practical problems associated with this else-association problem in Chapter 8.
We will now develop an unambiguous grammar that describes this if statement. The rule for if constructs in many languages is that an else clause, when present, is matched with the nearest previous unmatched then.

3.3

Formal Methods of Describing Syntax

129

Figure 3.5
Two distinct parse trees for the same sentential form if

then

else

if

then

if

then

if

then

else

Therefore, there cannot be an if statement without an else between a then and its matching else. So, for this situation, statements must be distinguished between those that are matched and those that are unmatched, where unmatched statements are else-less ifs and all other statements are matched.
The problem with the earlier grammar is that it treats all statements as if they had equal syntactic significance—that is, as if they were all matched.
To reflect the different categories of statements, different abstractions, or nonterminals, must be used. The unambiguous grammar based on these ideas follows: → | → if then else
|any non-if statement → if then
|if then else
There is just one possible parse tree, using this grammar, for the following sentential form: if then if then else

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Describing Syntax and Semantics

Extended BNF
Because of a few minor inconveniences in BNF, it has been extended in several ways. Most extended versions are called Extended BNF, or simply
EBNF, even though they are not all exactly the same. The extensions do not enhance the descriptive power of BNF; they only increase its readability and writability. Three extensions are commonly included in the various versions of EBNF.
The first of these denotes an optional part of an RHS, which is delimited by brackets. For example, a C if-else statement can be described as → if () [else ]
Without the use of the brackets, the syntactic description of this statement would require the following two rules: → if ()
| if () else
The second extension is the use of braces in an RHS to indicate that the enclosed part can be repeated indefinitely or left out altogether. This extension allows lists to be built with a single rule, instead of using recursion and two rules. For example, lists of identifiers separated by commas can be described by the following rule: → {, }
This is a replacement of the recursion by a form of implied iteration; the part enclosed within braces can be iterated any number of times.
The third common extension deals with multiple-choice options. When a single element must be chosen from a group, the options are placed in parentheses and separated by the OR operator, |. For example, → (* | / | %)
In BNF, a description of this would require the following three rules: → *
| /
| %
The brackets, braces, and parentheses in the EBNF extensions are metasymbols, which means they are notational tools and not terminal symbols in the syntactic entities they help describe. In cases where these metasymbols are also terminal symbols in the language being described, the instances that are terminal symbols can be underlined or quoted. Example 3.5 illustrates the use of braces and multiple choices in an EBNF grammar.

3.3

EXAMPLE 3.5

Formal Methods of Describing Syntax

131

BNF and EBNF Versions of an Expression Grammar
BNF:
→ +
| -
|
→ *
| /
|
→ **

→ ()
| id
EBNF:
→ {(+ | -) } → {(* | /) } → { ** } → ()
| id

The BNF rule → + clearly specifies—in fact forces—the + operator to be left associative. However, the EBNF version, → {+ } does not imply the direction of associativity. This problem is overcome in a syntax analyzer based on an EBNF grammar for expressions by designing the syntax analysis process to enforce the correct associativity. This is further discussed in Chapter 4.
Some versions of EBNF allow a numeric superscript to be attached to the right brace to indicate an upper limit to the number of times the enclosed part can be repeated. Also, some versions use a plus (+) superscript to indicate one or more repetitions. For example, → begin {} end and → begin {}+ end are equivalent.

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In recent years, some variations on BNF and EBNF have appeared. Among these are the following:
• In place of the arrow, a colon is used and the RHS is placed on the next line. • Instead of a vertical bar to separate alternative RHSs, they are simply placed on separate lines.
• In place of square brackets to indicate something being optional, the subscript opt is used. For example,
Constructor Declarator → SimpleName (FormalParameterListopt)
• Rather than using the | symbol in a parenthesized list of elements to indicate a choice, the words “one of ” are used. For example,
AssignmentOperator → one of
=

*=
&=

/= %= +=
^= |=

-=

There is a standard for EBNF, ISO/IEC 14977:1996(1996), but it is rarely used. The standard uses the equal sign (=) instead of an arrow in rules, terminates each RHS with a semicolon, and requires quotes on all terminal symbols.
It also specifies a host of other notational rules.

3.3.3

Grammars and Recognizers
Earlier in this chapter, we suggested that there is a close relationship between generation and recognition devices for a given language. In fact, given a context-free grammar, a recognizer for the language generated by the grammar can be algorithmically constructed. A number of software systems have been developed that perform this construction. Such systems allow the quick creation of the syntax analysis part of a compiler for a new language and are therefore quite valuable. One of the first of these syntax analyzer generators is named yacc3 ( Johnson, 1975). There are now many such systems available.

3.4 Attribute Grammars
An attribute grammar is a device used to describe more of the structure of a programming language than can be described with a context-free grammar. An attribute grammar is an extension to a context-free grammar. The extension

3. The term yacc is an acronym for “yet another compiler compiler.”

3.4

his t or y n o t e
Attribute grammars have been used in a wide variety of applications. They have been used to provide complete descriptions of the syntax and static semantics of programming languages
(Watt, 1979); they have been used as the formal definition of a language that can be input to a compiler generation system
(Farrow, 1982); and they have been used as the basis of several syntax-directed editing systems
(Teitelbaum and Reps, 1981;
Fischer et al., 1984). In addition, attribute grammars have been used in natural-language processing systems (Correa,
1992).

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133

allows certain language rules to be conveniently described, such as type compatibility. Before we formally define the form of attribute grammars, we must clarify the concept of static semantics.

3.4.1 Static Semantics

There are some characteristics of the structure of programming languages that are difficult to describe with BNF, and some that are impossible. As an example of a syntax rule that is difficult to specify with BNF, consider type compatibility rules. In Java, for example, a floating-point value cannot be assigned to an integer type variable, although the opposite is legal. Although this restriction can be specified in BNF, it requires additional nonterminal symbols and rules. If all of the typing rules of Java were specified in BNF, the grammar would become too large to be useful, because the size of the grammar determines the size of the syntax analyzer.
As an example of a syntax rule that cannot be specified in BNF, consider the common rule that all variables must be declared before they are referenced. It has been proven that this rule cannot be specified in BNF.
These problems exemplify the categories of language rules called static semantics rules. The static semantics of a language is only indirectly related to the meaning of programs during execution; rather, it has to do with the legal forms of programs (syntax rather than semantics). Many static semantic rules of a language state its type constraints. Static semantics is so named because the analysis required to check these specifications can be done at compile time.
Because of the problems of describing static semantics with BNF, a variety of more powerful mechanisms has been devised for that task. One such mechanism, attribute grammars, was designed by Knuth (1968a) to describe both the syntax and the static semantics of programs.
Attribute grammars are a formal approach both to describing and checking the correctness of the static semantics rules of a program. Although they are not always used in a formal way in compiler design, the basic concepts of attribute grammars are at least informally used in every compiler (see Aho et al., 1986).
Dynamic semantics, which is the meaning of expressions, statements, and program units, is discussed in Section 3.5.

3.4.2

Basic Concepts
Attribute grammars are context-free grammars to which have been added attributes, attribute computation functions, and predicate functions. Attributes, which are associated with grammar symbols (the terminal and nonterminal symbols), are similar to variables in the sense that they can have values assigned to them. Attribute computation functions, sometimes called semantic

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functions, are associated with grammar rules. They are used to specify how attribute values are computed. Predicate functions, which state the static semantic rules of the language, are associated with grammar rules.
These concepts will become clearer after we formally define attribute grammars and provide an example.

3.4.3

Attribute Grammars Defined
An attribute grammar is a grammar with the following additional features:
• Associated with each grammar symbol X is a set of attributes A(X). The set A(X) consists of two disjoint sets S(X) and I(X), called synthesized and inherited attributes, respectively. Synthesized attributes are used to pass semantic information up a parse tree, while inherited attributes pass semantic information down and across a tree.
• Associated with each grammar rule is a set of semantic functions and a possibly empty set of predicate functions over the attributes of the symbols in the grammar rule. For a rule X0 S X1 c Xn, the synthesized attributes of X0 are computed with semantic functions of the form
S(X0) = f(A(X1), c , A(Xn)). So the value of a synthesized attribute on a parse tree node depends only on the values of the attributes on that node’s children nodes. Inherited attributes of symbols Xj, 1 … j … n
(in the rule above), are computed with a semantic function of the form
I(Xj) = f(A(X0), c , A(Xn)). So the value of an inherited attribute on a parse tree node depends on the attribute values of that node’s parent node and those of its sibling nodes. Note that, to avoid circularity, inherited attributes are often restricted to functions of the form
I(Xj) = f(A(X0), c , A(X( j - 1))). This form prevents an inherited attribute from depending on itself or on attributes to the right in the parse tree.
• A predicate function has the form of a Boolean expression on the union of the attribute set {A(X0), c , A(Xn)} and a set of literal attribute values. The only derivations allowed with an attribute grammar are those in which every predicate associated with every nonterminal is true. A false predicate function value indicates a violation of the syntax or static semantics rules of the language.
A parse tree of an attribute grammar is the parse tree based on its underlying BNF grammar, with a possibly empty set of attribute values attached to each node. If all the attribute values in a parse tree have been computed, the tree is said to be fully attributed. Although in practice it is not always done this way, it is convenient to think of attribute values as being computed after the complete unattributed parse tree has been constructed by the compiler.

3.4.4

Intrinsic Attributes
Intrinsic attributes are synthesized attributes of leaf nodes whose values are determined outside the parse tree. For example, the type of an instance of a variable in a program could come from the symbol table, which is used to store variable names

3.4

Attribute Grammars

135

and their types. The contents of the symbol table are set based on earlier declaration statements. Initially, assuming that an unattributed parse tree has been constructed and that attribute values are needed, the only attributes with values are the intrinsic attributes of the leaf nodes. Given the intrinsic attribute values on a parse tree, the semantic functions can be used to compute the remaining attribute values.

3.4.5

Examples of Attribute Grammars
As a very simple example of how attribute grammars can be used to describe static semantics, consider the following fragment of an attribute grammar that describes the rule that the name on the end of an Ada procedure must match the procedure’s name. (This rule cannot be stated in BNF.) The string attribute of , denoted by .string, is the actual string of characters that were found immediately following the reserved word procedure by the compiler. Notice that when there is more than one occurrence of a nonterminal in a syntax rule in an attribute grammar, the nonterminals are subscripted with brackets to distinguish them. Neither the subscripts nor the brackets are part of the described language.
Syntax rule: → procedure [1] end [2];
Predicate: [1]string == [2].string
In this example, the predicate rule states that the name string attribute of the nonterminal in the subprogram header must match the name string attribute of the nonterminal following the end of the subprogram.
Next, we consider a larger example of an attribute grammar. In this case, the example illustrates how an attribute grammar can be used to check the type rules of a simple assignment statement. The syntax and static semantics of this assignment statement are as follows: The only variable names are A, B, and C. The right side of the assignments can be either a variable or an expression in the form of a variable added to another variable. The variables can be one of two types: int or real. When there are two variables on the right side of an assignment, they need not be the same type. The type of the expression when the operand types are not the same is always real. When they are the same, the expression type is that of the operands. The type of the left side of the assignment must match the type of the right side. So the types of operands in the right side can be mixed, but the assignment is valid only if the target and the value resulting from evaluating the right side have the same type. The attribute grammar specifies these static semantic rules.
The syntax portion of our example attribute grammar is → = → +
|
→ A | B | C

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The attributes for the nonterminals in the example attribute grammar are described in the following paragraphs:
• actual_type—A synthesized attribute associated with the nonterminals and . It is used to store the actual type, int or real, of a variable or expression. In the case of a variable, the actual type is intrinsic. In the case of an expression, it is determined from the actual types of the child node or children nodes of the nonterminal.
• expected_type—An inherited attribute associated with the nonterminal
. It is used to store the type, either int or real, that is expected for the expression, as determined by the type of the variable on the left side of the assignment statement.
The complete attribute grammar follows in Example 3.6.

EXAMPLE 3.6

An Attribute Grammar for Simple Assignment Statements
1. Syntax rule: → =
Semantic rule: .expected_type ← .actual_type
2. Syntax rule: → [2] + [3]
Semantic rule: .actual_type ← if ([2].actual_type = int) and
([3].actual_type = int) then int else real end if
Predicate:
.actual_type == .expected_type
3. Syntax rule: →
Semantic rule: .actual_type ← .actual_type
Predicate:
.actual_type == .expected_type
4. Syntax rule: → A | B | C
Semantic rule: .actual_type ← look-up(.string)
The look-up function looks up a given variable name in the symbol table and returns the variable’s type.

A parse tree of the sentence A = A + B generated by the grammar in
Example 3.6 is shown in Figure 3.6. As in the grammar, bracketed numbers are added after the repeated node labels in the tree so they can be referenced unambiguously. 3.4

Figure 3.6

Attribute Grammars

137

A parse tree for

A = A + B

A

3.4.6

[2]

=

A

[3]

+

B

Computing Attribute Values
Now, consider the process of computing the attribute values of a parse tree, which is sometimes called decorating the parse tree. If all attributes were inherited, this could proceed in a completely top-down order, from the root to the leaves. Alternatively, it could proceed in a completely bottomup order, from the leaves to the root, if all the attributes were synthesized.
Because our grammar has both synthesized and inherited attributes, the evaluation process cannot be in any single direction. The following is an evaluation of the attributes, in an order in which it is possible to compute them: 1. .actual_type ← look-up(A) (Rule 4)
2. .expected_type ← .actual_type (Rule 1)
3. [2].actual_type ← look-up(A) (Rule 4)
[3].actual_type ← look-up(B) (Rule 4)
4. .actual_type ← either int or real (Rule 2)
5. .expected_type == .actual_type is either
TRUE or FALSE (Rule 2)
The tree in Figure 3.7 shows the flow of attribute values in the example of
Figure 3.6. Solid lines are used for the parse tree; dashed lines show attribute flow in the tree.
The tree in Figure 3.8 shows the final attribute values on the nodes. In this example, A is defined as a real and B is defined as an int.
Determining attribute evaluation order for the general case of an attribute grammar is a complex problem, requiring the construction of a dependency graph to show all attribute dependencies.

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Figure 3.7

The flow of attributes in the tree expected_type actual_type

actual_type
[2]

actual_type

A

=

A

Figure 3.8

actual_type
[3]

+

B

A fully attributed parse tree

actual_type = real_type A

[3] actual_type = int_type [2] actual_type = real_type =

A

expected_type = real_type actual_type = real_type

+

B

3.4.7 Evaluation
Checking the static semantic rules of a language is an essential part of all compilers. Even if a compiler writer has never heard of an attribute grammar, he or she would need to use their fundamental ideas to design the checks of static semantics rules for his or her compiler.
One of the main difficulties in using an attribute grammar to describe all of the syntax and static semantics of a real contemporary programming language is the size and complexity of the attribute grammar. The large number of attributes and semantic rules required for a complete programming language make such grammars difficult to write and read. Furthermore, the attribute values on a large parse tree are costly to evaluate. On the other hand, less formal attribute

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139

grammars are a powerful and commonly used tool for compiler writers, who are more interested in the process of producing a compiler than they are in formalism. 3.5 Describing the Meanings of Programs: Dynamic Semantics
We now turn to the difficult task of describing the dynamic semantics, or meaning, of the expressions, statements, and program units of a programming language. Because of the power and naturalness of the available notation, describing syntax is a relatively simple matter. On the other hand, no universally accepted notation or approach has been devised for dynamic semantics.
In this section, we briefly describe several of the methods that have been developed. For the remainder of this section, when we use the term semantics, we mean dynamic semantics.
There are several different reasons underlying the need for a methodology and notation for describing semantics. Programmers obviously need to know precisely what the statements of a language do before they can use them effectively in their programs. Compiler writers must know exactly what language constructs mean to design implementations for them correctly. If there were a precise semantics specification of a programming language, programs written in the language potentially could be proven correct without testing. Also, compilers could be shown to produce programs that exhibited exactly the behavior given in the language definition; that is, their correctness could be verified. A complete specification of the syntax and semantics of a programming language could be used by a tool to generate a compiler for the language automatically.
Finally, language designers, who would develop the semantic descriptions of their languages, could in the process discover ambiguities and inconsistencies in their designs.
Software developers and compiler designers typically determine the semantics of programming languages by reading English explanations in language manuals. Because such explanations are often imprecise and incomplete, this approach is clearly unsatisfactory. Due to the lack of complete semantics specifications of programming languages, programs are rarely proven correct without testing, and commercial compilers are never generated automatically from language descriptions.
Scheme, a functional language described in Chapter 15, is one of only a few programming languages whose definition includes a formal semantics description. However, the method used is not one described in this chapter, as this chapter is focused on approaches that are suitable for imperative languages.

3.5.1 Operational Semantics
The idea behind operational semantics is to describe the meaning of a statement or program by specifying the effects of running it on a machine.
The effects on the machine are viewed as the sequence of changes in its

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state, where the machine’s state is the collection of the values in its storage.
An obvious operational semantics description, then, is given by executing a compiled version of the program on a computer. Most programmers have, on at least one occasion, written a small test program to determine the meaning of some programming language construct, often while learning the language.
Essentially, what such a programmer is doing is using operational semantics to determine the meaning of the construct.
There are several problems with using this approach for complete formal semantics descriptions. First, the individual steps in the execution of machine language and the resulting changes to the state of the machine are too small and too numerous. Second, the storage of a real computer is too large and complex.
There are usually several levels of memory devices, as well as connections to enumerable other computers and memory devices through networks. Therefore, machine languages and real computers are not used for formal operational semantics. Rather, intermediate-level languages and interpreters for idealized computers are designed specifically for the process.
There are different levels of uses of operational semantics. At the highest level, the interest is in the final result of the execution of a complete program.
This is sometimes called natural operational semantics. At the lowest level, operational semantics can be used to determine the precise meaning of a program through an examination of the complete sequence of state changes that occur when the program is executed. This use is sometimes called structural operational semantics.

3.5.1.1 The Basic Process
The first step in creating an operational semantics description of a language is to design an appropriate intermediate language, where the primary characteristic of the language is clarity. Every construct of the intermediate language must have an obvious and unambiguous meaning. This language is at the intermediate level, because machine language is too low-level to be easily understood and another high-level language is obviously not suitable. If the semantics description is to be used for natural operational semantics, a virtual machine (an interpreter) must be constructed for the intermediate language.
The virtual machine can be used to execute either single statements, code segments, or whole programs. The semantics description can be used without a virtual machine if the meaning of a single statement is all that is required. In this use, which is structural operational semantics, the intermediate code can be visually inspected.
The basic process of operational semantics is not unusual. In fact, the concept is frequently used in programming textbooks and programming language reference manuals. For example, the semantics of the C for construct can be described in terms of simpler statements, as in

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C Statement for (expr1; expr2; expr3) {
...
}

141

Meaning expr1; loop: if expr2 == 0 goto out
...
expr3; goto loop out: . . .

The human reader of such a description is the virtual computer and is assumed to be able to “execute” the instructions in the definition correctly and recognize the effects of the “execution.”
The intermediate language and its associated virtual machine used for formal operational semantics descriptions are often highly abstract. The intermediate language is meant to be convenient for the virtual machine, rather than for human readers. For our purposes, however, a more human-oriented intermediate language could be used. As such an example, consider the following list of statements, which would be adequate for describing the semantics of the simple control statements of a typical programming language: ident = var ident = ident + 1 ident = ident – 1 goto label if var relop var goto label
In these statements, relop is one of the relational operators from the set
{=, , >, =, , used in this definition connects the form of an operand with its associated case (or switch) construct. Dot notation is used to refer to the child nodes of a node. For example, . refers to the left child node of .
Me(, s) Δ= case of
=>Mdec(, s) =>if VARMAP(, s) == undef then error else VARMAP(, s) => if(Me(.,s) == undef OR
Me(., s) == undef) then error else if (. == '+') then Me(., s) +
Me(., s) else Me(., s) *
Me(., s)

3.5.2.4 Assignment Statements
An assignment statement is an expression evaluation plus the setting of the target variable to the expression’s value. In this case, the meaning function maps a state to a state. This function can be described with the following:
Ma(x = E, s) Δ= if Me(E, s) == error then error else sЈ = {, , . . . , }, where for j = 1, 2, . . . , n if ij == x then vj Ј = Me(E, s) else vj Ј = VARMAP(ij, s)
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3.5.2.5 Logical Pretest Loops
The denotational semantics of a logical pretest loop is deceptively simple.
To expedite the discussion, we assume that there are two other existing mapping functions, Msl and Mb, that map statement lists and states to states and Boolean expressions to Boolean values (or error), respectively. The function is
Ml(while B do L, s) Δ= if Mb(B, s) == undef then error else if Mb(B, s) == false then s else if Msl(L, s) == error then error else Ml(while B do L, Msl(L, s))
The meaning of the loop is simply the value of the program variables after the statements in the loop have been executed the prescribed number of times, assuming there have been no errors. In essence, the loop has been converted from iteration to recursion, where the recursion control is mathematically defined by other recursive state mapping functions. Recursion is easier to describe with mathematical rigor than iteration.
One significant observation at this point is that this definition, like actual program loops, may compute nothing because of nontermination.

3.5.2.6 Evaluation
Objects and functions, such as those used in the earlier constructs, can be defined for the other syntactic entities of programming languages. When a complete system has been defined for a given language, it can be used to determine the meaning of complete programs in that language. This provides a framework for thinking about programming in a highly rigorous way.
As stated previously, denotational semantics can be used as an aid to language design. For example, statements for which the denotational semantic description is complex and difficult may indicate to the designer that such statements may also be difficult for language users to understand and that an alternative design may be in order.
Because of the complexity of denotational descriptions, they are of little use to language users. On the other hand, they provide an excellent way to describe a language concisely.
Although the use of denotational semantics is normally attributed to Scott and Strachey (1971), the general denotational approach to language description can be traced to the nineteenth century (Frege, 1892).

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3.5.3 Axiomatic Semantics
Axiomatic semantics, thus named because it is based on mathematical logic, is the most abstract approach to semantics specification discussed in this chapter.
Rather than directly specifying the meaning of a program, axiomatic semantics specifies what can be proven about the program. Recall that one of the possible uses of semantic specifications is to prove the correctness of programs.
In axiomatic semantics, there is no model of the state of a machine or program or model of state changes that take place when the program is executed.
The meaning of a program is based on relationships among program variables and constants, which are the same for every execution of the program.
Axiomatic semantics has two distinct applications: program verification and program semantics specification. This section focuses on program verification in its description of axiomatic semantics.
Axiomatic semantics was defined in conjunction with the development of an approach to proving the correctness of programs. Such correctness proofs, when they can be constructed, show that a program performs the computation described by its specification. In a proof, each statement of a program is both preceded and followed by a logical expression that specifies constraints on program variables. These, rather than the entire state of an abstract machine (as with operational semantics), are used to specify the meaning of the statement.
The notation used to describe constraints—indeed, the language of axiomatic semantics—is predicate calculus. Although simple Boolean expressions are often adequate to express constraints, in some cases they are not.
When axiomatic semantics is used to specify formally the meaning of a statement, the meaning is defined by the statement’s effect on assertions about the data affected by the statement.

3.5.3.1 Assertions
The logical expressions used in axiomatic semantics are called predicates, or assertions. An assertion immediately preceding a program statement describes the constraints on the program variables at that point in the program. An assertion immediately following a statement describes the new constraints on those variables (and possibly others) after execution of the statement. These assertions are called the precondition and postcondition, respectively, of the statement. For two adjacent statements, the postcondition of the first serves as the precondition of the second. Developing an axiomatic description or proof of a given program requires that every statement in the program has both a precondition and a postcondition.
In the following sections, we examine assertions from the point of view that preconditions for statements are computed from given postconditions, although it is possible to consider these in the opposite sense. We assume all variables are integer type. As a simple example, consider the following assignment statement and postcondition: sum = 2 * x + 1 {sum > 1}

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Precondition and postcondition assertions are presented in braces to distinguish them from parts of program statements. One possible precondition for this statement is {x > 10}.
In axiomatic semantics, the meaning of a specific statement is defined by its precondition and its postcondition. In effect, the two assertions specify precisely the effect of executing the statement.
In the following subsections, we focus on correctness proofs of statements and programs, which is a common use of axiomatic semantics. The more general concept of axiomatic semantics is to state precisely the meaning of statements and programs in terms of logic expressions. Program verification is one application of axiomatic descriptions of languages.

3.5.3.2 Weakest Preconditions
The weakest precondition is the least restrictive precondition that will guarantee the validity of the associated postcondition. For example, in the statement and postcondition given in Section 3.5.3.1, {x > 10}, {x > 50}, and
{x > 1000} are all valid preconditions. The weakest of all preconditions in this case is {x > 0}.
If the weakest precondition can be computed from the most general postcondition for each of the statement types of a language, then the processes used to compute these preconditions provide a concise description of the semantics of that language. Furthermore, correctness proofs can be constructed for programs in that language. A program proof is begun by using the characteristics of the results of the program’s execution as the postcondition of the last statement of the program. This postcondition, along with the last statement, is used to compute the weakest precondition for the last statement.
This precondition is then used as the postcondition for the second last statement. This process continues until the beginning of the program is reached.
At that point, the precondition of the first statement states the conditions under which the program will compute the desired results. If these conditions are implied by the input specification of the program, the program has been verified to be correct.
An inference rule is a method of inferring the truth of one assertion on the basis of the values of other assertions. The general form of an inference rule is as follows:
S1, S2, c , Sn
S
This rule states that if S1, S2, . . . , and Sn are true, then the truth of S can be inferred. The top part of an inference rule is called its antecedent; the bottom part is called its consequent.
An axiom is a logical statement that is assumed to be true. Therefore, an axiom is an inference rule without an antecedent.
For some program statements, the computation of a weakest precondition from the statement and a postcondition is simple and can be specified by an

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axiom. In most cases, however, the weakest precondition can be specified only by an inference rule.
To use axiomatic semantics with a given programming language, whether for correctness proofs or for formal semantics specifications, either an axiom or an inference rule must exist for each kind of statement in the language. In the following subsections, we present an axiom for assignment statements and inference rules for statement sequences, selection statements, and logical pretest loop statements. Note that we assume that neither arithmetic nor Boolean expressions have side effects.

3.5.3.3 Assignment Statements
The precondition and postcondition of an assignment statement together define precisely its meaning. To define the meaning of an assignment statement, given a postcondition, there must be a way to compute its precondition from that postcondition.
Let x = E be a general assignment statement and Q be its postcondition.
Then, its precondition, P, is defined by the axiom
P = Qx S E which means that P is computed as Q with all instances of x replaced by E. For example, if we have the assignment statement and postcondition a = b / 2 - 1 {a < 10}

the weakest precondition is computed by substituting b / 2 - 1 for a in the postcondition {a < 10}, as follows: b / 2 - 1 < 10 b < 22

Thus, the weakest precondition for the given assignment statement and postcondition is {b < 22}. Remember that the assignment axiom is guaranteed to be correct only in the absence of side effects. An assignment statement has a side effect if it changes some variable other than its target.
The usual notation for specifying the axiomatic semantics of a given statement form is
{P}S{Q}

where P is the precondition, Q is the postcondition, and S is the statement form. In the case of the assignment statement, the notation is
{Qx S E} x = E{Q}

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As another example of computing a precondition for an assignment statement, consider the following: x = 2 * y - 3 {x > 25}

The precondition is computed as follows:
2 * y - 3 > 25 y > 14

So {y > 14} is the weakest precondition for this assignment statement and postcondition. Note that the appearance of the left side of the assignment statement in its right side does not affect the process of computing the weakest precondition.
For example, for x = x + y - 3 {x > 10}

the weakest precondition is x + y - 3 > 10 y > 13 - x

Recall that axiomatic semantics was developed to prove the correctness of programs. In light of that, it is natural at this point to wonder how the axiom for assignment statements can be used to prove anything. Here is how: A given assignment statement with both a precondition and a postcondition can be considered a logical statement, or theorem. If the assignment axiom, when applied to the postcondition and the assignment statement, produces the given precondition, the theorem is proved. For example, consider the logical statement
{x > 3} x = x - 3 {x > 0}

Using the assignment axiom on x = x - 3 {x > 0}

produces {x > 3}, which is the given precondition. Therefore, we have proven the example logical statement.
Next, consider the logical statement
{x > 5} x = x - 3 {x > 0}

In this case, the given precondition, {x > 5}, is not the same as the assertion produced by the axiom. However, it is obvious that {x > 5} implies {x > 3}.

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To use this in a proof, an inference rule, named the rule of consequence, is needed. The form of the rule of consequence is
{P} S {Q}, PЈ => P, Q => QЈ
{PЈ} S {QЈ}
The => symbol means “implies,” and S can be any program statement. The rule can be stated as follows: If the logical statement {P} S {Q} is true, the assertion
PЈ implies the assertion P, and the assertion Q implies the assertion QЈ, then it can be inferred that {PЈ} S {QЈ}. In other words, the rule of consequence says that a postcondition can always be weakened and a precondition can always be strengthened. This is quite useful in program proofs. For example, it allows the completion of the proof of the last logical statement example above. If we let P be {x > 3}, Q and QЈ be {x > 0}, and PЈ be {x > 5}, we have
{x>3}x = x–3{x>0}
,(x>5) => {x>3}
,(x>0) => (x>0)
{x>5}x = x–3{x>0}

The first term of the antecedent ({x > 3} x = x – 3 {x > 0}) was proven with the assignment axiom. The second and third terms are obvious. Therefore, by the rule of consequence, the consequent is true.

3.5.3.4 Sequences
The weakest precondition for a sequence of statements cannot be described by an axiom, because the precondition depends on the particular kinds of statements in the sequence. In this case, the precondition can only be described with an inference rule. Let S1 and S2 be adjacent program statements. If S1 and S2 have the following pre- and postconditions
{P1} S1 {P2}
{P2} S2 {P3} the inference rule for such a two-statement sequence is
{P1} S1 {P2}, {P2} S2 {P3}
{P1} S1, S2 {P3}
So, for our example, {P1} S1; S2 {P3} describes the axiomatic semantics of the sequence S1; S2. The inference rule states that to get the sequence precondition, the precondition of the second statement is computed. This new assertion is then used as the postcondition of the first statement, which can then be used to compute the precondition of the first statement, which is also the precondition of the whole sequence. If S1 and S2 are the assignment statements 3.5

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153

x1= E1 and x2= E2 then we have
{P3x2 S E2} x2= E2 {P3}
{(P3x2 S E2)x1 S E1} x1= E1 {P3x2 S E2}
Therefore, the weakest precondition for the sequence x1 = E1; x2 = E2 with postcondition P3 is {(P3x2 S E2)x1 S E1}.
For example, consider the following sequence and postcondition: y = 3 * x + 1; x = y + 3;
{x < 10}

The precondition for the second assignment statement is y < 7

which is used as the postcondition for the first statement. The precondition for the first assignment statement can now be computed:
3 * x + 1 < 7 x < 2

So, {x < 2} is the precondition of both the first statement and the twostatement sequence.

3.5.3.5 Selection
We next consider the inference rule for selection statements, the general form of which is if B then S1 else S2

We consider only selections that include else clauses. The inference rule is
{B and P} S1 {Q}, {(not B) and P} S2{Q}
{P} if B then S1 else S2 {Q}
This rule indicates that selection statements must be proven both when the
Boolean control expression is true and when it is false. The first logical statement above the line represents the then clause; the second represents the else

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clause. According to the inference rule, we need a precondition P that can be used in the precondition of both the then and else clauses.
Consider the following example of the computation of the precondition using the selection inference rule. The example selection statement is if x > 0 then y = y - 1 else y = y + 1

Suppose the postcondition, Q, for this selection statement is {y > 0}. We can use the axiom for assignment on the then clause y = y - 1 {y > 0}

his t or y

This produces {y - 1 > 0} or {y > 1}. It can be used as the P part of the precondition for the then clause. Now we apply the same axiom note to the else clause

A significant amount of work has been done on the possibility of using denotational language descriptions to generate compilers automatically (Jones,
1980; Milos et al., 1984;
Bodwin et al., 1982). These efforts have shown that the method is feasible, but the work has never progressed to the point where it can be used to generate useful compilers.

y = y + 1 {y > 0}

which produces the precondition {y + 1 > 0} or {y > -1}.
Because {y > 1} => {y > -1}, the rule of consequence allows us to use {y > 1} for the precondition of the whole selection statement.

3.5.3.6 Logical Pretest Loops

Another essential construct of imperative programming languages is the logical pretest, or while loop. Computing the weakest precondition for a while loop is inherently more difficult than for a sequence, because the number of iterations cannot always be predetermined. In a case where the number of iterations is known, the loop can be unrolled and treated as a sequence.
The problem of computing the weakest precondition for loops is similar to the problem of proving a theorem about all positive integers. In the latter case, induction is normally used, and the same inductive method can be used for some loops. The principal step in induction is finding an inductive hypothesis.
The corresponding step in the axiomatic semantics of a while loop is finding an assertion called a loop invariant, which is crucial to finding the weakest precondition. The inference rule for computing the precondition for a while loop is
{I and B} S {I}
{I} while B do S end {I and (not B)} where I is the loop invariant. This seems simple, but it is not. The complexity lies in finding an appropriate loop invariant.

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The axiomatic description of a while loop is written as
{P} while B do S end {Q}
The loop invariant must satisfy a number of requirements to be useful.
First, the weakest precondition for the while loop must guarantee the truth of the loop invariant. In turn, the loop invariant must guarantee the truth of the postcondition upon loop termination. These constraints move us from the inference rule to the axiomatic description. During execution of the loop, the truth of the loop invariant must be unaffected by the evaluation of the loopcontrolling Boolean expression and the loop body statements. Hence, the name invariant. Another complicating factor for while loops is the question of loop termination. A loop that does not terminate cannot be correct, and in fact computes nothing. If Q is the postcondition that holds immediately after loop exit, then a precondition P for the loop is one that guarantees Q at loop exit and also guarantees that the loop terminates.
The complete axiomatic description of a while construct requires all of the following to be true, in which I is the loop invariant:
P => I
{I and B} S {I}
(I and (not B)) => Q the loop terminates
If a loop computes a sequence of numeric values, it may be possible to find a loop invariant using an approach that is used for determining the inductive hypothesis when mathematical induction is used to prove a statement about a mathematical sequence. The relationship between the number of iterations and the precondition for the loop body is computed for a few cases, with the hope that a pattern emerges that will apply to the general case. It is helpful to treat the process of producing a weakest precondition as a function, wp. In general wp(statement, postcondition) = precondition
A wp function is often called a predicate transformer, because it takes a predicate, or assertion, as a parameter and returns another predicate.
To find I, the loop postcondition Q is used to compute preconditions for several different numbers of iterations of the loop body, starting with none. If the loop body contains a single assignment statement, the axiom for assignment statements can be used to compute these cases. Consider the example loop: while y x do y = y + 1 end {y = x}

Remember that the equal sign is being used for two different purposes here.
In assertions, it means mathematical equality; outside assertions, it means the assignment operator.

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For zero iterations, the weakest precondition is, obviously,
{y = x}

For one iteration, it is wp(y = y + 1, {y = x}) = {y + 1 = x}, or {y = x - 1}
For two iterations, it is wp(y = y + 1, {y = x - 1})={y + 1 = x - 1}, or {y = x - 2}
For three iterations, it is wp(y = y + 1, {y = x - 2})={y + 1 = x - 2}, or {y = x – 3}
It is now obvious that {y < x} will suffice for cases of one or more iterations.
Combining this with {y = x} for the zero iterations case, we get {y I. The second requirement is that it must be true that
{I and B} S {I}
In our example, we have
{y 1 do s = s / 2 end {s = 1}

can easily be proven, and this precondition is significantly broader than the one computed earlier. The loop and precondition are satisfied for any positive value for s, not just powers of 2, as the process indicates. Because of the rule of consequence, using a precondition that is stronger than the weakest precondition does not invalidate a proof.
Finding loop invariants is not always easy. It is helpful to understand the nature of these invariants. First, a loop invariant is a weakened version of the loop postcondition and also a precondition for the loop. So, I must be weak enough to be satisfied prior to the beginning of loop execution, but when combined with the loop exit condition, it must be strong enough to force the truth of the postcondition.

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Because of the difficulty of proving loop termination, that requirement is often ignored. If loop termination can be shown, the axiomatic description of the loop is called total correctness. If the other conditions can be met but termination is not guaranteed, it is called partial correctness.
In more complex loops, finding a suitable loop invariant, even for partial correctness, requires a good deal of ingenuity. Because computing the precondition for a while loop depends on finding a loop invariant, proving the correctness of programs with while loops using axiomatic semantics can be difficult. 3.5.3.7 Program Proofs
This section provides validations for two simple programs. The first example of a correctness proof is for a very short program, consisting of a sequence of three assignment statements that interchange the values of two variables.
{x = A AND y = B} t = x; x = y; y = t;
{x = B AND y = A}

Because the program consists entirely of assignment statements in a sequence, the assignment axiom and the inference rule for sequences can be used to prove its correctness. The first step is to use the assignment axiom on the last statement and the postcondition for the whole program. This yields the precondition
{x = B AND t = A}

Next, we use this new precondition as a postcondition on the middle statement and compute its precondition, which is
{y = B AND t = A}

Next, we use this new assertion as the postcondition on the first statement and apply the assignment axiom, which yields
{y = B AND x = A}

which is the same as the precondition on the program, except for the order of operands on the AND operator. Because AND is a symmetric operator, our proof is complete.
The following example is a proof of correctness of a pseudocode program that computes the factorial function.

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{n >= 0} count = n; fact = 1; while count 0 do fact = fact * count; count = count - 1; end {fact = n!}

The method described earlier for finding the loop invariant does not work for the loop in this example. Some ingenuity is required here, which can be aided by a brief study of the code. The loop computes the factorial function in order of the last multiplication first; that is, (n - 1) * n is done first, assuming n is greater than 1. So, part of the invariant can be fact = (count + 1) * (count + 2) * . . . * (n - 1) * n

But we must also ensure that count is always nonnegative, which we can do by adding that to the assertion above, to get
I = (fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count >= 0)

Next, we must confirm that this I meets the requirements for invariants.
Once again we let I also be used for P, so P clearly implies I. The next question is
{I and B} S {I}
I and B is
((fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count >= 0)) AND
(count 0)

which reduces to
(fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count > 0)

In our case, we must compute the precondition of the body of the loop, using the invariant for the postcondition. For
{P} count = count - 1 {I} we compute P to be
{(fact = count * (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND
(count >= 1)}

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Using this as the postcondition for the first assignment in the loop body,
{P} fact = fact * count {(fact = count * (count + 1)
* . . . * n) AND (count >= 1)}

In this case, P is
{(fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count >= 1)}

It is clear that I and B implies this P, so by the rule of consequence,
{I AND B} S {I} is true. Finally, the last test of I is
I AND (NOT B) => Q
For our example, this is
((fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count >= 0)) AND
(count = 0)) => fact = n!

This is clearly true, for when count = 0, the first part is precisely the definition of factorial. So, our choice of I meets the requirements for a loop invariant.
Now we can use our P (which is the same as I) from the while as the postcondition on the second assignment of the program
{P} fact = 1 {(fact = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND
(count >= 0)}

which yields for P
(1 = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND (count >= 0))

Using this as the postcondition for the first assignment in the code
{P} count = n {(1 = (count + 1) * . . . * n) AND
(count >= 0))}

produces for P
{(n + 1) * . . . * n = 1) AND (n >= 0)}

The left operand of the AND operator is true (because 1 = 1) and the right operand is exactly the precondition of the whole code segment, {n >= 0}.
Therefore, the program has been proven to be correct.

3.5.3.8 Evaluation
As stated previously, to define the semantics of a complete programming language using the axiomatic method, there must be an axiom or an inference rule for each statement type in the language. Defining axioms or inference rules for

Bibliographic Notes

161

some of the statements of programming languages has proven to be a difficult task. An obvious solution to this problem is to design the language with the axiomatic method in mind, so that only statements for which axioms or inference rules can be written are included. Unfortunately, such a language would necessarily leave out some useful and powerful parts.
Axiomatic semantics is a powerful tool for research into program correctness proofs, and it provides an excellent framework in which to reason about programs, both during their construction and later. Its usefulness in describing the meaning of programming languages to language users and compiler writers is, however, highly limited.

S U M M A R Y

Backus-Naur Form and context-free grammars are equivalent metalanguages that are well suited for the task of describing the syntax of programming languages. Not only are they concise descriptive tools, but also the parse trees that can be associated with their generative actions give graphical evidence of the underlying syntactic structures. Furthermore, they are naturally related to recognition devices for the languages they generate, which leads to the relatively easy construction of syntax analyzers for compilers for these languages.
An attribute grammar is a descriptive formalism that can describe both the syntax and static semantics of a language. Attribute grammars are extensions to context-free grammars. An attribute grammar consists of a grammar, a set of attributes, a set of attribute computation functions, and a set of predicates, which together describe static semantics rules.
This chapter provides a brief introduction to three methods of semantic description: operational, denotational, and axiomatic. Operational semantics is a method of describing the meaning of language constructs in terms of their effects on an ideal machine. In denotational semantics, mathematical objects are used to represent the meanings of language constructs. Language entities are converted to these mathematical objects with recursive functions. Axiomatic semantics, which is based on formal logic, was devised as a tool for proving the correctness of programs.

B I B L I O G R A P H I C

N O T E S

Syntax description using context-free grammars and BNF are thoroughly discussed in Cleaveland and Uzgalis (1976).
Research in axiomatic semantics was begun by Floyd (1967) and further developed by Hoare (1969). The semantics of a large part of Pascal was described by Hoare and Wirth (1973) using this method. The parts they did not complete involved functional side effects and goto statements. These were found to be the most difficult to describe.

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The technique of using preconditions and postconditions during the development of programs is described (and advocated) by Dijkstra (1976) and also discussed in detail in Gries (1981).
Good introductions to denotational semantics can be found in Gordon
(1979) and Stoy (1977). Introductions to all of the semantics description methods discussed in this chapter can be found in Marcotty et al. (1976). Another good reference for much of the chapter material is Pagan (1981). The form of the denotational semantic functions in this chapter is similar to that found in Meyer (1990).

R E V I E W

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Q U E S T I O N S

Define syntax and semantics.
Who are language descriptions for?
Describe the operation of a general language generator.
Describe the operation of a general language recognizer.
What is the difference between a sentence and a sentential form?
Define a left-recursive grammar rule.
What three extensions are common to most EBNFs?
Distinguish between static and dynamic semantics.
What purpose do predicates serve in an attribute grammar?
What is the difference between a synthesized and an inherited attribute?
How is the order of evaluation of attributes determined for the trees of a given attribute grammar?
What is the primary use of attribute grammars?
Explain the primary uses of a methodology and notation for describing the semantics of programming languages.
Why can machine languages not be used to define statements in operational semantics?
Describe the two levels of uses of operational semantics.
In denotational semantics, what are the syntactic and semantic domains?
What is stored in the state of a program for denotational semantics?
Which semantics approach is most widely known?
What two things must be defined for each language entity in order to construct a denotational description of the language?
Which part of an inference rule is the antecedent?
What is a predicate transformer function?
What does partial correctness mean for a loop construct?
On what branch of mathematics is axiomatic semantics based?
On what branch of mathematics is denotational semantics based?

Problem Set

163

25. What is the problem with using a software pure interpreter for operational semantics?
26. Explain what the preconditions and postconditions of a given statement mean in axiomatic semantics.
27. Describe the approach of using axiomatic semantics to prove the correctness of a given program.
28. Describe the basic concept of denotational semantics.
29. In what fundamental way do operational semantics and denotational semantics differ?

P R O B L E M

S E T

1. The two mathematical models of language description are generation and recognition. Describe how each can define the syntax of a programming language.
2. Write EBNF descriptions for the following:
a. A Java class definition header statement
b. A Java method call statement
c. A C switch statement
d. A C union definition
e. C float literals

3. Rewrite the BNF of Example 3.4 to give + precedence over * and force + to be right associative.
4. Rewrite the BNF of Example 3.4 to add the ++ and -- unary operators of Java.
5. Write a BNF description of the Boolean expressions of Java, including the three operators &&, ||, and ! and the relational expressions.
6. Using the grammar in Example 3.2, show a parse tree and a leftmost derivation for each of the following statements:
a. A = A * (B + (C * A))
b. B = C * (A * C + B)
c. A = A * (B + (C))

7. Using the grammar in Example 3.4, show a parse tree and a leftmost derivation for each of the following statements:
a. A = ( A + B ) * C
b. A = B + C + A
c. A = A * (B + C)
d. A = B * (C * (A + B))

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8. Prove that the following grammar is ambiguous: → → + | → a | b | c
9. Modify the grammar of Example 3.4 to add a unary minus operator that has higher precedence than either + or *.
10. Describe, in English, the language defined by the following grammar: → → a | a → b | b → c | c
11. Consider the following grammar: → a b → b | b → a | a
Which of the following sentences are in the language generated by this grammar? a. baab
b. bbbab
c. bbaaaaa
d. bbaab

12. Consider the following grammar: → a c | | b → c | c → d |
Which of the following sentences are in the language generated by this grammar? a. abcd
b. acccbd
c. acccbcc
d. acd
e. accc

13. Write a grammar for the language consisting of strings that have n copies of the letter a followed by the same number of copies of the letter b, where n > 0. For example, the strings ab, aaaabbbb, and aaaaaaaabbbbbbbb are in the language but a, abb, ba, and aaabb are not.
14. Draw parse trees for the sentences aabb and aaaabbbb, as derived from the grammar of Problem 13.

Problem Set

165

15. Convert the BNF of Example 3.1 to EBNF.
16. Convert the BNF of Example 3.3 to EBNF.
17. Convert the following EBNF to BNF:
S → A{bA}
A → a[b]A
18. What is the difference between an intrinsic attribute and a nonintrinsic synthesized attribute?
19. Write an attribute grammar whose BNF basis is that of Example 3.6 in
Section 3.4.5 but whose language rules are as follows: Data types cannot be mixed in expressions, but assignment statements need not have the same types on both sides of the assignment operator.
20. Write an attribute grammar whose base BNF is that of Example 3.2 and whose type rules are the same as for the assignment statement example of Section 3.4.5.
21. Using the virtual machine instructions given in Section 3.5.1.1, give an operational semantic definition of the following:
a. Java do-while
b. Ada for
c. C++ if-then-else
d. C for
e. C switch

22. Write a denotational semantics mapping function for the following statements: a. Ada for
b. Java do-while
c. Java Boolean expressions
d. Java for
e. C switch

23. Compute the weakest precondition for each of the following assignment statements and postconditions:
a. a = 2 * (b - 1) - 1 {a > 0}
b. b = (c + 10) / 3 {b > 6}
c. a = a + 2 * b - 1 {a > 1}
d. x = 2 * y + x - 1 {x > 11}

24. Compute the weakest precondition for each of the following sequences of assignment statements and their postconditions:
a. a = 2 * b + 1;

b = a - 3
{b < 0}

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b. a = 3 * (2 * b + a);

b = 2 * a - 1
{b > 5}
25. Compute the weakest precondition for each of the following selection constructs and their postconditions:
a. if (a == b)

b = 2 * a + 1 else b = 2 * a;
{b > 1}
b. if (x < y)

x = x + 1 else x = 3 * x
{x < 0}
c. if (x > y)

y = 2 * x + 1 else y = 3 * x - 1;
{y > 3}
26. Explain the four criteria for proving the correctness of a logical pretest loop construct of the form while B do S end
27. Prove that (n + 1) * c * n = 1
28. Prove the following program is correct:
{n > 0} count = n; sum = 0; while count 0 do sum = sum + count; count = count - 1; end {sum = 1 + 2 + . . . + n}

4
Lexical and Syntax
Analysis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lexical Analysis
4.3 The Parsing Problem
4.4 Recursive-Descent Parsing
4.5 Bottom-Up Parsing

167

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A

serious investigation of compiler design requires at least a semester of intensive study, including the design and implementation of a compiler for a small but realistic programming language. The first part of such a course is devoted to lexical and syntax analyses. The syntax analyzer is the heart of a compiler, because several other important components, including the semantic analyzer and the intermediate code generator, are driven by the actions of the syntax analyzer.
Some readers may wonder why a chapter on any part of a compiler would be included in a book on programming languages. There are at least two reasons to include a discussion of lexical and syntax analyses in this book: First, syntax analyzers are based directly on the grammars discussed in Chapter 3, so it is natural to discuss them as an application of grammars. Second, lexical and syntax analyzers are needed in numerous situations outside compiler design. Many applications, among them program listing formatters, programs that compute the complexity of programs, and programs that must analyze and react to the contents of a configuration file, all need to do lexical and syntax analyses. Therefore, lexical and syntax analyses are important topics for software developers, even if they never need to write a compiler. Furthermore, some computer science programs no longer require students to take a compiler design course, which leaves students with no instruction in lexical or syntax analysis.
In those cases, this chapter can be covered in the programming language course. In degree programs that require a compiler design course, this chapter can be skipped.
This chapter begins with an introduction to lexical analysis, along with a simple example. Next, the general parsing problem is discussed, including the two primary approaches to parsing and the complexity of parsing. Then, we introduce the recursivedescent implementation technique for top-down parsers, including examples of parts of a recursive-descent parser and a trace of a parse using one. The last section discusses bottom-up parsing and the LR parsing algorithm. This section includes an example of a small LR parsing table and the parse of a string using the LR parsing process.

4.1 Introduction
Three different approaches to implementing programming languages are introduced in Chapter 1: compilation, pure interpretation, and hybrid implementation. The compilation approach uses a program called a compiler, which translates programs written in a high-level programming language into machine code. Compilation is typically used to implement programming languages that are used for large applications, often written in languages such as
C++ and COBOL. Pure interpretation systems perform no translation; rather, programs are interpreted in their original form by a software interpreter. Pure interpretation is usually used for smaller systems in which execution efficiency is not critical, such as scripts embedded in HTML documents, written in languages such as JavaScript. Hybrid implementation systems translate programs written in high-level languages into intermediate forms, which are interpreted.
These systems are now more widely used than ever, thanks in large part to the popularity of scripting languages. Traditionally, hybrid systems have resulted in much slower program execution than compiler systems. However, in recent

4.2

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169

years the use of Just-in-Time ( JIT) compilers has become widespread, particularly for Java programs and programs written for the Microsoft .NET system.
A JIT compiler, which translates intermediate code to machine code, is used on methods at the time they are first called. In effect, a JIT compiler transforms a hybrid system to a delayed compiler system.
All three of the implementation approaches just discussed use both lexical and syntax analyzers.
Syntax analyzers, or parsers, are nearly always based on a formal description of the syntax of programs. The most commonly used syntax-description formalism is context-free grammars, or BNF, which is introduced in Chapter 3.
Using BNF, as opposed to using some informal syntax description, has at least three compelling advantages. First, BNF descriptions of the syntax of programs are clear and concise, both for humans and for software systems that use them.
Second, the BNF description can be used as the direct basis for the syntax analyzer. Third, implementations based on BNF are relatively easy to maintain because of their modularity.
Nearly all compilers separate the task of analyzing syntax into two distinct parts, named lexical analysis and syntax analysis, although this terminology is confusing. The lexical analyzer deals with small-scale language constructs, such as names and numeric literals. The syntax analyzer deals with the large-scale constructs, such as expressions, statements, and program units. Section 4.2 introduces lexical analyzers. Sections 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 discuss syntax analyzers.
There are three reasons why lexical analysis is separated from syntax analysis: 1. Simplicity—Techniques for lexical analysis are less complex than those required for syntax analysis, so the lexical-analysis process can be simpler if it is separate. Also, removing the low-level details of lexical analysis from the syntax analyzer makes the syntax analyzer both smaller and less complex.
2. Efficiency—Although it pays to optimize the lexical analyzer, because lexical analysis requires a significant portion of total compilation time, it is not fruitful to optimize the syntax analyzer. Separation facilitates this selective optimization.
3. Portability—Because the lexical analyzer reads input program files and often includes buffering of that input, it is somewhat platform dependent. However, the syntax analyzer can be platform independent.
It is always good to isolate machine-dependent parts of any software system. 4.2 Lexical Analysis
A lexical analyzer is essentially a pattern matcher. A pattern matcher attempts to find a substring of a given string of characters that matches a given character pattern. Pattern matching is a traditional part of computing. One of the earliest uses

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of pattern matching was with text editors, such as the ed line editor, which was introduced in an early version of UNIX. Since then, pattern matching has found its way into some programming languages—for example, Perl and JavaScript. It is also available through the standard class libraries of Java, C++, and C#.
A lexical analyzer serves as the front end of a syntax analyzer. Technically, lexical analysis is a part of syntax analysis. A lexical analyzer performs syntax analysis at the lowest level of program structure. An input program appears to a compiler as a single string of characters. The lexical analyzer collects characters into logical groupings and assigns internal codes to the groupings according to their structure. In Chapter 3, these logical groupings are named lexemes, and the internal codes for categories of these groupings are named tokens. Lexemes are recognized by matching the input character string against character string patterns. Although tokens are usually represented as integer values, for the sake of readability of lexical and syntax analyzers, they are often referenced through named constants.
Consider the following example of an assignment statement: result = oldsum – value / 100;

Following are the tokens and lexemes of this statement:
Token

Lexeme

IDENT
ASSIGN_OP
IDENT
SUB_OP
IDENT
DIV_OP
INT_LIT
SEMICOLON

result
=
oldsum value /
100
;

Lexical analyzers extract lexemes from a given input string and produce the corresponding tokens. In the early days of compilers, lexical analyzers often processed an entire source program file and produced a file of tokens and lexemes. Now, however, most lexical analyzers are subprograms that locate the next lexeme in the input, determine its associated token code, and return them to the caller, which is the syntax analyzer. So, each call to the lexical analyzer returns a single lexeme and its token. The only view of the input program seen by the syntax analyzer is the output of the lexical analyzer, one token at a time.
The lexical-analysis process includes skipping comments and white space outside lexemes, as they are not relevant to the meaning of the program. Also, the lexical analyzer inserts lexemes for user-defined names into the symbol table, which is used by later phases of the compiler. Finally, lexical analyzers detect syntactic errors in tokens, such as ill-formed floating-point literals, and report such errors to the user.

4.2

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171

There are three approaches to building a lexical analyzer:
1. Write a formal description of the token patterns of the language using a descriptive language related to regular expressions.1 These descriptions are used as input to a software tool that automatically generates a lexical analyzer. There are many such tools available for this. The oldest of these, named lex, is commonly included as part of UNIX systems.
2. Design a state transition diagram that describes the token patterns of the language and write a program that implements the diagram.
3. Design a state transition diagram that describes the token patterns of the language and hand-construct a table-driven implementation of the state diagram.
A state transition diagram, or just state diagram, is a directed graph. The nodes of a state diagram are labeled with state names. The arcs are labeled with the input characters that cause the transitions among the states. An arc may also include actions the lexical analyzer must perform when the transition is taken.
State diagrams of the form used for lexical analyzers are representations of a class of mathematical machines called finite automata. Finite automata can be designed to recognize members of a class of languages called regular languages. Regular grammars are generative devices for regular languages.
The tokens of a programming language are a regular language, and a lexical analyzer is a finite automaton.
We now illustrate lexical-analyzer construction with a state diagram and the code that implements it. The state diagram could simply include states and transitions for each and every token pattern. However, that approach results in a very large and complex diagram, because every node in the state diagram would need a transition for every character in the character set of the language being analyzed. We therefore consider ways to simplify it.
Suppose we need a lexical analyzer that recognizes only arithmetic expressions, including variable names and integer literals as operands. Assume that the variable names consist of strings of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and digits but must begin with a letter. Names have no length limitation. The first thing to observe is that there are 52 different characters (any uppercase or lowercase letter) that can begin a name, which would require 52 transitions from the transition diagram’s initial state. However, a lexical analyzer is interested only in determining that it is a name and is not concerned with which specific name it happens to be. Therefore, we define a character class named LETTER for all 52 letters and use a single transition on the first letter of any name.
Another opportunity for simplifying the transition diagram is with the integer literal tokens. There are 10 different characters that could begin an integer literal lexeme. This would require 10 transitions from the start state of the state diagram. Because specific digits are not a concern of the lexical analyzer, we can build a much more compact state diagram if we define a character
1. These regular expressions are the basis for the pattern-matching facilities now part of many programming languages, either directly or through a class library.

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class named DIGIT for digits and use a single transition on any character in this character class to a state that collects integer literals.
Because our names can include digits, the transition from the node following the first character of a name can use a single transition on LETTER or
DIGIT to continue collecting the characters of a name.
Next, we define some utility subprograms for the common tasks inside the lexical analyzer. First, we need a subprogram, which we can name getChar, that has several duties. When called, getChar gets the next character of input from the input program and puts it in the global variable nextChar. getChar must also determine the character class of the input character and put it in the global variable charClass. The lexeme being built by the lexical analyzer, which could be implemented as a character string or an array, will be named lexeme.
We implement the process of putting the character in nextChar into the string array lexeme in a subprogram named addChar. This subprogram must be explicitly called because programs include some characters that need not be put in lexeme, for example the white-space characters between lexemes. In a more realistic lexical analyzer, comments also would not be placed in lexeme.
When the lexical analyzer is called, it is convenient if the next character of input is the first character of the next lexeme. Because of this, a function named getNonBlank is used to skip white space every time the analyzer is called.
Finally, a subprogram named lookup is needed to compute the token code for the single-character tokens. In our example, these are parentheses and the arithmetic operators. Token codes are numbers arbitrarily assigned to tokens by the compiler writer.
The state diagram in Figure 4.1 describes the patterns for our tokens. It includes the actions required on each transition of the state diagram.
The following is a C implementation of a lexical analyzer specified in the state diagram of Figure 4.1, including a main driver function for testing purposes: /* front.c - a lexical analyzer system for simple arithmetic expressions */
#include
#include
/* Global declarations */
/* Variables */ int charClass; char lexeme [100]; char nextChar; int lexLen; int token; int nextToken;
FILE *in_fp, *fopen();

4.2

Figure 4.1

173

Lexical Analysis

Letter/Digit

A state diagram to recognize names, parentheses, and arithmetic operators

addChar; getChar

Letter
Start

id

addChar; getChar

Digit int addChar; getChar

return lookup (lexeme)

return Int_Lit

Digit addChar; getChar

t←lookup (nextChar) unknown getChar

Done return t

/* Function declarations */ void addChar(); void getChar(); void getNonBlank(); int lex();
/* Character classes */
#define LETTER 0
#define DIGIT 1
#define UNKNOWN 99
/* Token codes */
#define INT_LIT 10
#define IDENT 11
#define ASSIGN_OP 20
#define ADD_OP 21
#define SUB_OP 22
#define MULT_OP 23
#define DIV_OP 24
#define LEFT_PAREN 25
#define RIGHT_PAREN 26

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/******************************************************/
/* main driver */ main() {
/* Open the input data file and process its contents */ if ((in_fp = fopen("front.in", "r")) == NULL) printf("ERROR - cannot open front.in \n"); else { getChar(); do { lex(); } while (nextToken != EOF);
}
}

/*****************************************************/
/* lookup - a function to lookup operators and parentheses and return the token */ int lookup(char ch) { switch (ch) { case '(': addChar(); nextToken = LEFT_PAREN; break; case ')': addChar(); nextToken = RIGHT_PAREN; break; case '+': addChar(); nextToken = ADD_OP; break; case '-': addChar(); nextToken = SUB_OP; break; case '*': addChar(); nextToken = MULT_OP; break; 4.2

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175

case '/': addChar(); nextToken = DIV_OP; break; default: addChar(); nextToken = EOF; break; } return nextToken;
}
/*****************************************************/
/* addChar - a function to add nextChar to lexeme */ void addChar() { if (lexLen aAc => aaAc => aabc
A bottom-up parser of this sentence, aabc, starts with the sentence and must find the handle in it. In this example, this is an easy task, for the string contains only one RHS, b. When the parser replaces b with its LHS, A, it gets the second to last sentential form in the derivation, aaAc. In the general case, as stated previously, finding the handle is much more difficult, because a sentential form may include several different RHSs.
A bottom-up parser finds the handle of a given right sentential form by examining the symbols on one or both sides of a possible handle. Symbols to the right of the possible handle are usually tokens in the input that have not yet been analyzed.
The most common bottom-up parsing algorithms are in the LR family, where the L specifies a left-to-right scan of the input and the R specifies that a rightmost derivation is generated.

4.3.4

The Complexity of Parsing
Parsing algorithms that work for any unambiguous grammar are complicated and inefficient. In fact, the complexity of such algorithms is O(n3), which means the amount of time they take is on the order of the cube of the length of the string to be parsed. This relatively large amount of time is required because these algorithms frequently must back up and reparse part of the sentence being analyzed. Reparsing is required when the parser has made a mistake in
2. A right sentential form is a sentential form that appears in a rightmost derivation.

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181

the parsing process. Backing up the parser also requires that part of the parse tree being constructed (or its trace) must be dismantled and rebuilt. O(n3) algorithms are normally not useful for practical processes, such as syntax analysis for a compiler, because they are far too slow. In situations such as this, computer scientists often search for algorithms that are faster, though less general. Generality is traded for efficiency. In terms of parsing, faster algorithms have been found that work for only a subset of the set of all possible grammars. These algorithms are acceptable as long as the subset includes grammars that describe programming languages. (Actually, as discussed in Chapter 3, the whole class of context-free grammars is not adequate to describe all of the syntax of most programming languages.)
All algorithms used for the syntax analyzers of commercial compilers have complexity O(n), which means the time they take is linearly related to the length of the string to be parsed. This is vastly more efficient than O(n3) algorithms. 4.4 Recursive-Descent Parsing
This section introduces the recursive-descent top-down parser implementation process.

4.4.1

The Recursive-Descent Parsing Process
A recursive-descent parser is so named because it consists of a collection of subprograms, many of which are recursive, and it produces a parse tree in top-down order. This recursion is a reflection of the nature of programming languages, which include several different kinds of nested structures. For example, statements are often nested in other statements. Also, parentheses in expressions must be properly nested. The syntax of these structures is naturally described with recursive grammar rules.
EBNF is ideally suited for recursive-descent parsers. Recall from Chapter
3 that the primary EBNF extensions are braces, which specify that what they enclose can appear zero or more times, and brackets, which specify that what they enclose can appear once or not at all. Note that in both cases, the enclosed symbols are optional. Consider the following examples: → if [else ] → ident {, ident}
In the first rule, the else clause of an if statement is optional. In the second, an is an identifier, followed by zero or more repetitions of a comma and an identifier.
A recursive-descent parser has a subprogram for each nonterminal in its associated grammar. The responsibility of the subprogram associated with a particular nonterminal is as follows: When given an input string, it traces

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out the parse tree that can be rooted at that nonterminal and whose leaves match the input string. In effect, a recursive-descent parsing subprogram is a parser for the language (set of strings) that is generated by its associated nonterminal. Consider the following EBNF description of simple arithmetic expressions: → {(+ | -) } → {(* | /) } → id | int_constant | ( )
Recall from Chapter 3 that an EBNF grammar for arithmetic expressions, such as this one, does not force any associativity rule. Therefore, when using such a grammar as the basis for a compiler, one must take care to ensure that the code generation process, which is normally driven by syntax analysis, produces code that adheres to the associativity rules of the language. This can easily be done when recursive-descent parsing is used.
In the following recursive-descent function, expr, the lexical analyzer is the function that is implemented in Section 4.2. It gets the next lexeme and puts its token code in the global variable nextToken. The token codes are defined as named constants, as in Section 4.2.
A recursive-descent subprogram for a rule with a single RHS is relatively simple. For each terminal symbol in the RHS, that terminal symbol is compared with nextToken. If they do not match, it is a syntax error. If they match, the lexical analyzer is called to get the next input token. For each nonterminal, the parsing subprogram for that nonterminal is called.
The recursive-descent subprogram for the first rule in the previous example grammar, written in C, is
/* expr
Parses strings in the language generated by the rule: -> {(+ | -) }
*/
void expr() { printf("Enter \n");
/* Parse the first term */ term(); /* As long as the next token is + or -, get the next token and parse the next term */ while (nextToken == ADD_OP || nextToken == SUB_OP) { lex(); term();
}
printf("Exit \n");
} /* End of function expr */

4.4

Recursive-Descent Parsing

183

Notice that the expr function includes tracing output statements, which are included to produce the example output shown later in this section.
Recursive-descent parsing subprograms are written with the convention that each one leaves the next token of input in nextToken. So, whenever a parsing function begins, it assumes that nextToken has the code for the leftmost token of the input that has not yet been used in the parsing process.
The part of the language that the expr function parses consists of one or more terms, separated by either plus or minus operators. This is the language generated by the nonterminal . Therefore, first it calls the function that parses terms (term). Then it continues to call that function as long as it finds ADD_OP or SUB_OP tokens (which it passes over by calling lex). This recursive-descent function is simpler than most, because its associated rule has only one RHS. Furthermore, it does not include any code for syntax error detection or recovery, because there are no detectable errors associated with the grammar rule.
A recursive-descent parsing subprogram for a nonterminal whose rule has more than one RHS begins with code to determine which RHS is to be parsed.
Each RHS is examined (at compiler construction time) to determine the set of terminal symbols that can appear at the beginning of sentences it can generate.
By matching these sets against the next token of input, the parser can choose the correct RHS.
The parsing subprogram for is similar to that for :
/* term
Parses strings in the language generated by the rule: -> {(* | /) )
*/
void term() { printf("Enter \n");
/* Parse the first factor */ factor(); /* As long as the next token is * or /, get the next token and parse the next factor */ while (nextToken == MULT_OP || nextToken == DIV_OP) { lex(); factor();
}
printf("Exit \n");
} /* End of function term */

The function for the nonterminal of our arithmetic expression grammar must choose between its two RHSs. It also includes error detection.
In the function for , the reaction to detecting a syntax error is simply to call the error function. In a real parser, a diagnostic message must be

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produced when an error is detected. Furthermore, parsers must recover from the error so that the parsing process can continue.
/* factor
Parses strings in the language generated by the rule: -> id | int_constant | ( if ()
[else ]
*/
void ifstmt() {
/* Be sure the first token is 'if' */ if (nextToken != IF_CODE) error(); else {
/* Call lex to get to the next token */ lex(); /* Check for the left parenthesis */ if (nextToken != LEFT_PAREN) error(); else {
/* Call boolexpr to parse the Boolean expression */ boolexpr(); /* Check for the right parenthesis */ if (nextToken != RIGHT_PAREN) error(); else {
/* Call statement to parse the then clause */ statement(); /* If an else is next, parse the else clause */ if (nextToken == ELSE_CODE) {
/* Call lex to get over the else */ lex(); statement();
} /* end of if (nextToken == ELSE_CODE ... */
} /* end of else of if (nextToken != RIGHT ... */
} /* end of else of if (nextToken != LEFT ... */
} /* end of else of if (nextToken != IF_CODE ... */
} /* end of ifstmt */

Notice that this function uses parser functions for statements and Boolean expressions, which are not given in this section.
The objective of these examples is to convince you that a recursive-descent parser can be easily written if an appropriate grammar is available for the

4.4

Recursive-Descent Parsing

187

language. The characteristics of a grammar that allows a recursive-descent parser to be built are discussed in the following subsection.

4.4.2

The LL Grammar Class
Before choosing to use recursive descent as a parsing strategy for a compiler or other program analysis tool, one must consider the limitations of the approach, in terms of grammar restrictions. This section discusses these restrictions and their possible solutions.
One simple grammar characteristic that causes a catastrophic problem for
LL parsers is left recursion. For example, consider the following rule:
A→A + B
A recursive-descent parser subprogram for A immediately calls itself to parse the first symbol in its RHS. That activation of the A parser subprogram then immediately calls itself again, and again, and so forth. It is easy to see that this leads nowhere (except to a stack overflow).
The left recursion in the rule A → A + B is called direct left recursion, because it occurs in one rule. Direct left recursion can be eliminated from a grammar by the following process:
For each nonterminal, A,
1. Group the A-rules as A → A␣1, ͉ c ͉ A␣m ͉ ␤1 ͉ ␤2 ͉ c ͉ ␤n where none of the ␤>s begins with A
2. Replace the original A-rules with
A → ␤1AЈ ͉ ␤2AЈ ͉ c ͉ ␤nAЈ
AЈ → ␣1AЈ ͉ ␣2AЈ ͉ ␣mAЈ͉ ␧
Note that ␧ specifies the empty string. A rule that has ␧ as its RHS is called an erasure rule, because its use in a derivation effectively erases its LHS from the sentential form.
Consider the following example grammar and the application of the above process:
E→E + T ͉ T
T→T * F ͉ F
F → (E) ͉ id
For the E-rules, we have ␣1 = + T and ␤ = T, so we replace the E-rules with
E → T EЈ
EЈ → + T EЈ ͉ ␧
For the T-rules, we have ␣1 = * F and ␤ = F, so we replace the T-rules with
T → F TЈ
TЈ → * F TЈ ͉ ␧

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Because there is no left recursion in the F-rules, they remain the same, so the complete replacement grammar is
E → T EЈ
EЈ → + T EЈ ͉ ␧
T → F TЈ
TЈ → * F TЈ ͉ ␧
F → (E) ͉ id
This grammar generates the same language as the original grammar but is not left recursive.
As was the case with the expression grammar written using EBNF in
Section 4.4.1, this grammar does not specify left associativity of operators.
However, it is relatively easy to design the code generation based on this grammar so that the addition and multiplication operators will have left associativity. Indirect left recursion poses the same problem as direct left recursion. For example, suppose we have
A→BaA
B→Ab
A recursive-descent parser for these rules would have the A subprogram immediately call the subprogram for B, which immediately calls the A subprogram.
So, the problem is the same as for direct left recursion. The problem of left recursion is not confined to the recursive-descent approach to building topdown parsers. It is a problem for all top-down parsing algorithms. Fortunately, left recursion is not a problem for bottom-up parsing algorithms.
There is an algorithm to modify a given grammar to remove indirect left recursion (Aho et al., 2006), but it is not covered here. When writing a grammar for a programming language, one can usually avoid including left recursion, both direct and indirect.
Left recursion is not the only grammar trait that disallows top-down parsing. Another is whether the parser can always choose the correct RHS on the basis of the next token of input, using only the first token generated by the leftmost nonterminal in the current sentential form. There is a relatively simple test of a non–left recursive grammar that indicates whether this can be done, called the pairwise disjointness test. This test requires the ability to compute a set based on the RHSs of a given nonterminal symbol in a grammar. These sets, which are called FIRST, are defined as
FIRST(␣) = {a ͉ ␣ => * a␤} (If ␣ => * ␧, ␧ is in FIRST(␣)) in which =>* means 0 or more derivation steps.
An algorithm to compute FIRST for any mixed string ␣ can be found in
Aho et al. (2006). For our purposes, FIRST can usually be computed by inspection of the grammar.

4.4

Recursive-Descent Parsing

189

The pairwise disjointness test is as follows:
For each nonterminal, A, in the grammar that has more than one RHS, for each pair of rules, A → ␣i and A → ␣j, it must be true that
FIRST(␣i) x FIRST(␣j) = ␾
(The intersection of the two sets, FIRST(␣i) and FIRST(␣j), must be empty.) In other words, if a nonterminal A has more than one RHS, the first terminal symbol that can be generated in a derivation for each of them must be unique to that RHS. Consider the following rules:
A → aB ͉ bAb ͉ Bb
B → cB ͉ d
The FIRST sets for the RHSs of the A-rules are {a}, {b}, and {c, d}, which are clearly disjoint. Therefore, these rules pass the pairwise disjointness test.
What this means, in terms of a recursive-descent parser, is that the code of the subprogram for parsing the nonterminal A can choose which RHS it is dealing with by seeing only the first terminal symbol of input (token) that is generated by the nonterminal. Now consider the rules
A → aB ͉ BAb
B → aB ͉ b
The FIRST sets for the RHSs in the A-rules are {a} and {a, b}, which are clearly not disjoint. So, these rules fail the pairwise disjointness test. In terms of the parser, the subprogram for A could not determine which RHS was being parsed by looking at the next symbol of input, because if it were an a, it could be either RHS. This issue is of course more complex if one or more of the RHSs begin with nonterminals.
In many cases, a grammar that fails the pairwise disjointness test can be modified so that it will pass the test. For example, consider the rule → identifier ͉ identifier []
This states that a is either an identifier or an identifier followed by an expression in brackets (a subscript). These rules clearly do not pass the pairwise disjointness test, because both RHSs begin with the same terminal, identifier. This problem can be alleviated through a process called left factoring.
We now take an informal look at left factoring. Consider our rules for
. Both RHSs begin with identifier. The parts that follow identifier in the two RHSs are ␧ (the empty string) and []. The two rules can be replaced by the following two rules: → identifier → ␧ ͉ []

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It is not difficult to see that together, these two rules generate the same language as the two rules with which we began. However, these two pass the pairwise disjointness test.
If the grammar is being used as the basis for a recursive-descent parser, an alternative to left factoring is available. With an EBNF extension, the problem disappears in a way that is very similar to the left factoring solution. Consider the original rules above for . The subscript can be made optional by placing it in square brackets, as in → identifier [ [ E + T
=> E + T * F
=> E + T * id
=> E + F * id
=> E + id * id
=> T + id * id
=> F + id * id
=> id + id * id

4.5

Bottom-Up Parsing

191

The underlined part of each sentential form in this derivation is the RHS that is rewritten as its corresponding LHS to get the previous sentential form. The process of bottom-up parsing produces the reverse of a rightmost derivation.
So, in the example derivation, a bottom-up parser starts with the last sentential form (the input sentence) and produces the sequence of sentential forms from there until all that remains is the start symbol, which in this grammar is E. In each step, the task of the bottom-up parser is to find the specific RHS, the handle, in the sentential form that must be rewritten to get the next (previous) sentential form. As mentioned earlier, a right sentential form may include more than one RHS. For example, the right sentential form
E + T * id includes three RHSs, E + T, T, and id. Only one of these is the handle. For example, if the RHS E + T were chosen to be rewritten in this sentential form, the resulting sentential form would be E * id, but E * id is not a legal right sentential form for the given grammar.
The handle of a right sentential form is unique. The task of a bottom-up parser is to find the handle of any given right sentential form that can be generated by its associated grammar. Formally, handle is defined as follows:
Definition: ␤ is the handle of the right sentential form ␥ = ␣␤w if and only if S =7 *rm ␣Aw =7 rm ␣␤w
In this definition, =7 rm specifies a rightmost derivation step, and =7 *rm specifies zero or more rightmost derivation steps. Although the definition of a handle is mathematically concise, it provides little help in finding the handle of a given right sentential form. In the following, we provide the definitions of several substrings of sentential forms that are related to handles. The purpose of these is to provide some intuition about handles.
Definition: ␤ is a phrase of the right sentential form ␥ if and only if
S =7 * ␥ = ␣1A␣2 =7 + ␣1␤␣2
In this definition, =>+ means one or more derivation steps.
Definition: ␤ is a simple phrase of the right sentential form ␥ if and only if S =7 * ␥ = ␣1A␣2 =7 ␣1␤␣2
If these two definitions are compared carefully, it is clear that they differ only in the last derivation specification. The definition of phrase uses one or more steps, while the definition of simple phrase uses exactly one step.
The definitions of phrase and simple phrase may appear to have the same lack of practical value as that of a handle, but that is not true. Consider what a phrase is relative to a parse tree. It is the string of all of the leaves of the partial parse tree that is rooted at one particular internal node of the whole parse tree. A simple phrase is just a phrase that takes a single derivation step from its

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root nonterminal node. In terms of a parse tree, a phrase can be derived from a single nonterminal in one or more tree levels, but a simple phrase can be derived in just a single tree level. Consider the parse tree shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3

E

A parse tree for
E + T * id

T

F

E

+

T

*

id

The leaves of the parse tree in Figure 4.3 comprise the sentential form
E + T * id. Because there are three internal nodes, there are three phrases.
Each internal node is the root of a subtree, whose leaves are a phrase. The root node of the whole parse tree, E, generates all of the resulting sentential form,
E + T * id, which is a phrase. The internal node, T, generates the leaves T * id, which is another phrase. Finally, the internal node, F, generates id, which is also a phrase. So, the phrases of the sentential form E + T * id are E + T * id, T * id, and id. Notice that phrases are not necessarily RHSs in the underlying grammar.
The simple phrases are a subset of the phrases. In the previous example, the only simple phrase is id. A simple phrase is always an RHS in the grammar.
The reason for discussing phrases and simple phrases is this: The handle of any rightmost sentential form is its leftmost simple phrase. So now we have a highly intuitive way to find the handle of any right sentential form, assuming we have the grammar and can draw a parse tree. This approach to finding handles is of course not practical for a parser. (If you already have a parse tree, why do you need a parser?) Its only purpose is to provide the reader with some intuitive feel for what a handle is, relative to a parse tree, which is easier than trying to think about handles in terms of sentential forms.
We can now consider bottom-up parsing in terms of parse trees, although the purpose of a parser is to produce a parse tree. Given the parse tree for an entire sentence, you easily can find the handle, which is the first thing to rewrite in the sentence to get the previous sentential form. Then the handle can be pruned from the parse tree and the process repeated. Continuing to the root of the parse tree, the entire rightmost derivation can be constructed.

4.5.2

Shift-Reduce Algorithms
Bottom-up parsers are often called shift-reduce algorithms, because shift and reduce are the two most common actions they specify. An integral part of every bottom-up parser is a stack. As with other parsers, the input to a

4.5

Bottom-Up Parsing

193

bottom-up parser is the stream of tokens of a program and the output is a sequence of grammar rules. The shift action moves the next input token onto the parser’s stack. A reduce action replaces an RHS (the handle) on top of the parser’s stack by its corresponding LHS. Every parser for a programming language is a pushdown automaton (PDA), because a PDA is a recognizer for a context-free language. You need not be intimate with PDAs to understand how a bottom-up parser works, although it helps. A PDA is a very simple mathematical machine that scans strings of symbols from left to right. A PDA is so named because it uses a pushdown stack as its memory. PDAs can be used as recognizers for context-free languages. Given a string of symbols over the alphabet of a context-free language, a PDA that is designed for the purpose can determine whether the string is or is not a sentence in the language. In the process, the PDA can produce the information needed to construct a parse tree for the sentence.
With a PDA, the input string is examined, one symbol at a time, left to right. The input is treated very much as if it were stored in another stack, because the PDA never sees more than the leftmost symbol of the input.
Note that a recursive-descent parser is also a PDA. In that case, the stack is that of the run-time system, which records subprogram calls (among other things), which correspond to the nonterminals of the grammar.

4.5.3

LR Parsers
Many different bottom-up parsing algorithms have been devised. Most of them are variations of a process called LR. LR parsers use a relatively small program and a parsing table that is built for a specific programming language. The original LR algorithm was designed by Donald Knuth (Knuth,
1965). This algorithm, which is sometimes called canonical LR, was not used in the years immediately following its publication because producing the required parsing table required large amounts of computer time and memory. Subsequently, several variations on the canonical LR table construction process were developed (DeRemer, 1971; DeRemer and Pennello,
1982). These are characterized by two properties: (1) They require far less computer resources to produce the required parsing table than the canonical LR algorithm, and (2) they work on smaller classes of grammars than the canonical LR algorithm.
There are three advantages to LR parsers:
1. They can be built for all programming languages.
2. They can detect syntax errors as soon as it is possible in a left-to-right scan. 3. The LR class of grammars is a proper superset of the class parsable by
LL parsers (for example, many left recursive grammars are LR, but none are LL).
The only disadvantage of LR parsing is that it is difficult to produce by hand the parsing table for a given grammar for a complete programming language.

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This is not a serious disadvantage, however, for there are several programs available that take a grammar as input and produce the parsing table, as discussed later in this section.
Prior to the appearance of the LR parsing algorithm, there were a number of parsing algorithms that found handles of right sentential forms by looking both to the left and to the right of the substring of the sentential form that was suspected of being the handle. Knuth’s insight was that one could effectively look to the left of the suspected handle all the way to the bottom of the parse stack to determine whether it was the handle. But all of the information in the parse stack that was relevant to the parsing process could be represented by a single state, which could be stored on the top of the stack. In other words,
Knuth discovered that regardless of the length of the input string, the length of the sentential form, or the depth of the parse stack, there were only a relatively small number of different situations, as far as the parsing process is concerned.
Each situation could be represented by a state and stored in the parse stack, one state symbol for each grammar symbol on the stack. At the top of the stack would always be a state symbol, which represented the relevant information from the entire history of the parse, up to the current time. We will use subscripted uppercase S’s to represent the parser states.
Figure 4.4 shows the structure of an LR parser. The contents of the parse stack for an LR parser have the following form:
S 0X1S 1X2 c XmS m (top) where the S’s are state symbols and the X’s are grammar symbols. An LR parser configuration is a pair of strings (stack, input), with the detailed form
(S 0X1S 1X2S 2 c XmS m, a ia i + 1 c a n$)
Figure 4.4

Top
Input

Parse Stack
The structure of an LR parser S0 X1 S1

ai ai+1

Xm Sm

Parser
Code

an

$

Parsing
Table

Notice that the input string has a dollar sign at its right end. This sign is put there during initialization of the parser. It is used for normal termination of the parser. Using this parser configuration, we can formally define the LR parser process, which is based on the parsing table.

4.5

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195

An LR parsing table has two parts, named ACTION and GOTO. The
ACTION part of the table specifies most of what the parser does. It has state symbols as its row labels and the terminal symbols of the grammar as its column labels. Given a current parser state, which is represented by the state symbol on top of the parse stack, and the next symbol (token) of input, the parse table specifies what the parser should do. The two primary parser actions are shift and reduce. Either the parser shifts the next input symbol onto the parse stack or it already has the handle on top of the stack, which it reduces to the LHS of the rule whose RHS is the same as the handle. Two other actions are possible: accept, which means the parser has successfully completed the parse of the input, and error, which means the parser has detected a syntax error. The rows of the GOTO part of the LR parsing table have state symbols as labels. This part of the table has nonterminals as column labels. The values in the GOTO part of the table indicate which state symbol should be pushed onto the parse stack after a reduction has been completed, which means the handle has been removed from the parse stack and the new nonterminal has been pushed onto the parse stack. The specific symbol is found at the row whose label is the state symbol on top of the parse stack after the handle and its associated state symbols have been removed. The column of the GOTO table that is used is the one with the label that is the LHS of the rule used in the reduction.
Consider the traditional grammar for arithmetic expressions that follows:
1. E → E + T
2.
3.
4.
5.

E→T
T→T*F
T→F
F → (E)

6. F → id
The rules of this grammar are numbered to provide a simple way to reference them in a parsing table.
Figure 4.5 shows the LR parsing table for this grammar. Abbreviations are used for the actions: R for reduce and S for shift. R4 means reduce using rule 4;
S6 means shift the next symbol of input onto the stack and push state S6 onto the stack. Empty positions in the ACTION table indicate syntax errors. In a complete parser, these could have calls to error-handling routines.
LR parsing tables can easily be constructed using a software tool, such as yacc ( Johnson, 1975), which takes the grammar as input. Although LR parsing tables can be produced by hand, for a grammar of a real programming language, the task would be lengthy, tedious, and error prone. For real compilers,
LR parsing tables are always generated with software tools.
The initial configuration of an LR parser is
(S 0, a 1 c a n$)

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Figure 4.5
The LR parsing table for an arithmetic expression grammar

Action
State

id

0

+

*

S5

Goto
(

)

$

2

R2

S7

R2

R4

R4

R4

3

2

3

3

R2

3

2

9

S6

F

8

1

T

1

S4

E

accept

R4

S5

4

S4
R6

5

R6

R6

6

S5

S4

7

S5

R6

S4

10

8

S6

S11

9

R1

S7

R1

R1

10

R3

R3

R3

R3

11

R5

R5

R5

R5

The parser actions are informally defined as follows:
1. The Shift process is simple: The next symbol of input is pushed onto the stack, along with the state symbol that is part of the Shift specification in the ACTION table.
2. For a Reduce action, the handle must be removed from the stack.
Because for every grammar symbol on the stack there is a state symbol, the number of symbols removed from the stack is twice the number of symbols in the handle. After removing the handle and its associated state symbols, the LHS of the rule is pushed onto the stack. Finally, the GOTO table is used, with the row label being the symbol that was exposed when the handle and its state symbols were removed from the stack, and the column label being the nonterminal that is the LHS of the rule used in the reduction.
3. When the action is Accept, the parse is complete and no errors were found. 4. When the action is Error, the parser calls an error-handling routine.
Although there are many parsing algorithms based on the LR concept, they differ only in the construction of the parsing table. All LR parsers use this same parsing algorithm.
Perhaps the best way to become familiar with the LR parsing process is through an example. Initially, the parse stack has the single symbol 0, which

Summary

197

represents state 0 of the parser. The input contains the input string with an end marker, in this case a dollar sign, attached to its right end. At each step, the parser actions are dictated by the top (rightmost in Figure 4.4) symbol of the parse stack and the next (leftmost in Figure 4.4) token of input. The correct action is chosen from the corresponding cell of the ACTION part of the parse table. The GOTO part of the parse table is used after a reduction action.
Recall that GOTO is used to determine which state symbol is placed on the parse stack after a reduction.
Following is a trace of a parse of the string id + id * id, using the LR parsing algorithm and the parsing table shown in Figure 4.5.

Stack

Input

Action

0
0id5
0F3
0T2
0E1
0E1+6
0E1+6id5
0E1+6F3
0E1+6T9
0E1+6T9*7
0E1+6T9*7id5
0E1+6T9*7F10
0E1+6T9
0E1

id + id * id $
+ id * id $
+ id * id $
+ id * id $
+ id * id $ id * id $
* id $
* id $
* id $ id $
$
$
$
$

Shift 5
Reduce 6 (use GOTO[0, F])
Reduce 4 (use GOTO[0, T])
Reduce 2 (use GOTO[0, E])
Shift 6
Shift 5
Reduce 6 (use GOTO[6, F])
Reduce 4 (use GOTO[6, T])
Shift 7
Shift 5
Reduce 6 (use GOTO[7, F])
Reduce 3 (use GOTO[6, T])
Reduce 1 (use GOTO[0, E])
Accept

The algorithms to generate LR parsing tables from given grammars, which are described in Aho et al. (2006), are not overly complex but are beyond the scope of a book on programming languages. As stated previously, there are a number of different software systems available to generate LR parsing tables.

S U M M A R Y

Syntax analysis is a common part of language implementation, regardless of the implementation approach used. Syntax analysis is normally based on a formal syntax description of the language being implemented. A context-free grammar, which is also called BNF, is the most common approach for describing syntax. The task of syntax analysis is usually divided into two parts: lexical analysis and syntax analysis. There are several reasons for separating lexical analysis—namely, simplicity, efficiency, and portability.

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A lexical analyzer is a pattern matcher that isolates the small-scale parts of a program, which are called lexemes. Lexemes occur in categories, such as integer literals and names. These categories are called tokens. Each token is assigned a numeric code, which along with the lexeme is what the lexical analyzer produces. There are three distinct approaches to constructing a lexical analyzer: using a software tool to generate a table for a table-driven analyzer, building such a table by hand, and writing code to implement a state diagram description of the tokens of the language being implemented. The state diagram for tokens can be reasonably small if character classes are used for transitions, rather than having transitions for every possible character from every state node. Also, the state diagram can be simplified by using a table lookup to recognize reserved words.
Syntax analyzers have two goals: to detect syntax errors in a given program and to produce a parse tree, or possibly only the information required to build such a tree, for a given program. Syntax analyzers are either top-down, meaning they construct leftmost derivations and a parse tree in top-down order, or bottom-up, in which case they construct the reverse of a rightmost derivation and a parse tree in bottom-up order. Parsers that work for all unambiguous grammars have complexity O(n3). However, parsers used for implementing syntax analyzers for programming languages work on subclasses of unambiguous grammars and have complexity O(n).
A recursive-descent parser is an LL parser that is implemented by writing code directly from the grammar of the source language. EBNF is ideal as the basis for recursive-descent parsers. A recursive-descent parser has a subprogram for each nonterminal in the grammar. The code for a given grammar rule is simple if the rule has a single RHS. The RHS is examined left to right.
For each nonterminal, the code calls the associated subprogram for that nonterminal, which parses whatever the nonterminal generates. For each terminal, the code compares the terminal with the next token of input. If they match, the code simply calls the lexical analyzer to get the next token. If they do not, the subprogram reports a syntax error. If a rule has more than one RHS, the subprogram must first determine which RHS it should parse. It must be possible to make this determination on the basis of the next token of input.
Two distinct grammar characteristics prevent the construction of a recursive-descent parser based on the grammar. One of these is left recursion.
The process of eliminating direct left recursion from a grammar is relatively simple. Although we do not cover it, an algorithm exists to remove both direct and indirect left recursion from a grammar. The other problem is detected with the pairwise disjointness test, which tests whether a parsing subprogram can determine which RHS is being parsed on the basis of the next token of input.
Some grammars that fail the pairwise disjointness test often can be modified to pass it, using left factoring.
The parsing problem for bottom-up parsers is to find the substring of the current sentential form that must be reduced to its associated LHS to get the next (previous) sentential form in the rightmost derivation. This substring is called the handle of the sentential form. A parse tree can provide an intuitive

Review Questions

199

basis for recognizing a handle. A bottom-up parser is a shift-reduce algorithm, because in most cases it either shifts the next lexeme of input onto the parse stack or reduces the handle that is on top of the stack.
The LR family of shift-reduce parsers is the most commonly used bottomup parsing approach for programming languages, because parsers in this family have several advantages over alternatives. An LR parser uses a parse stack, which contains grammar symbols and state symbols to maintain the state of the parser. The top symbol on the parse stack is always a state symbol that represents all of the information in the parse stack that is relevant to the parsing process. LR parsers use two parsing tables: ACTION and GOTO. The
ACTION part specifies what the parser should do, given the state symbol on top of the parse stack and the next token of input. The GOTO table is used to determine which state symbol should be placed on the parse stack after a reduction has been done.

R E V I E W

Q U E S T I O N S

1. What are three reasons why syntax analyzers are based on grammars?
2. Explain the three reasons why lexical analysis is separated from syntax analysis. 3. Define lexeme and token.
4. What are the primary tasks of a lexical analyzer?
5. Describe briefly the three approaches to building a lexical analyzer.
6. What is a state transition diagram?
7. Why are character classes used, rather than individual characters, for the letter and digit transitions of a state diagram for a lexical analyzer?
8. What are the two distinct goals of syntax analysis?
9. Describe the differences between top-down and bottom-up parsers.
10. Describe the parsing problem for a top-down parser.
11. Describe the parsing problem for a bottom-up parser.
12. Explain why compilers use parsing algorithms that work on only a subset of all grammars.
13. Why are named constants used, rather than numbers, for token codes?
14. Describe how a recursive-descent parsing subprogram is written for a rule with a single RHS.
15. Explain the two grammar characteristics that prohibit them from being used as the basis for a top-down parser.
16. What is the FIRST set for a given grammar and sentential form?
17. Describe the pairwise disjointness test.
18. What is left factoring?

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19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

P R O B L E M

What is a phrase of a sentential form?
What is a simple phrase of a sentential form?
What is the handle of a sentential form?
What is the mathematical machine on which both top-down and bottom-up parsers are based?
Describe three advantages of LR parsers.
What was Knuth’s insight in developing the LR parsing technique?
Describe the purpose of the ACTION table of an LR parser.
Describe the purpose of the GOTO table of an LR parser.
Is left recursion a problem for LR parsers?

S E T

1. Perform the pairwise disjointness test for the following grammar rules.
a. A → aB ͉ b ͉ cBB
b. B → aB ͉ bA ͉ aBb
c. C → aaA ͉ b ͉ caB

2. Perform the pairwise disjointness test for the following grammar rules.
a. S → aSb ͉ bAA
b. A → b{aB} ͉ a
c. B → aB ͉ a

3. Show a trace of the recursive descent parser given in Section 4.4.1 for the string a + b * c.
4. Show a trace of the recursive descent parser given in Section 4.4.1 for the string a * (b + c).
5. Given the following grammar and the right sentential form, draw a parse tree and show the phrases and simple phrases, as well as the handle.
S → aAb ͉ bBA A → ab ͉ aAB B → aB ͉ b
a. aaAbb
b. bBab
c. aaAbBb

6. Given the following grammar and the right sentential form, draw a parse tree and show the phrases and simple phrases, as well as the handle.
S → AbB ͉ bAc A → Ab ͉ aBB B → Ac ͉ cBb ͉ c
a. aAcccbbc
b. AbcaBccb
c. baBcBbbc

Programming Exercises

201

7. Show a complete parse, including the parse stack contents, input string, and action for the string id * (id + id), using the grammar and parse table in Section 4.5.3.
8. Show a complete parse, including the parse stack contents, input string, and action for the string (id + id) * id, using the grammar and parse table in Section 4.5.3.
9. Write an EBNF rule that describes the while statement of Java or C++.
Write the recursive-descent subprogram in Java or C++ for this rule.
10. Write an EBNF rule that describes the for statement of Java or C++.
Write the recursive-descent subprogram in Java or C++ for this rule.
11. Get the algorithm to remove the indirect left recursion from a grammar from Aho et al. (2006). Use this algorithm to remove all left recursion from the following grammar:
S → Aa ͉ Bb A → Aa ͉ Abc ͉ c ͉ Sb B → bb

P R O G R A M M I N G

E X E R C I S E S

1. Design a state diagram to recognize one form of the comments of the
C-based programming languages, those that begin with /* and end with */.
2. Design a state diagram to recognize the floating-point literals of your favorite programming language.
3. Write and test the code to implement the state diagram of Problem 1.
4. Write and test the code to implement the state diagram of Problem 2.
5. Modify the lexical analyzer given in Section 4.2 to recognize the following list of reserved words and return their respective token codes: for (FOR_CODE, 30), if (IF_CODE, 31), else (ELSE_CODE, 32), while
(WHILE_CODE, 33), do (DO_CODE, 34), int (INT_CODE, 35), float
(FLOAT_CODE, 36), switch (SWITCH_CODE, 37).
6. Convert the lexical analyzer (which is written in C) given in Section 4.2 to Java.
7. Convert the recursive descent parser routines for , , and given in Section 4.4.1 to Java.
8. For those rules that pass the test in Problem 1, write a recursive-descent parsing subprogram that parses the language generated by the rules.
Assume you have a lexical analyzer named lex and an error-handling subprogram named error, which is called whenever a syntax error is detected.
9. For those rules that pass the test in Problem 2, write a recursive-descent parsing subprogram that parses the language generated by the rules.
Assume you have a lexical analyzer named lex and an error-handling subprogram named error, which is called whenever a syntax error is detected.
10. Implement and test the LR parsing algorithm given in Section 4.5.3.

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5
Names, Bindings, and Scopes
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Names
5.3 Variables
5.4 The Concept of Binding
5.5 Scope
5.6 Scope and Lifetime
5.7 Referencing Environments
5.8 Named Constants

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T

his chapter introduces the fundamental semantic issues of variables. It begins by describing the nature of names and special words in programming languages. The attributes of variables, including type, address, and value, are then discussed, including the issue of aliases. The important concepts of binding and binding times are introduced next, including the different possible binding times for variable attributes and how they define four different categories of variables. Following that, two very different scoping rules for names, static and dynamic, are described, along with the concept of a referencing environment of a statement. Finally, named constants and variable initialization are discussed.

5.1 Introduction
Imperative programming languages are, to varying degrees, abstractions of the underlying von Neumann computer architecture. The architecture’s two primary components are its memory, which stores both instructions and data, and its processor, which provides operations for modifying the contents of the memory. The abstractions in a language for the memory cells of the machine are variables. In some cases, the characteristics of the abstractions are very close to the characteristics of the cells; an example of this is an integer variable, which is usually represented directly in one or more bytes of memory. In other cases, the abstractions are far removed from the organization of the hardware memory, as with a three-dimensional array, which requires a software mapping function to support the abstraction.
A variable can be characterized by a collection of properties, or attributes, the most important of which is type, a fundamental concept in programming languages. Designing the data types of a language requires that a variety of issues be considered. (Data types are discussed in Chapter 6.) Among the most important of these issues are the scope and lifetime of variables.
Functional programming languages allow expressions to be named. These named expressions appear like assignments to variable names in imperative languages, but are fundamentally different in that they cannot be changed. So, they are like the named constants of the imperative languages. Pure functional languages do not have variables that are like those of the imperative languages.
However, many functional languages do include such variables.
In the remainder of this book, families of languages will often be referred to as if they were single languages. For example, Fortran will mean all of the versions of Fortran. This is also the case for Ada. Likewise, a reference to C will mean the original version of C, as well as C89 and C99. When a specific version of a language is named, it is because it is different from the other family members within the topic being discussed. If we add a plus sign (+) to the name of a version of a language, we mean all versions of the language beginning with the one named. For example,
Fortran 95+ means all versions of Fortran beginning with Fortran 95. The phrase
C-based languages will be used to refer to C, Objective-C, C++, Java, and C#.1
1. We were tempted to include the scripting languages JavaScript and PHP as C-based languages, but decided they were just a bit too different from their ancestors.

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5.2 Names
Before beginning our discussion of variables, the design of one of the fundamental attributes of variables, names, must be covered. Names are also associated with subprograms, formal parameters, and other program constructs. The term identifier is often used interchangeably with name.

5.2.1

Design Issues
The following are the primary design issues for names:
• Are names case sensitive?
• Are the special words of the language reserved words or keywords?
These issues are discussed in the following two subsections, which also include examples of several design choices.

5.2.2

Name Forms

A name is a string of characters used to identify some entity in a program.
Fortran 95+ allows up to 31 characters in its names. C99 has no length limitation on its internal names, but only the first 63 are significant. External names in C99 (those defined outside functions, which must be handled by the linker) are restricted to 31 characters. Names in Java, C#, and Ada have no length limit, and all characters in them are significant.
C++ does not specify a length limit on names, although implehis t or y n o t e mentors sometimes do.
The earliest programming lanNames in most programming languages have the same form: guages used single-character a letter followed by a string consisting of letters, digits, and names. This notation was natuunderscore characters ( _ ). Although the use of underscore charral because early programming acters to form names was widely used in the 1970s and 1980s, that was primarily mathematical, practice is now far less popular. In the C-based languages, it has and mathematicians have long to a large extent been replaced by the so-called camel notation, in used single-character names which all of the words of a multiple-word name except the first for unknowns in their formal are capitalized, as in myStack.2 Note that the use of underscores notations. and mixed case in names is a programming style issue, not a lanFortran I broke with the guage design issue. tradition of the single-character
All variable names in PHP must begin with a dollar sign. In name, allowing up to six characPerl, the special character at the beginning of a variable’s name, ters in its names.
$, @, or %, specifies its type (although in a different sense than in other languages). In Ruby, special characters at the beginning of a variable’s name, @ or @@, indicate that the variable is an instance or a class variable, respectively.
2. It is called “camel” because words written in it often have embedded uppercase letters, which look like a camel’s humps.

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In many languages, notably the C-based languages, uppercase and lowercase letters in names are distinct; that is, names in these languages are case sensitive.
For example, the following three names are distinct in C++: rose, ROSE, and
Rose. To some people, this is a serious detriment to readability, because names that look very similar in fact denote different entities. In that sense, case sensitivity violates the design principle that language constructs that look similar should have similar meanings. But in languages whose variable names are case-sensitive, although Rose and rose look similar, there is no connection between them.
Obviously, not everyone agrees that case sensitivity is bad for names. In
C, the problems of case sensitivity are avoided by the convention that variable names do not include uppercase letters. In Java and C#, however, the problem cannot be escaped because many of the predefined names include both uppercase and lowercase letters. For example, the Java method for converting a string to an integer value is parseInt, and spellings such as ParseInt and parseint are not recognized. This is a problem of writability rather than readability, because the need to remember specific case usage makes it more difficult to write correct programs. It is a kind of intolerance on the part of the language designer, which is enforced by the compiler.

5.2.3

Special Words
Special words in programming languages are used to make programs more readable by naming actions to be performed. They also are used to separate the syntactic parts of statements and programs. In most languages, special words are classified as reserved words, which means they cannot be redefined by programmers, but in some they are only keywords, which means they can be redefined.
A keyword is a word of a programming language that is special only in certain contexts. Fortran is the only remaining widely used language whose special words are keywords. In Fortran, the word Integer, when found at the beginning of a statement and followed by a name, is considered a keyword that indicates the statement is a declarative statement. However, if the word
Integer is followed by the assignment operator, it is considered a variable name. These two uses are illustrated in the following:
Integer Apple
Integer = 4

Fortran compilers and people reading Fortran programs must distinguish between names and special words by context.
A reserved word is a special word of a programming language that cannot be used as a name. As a language design choice, reserved words are better than keywords because the ability to redefine keywords can be confusing. For example, in Fortran, one could have the following statements:
Integer Real
Real Integer

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These statements declare the program variable Real to be of Integer type and the variable Integer to be of Real type.3 In addition to the strange appearance of these declaration statements, the appearance of Real and Integer as variable names elsewhere in the program could be misleading to program readers.
There is one potential problem with reserved words: If the language includes a large number of reserved words, the user may have difficulty making up names that are not reserved. The best example of this is COBOL, which has 300 reserved words. Unfortunately, some of the most commonly chosen names by programmers are in the list of reserved words—for example, LENGTH,
BOTTOM, DESTINATION, and COUNT.
In program code examples in this book, reserved words are presented in boldface. In most languages, names that are defined in other program units, such as
Java packages and C and C++ libraries, can be made visible to a program. These names are predefined, but visible only if explicitly imported. Once imported, they cannot be redefined.

5.3 Variables
A program variable is an abstraction of a computer memory cell or collection of cells. Programmers often think of variable names as names for memory locations, but there is much more to a variable than just a name.
The move from machine languages to assembly languages was largely one of replacing absolute numeric memory addresses for data with names, making programs far more readable and therefore easier to write and maintain. That step also provided an escape from the problem of manual absolute addressing, because the translator that converted the names to actual addresses also chose those addresses.
A variable can be characterized as a sextuple of attributes: (name, address, value, type, lifetime, and scope). Although this may seem too complicated for such an apparently simple concept, it provides the clearest way to explain the various aspects of variables.
Our discussion of variable attributes will lead to examinations of the important related concepts of aliases, binding, binding times, declarations, scoping rules, and referencing environments.
The name, address, type, and value attributes of variables are discussed in the following subsections. The lifetime and scope attributes are discussed in
Sections 5.4.3 and 5.5, respectively.

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Name
Variable names are the most common names in programs. They were discussed at length in Section 5.2 in the general context of entity names in programs. Most variables have names. The ones that do not are discussed in
Section 5.4.3.3.

5.3.2

Address
The address of a variable is the machine memory address with which it is associated. This association is not as simple as it may at first appear. In many languages, it is possible for the same variable to be associated with different addresses at different times in the program. For example, if a subprogram has a local variable that is allocated from the run-time stack when the subprogram is called, different calls may result in that variable having different addresses.
These are in a sense different instantiations of the same variable.
The process of associating variables with addresses is further discussed in
Section 5.4.3. An implementation model for subprograms and their activations is discussed in Chapter 10.
The address of a variable is sometimes called its l-value, because the address is what is required when the name of a variable appears in the left side of an assignment.
It is possible to have multiple variables that have the same address. When more than one variable name can be used to access the same memory location, the variables are called aliases. Aliasing is a hindrance to readability because it allows a variable to have its value changed by an assignment to a different variable. For example, if variables named total and sum are aliases, any change to the value of total also changes the value of sum and vice versa. A reader of the program must always remember that total and sum are different names for the same memory cell. Because there can be any number of aliases in a program, this may be very difficult in practice. Aliasing also makes program verification more difficult.
Aliases can be created in programs in several different ways. One common way in C and C++ is with their union types. Unions are discussed at length in
Chapter 6.
Two pointer variables are aliases when they point to the same memory location. The same is true for reference variables. This kind of aliasing is simply a side effect of the nature of pointers and references. When a C++ pointer is set to point at a named variable, the pointer, when dereferenced, and the variable’s name are aliases.
Aliasing can be created in many languages through subprogram parameters. These kinds of aliases are discussed in Chapter 9.
The time when a variable becomes associated with an address is very important to an understanding of programming languages. This subject is discussed in Section 5.4.3.

5.4

5.3.3

The Concept of Binding

209

Type
The type of a variable determines the range of values the variable can store and the set of operations that are defined for values of the type. For example, the int type in Java specifies a value range of -2147483648 to 2147483647 and arithmetic operations for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus.

5.3.4

Value
The value of a variable is the contents of the memory cell or cells associated with the variable. It is convenient to think of computer memory in terms of abstract cells, rather than physical cells. The physical cells, or individually addressable units, of most contemporary computer memories are byte-size, with a byte usually being eight bits in length. This size is too small for most program variables. An abstract memory cell has the size required by the variable with which it is associated. For example, although floating-point values may occupy four physical bytes in a particular implementation of a particular language, a floating-point value is thought of as occupying a single abstract memory cell. The value of each simple nonstructured type is considered to occupy a single abstract cell. Henceforth, the term memory cell means abstract memory cell.
A variable’s value is sometimes called its r-value because it is what is required when the name of the variable appears in the right side of an assignment statement. To access the r-value, the l-value must be determined first.
Such determinations are not always simple. For example, scoping rules can greatly complicate matters, as is discussed in Section 5.5.

5.4 The Concept of Binding
A binding is an association between an attribute and an entity, such as between a variable and its type or value, or between an operation and a symbol. The time at which a binding takes place is called binding time. Binding and binding times are prominent concepts in the semantics of programming languages. Bindings can take place at language design time, language implementation time, compile time, load time, link time, or run time. For example, the asterisk symbol (*) is usually bound to the multiplication operation at language design time. A data type, such as int in C, is bound to a range of possible values at language implementation time. At compile time, a variable in a Java program is bound to a particular data type. A variable may be bound to a storage cell when the program is loaded into memory. That same binding does not happen until run time in some cases, as with variables declared in Java methods. A call to a library subprogram is bound to the subprogram code at link time.

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Consider the following Java assignment statement: count = count + 5;

Some of the bindings and their binding times for the parts of this assignment statement are as follows:
• The type of count is bound at compile time.
• The set of possible values of count is bound at compiler design time.
• The meaning of the operator symbol + is bound at compile time, when the types of its operands have been determined.
• The internal representation of the literal 5 is bound at compiler design time. • The value of count is bound at execution time with this statement.
A complete understanding of the binding times for the attributes of program entities is a prerequisite for understanding the semantics of a programming language. For example, to understand what a subprogram does, one must understand how the actual parameters in a call are bound to the formal parameters in its definition. To determine the current value of a variable, it may be necessary to know when the variable was bound to storage and with which statement or statements. 5.4.1

Binding of Attributes to Variables
A binding is static if it first occurs before run time begins and remains unchanged throughout program execution. If the binding first occurs during run time or can change in the course of program execution, it is called dynamic. The physical binding of a variable to a storage cell in a virtual memory environment is complex, because the page or segment of the address space in which the cell resides may be moved in and out of memory many times during program execution. In a sense, such variables are bound and unbound repeatedly. These bindings, however, are maintained by computer hardware, and the changes are invisible to the program and the user. Because they are not important to the discussion, we are not concerned with these hardware bindings. The essential point is to distinguish between static and dynamic bindings.

5.4.2

Type Bindings
Before a variable can be referenced in a program, it must be bound to a data type. The two important aspects of this binding are how the type is specified and when the binding takes place. Types can be specified statically through some form of explicit or implicit declaration.

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5.4.2.1 Static Type Binding
An explicit declaration is a statement in a program that lists variable names and specifies that they are a particular type. An implicit declaration is a means of associating variables with types through default conventions, rather than declaration statements. In this case, the first appearance of a variable name in a program constitutes its implicit declaration. Both explicit and implicit declarations create static bindings to types.
Most widely used programming languages that use static type binding exclusively and were designed since the mid-1960s require explicit declarations of all variables (Perl, JavaScript, Ruby, and ML are some exceptions).
Implicit variable type binding is done by the language processor, either a compiler or an interpreter. There are several different bases for implicit variable type bindings. The simplest of these is naming conventions. In this case, the compiler or interpreter binds a variable to a type based on the syntactic form of the variable’s name. For example, in Fortran, an identifier that appears in a program that is not explicitly declared is implicitly declared according to the following convention: If the identifier begins with one of the letters I, J, K, L, M, or N, or their lowercase versions, it is implicitly declared to be Integer type; otherwise, it is implicitly declared to be Real type.
Although they are a minor convenience to programmers, implicit declarations can be detrimental to reliability because they prevent the compilation process from detecting some typographical and programmer errors. In
Fortran, variables that are accidentally left undeclared by the programmer are given default types and possibly unexpected attributes, which could cause subtle errors that are difficult to diagnose. Many Fortran programmers now include the declaration Implicit none in their programs. This declaration instructs the compiler to not implicitly declare any variables, thereby avoiding the potential problems of accidentally undeclared variables.
Some of the problems with implicit declarations can be avoided by requiring names for specific types to begin with particular special characters. For example, in Perl any name that begins with $ is a scalar, which can store either a string or a numeric value. If a name begins with @, it is an array; if it begins with a %, it is a hash structure.4 This creates different namespaces for different type variables. In this scenario, the names @apple and %apple are unrelated, because each is from a different namespace. Furthermore, a program reader always knows the type of a variable when reading its name. Note that this design is different from Fortran, because Fortran has both implicit and explicit declarations, so the type of a variable cannot necessarily be determined from the spelling of its name.
Another kind of implicit type declarations uses context. This is sometimes called type inference. In the simpler case, the context is the type of the value assigned to the variable in a declaration statement. For example, in C# a var

4. Both arrays and hashes are considered types—both can store any scalar in their elements.

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declaration of a variable must include an initial value, whose type is made the type of the variable. Consider the following declarations: var sum = 0; var total = 0.0; var name = "Fred";

The types of sum, total, and name are int, float, and string, respectively.
Keep in mind that these are statically typed variables—their types are fixed for the lifetime of the unit in which they are declared.
Visual BASIC 9.0+, Go, and the functional languages ML, Haskell, OCaml, and F# also use type inferencing. In these functional languages, the context of the appearance of a name is the basis for determining its type. This kind of type inferencing is discussed in detail in Chapter 15.

5.4.2.2 Dynamic Type Binding
With dynamic type binding, the type of a variable is not specified by a declaration statement, nor can it be determined by the spelling of its name. Instead, the variable is bound to a type when it is assigned a value in an assignment statement. When the assignment statement is executed, the variable being assigned is bound to the type of the value of the expression on the right side of the assignment. Such an assignment may also bind the variable to an address and a memory cell, because different type values may require different amounts of storage. Any variable can be assigned any type value. Furthermore, a variable’s type can change any number of times during program execution. It is important to realize that the type of a variable whose type is dynamically bound may be temporary. When the type of a variable is statically bound, the name of the variable can be thought of being bound to a type, in the sense that the type and name of a variable are simultaneously bound. However, when a variable’s type is dynamically bound, its name can be thought of as being only temporarily bound to a type. In reality, the names of variables are never bound to types. Names can be bound to variables and variables can be bound to types.
Languages in which types are dynamically bound are dramatically different from those in which types are statically bound. The primary advantage of dynamic binding of variables to types is that it provides more programming flexibility. For example, a program to process numeric data in a language that uses dynamic type binding can be written as a generic program, meaning that it is capable of dealing with data of any numeric type. Whatever type data is input will be acceptable, because the variables in which the data are to be stored can be bound to the correct type when the data is assigned to the variables after input. By contrast, because of static binding of types, one cannot write a C program to process data without knowing the type of that data.
Before the mid-1990s, the most commonly used programming languages used static type binding, the primary exceptions being some functional

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languages such as LISP. However, since then there has been a significant shift to languages that use dynamic type binding. In Python, Ruby, JavaScript, and
PHP, type binding is dynamic. For example, a JavaScript script may contain the following statement: list = [10.2, 3.5];

Regardless of the previous type of the variable named list, this assignment causes it to become the name of a single-dimensioned array of length 2. If the statement list = 47;

followed the previous example assignment, list would become the name of a scalar variable.
The option of dynamic type binding was introduced in C# 2010. A variable can be declared to use dynamic type binding by including the dynamic reserved word in its declaration, as in the following example: dynamic any;

This is similar, although also different from declaring any to have type object. It is similar in that any can be assigned a value of any type, just as if it were declared object. It is different in that it is not useful for several different situations of interoperation; for example, with dynamically typed languages such as IronPython and IronRuby (.NET versions of Python and
Ruby, respectively). However, it is useful when data of unknown type come into a program from an external source. Class members, properties, method parameters, method return values, and local variables can all be declared dynamic. In pure object-oriented languages—for example, Ruby—all variables are references and do not have types; all data are objects and any variable can reference any object. Variables in such languages are, in a sense, all the same type—they are references. However, unlike the references in Java, which are restricted to referencing one specific type of value, variables in Ruby can reference any object.
There are two disadvantages to dynamic type binding. First, it causes programs to be less reliable, because the error-detection capability of the compiler is diminished relative to a compiler for a language with static type bindings. Dynamic type binding allows any variable to be assigned a value of any type. Incorrect types of right sides of assignments are not detected as errors; rather, the type of the left side is simply changed to the incorrect type. For example, suppose that in a particular JavaScript program, i and x are currently the names of scalar numeric variables and y is currently the name of an array. Furthermore, suppose that the program needs the assignment statement

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i = x;

but because of a keying error, it has the assignment statement i = y;

In JavaScript (or any other language that uses dynamic type binding), no error is detected in this statement by the interpreter—the type of the variable named i is simply changed to an array. But later uses of i will expect it to be a scalar, and correct results will be impossible. In a language with static type binding, such as Java, the compiler would detect the error in the assignment i = y, and the program would not get to execution.
Note that this disadvantage is also present to some extent in some languages that use static type binding, such as Fortran, C, and C++, which in many cases automatically convert the type of the RHS of an assignment to the type of the LHS.
Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of dynamic type binding is cost. The cost of implementing dynamic attribute binding is considerable, particularly in execution time. Type checking must be done at run time. Furthermore, every variable must have a run-time descriptor associated with it to maintain the current type. The storage used for the value of a variable must be of varying size, because different type values require different amounts of storage.
Finally, languages that have dynamic type binding for variables are usually implemented using pure interpreters rather than compilers. Computers do not have instructions whose operand types are not known at compile time. Therefore, a compiler cannot build machine instructions for the expression A + B if the types of A and B are not known at compile time. Pure interpretation typically takes at least 10 times as long as it does to execute equivalent machine code.
Of course, if a language is implemented with a pure interpreter, the time to do dynamic type binding is hidden by the overall time of interpretation, so it seems less costly in that environment. On the other hand, languages with static type bindings are seldom implemented by pure interpretation, because programs in these languages can be easily translated to very efficient machine code versions.

5.4.3

Storage Bindings and Lifetime
The fundamental character of an imperative programming language is in large part determined by the design of the storage bindings for its variables. It is therefore important to have a clear understanding of these bindings.
The memory cell to which a variable is bound somehow must be taken from a pool of available memory. This process is called allocation. Deallocation is the process of placing a memory cell that has been unbound from a variable back into the pool of available memory.
The lifetime of a variable is the time during which the variable is bound to a specific memory location. So, the lifetime of a variable begins when it is bound to a specific cell and ends when it is unbound from that cell. To investigate storage bindings of variables, it is convenient to separate scalar

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(unstructured) variables into four categories, according to their lifetimes. These categories are named static, stack-dynamic, explicit heap-dynamic, and implicit heap-dynamic. In the following sections, we discuss the definitions of these four categories, along with their purposes, advantages, and disadvantages.

5.4.3.1 Static Variables
Static variables are those that are bound to memory cells before program execution begins and remain bound to those same memory cells until program execution terminates. Statically bound variables have several valuable applications in programming. Globally accessible variables are often used throughout the execution of a program, thus making it necessary to have them bound to the same storage during that execution. Sometimes it is convenient to have subprograms that are history sensitive. Such a subprogram must have local static variables.
One advantage of static variables is efficiency. All addressing of static variables can be direct;5 other kinds of variables often require indirect addressing, which is slower. Also, no run-time overhead is incurred for allocation and deallocation of static variables, although this time is often negligible.
One disadvantage of static binding to storage is reduced flexibility; in particular, a language that has only static variables cannot support recursive subprograms. Another disadvantage is that storage cannot be shared among variables. For example, suppose a program has two subprograms, both of which require large arrays. Furthermore, suppose that the two subprograms are never active at the same time. If the arrays are static, they cannot share the same storage for their arrays.
C and C++ allow programmers to include the static specifier on a variable definition in a function, making the variables it defines static. Note that when the static modifier appears in the declaration of a variable in a class definition in C++, Java, and C#, it also implies that the variable is a class variable, rather than an instance variable. Class variables are created statically some time before the class is first instantiated.

5.4.3.2 Stack-Dynamic Variables
Stack-dynamic variables are those whose storage bindings are created when their declaration statements are elaborated, but whose types are statically bound. Elaboration of such a declaration refers to the storage allocation and binding process indicated by the declaration, which takes place when execution reaches the code to which the declaration is attached. Therefore, elaboration occurs during run time. For example, the variable declarations that appear at the beginning of a Java method are elaborated when the method is called and the variables defined by those declarations are deallocated when the method completes its execution.
5. In some implementations, static variables are addressed through a base register, making accesses to them as costly as for stack-allocated variables.

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As their name indicates, stack-dynamic variables are allocated from the run-time stack.
Some languages—for example, C++ and Java—allow variable declarations to occur anywhere a statement can appear. In some implementations of these languages, all of the stack-dynamic variables declared in a function or method
(not including those declared in nested blocks) may be bound to storage at the beginning of execution of the function or method, even though the declarations of some of these variables do not appear at the beginning. In such cases, the variable becomes visible at the declaration, but the storage binding (and initialization, if it is specified in the declaration) occurs when the function or method begins execution. The fact that storage binding of a variable takes place before it becomes visible does not affect the semantics of the language.
The advantages of stack-dynamic variables are as follows: To be useful, at least in most cases, recursive subprograms require some form of dynamic local storage so that each active copy of the recursive subprogram has its own version of the local variables. These needs are conveniently met by stack-dynamic variables. Even in the absence of recursion, having stack-dynamic local storage for subprograms is not without merit, because all subprograms share the same memory space for their locals.
The disadvantages, relative to static variables, of stack-dynamic variables are the run-time overhead of allocation and deallocation, possibly slower accesses because indirect addressing is required, and the fact that subprograms cannot be history sensitive. The time required to allocate and deallocate stackdynamic variables is not significant, because all of the stack-dynamic variables that are declared at the beginning of a subprogram are allocated and deallocated together, rather than by separate operations.
Fortran 95+ allows implementors to use stack-dynamic variables for locals, but includes the following statement:
Save list

This declaration allows the programmer to specify that some or all of the variables (those in the list) in the subprogram in which Save is placed will be static.
In Java, C++, and C#, variables defined in methods are by default stack dynamic. In Ada, all non-heap variables defined in subprograms are stack dynamic.
All attributes other than storage are statically bound to stack-dynamic scalar variables. That is not the case for some structured types, as is discussed in Chapter 6. Implementation of allocation/deallocation processes for stackdynamic variables is discussed in Chapter 10.

5.4.3.3 Explicit Heap-Dynamic Variables
Explicit heap-dynamic variables are nameless (abstract) memory cells that are allocated and deallocated by explicit run-time instructions written by the programmer. These variables, which are allocated from and deallocated to the heap, can only be referenced through pointer or reference variables. The heap is a collection of storage cells whose organization is highly disorganized because of the

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unpredictability of its use. The pointer or reference variable that is used to access an explicit heap-dynamic variable is created as any other scalar variable. An explicit heap-dynamic variable is created by either an operator (for example, in C++) or a call to a system subprogram provided for that purpose (for example, in C).
In C++, the allocation operator, named new , uses a type name as its operand. When executed, an explicit heap-dynamic variable of the operand type is created and its address is returned. Because an explicit heap-dynamic variable is bound to a type at compile time, that binding is static. However, such variables are bound to storage at the time they are created, which is during run time.
In addition to a subprogram or operator for creating explicit heap-dynamic variables, some languages include a subprogram or operator for explicitly destroying them.
As an example of explicit heap-dynamic variables, consider the following
C++ code segment: int *intnode;
// Create a pointer intnode = new int; // Create the heap-dynamic variable
...
delete intnode;
// Deallocate the heap-dynamic variable
// to which intnode points

In this example, an explicit heap-dynamic variable of int type is created by the new operator. This variable can then be referenced through the pointer, intnode. Later, the variable is deallocated by the delete operator. C++ requires the explicit deallocation operator delete, because it does not use implicit storage reclamation, such as garbage collection.
In Java, all data except the primitive scalars are objects. Java objects are explicitly heap dynamic and are accessed through reference variables. Java has no way of explicitly destroying a heap-dynamic variable; rather, implicit garbage collection is used. Garbage collection is discussed in Chapter 6.
C# has both explicit heap-dynamic and stack-dynamic objects, all of which are implicitly deallocated. In addition, C# supports C++-style pointers. Such pointers are used to reference heap, stack, and even static variables and objects.
These pointers have the same dangers as those of C++, and the objects they reference on the heap are not implicitly deallocated. Pointers are included in
C# to allow C# components to interoperate with C and C++ components. To discourage their use, and also to make clear to any program reader that the code uses pointers, the header of any method that defines a pointer must include the reserved word unsafe.
Explicit heap-dynamic variables are often used to construct dynamic structures, such as linked lists and trees, that need to grow and/or shrink during execution. Such structures can be built conveniently using pointers or references and explicit heap-dynamic variables.
The disadvantages of explicit heap-dynamic variables are the difficulty of using pointer and reference variables correctly, the cost of references to the

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variables, and the complexity of the required storage management implementation. This is essentially the problem of heap management, which is costly and complicated. Implementation methods for explicit heap-dynamic variables are discussed at length in Chapter 6.

5.4.3.4 Implicit Heap-Dynamic Variables
Implicit heap-dynamic variables are bound to heap storage only when they are assigned values. In fact, all their attributes are bound every time they are assigned. For example, consider the following JavaScript assignment statement: highs = [74, 84, 86, 90, 71];

Regardless of whether the variable named highs was previously used in the program or what it was used for, it is now an array of five numeric values.
The advantage of such variables is that they have the highest degree of flexibility, allowing highly generic code to be written. One disadvantage of implicit heap-dynamic variables is the run-time overhead of maintaining all the dynamic attributes, which could include array subscript types and ranges, among others. Another disadvantage is the loss of some error detection by the compiler, as discussed in Section 5.4.2.2. Examples of implicit heap-dynamic variables in JavaScript appear in Section 5.4.2.2.

5.5 Scope
One of the important factors in understanding variables is scope. The scope of a variable is the range of statements in which the variable is visible. A variable is visible in a statement if it can be referenced in that statement.
The scope rules of a language determine how a particular occurrence of a name is associated with a variable, or in the case of a functional language, how a name is associated with an expression. In particular, scope rules determine how references to variables declared outside the currently executing subprogram or block are associated with their declarations and thus their attributes
(blocks are discussed in Section 5.5.2). A clear understanding of these rules for a language is therefore essential to the ability to write or read programs in that language.
A variable is local in a program unit or block if it is declared there.
The nonlocal variables of a program unit or block are those that are visible within the program unit or block but are not declared there. Global variables are a special category of nonlocal variables. They are discussed in
Section 5.5.4.
Scoping issues of classes, packages, and namespaces are discussed in
Chapter 11.

5.5

5.5.1

Scope

219

Static Scope
ALGOL 60 introduced the method of binding names to nonlocal variables called static scoping,6 which has been copied by many subsequent imperative languages and many nonimperative languages as well. Static scoping is so named because the scope of a variable can be statically determined—that is, prior to execution. This permits a human program reader (and a compiler) to determine the type of every variable in the program simply by examining its source code.
There are two categories of static-scoped languages: those in which subprograms can be nested, which creates nested static scopes, and those in which subprograms cannot be nested. In the latter category, static scopes are also created by subprograms but nested scopes are created only by nested class definitions and blocks.
Ada, JavaScript, Common LISP, Scheme, Fortran 2003+, F#, and Python allow nested subprograms, but the C-based languages do not.
Our discussion of static scoping in this section focuses on those languages that allow nested subprograms. Initially, we assume that all scopes are associated with program units and that all referenced nonlocal variables are declared in other program units.7 In this chapter, it is assumed that scoping is the only method of accessing nonlocal variables in the languages under discussion. This is not true for all languages. It is not even true for all languages that use static scoping, but the assumption simplifies the discussion here. When the reader of a program finds a reference to a variable, the attributes of the variable can be determined by finding the statement in which it is declared (either explicitly or implicitly). In static-scoped languages with nested subprograms, this process can be thought of in the following way. Suppose a reference is made to a variable x in subprogram sub1. The correct declaration is found by first searching the declarations of subprogram sub1. If no declaration is found for the variable there, the search continues in the declarations of the subprogram that declared subprogram sub1, which is called its static parent. If a declaration of x is not found there, the search continues to the next-larger enclosing unit (the unit that declared sub1’s parent), and so forth, until a declaration for x is found or the largest unit’s declarations have been searched without success. In that case, an undeclared variable error is reported. The static parent of subprogram sub1, and its static parent, and so forth up to and including the largest enclosing subprogram, are called the static ancestors of sub1. Actual implementation techniques for static scoping, which are discussed in Chapter 10, are usually much more efficient than the process just described.

6. Static scoping is sometimes called lexical scoping.
7. Nonlocal variables not defined in other program units are discussed in Section 5.5.4.

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Consider the following JavaScript function, big, in which the two functions sub1 and sub2 are nested: function big() { function sub1() { var x = 7; sub2(); } function sub2() { var y = x;
}
var x = 3; sub1(); }

Under static scoping, the reference to the variable x in sub2 is to the x declared in the procedure big. This is true because the search for x begins in the procedure in which the reference occurs, sub2, but no declaration for x is found there. The search continues in the static parent of sub2, big, where the declaration of x is found. The x declared in sub1 is ignored, because it is not in the static ancestry of sub2.
In some languages that use static scoping, regardless of whether nested subprograms are allowed, some variable declarations can be hidden from some other code segments. For example, consider again the JavaScript function big.
The variable x is declared in both big and in sub1, which is nested inside big.
Within sub1, every simple reference to x is to the local x. Therefore, the outer x is hidden from sub1.
In Ada, hidden variables from ancestor scopes can be accessed with selective references, which include the ancestor scope’s name. For example, if our previous example function big were written in Ada, the x declared in big could be accessed in sub1 by the reference big.x.

5.5.2

Blocks
Many languages allow new static scopes to be defined in the midst of executable code. This powerful concept, introduced in ALGOL 60, allows a section of code to have its own local variables whose scope is minimized. Such variables are typically stack dynamic, so their storage is allocated when the section is entered and deallocated when the section is exited. Such a section of code is called a block. Blocks provide the origin of the phrase block-structured language. The C-based languages allow any compound statement (a statement sequence surrounded by matched braces) to have declarations and thereby define a new scope. Such compound statements are called blocks. For example, if list were an integer array, one could write

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221

if (list[i] < list[j]) { int temp; temp = list[i]; list[i] = list[j]; list[j] = temp;
}

The scopes created by blocks, which could be nested in larger blocks, are treated exactly like those created by subprograms. References to variables in a block that are not declared there are connected to declarations by searching enclosing scopes (blocks or subprograms) in order of increasing size. Consider the following skeletal C function:

void sub() { int count;
...
while (. . .) { int count; count++; ...
}
...
}

The reference to count in the while loop is to that loop’s local count. In this case, the count of sub is hidden from the code inside the while loop. In general, a declaration for a variable effectively hides any declaration of a variable with the same name in a larger enclosing scope.8 Note that this code is legal in C and C++ but illegal in Java and C#. The designers of Java and C# believed that the reuse of names in nested blocks was too error prone to be allowed. Although JavaScript uses static scoping for its nested functions, nonfunction blocks cannot be defined in the language.
Most functional programming languages include a construct that is related to the blocks of the imperative languages, usually named let. These constructs have two parts, the first of which is to bind names to values, usually specified as expressions. The second part is an expression that uses the names defined in the first part. Programs in functional languages are comprised of expressions, rather than statements. Therefore, the final part of a let construct is an expression,

8. As discussed in Section 5.5.4, in C++, such hidden global variables can be accessed in the inner scope using the scope operator (::).

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rather than a statement. In Scheme, a let construct is a call to the function LET with the following form:
(LET (
(name1 expression1)

...
(namen expressionn)) expression )

The semantics of the call to LET is as follows: The first n expressions are evaluated and the values are assigned to the associated names. Then, the final expression is evaluated and the return value of LET is that value. This differs from a block in an imperative language in that the names are of values; they are not variables in the imperative sense. Once set, they cannot be changed.
However, they are like local variables in a block in an imperative language in that their scope is local to the call to LET. Consider the following call to LET:
(LET (
(top (+ a b))
(bottom (- c d)))
(/ top bottom)
)

This call computes and returns the value of the expression (a + b) / (c – d).
In ML, the form of a let construct is as follows: let val name1 = expression1

... val namen = expressionn in expression end; Each val statement binds a name to an expression. As with Scheme, the names in the first part are like the named constants of imperative languages; once set, they cannot be changed.9 Consider the following let construct: let val top = a + b val bottom = c - d in top / bottom end; 9. In Chapter 15, we will see that they can be reset, but that the process actually creates a new name. 5.5

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223

The general form of a let construct in F# is as follows: let left_side = expression

The left_side of let can be a name or a tuple pattern (a sequence of names separated by commas).
The scope of a name defined with let inside a function definition is from the end of the defining expression to the end of the function. The scope of let can be limited by indenting the following code, which creates a new local scope.
Although any indentation will work, the convention is that the indentation is four spaces. Consider the following code: let n1 = let n2 = 7 let n3 = n2 + 3 n3;; let n4 = n3 + n1;;

The scope of n1 extends over all of the code. However, the scope of n2 and n3 ends when the indentation ends. So, the use of n3 in the last let causes an error. The last line of the let n1 scope is the value bound to n1; it could be any expression.
Chapter 15, includes more details of the let constructs in Scheme, ML,
Haskell, and F#.

5.5.3

Declaration Order
In C89, as well as in some other languages, all data declarations in a function except those in nested blocks must appear at the beginning of the function.
However, some languages—for example, C99, C++, Java, JavaScript, and
C#—allow variable declarations to appear anywhere a statement can appear in a program unit. Declarations may create scopes that are not associated with compound statements or subprograms. For example, in C99, C++, and
Java, the scope of all local variables is from their declarations to the ends of the blocks in which those declarations appear. However, in C#, the scope of any variable declared in a block is the whole block, regardless of the position of the declaration in the block, as long as it is not in a nested block.
The same is true for methods. Note that C# still requires that all variables be declared before they are used. Therefore, although the scope of a variable extends from the declaration to the top of the block or subprogram in which that declaration appears, the variable still cannot be used above its declaration. In JavaScript, local variables can be declared anywhere in a function, but the scope of such a variable is always the entire function. If used before its declaration in the function, such a variable has the value undefined.

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The for statements of C++, Java, and C# allow variable definitions in their initialization expressions. In early versions of C++, the scope of such a variable was from its definition to the end of the smallest enclosing block. In the standard version, however, the scope is restricted to the for construct, as is the case with Java and C#. Consider the following skeletal method: void fun() {
...
for (int count = 0; count < 10; count++){
...
}
...
}

In later versions of C++, as well as in Java and C#, the scope of count is from the for statement to the end of its body.

5.5.4

Global Scope
Some languages, including C, C++, PHP, JavaScript, and Python, allow a program structure that is a sequence of function definitions, in which variable definitions can appear outside the functions. Definitions outside functions in a file create global variables, which potentially can be visible to those functions. C and C++ have both declarations and definitions of global data. Declarations specify types and other attributes but do not cause allocation of storage.
Definitions specify attributes and cause storage allocation. For a specific global name, a C program can have any number of compatible declarations, but only a single definition.
A declaration of a variable outside function definitions specifies that the variable is defined in a different file. A global variable in C is implicitly visible in all subsequent functions in the file, except those that include a declaration of a local variable with the same name. A global variable that is defined after a function can be made visible in the function by declaring it to be external, as in the following: extern int sum;

In C99, definitions of global variables usually have initial values. Declarations of global variables never have initial values. If the declaration is outside function definitions, it need not include the extern qualifier.
This idea of declarations and definitions carries over to the functions of C and C++, where prototypes declare names and interfaces of functions but do not provide their code. Function definitions, on the other hand, are complete. 5.5

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225

In C++, a global variable that is hidden by a local with the same name can be accessed using the scope operator (::). For example, if x is a global that is hidden in a function by a local named x, the global could be referenced as ::x.
PHP statements can be interspersed with function definitions. Variables in PHP are implicitly declared when they appear in statements. Any variable that is implicitly declared outside any function is a global variable; variables implicitly declared in functions are local variables. The scope of global variables extends from their declarations to the end of the program but skips over any subsequent function definitions. So, global variables are not implicitly visible in any function. Global variables can be made visible in functions in their scope in two ways: (1) If the function includes a local variable with the same name as a global, that global can be accessed through the $GLOBALS array, using the name of the global as a string literal subscript, and (2) if there is no local variable in the function with the same name as the global, the global can be made visible by including it in a global declaration statement. Consider the following example:
$day = "Monday";
$month = "January"; function calendar() {
$day = "Tuesday"; global $month; print "local day is $day ";
$gday = $GLOBALS['day']; print "global day is $gday "; print "global month is $month ";
}
calendar();

Interpretation of this code produces the following: local day is Tuesday global day is Monday global month is January

The global variables of JavaScript are very similar to those of PHP, except that there is no way to access a global variable in a function that has declared a local variable with the same name.
The visibility rules for global variables in Python are unusual. Variables are not normally declared, as in PHP. They are implicitly declared when they appear as the targets of assignment statements. A global variable can be referenced in a function, but a global variable can be assigned in a function only

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if it has been declared to be global in the function. Consider the following examples: day = "Monday" def tester(): print "The global day is:", day tester() The output of this script, because globals can be referenced directly in functions, is as follows:
The global day is: Monday

The following script attempts to assign a new value to the global day: day = "Monday" def tester(): print "The global day is:", day day = "Tuesday" print "The new value of day is:", day tester() This script creates an UnboundLocalError error message, because the assignment to day in the second line of the body of the function makes day a local variable, which makes the reference to day in the first line of the body of the function an illegal forward reference to the local.
The assignment to day can be to the global variable if day is declared to be global at the beginning of the function. This prevents the assignment to day from creating a local variable. This is shown in the following script: day = "Monday" def tester(): global day print "The global day is:", day day = "Tuesday" print "The new value of day is:", day tester() The output of this script is as follows:
The global day is: Monday
The new value of day is: Tuesday

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Functions can be nested in Python. Variables defined in nesting functions are accessible in a nested function through static scoping, but such variables must be declared nonlocal in the nested function.10 An example skeletal program in Section 5.7 illustrates accesses to nonlocal variables.
All names defined outside function definitions in F# are globals. Their scope extends from their definitions to the end of the file.
Declaration order and global variables are also issues in the class and member declarations in object-oriented languages. These are discussed in
Chapter 12.

5.5.5

Evaluation of Static Scoping
Static scoping provides a method of nonlocal access that works well in many situations. However, it is not without its problems. First, in most cases it allows more access to both variables and subprograms than is necessary. It is simply too crude a tool for concisely specifying such restrictions. Second, and perhaps more important, is a problem related to program evolution. Software is highly dynamic—programs that are used regularly continually change. These changes often result in restructuring, thereby destroying the initial structure that restricted variable and subprogram access. To avoid the complexity of maintaining these access restrictions, developers often discard structure when it gets in the way. Thus, getting around the restrictions of static scoping can lead to program designs that bear little resemblance to the original, even in areas of the program in which changes have not been made. Designers are encouraged to use far more globals than are necessary. All subprograms can end up being nested at the same level, in the main program, using globals instead of deeper levels of nesting.11 Moreover, the final design may be awkward and contrived, and it may not reflect the underlying conceptual design. These and other defects of static scoping are discussed in detail in Clarke, Wileden, and Wolf
(1980). An alternative to the use of static scoping to control access to variables and subprograms is an encapsulation construct, which is included in many newer languages. Encapsulation constructs are discussed in Chapter 11.

5.5.6

Dynamic Scope
The scope of variables in APL, SNOBOL4, and the early versions of LISP is dynamic. Perl and Common LISP also allow variables to be declared to have dynamic scope, although the default scoping mechanism in these languages is static. Dynamic scoping is based on the calling sequence of subprograms, not on their spatial relationship to each other. Thus, the scope can be determined only at run time.

10. The nonlocal reserved word was introduced in Python 3.
11. Sounds like the structure of a C program, doesn’t it?

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Consider again the function big from Section 5.5.1, which is reproduced here, minus the function calls: function big() { function sub1() { var x = 7;
}
function sub2() { var y = x; var z = 3;
}
var x = 3;
}

Assume that dynamic-scoping rules apply to nonlocal references. The meaning of the identifier x referenced in sub2 is dynamic—it cannot be determined at compile time. It may reference the variable from either declaration of x, depending on the calling sequence.
One way the correct meaning of x can be determined during execution is to begin the search with the local declarations. This is also the way the process begins with static scoping, but that is where the similarity between the two techniques ends. When the search of local declarations fails, the declarations of the dynamic parent, or calling function, are searched. If a declaration for x is not found there, the search continues in that function’s dynamic parent, and so forth, until a declaration for x is found. If none is found in any dynamic ancestor, it is a run-time error.
Consider the two different call sequences for sub2 in the earlier example.
First, big calls sub1, which calls sub2. In this case, the search proceeds from the local procedure, sub2, to its caller, sub1, where a declaration for x is found. So, the reference to x in sub2 in this case is to the x declared in sub1.
Next, sub2 is called directly from big. In this case, the dynamic parent of sub2 is big, and the reference is to the x declared in big.
Note that if static scoping were used, in either calling sequence discussed, the reference to x in sub2 would be to big’s x.
Perl’s dynamic scoping is unusual—in fact, it is not exactly like that discussed in this section, although the semantics are often that of traditional dynamic scoping (see Programming Exercise 1).

5.5.7

Evaluation of Dynamic Scoping
The effect of dynamic scoping on programming is profound. When dynamic scoping is used, the correct attributes of nonlocal variables visible to a program statement cannot be determined statically. Furthermore, a reference to the name of such a variable is not always to the same variable. A statement in a subprogram that contains a reference to a nonlocal variable can refer to different nonlocal variables during different executions of the subprogam. Several kinds of programming problems follow directly from dynamic scoping.

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Scope and Lifetime

229

First, during the time span beginning when a subprogram begins its execution and ending when that execution ends, the local variables of the subprogram are all visible to any other executing subprogram, regardless of its textual proximity or how execution got to the currently executing subprogram. There is no way to protect local variables from this accessibility. Subprograms are always executed in the environment of all previously called subprograms that have not yet completed their executions. As a result, dynamic scoping results in less reliable programs than static scoping.
A second problem with dynamic scoping is the inability to type check references to nonlocals statically. This problem results from the inability to statically find the declaration for a variable referenced as a nonlocal.
Dynamic scoping also makes programs much more difficult to read, because the calling sequence of subprograms must be known to determine the meaning of references to nonlocal variables. This task can be virtually impossible for a human reader.
Finally, accesses to nonlocal variables in dynamic-scoped languages take far longer than accesses to nonlocals when static scoping is used. The reason for this is explained in Chapter 10.
On the other hand, dynamic scoping is not without merit. In many cases, the parameters passed from one subprogram to another are variables that are defined in the caller. None of these needs to be passed in a dynamically scoped language, because they are implicitly visible in the called subprogram. It is not difficult to understand why dynamic scoping is not as widely used as static scoping. Programs in static-scoped languages are easier to read, are more reliable, and execute faster than equivalent programs in dynamic-scoped languages. It was precisely for these reasons that dynamic scoping was replaced by static scoping in most current dialects of LISP. Implementation methods for both static and dynamic scoping are discussed in Chapter 10.

5.6 Scope and Lifetime
Sometimes the scope and lifetime of a variable appear to be related. For example, consider a variable that is declared in a Java method that contains no method calls. The scope of such a variable is from its declaration to the end of the method. The lifetime of that variable is the period of time beginning when the method is entered and ending when execution of the method terminates. Although the scope and lifetime of the variable are clearly not the same, because static scope is a textual, or spatial, concept whereas lifetime is a temporal concept, they at least appear to be related in this case.
This apparent relationship between scope and lifetime does not hold in other situations. In C and C++, for example, a variable that is declared in a function using the specifier static is statically bound to the scope of that function and is also statically bound to storage. So, its scope is static and local to the function, but its lifetime extends over the entire execution of the program of which it is a part.

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Scope and lifetime are also unrelated when subprogram calls are involved.
Consider the following C++ functions: void printheader() {
...
} /* end of printheader */ void compute() { int sum;
...
printheader();
} /* end of compute */

The scope of the variable sum is completely contained within the compute function. It does not extend to the body of the function printheader, although printheader executes in the midst of the execution of compute. However, the lifetime of sum extends over the time during which printheader executes.
Whatever storage location sum is bound to before the call to printheader, that binding will continue during and after the execution of printheader.

5.7 Referencing Environments
The referencing environment of a statement is the collection of all variables that are visible in the statement. The referencing environment of a statement in a static-scoped language is the variables declared in its local scope plus the collection of all variables of its ancestor scopes that are visible. In such a language, the referencing environment of a statement is needed while that statement is being compiled, so code and data structures can be created to allow references to variables from other scopes during run time. Techniques for implementing references to nonlocal variables in both static- and dynamic-scoped languages are discussed in Chapter 10.
In Python, scopes can be created by function definitions. The referencing environment of a statement includes the local variables, plus all of the variables declared in the functions in which the statement is nested (excluding variables in nonlocal scopes that are hidden by declarations in nearer functions). Each function definition creates a new scope and thus a new environment. Consider the following Python skeletal program: g = 3;

# A global

def sub1(): a = 5; # Creates a local b = 7; # Creates another local
...
1 def sub2(): global g; # Global g is now assignable here

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231

c = 9; # Creates a new local
...
2 def sub3(): nonlocal c: # Makes nonlocal c visible here g = 11; # Creates a new local
...
3

The referencing environments of the indicated program points are as follows:
Point

Referencing Environment

1

local a and b (of sub1), global g for reference, but not for assignment local c (of sub2), global g for both reference and for assignment nonlocal c (of sub2), local g (of sub3)

2
3

Now consider the variable declarations of this skeletal program. First, note that, although the scope of sub1 is at a higher level (it is less deeply nested) than sub3, the scope of sub1 is not a static ancestor of sub3, so sub3 does not have access to the variables declared in sub1. There is a good reason for this. The variables declared in sub1 are stack dynamic, so they are not bound to storage if sub1 is not in execution. Because sub3 can be in execution when sub1 is not, it cannot be allowed to access variables in sub1, which would not necessarily be bound to storage during the execution of sub3.
A subprogram is active if its execution has begun but has not yet terminated. The referencing environment of a statement in a dynamically scoped language is the locally declared variables, plus the variables of all other subprograms that are currently active. Once again, some variables in active subprograms can be hidden from the referencing environment. Recent subprogram activations can have declarations for variables that hide variables with the same names in previous subprogram activations.
Consider the following example program. Assume that the only function calls are the following: main calls sub2, which calls sub1. void sub1() { int a, b;
...
} /* end of sub1 */ void sub2() { int b, c;
.. . . sub1(); } /* end of sub2 */ void main() {

1

2

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int c, d;
...
sub2();
} /* end of main */

3

The referencing environments of the indicated program points are as follows: Point

Referencing Environment

1

a and b of sub1, c of sub2, d of main, (c of main and b of sub2 are hidden) b and c of sub2, d of main, (c of main is hidden) c and d of main

2
3

5.8 Named Constants
A named constant is a variable that is bound to a value only once. Named constants are useful as aids to readability and program reliability. Readability can be improved, for example, by using the name pi instead of the constant
3.14159265.
Another important use of named constants is to parameterize a program.
For example, consider a program that processes a fixed number of data values, say 100. Such a program usually uses the constant 100 in a number of locations for declaring array subscript ranges and for loop control limits. Consider the following skeletal Java program segment: void example() { int[] intList = new int[100];
String[] strList = new String[100];
...
for (index = 0; index < 100; index++) {
...
}
...
for (index = 0; index < 100; index++) {
...
}
...
average = sum / 100;
...
}

When this program must be modified to deal with a different number of data values, all occurrences of 100 must be found and changed. On a large

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233

program, this can be tedious and error prone. An easier and more reliable method is to use a named constant as a program parameter, as follows: void example() { final int len = 100; int[] intList = new int[len];
String[] strList = new String[len];
...
for (index = 0; index < len; index++) {
...
}
...
for (index = 0; index < len; index++) {
...
}
...
average = sum / len;
...
}

Now, when the length must be changed, only one line must be changed
(the variable len), regardless of the number of times it is used in the program. This is another example of the benefits of abstraction. The name len is an abstraction for the number of elements in some arrays and the number of iterations in some loops. This illustrates how named constants can aid modifiability. Ada and C++ allow dynamic binding of values to named constants. This allows expressions containing variables to be assigned to constants in the declarations. For example, the C++ statement const int result = 2 * width + 1;

declares result to be an integer type named constant whose value is set to the value of the expression 2 * width + 1, where the value of the variable width must be visible when result is allocated and bound to its value.
Java also allows dynamic binding of values to named constants. In Java, named constants are defined with the final reserved word (as in the earlier example). The initial value can be given in the declaration statement or in a subsequent assignment statement. The assigned value can be specified with any expression.
C# has two kinds of named constants: those defined with const and those defined with readonly. The const named constants, which are implicitly static, are statically bound to values; that is, they are bound to values at compile time, which means those values can be specified only with literals or other const members. The readonly named constants, which are dynamically bound to values, can be assigned in the declaration or with a static

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constructor.12 So, if a program needs a constant-valued object whose value is the same on every use of the program, a const constant is used. However, if a program needs a constant-valued object whose value is determined only when the object is created and can be different for different executions of the program, then a readonly constant is used.
Ada allows named constants of enumeration and structured types, which are discussed in Chapter 6.
The discussion of binding values to named constants naturally leads to the topic of initialization, because binding a value to a named constant is the same process, except it is permanent.
In many instances, it is convenient for variables to have values before the code of the program or subprogram in which they are declared begins executing. The binding of a variable to a value at the time it is bound to storage is called initialization. If the variable is statically bound to storage, binding and initialization occur before run time. In these cases, the initial value must be specified as a literal or an expression whose only nonliteral operands are named constants that have already been defined. If the storage binding is dynamic, initialization is also dynamic and the initial values can be any expression.
In most languages, initialization is specified on the declaration that creates the variable. For example, in C++, we could have int sum = 0; int* ptrSum = ∑ char name[] = "George Washington Carver";

S U M M A R Y

Case sensitivity and the relationship of names to special words, which are either reserved words or keywords, are the design issues for names.
Variables can be characterized by the sextuple of attributes: name, address, value, type, lifetime, and scope.
Aliases are two or more variables bound to the same storage address. They are regarded as detrimental to reliability but are difficult to eliminate entirely from a language.
Binding is the association of attributes with program entities. Knowledge of the binding times of attributes to entities is essential to understanding the semantics of programming languages. Binding can be static or dynamic. Declarations, either explicit or implicit, provide a means of specifying the static binding of variables to types. In general, dynamic binding allows greater flexibility but at the expense of readability, efficiency, and reliability.

12. Static constructors in C# run at some indeterminate time before the class is instantiated.

Review Questions

235

Scalar variables can be separated into four categories by considering their lifetimes: static, stack dynamic, explicit heap dynamic, and implicit heap dynamic.
Static scoping is a central feature of ALGOL 60 and some of its descendants. It provides a simple, reliable, and efficient method of allowing visibility of nonlocal variables in subprograms. Dynamic scoping provides more flexibility than static scoping but, again, at the expense of readability, reliability, and efficiency.
Most functional languages allow the user to create local scopes with let constructs, which limit the scope of their defined names.
The referencing environment of a statement is the collection of all of the variables that are visible to that statement.
Named constants are simply variables that are bound to values only once.

R E V I E W

Q U E S T I O N S

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

What are the design issues for names?
What is the potential danger of case-sensitive names?
In what way are reserved words better than keywords?
What is an alias?
Which category of C++ reference variables is always aliases?
What is the l-value of a variable? What is the r-value?
Define binding and binding time.
After language design and implementation [what are the four times bindings can take place in a program?]
Define static binding and dynamic binding.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of implicit declarations?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic type binding?
Define static, stack-dynamic, explicit heap-dynamic, and implicit heapdynamic variables. What are their advantages and disadvantages?
Define lifetime, scope, static scope, and dynamic scope.
How is a reference to a nonlocal variable in a static-scoped program connected to its definition?
What is the general problem with static scoping?
What is the referencing environment of a statement?
What is a static ancestor of a subprogram? What is a dynamic ancestor of a subprogram?
What is a block?
What is the purpose of the let constructs in functional languages?

20. What is the difference between the names defined in an ML let construct from the variables declared in a C block?

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21. Describe the encapsulation of an F# let inside a function and outside all functions. 22. What are the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic scoping?
23. What are the advantages of named constants?

P R O B L E M

S E T

1. Which of the following identifier forms is most readable? Support your decision. SumOfSales sum_of_sales SUMOFSALES

2. Some programming languages are typeless. What are the obvious advantages and disadvantages of having no types in a language?
3. Write a simple assignment statement with one arithmetic operator in some language you know. For each component of the statement, list the various bindings that are required to determine the semantics when the statement is executed. For each binding, indicate the binding time used for the language.
4. Dynamic type binding is closely related to implicit heap-dynamic variables. Explain this relationship.
5. Describe a situation when a history-sensitive variable in a subprogram is useful. 6. Consider the following JavaScript skeletal program:
// The main program var x; function sub1() { var x; function sub2() {
...
}
}
function sub3() {
...
}

Assume that the execution of this program is in the following unit order: main calls sub1 sub1 calls sub2 sub2 calls sub3

Problem Set

237

a. Assuming static scoping, in the following, which declaration of x is the correct one for a reference to x?
i. sub1 ii. sub2 iii. sub3
b. Repeat part a, but assume dynamic scoping.

7. Assume the following JavaScript program was interpreted using static-scoping rules. What value of x is displayed in function sub1?
Under dynamic-scoping rules, what value of x is displayed in function sub1? var x; function sub1() { document.write("x = " + x + "");
}
function sub2() { var x; x = 10; sub1(); } x = 5; sub2(); 8. Consider the following JavaScript program: var x, y, z; function sub1() { var a, y, z; function sub2() { var a, b, z;
...
}
...
} function sub3() { var a, x, w;
...
}

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List all the variables, along with the program units where they are declared, that are visible in the bodies of sub1, sub2, and sub3, assuming static scoping is used.
9. Consider the following Python program: x = 1; y = 3; z = 5; def sub1(): a = 7; y = 9; z = 11;
...
def sub2(): global x; a = 13; x = 15; w = 17;
...
def sub3(): nonlocal a; a = 19; b = 21; z = 23;
...
...

List all the variables, along with the program units where they are declared, that are visible in the bodies of sub1, sub2, and sub3, assuming static scoping is used.
10. Consider the following C program: void fun(void) { int a, b, c; /* definition 1 */
...
while (. . .) { int b, c, d; /*definition 2 */
...
while (. . .) {

1

Problem Set

239

int c, d, e; /* definition 3 */
...

2

}
...

3

}
...

4

}

For each of the four marked points in this function, list each visible variable, along with the number of the definition statement that defines it.
11. Consider the following skeletal C program: void void void void

fun1(void); fun2(void); fun3(void); main() {

/* prototype */
/* prototype */
/* prototype */

int a, b, c;
...
} void fun1(void) { int b, c, d;
...
} void fun2(void) { int c, d, e;
...
} void fun3(void) { int d, e, f;
...
}

Given the following calling sequences and assuming that dynamic scoping is used, what variables are visible during execution of the last function called? Include with each visible variable the name of the function in which it was defined.
a. main calls fun1; fun1 calls fun2; fun2 calls fun3.
b. main calls fun1; fun1 calls fun3.
c. main calls fun2; fun2 calls fun3; fun3 calls fun1.

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d. main calls fun3; fun3 calls fun1.
e. main calls fun1; fun1 calls fun3; fun3 calls fun2.
f. main calls fun3; fun3 calls fun2; fun2 calls fun1.
12. Consider the following program, written in JavaScript-like syntax:
// main program var x, y, z; function sub1() { var a, y, z;
...
} function sub2() { var a, b, z;
...
} function sub3() { var a, x, w;
...
}

Given the following calling sequences and assuming that dynamic scoping is used, what variables are visible during execution of the last subprogram activated? Include with each visible variable the name of the unit where it is declared.
a. main calls sub1; sub1 calls sub2; sub2 calls sub3.
b. main calls sub1; sub1 calls sub3.
c. main calls sub2; sub2 calls sub3; sub3 calls sub1.
d. main calls sub3; sub3 calls sub1.
e. main calls sub1; sub1 calls sub3; sub3 calls sub2.
f. main calls sub3; sub3 calls sub2; sub2 calls sub1.

P R O G R A M M I N G

E X E R C I S E S

1. Perl allows both static and a kind of dynamic scoping. Write a Perl program that uses both and clearly shows the difference in effect of the two.
Explain clearly the difference between the dynamic scoping described in this chapter and that implemented in Perl.

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241

2. Write a Common LISP program that clearly shows the difference between static and dynamic scoping.
3. Write a JavaScript script that has subprograms nested three deep and in which each nested subprogram references variables defined in all of its enclosing subprograms.
4. Repeat Programming Exercise 3 with Python.
5. Write a C function that includes the following sequence of statements: x = 21; int x; x = 42;

Run the program and explain the results. Rewrite the same code in C++ and Java and compare the results.
6. Write test programs in C++, Java, and C# to determine the scope of a variable declared in a for statement. Specifically, the code must determine whether such a variable is visible after the body of the for statement. 7. Write three functions in C or C++: one that declares a large array statically, one that declares the same large array on the stack, and one that creates the same large array from the heap. Call each of the subprograms a large number of times (at least 100,000) and output the time required by each. Explain the results.

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6
Data Types

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Primitive Data Types
6.3 Character String Types
6.4 User-Defined Ordinal Types
6.5 Array Types
6.6 Associative Arrays
6.7 Record Types
6.8 Tuple Types
6.9 List Types
6.10 Union Types
6.11 Pointer and Reference Types
6.12 Type Checking
6.13 Strong Typing
6.14 Type Equivalence
6.15 Theory and Data Types

243

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T

his chapter first introduces the concept of a data type and the characteristics of the common primitive data types. Then, the designs of enumeration and subrange types are discussed. Next, the details of structured data types— specifically arrays, associative arrays, records, tuples, lists, and unions—are investigated. This section is followed by an in-depth look at pointers and references.
For each of the various categories of data types, the design issues are stated and the design choices made by the designers of some common languages are described. These designs are then evaluated.
The next three sections provide a thorough investigation of type checking, strong typing, and type equivalence rules. The last section of the chapter briefly introduces the basics of the theory of data types.
Implementation methods for data types sometimes have a significant impact on their design. Therefore, implementation of the various data types is another important part of this chapter, especially arrays.

6.1 Introduction
A data type defines a collection of data values and a set of predefined operations on those values. Computer programs produce results by manipulating data.
An important factor in determining the ease with which they can perform this task is how well the data types available in the language being used match the objects in the real-world of the problem being addressed. Therefore, it is crucial that a language supports an appropriate collection of data types and structures.
The contemporary concepts of data typing have evolved over the last
55 years. In the earliest languages, all problem space data structures had to be modeled with only a few basic language-supported data structures. For example, in pre-90 Fortrans, linked lists and binary trees were implemented with arrays.
The data structures of COBOL took the first step away from the Fortran I model by allowing programmers to specify the accuracy of decimal data values, and also by providing a structured data type for records of information. PL/I extended the capability of accuracy specification to integer and floating-point types. This has since been incorporated in Ada and Fortran. The designers of
PL/I included many data types, with the intent of supporting a large range of applications. A better approach, introduced in ALGOL 68, is to provide a few basic types and a few flexible structure-defining operators that allow a programmer to design a data structure for each need. Clearly, this was one of the most important advances in the evolution of data type design. User-defined types also provide improved readability through the use of meaningful names for types. They allow type checking of the variables of a special category of use, which would otherwise not be possible. User-defined types also aid modifiability: A programmer can change the type of a category of variables in a program by changing a type definition statement only.
Taking the concept of a user-defined type a step further, we arrive at abstract data types, which are supported by most programming languages designed since the mid-1980s. The fundamental idea of an abstract data type

6.1

Introduction

245

is that the interface of a type, which is visible to the user, is separated from the representation and set of operations on values of that type, which are hidden from the user. All of the types provided by a high-level programming language are abstract data types. User-defined abstract data types are discussed in detail in Chapter 11.
There are a number of uses of the type system of a programming language.
The most practical of these is error detection. The process and value of type checking, which is directed by the type system of the language, are discussed in Section 6.12. A second use of a type system is the assistance it provides for program modularization. This results from the cross-module type checking that ensures the consistency of the interfaces among modules. Another use of a type system is documentation. The type declarations in a program document information about its data, which provides clues about the program’s behavior.
The type system of a programming language defines how a type is associated with each expression in the language and includes its rules for type equivalence and type compatibility. Certainly, one of the most important parts of understanding the semantics of a programming language is understanding its type system.
The two most common structured (nonscalar) data types in the imperative languages are arrays and records, although the popularity of associative arrays has increased significantly in recent years. Lists have been a central part of functional programming languages since the first such language appeared in 1959 (LISP). Over the last decade, the increasing popularity of functional programming has led to lists being added to primarily imperative languages, such as Python and C#.
The structured data types are defined with type operators, or constructors, which are used to form type expressions. For example, C uses brackets and asterisks as type operators to specify arrays and pointers.
It is convenient, both logically and concretely, to think of variables in terms of descriptors. A descriptor is the collection of the attributes of a variable. In an implementation, a descriptor is an area of memory that stores the attributes of a variable. If the attributes are all static, descriptors are required only at compile time. These descriptors are built by the compiler, usually as a part of the symbol table, and are used during compilation. For dynamic attributes, however, part or all of the descriptor must be maintained during execution. In this case, the descriptor is used by the run-time system. In all cases, descriptors are used for type checking and building the code for the allocation and deallocation operations.
Care must be taken when using the term variable. One who uses only traditional imperative languages may think of identifiers as variables, but that can lead to confusion when considering data types. Identifiers do not have data types in some programming languages. It is wise to remember that identifiers are just one of the attributes of a variable.
The word object is often associated with the value of a variable and the space it occupies. In this book, however, we reserve object exclusively for instances of user-defined abstract data types, rather than for the values of variables of

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predefined types. In object-oriented languages, every instance of every class, whether predefined or user-defined, is called an object. Objects are discussed in detail in Chapters 11 and 12.
In the following sections, many common data types are discussed. For most, design issues particular to the type are stated. For all, one or more example designs are described. One design issue is fundamental to all data types: What operations are provided for variables of the type, and how are they specified?

6.2 Primitive Data Types
Data types that are not defined in terms of other types are called primitive data types. Nearly all programming languages provide a set of primitive data types. Some of the primitive types are merely reflections of the hardware—for example, most integer types. Others require only a little nonhardware support for their implementation.
To provide the structured types, the primitive data types of a language are used, along with one or more type constructors.

6.2.1

Numeric Types
Many early programming languages had only numeric primitive types. Numeric types still play a central role among the collections of types supported by contemporary languages.

6.2.1.1 Integer
The most common primitive numeric data type is integer. Many computers now support several sizes of integers. These sizes of integers, and often a few others, are supported by some programming languages. For example,
Java includes four signed integer sizes: byte, short, int, and long. Some languages, for example, C++ and C#, include unsigned integer types, which are simply types for integer values without signs. Unsigned types are often used for binary data.
A signed integer value is represented in a computer by a string of bits, with one of the bits (typically the leftmost) representing the sign. Most integer types are supported directly by the hardware. One example of an integer type that is not supported directly by the hardware is the long integer type of Python
(F# also provides such integers). Values of this type can have unlimited length.
Long integer values can be specified as literals, as in the following example:
243725839182756281923L

Integer arithmetic operations in Python that produce values too large to be represented with int type store them as long integer type values.

6.2

Primitive Data Types

247

A negative integer could be stored in sign-magnitude notation, in which the sign bit is set to indicate negative and the remainder of the bit string represents the absolute value of the number. Sign-magnitude notation, however, does not lend itself to computer arithmetic. Most computers now use a notation called twos complement to store negative integers, which is convenient for addition and subtraction. In twos-complement notation, the representation of a negative integer is formed by taking the logical complement of the positive version of the number and adding one. Ones-complement notation is still used by some computers. In ones-complement notation, the negative of an integer is stored as the logical complement of its absolute value. Ones-complement notation has the disadvantage that it has two representations of zero. See any book on assembly language programming for details of integer representations.

6.2.1.2 Floating-Point
Floating-point data types model real numbers, but the representations are only approximations for many real values. For example, neither of the fundamental numbers ␲ or e (the base for the natural logarithms) can be correctly represented in floating-point notation. Of course, neither of these numbers can be accurately represented in any finite space. On most computers, floatingpoint numbers are stored in binary, which exacerbates the problem. For example, even the value 0.1 in decimal cannot be represented by a finite number of binary digits.1 Another problem with floating-point types is the loss of accuracy through arithmetic operations. For more information on the problems of floating-point notation, see any book on numerical analysis.
Floating-point values are represented as fractions and exponents, a form that is borrowed from scientific notation. Older computers used a variety of different representations for floating-point values. However, most newer machines use the IEEE Floating-Point Standard 754 format. Language implementors use whatever representation is supported by the hardware. Most languages include two floating-point types, often called float and double. The float type is the standard size, usually being stored in four bytes of memory. The double type is provided for situations where larger fractional parts and/or a larger range of exponents is needed. Double-precision variables usually occupy twice as much storage as float variables and provide at least twice the number of bits of fraction.
The collection of values that can be represented by a floating-point type is defined in terms of precision and range. Precision is the accuracy of the fractional part of a value, measured as the number of bits. Range is a combination of the range of fractions and, more important, the range of exponents.
Figure 6.1 shows the IEEE Floating-Point Standard 754 format for singleand double-precision representation (IEEE, 1985). Details of the IEEE formats can be found in Tanenbaum (2005).

1. 0.1 in decimal is 0.0001100110011 . . . in binary.

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Figure 6.1

8 bits

IEEE floating-point formats: (a) single precision, (b) double precision 23 bits
Fraction

Exponent
Sign bit
(a)

11 bits

52 bits

Exponent

Fraction

Sign bit

(b)

6.2.1.3 Complex
Some programming languages support a complex data type—for example,
Fortran and Python. Complex values are represented as ordered pairs of floating-point values. In Python, the imaginary part of a complex literal is specified by following it with a j or J—for example,
(7 + 3j)

Languages that support a complex type include operations for arithmetic on complex values.

6.2.1.4 Decimal
Most larger computers that are designed to support business systems applications have hardware support for decimal data types. Decimal data types store a fixed number of decimal digits, with the decimal point at a fixed position in the value. These are the primary data types for business data processing and are therefore essential to COBOL. C# and F# also have decimal data types.
Decimal types have the advantage of being able to precisely store decimal values, at least those within a restricted range, which cannot be done with floating-point. For example, the number 0.1 (in decimal) can be exactly represented in a decimal type, but not in a floating-point type, as we saw in
Section 6.2.1.2. The disadvantages of decimal types are that the range of values is restricted because no exponents are allowed, and their representation in memory is mildly wasteful, for reasons discussed in the following paragraph.
Decimal types are stored very much like character strings, using binary codes for the decimal digits. These representations are called binary coded decimal (BCD). In some cases, they are stored one digit per byte, but in others, they are packed two digits per byte. Either way, they take more storage than binary representations. It takes at least four bits to code a decimal digit. Therefore, to store a six-digit coded decimal number requires 24 bits of memory.

6.2

Primitive Data Types

249

However, it takes only 20 bits to store the same number in binary.2 The operations on decimal values are done in hardware on machines that have such capabilities; otherwise, they are simulated in software.

6.2.2

Boolean Types
Boolean types are perhaps the simplest of all types. Their range of values has only two elements: one for true and one for false. They were introduced in ALGOL 60 and have been included in most general-purpose languages designed since 1960. One popular exception is C89, in which numeric expressions are used as conditionals. In such expressions, all operands with nonzero values are considered true, and zero is considered false. Although C99 and C++ have a Boolean type, they also allow numeric expressions to be used as if they were Boolean. This is not the case in the subsequent languages, Java and C#.
Boolean types are often used to represent switches or flags in programs.
Although other types, such as integers, can be used for these purposes, the use of Boolean types is more readable.
A Boolean value could be represented by a single bit, but because a single bit of memory cannot be accessed efficiently on many machines, they are often stored in the smallest efficiently addressable cell of memory, typically a byte.

6.2.3

Character Types
Character data are stored in computers as numeric codings. Traditionally, the most commonly used coding was the 8-bit code ASCII (American Standard
Code for Information Interchange), which uses the values 0 to 127 to code 128 different characters. ISO 8859-1 is another 8-bit character code, but it allows
256 different characters. Ada 95+ uses ISO 8859-1.
Because of the globalization of business and the need for computers to communicate with other computers around the world, the ASCII character set became inadequate. In response, in 1991, the Unicode Consortium published the UCS-2 standard, a 16-bit character set. This character code is often called
Unicode. Unicode includes the characters from most of the world’s natural languages. For example, Unicode includes the Cyrillic alphabet, as used in
Serbia, and the Thai digits. The first 128 characters of Unicode are identical to those of ASCII. Java was the first widely used language to use the Unicode character set. Since then, it has found its way into JavaScript, Python, Perl,
C#, and F#.
After 1991, the Unicode Consortium, in cooperation with the International Standards Organization (ISO), developed a 4-byte character code named
UCS-4, or UTF-32, which is described in the ISO/IEC 10646 Standard, published in 2000.

2. Of course, unless a program needs to maintain a large number of large decimal values, the difference is insignificant.

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To provide the means of processing codings of single characters, most programming languages include a primitive type for them. However, Python supports single characters only as character strings of length 1.

6.3 Character String Types
A character string type is one in which the values consist of sequences of characters. Character string constants are used to label output, and the input and output of all kinds of data are often done in terms of strings. Of course, character strings also are an essential type for all programs that do character manipulation. 6.3.1

Design Issues
The two most important design issues that are specific to character string types are the following:
• Should strings be simply a special kind of character array or a primitive type?
• Should strings have static or dynamic length?

6.3.2

Strings and Their Operations
The most common string operations are assignment, catenation, substring reference, comparison, and pattern matching.
A substring reference is a reference to a substring of a given string. Substring references are discussed in the more general context of arrays, where the substring references are called slices.
In general, both assignment and comparison operations on character strings are complicated by the possibility of string operands of different lengths.
For example, what happens when a longer string is assigned to a shorter string, or vice versa? Usually, simple and sensible choices are made for these situations, although programmers often have trouble remembering them.
Pattern matching is another fundamental character string operation. In some languages, pattern matching is supported directly in the language. In others, it is provided by a function or class library.
If strings are not defined as a primitive type, string data is usually stored in arrays of single characters and referenced as such in the language. This is the approach taken by C and C++.
C and C++ use char arrays to store character strings. These languages provide a collection of string operations through standard libraries. Many uses of strings and many of the library functions use the convention that character strings are terminated with a special character, null, which is represented with zero. This is an alternative to maintaining the length of string variables. The library operations simply carry out their operations until the null character appears in the string being operated on. Library functions that produce strings often supply

6.3

Character String Types

251

the null character. The character string literals that are built by the compiler also have the null character. For example, consider the following declaration: char str[] = "apples";

In this example, str is an array of char elements, specifically apples0, where
0 is the null character.
Some of the most commonly used library functions for character strings in C and C++ are strcpy, which moves strings; strcat, which catenates one given string onto another; strcmp, which lexicographically compares
(by the order of their character codes) two given strings; and strlen, which returns the number of characters, not counting the null, in the given string.
The parameters and return values for most of the string manipulation functions are char pointers that point to arrays of char. Parameters can also be string literals.
The string manipulation functions of the C standard library, which are also available in C++, are inherently unsafe and have led to numerous programming errors. The problem is that the functions in this library that move string data do not guard against overflowing the destination. For example, consider the following call to strcpy:

his t or y n o t e

strcpy(dest, src);

If the length of dest is 20 and the length of src is 50, strcpy will write over the 30 bytes that follow dest. The point is that strcpy does not know the length of dest, so it cannot ensure that the memory following it will not be overwritten. The same problem can occur with several of the other functions in the C string library. In addition to C-style strings, C++ also supports strings through its standard class library, which is also similar to that of Java.
Because of the insecurities of the C string library, C++ programmers should use the string class from the standard library, rather than char arrays and the C string library.
In Java, strings are supported by the String class, whose values are constant strings, and the StringBuffer class, whose values are changeable and are more like arrays of single characters. These values are specified with methods of the StringBuffer class. C# and Ruby include string classes that are similar to those of Java.
Python includes strings as a primitive type and has operations for substring reference, catenation, indexing to access individual characters, as well as methods for searching and replacement. There is also an operation for character membership in a string. So, even though Python’s strings are primitive types, for character and substring references, they act very much like arrays of characters. However,
Python strings are immutable, similar to the String class objects of Java.
In F#, strings are a class. Individual characters, which are represented in
Unicode UTF-16, can be accessed, but not changed. Strings can be catenated with the + operator. In ML, string is a primitive immutable type. It uses ^ for

SNOBOL 4 was the first widely known language to support pattern matching.

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its catenation operator and includes functions for substring referencing and getting the size of a string.
Perl, JavaScript, Ruby, and PHP include built-in pattern-matching operations. In these languages, the pattern-matching expressions are somewhat loosely based on mathematical regular expressions. In fact, they are often called regular expressions. They evolved from the early UNIX line editor, ed, to become part of the UNIX shell languages. Eventually, they grew to their current complex form. There is at least one complete book on this kind of patternmatching expressions (Friedl, 2006). In this section, we provide a brief look at the style of these expressions through two relatively simple examples.
Consider the following pattern expression:
/[A-Za-z][A-Za-z\d]+/

This pattern matches (or describes) the typical name form in programming languages. The brackets enclose character classes. The first character class specifies all letters; the second specifies all letters and digits (a digit is specified with the abbreviation \d). If only the second character class were included, we could not prevent a name from beginning with a digit. The plus operator following the second category specifies that there must be one or more of what is in the category. So, the whole pattern matches strings that begin with a letter, followed by one or more letters or digits.
Next, consider the following pattern expression:
/\d+\.?\d*|\.\d+/

This pattern matches numeric literals. The \. specifies a literal decimal point.3
The question mark quantifies what it follows to have zero or one appearance.
The vertical bar (|) separates two alternatives in the whole pattern. The first alternative matches strings of one or more digits, possibly followed by a decimal point, followed by zero or more digits; the second alternative matches strings that begin with a decimal point, followed by one or more digits.
Pattern-matching capabilities using regular expressions are included in the class libraries of C++, Java, Python, C#, and F#.

6.3.3

String Length Options
There are several design choices regarding the length of string values. First, the length can be static and set when the string is created. Such a string is called a static length string. This is the choice for the strings of Python, the immutable objects of Java’s String class, as well as similar classes in the C++ standard class library, Ruby’s built-in String class, and the .NET class library available to C# and F#.
3. The period must be “escaped” with the backslash because period has special meaning in a regular expression.

6.3

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253

The second option is to allow strings to have varying length up to a declared and fixed maximum set by the variable’s definition, as exemplified by the strings in C and the C-style strings of C++. These are called limited dynamic length strings. Such string variables can store any number of characters between zero and the maximum. Recall that strings in C use a special character to indicate the end of the string’s characters, rather than maintaining the string length.
The third option is to allow strings to have varying length with no maximum, as in JavaScript, Perl, and the standard C++ library. These are called dynamic length strings. This option requires the overhead of dynamic storage allocation and deallocation but provides maximum flexibility.
Ada 95+ supports all three string length options.

6.3.4

Evaluation
String types are important to the writability of a language. Dealing with strings as arrays can be more cumbersome than dealing with a primitive string type.
For example, consider a language that treats strings as arrays of characters and does not have a predefined function that does what strcpy in C does.
Then, a simple assignment of one string to another would require a loop. The addition of strings as a primitive type to a language is not costly in terms of either language or compiler complexity. Therefore, it is difficult to justify the omission of primitive string types in some contemporary languages. Of course, providing strings through a standard library is nearly as convenient as having them as a primitive type.
String operations such as simple pattern matching and catenation are essential and should be included for string type values. Although dynamiclength strings are obviously the most flexible, the overhead of their implementation must be weighed against that additional flexibility.

6.3.5

Implementation of Character String Types
Character string types could be supported directly in hardware; but in most cases, software is used to implement string storage, retrieval, and manipulation.
When character string types are represented as character arrays, the language often supplies few operations.
A descriptor for a static character string type, which is required only during compilation, has three fields. The first field of every descriptor is the name of the type. In the case of static character strings, the second field is the type’s length (in characters). The third field is the address of the first character. This descriptor is shown in Figure 6.2. Limited dynamic strings require a run-time descriptor to store both the fixed maximum length and the current length, as shown in Figure 6.3. Dynamic length strings require a simpler run-time descriptor because only the current length needs to be stored. Although we depict descriptors as independent blocks of storage, in most cases, they are stored in the symbol table.

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Figure 6.2
Compile-time descriptor for static strings

Data Types
Static string
Length
Address

Figure 6.3
Run-time descriptor for limited dynamic strings

Limited dynamic string
Maximum length
Current length
Address

The limited dynamic strings of C and C++ do not require run-time descriptors, because the end of a string is marked with the null character. They do not need the maximum length, because index values in array references are not range-checked in these languages.
Static length and limited dynamic length strings require no special dynamic storage allocation. In the case of limited dynamic length strings, sufficient storage for the maximum length is allocated when the string variable is bound to storage, so only a single allocation process is involved.
Dynamic length strings require more complex storage management. The length of a string, and therefore the storage to which it is bound, must grow and shrink dynamically.
There are three approaches to supporting the dynamic allocation and deallocation that is required for dynamic length strings. First, strings can be stored in a linked list, so that when a string grows, the newly required cells can come from anywhere in the heap. The drawbacks to this method are the extra storage occupied by the links in the list representation and the necessary complexity of string operations.
The second approach is to store strings as arrays of pointers to individual characters allocated in the heap. This method still uses extra memory, but string processing can be faster than with the linked-list approach.
The third alternative is to store complete strings in adjacent storage cells. The problem with this method arises when a string grows: How can storage that is adjacent to the existing cells continue to be allocated for the string variable? Frequently, such storage is not available. Instead, a new area of memory is found that can store the complete new string, and the old part is moved to this area. Then, the memory cells used for the old string are deallocated. This latter approach is the one typically used. The general problem of managing allocation and deallocation of variable-size segments is discussed in Section 6.11.8.3.
Although the linked-list method requires more storage, the associated allocation and deallocation processes are simple. However, some string

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User-Defined Ordinal Types

255

operations are slowed by the required pointer chasing. On the other hand, using adjacent memory for complete strings results in faster string operations and requires significantly less storage, but the allocation and deallocation processes are slower.

6.4 User-Defined Ordinal Types
An ordinal type is one in which the range of possible values can be easily associated with the set of positive integers. In Java, for example, the primitive ordinal types are integer, char, and boolean. There are two user-defined ordinal types that have been supported by programming languages: enumeration and subrange.

6.4.1

Enumeration Types
An enumeration type is one in which all of the possible values, which are named constants, are provided, or enumerated, in the definition. Enumeration types provide a way of defining and grouping collections of named constants, which are called enumeration constants. The definition of a typical enumeration type is shown in the following C# example: enum days {Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun};

The enumeration constants are typically implicitly assigned the integer values, 0, 1, . . . but can be explicitly assigned any integer literal in the type’s definition. The design issues for enumeration types are as follows:
• Is an enumeration constant allowed to appear in more than one type definition, and if so, how is the type of an occurrence of that constant in the program checked?
• Are enumeration values coerced to integer?
• Are any other types coerced to an enumeration type?
All of these design issues are related to type checking. If an enumeration variable is coerced to a numeric type, then there is little control over its range of legal operations or its range of values. If an int type value is coerced to an enumeration type, then an enumeration type variable could be assigned any integer value, whether it represented an enumeration constant or not.

6.4.1.1 Designs
In languages that do not have enumeration types, programmers usually simulate them with integer values. For example, suppose we needed to represent colors in a C program and C did not have an enumeration type. We might use

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0 to represent blue, 1 to represent red, and so forth. These values could be defined as follows: int red = 0, blue = 1;

Now, in the program, we could use red and blue as if they were of a color type. The problem with this approach is that because we have not defined a type for our colors, there is no type checking when they are used.
For example, it would be legal to add the two together, although that would rarely be an intended operation. They could also be combined with any other numeric type operand using any arithmetic operator, which would also rarely be useful. Furthermore, because they are just variables, they could be assigned any integer value, thereby destroying the relationship with the colors. This latter problem could be prevented by making them named constants.
C and Pascal were the first widely used languages to include an enumeration data type. C++ includes C’s enumeration types. In C++, we could have the following: enum colors {red, blue, green, yellow, black}; colors myColor = blue, yourColor = red;

The colors type uses the default internal values for the enumeration constants, 0, 1, . . . , although the constants could have been assigned any integer literal (or any constant-valued expression). The enumeration values are coerced to int when they are put in integer context. This allows their use in any numeric expression. For example, if the current value of myColor is blue, then the expression myColor++ would assign green to myColor.
C++ also allows enumeration constants to be assigned to variables of any numeric type, though that would likely be an error. However, no other type value is coerced to an enumeration type in C++. For example, myColor = 4;

is illegal in C++. This assignment would be legal if the right side had been cast to colors type. This prevents some potential errors.
C++ enumeration constants can appear in only one enumeration type in the same referencing environment.
In Ada, enumeration literals are allowed to appear in more than one declaration in the same referencing environment. These are called overloaded literals. The rule for resolving the overloading—that is, deciding the type of an occurrence of such a literal—is that it must be determinable

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257

from the context of its appearance. For example, if an overloaded literal and an enumeration variable are compared, the literal’s type is resolved to be that of the variable. In some cases, the programmer must indicate some type specification for an occurrence of an overloaded literal to avoid a compilation error.
Because neither the enumeration literals nor the enumeration variables in Ada are coerced to integers, both the range of operations and the range of values of enumeration types are restricted, allowing many programmer errors to be compiler detected.
In 2004, an enumeration type was added to Java in Java 5.0. All enumeration types in Java are implicitly subclasses of the predefined class Enum. Because enumeration types are classes, they can have instance data fields, constructors, and methods. Syntactically, Java enumeration type definitions appear like those of C++, except that they can include fields, constructors, and methods. The possible values of an enumeration are the only possible instances of the class.
All enumeration types inherit toString, as well as a few other methods. An array of the instances of an enumeration type can be fetched with the static method values. The internal numeric value of an enumeration variable can be fetched with the ordinal method. No expression of any other type can be assigned to an enumeration variable. Also, an enumeration variable is never coerced to any other type.
C# enumeration types are like those of C++, except that they are never coerced to integer. So, operations on enumeration types are restricted to those that make sense. Also, the range of values is restricted to that of the particular enumeration type.
In ML, enumeration types are defined as new types with datatype declarations. For example, we could have the following: datatype weekdays =
Thursday | Friday

Monday | Tuesday | Wednesday |

The types of the elements of weekdays is integer.
F# has enumeration types that are similar to those of ML, except the reserved word type is used instead of datatype and the first value is preceded by an OR operator (|).
Interestingly, none of the relatively recent scripting kinds of languages include enumeration types. These include Perl, JavaScript, PHP, Python,
Ruby, and Lua. Even Java was a decade old before enumeration types were added.

6.4.1.2 Evaluation
Enumeration types can provide advantages in both readability and reliability. Readability is enhanced very directly: Named values are easily recognized, whereas coded values are not.

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In the area of reliability, the enumeration types of Ada, C#, F#, and Java
5.0 provide two advantages: (1) No arithmetic operations are legal on enumeration types; this prevents adding days of the week, for example, and
(2) second, no enumeration variable can be assigned a value outside its defined range.4 If the colors enumeration type has 10 enumeration constants and uses 0..9 as its internal values, no number greater than 9 can be assigned to a colors type variable.
Because C treats enumeration variables like integer variables, it does not provide either of these two advantages.
C++ is a little better. Numeric values can be assigned to enumeration type variables only if they are cast to the type of the assigned variable. Numeric values assigned to enumeration type variables are checked to determine whether they are in the range of the internal values of the enumeration type. Unfortunately, if the user uses a wide range of explicitly assigned values, this checking is not effective. For example, enum colors {red = 1, blue = 1000, green = 100000}

In this example, a value assigned to a variable of colors type will only be checked to determine whether it is in the range of 1..100000.

6.4.2

Subrange Types
A subrange type is a contiguous subsequence of an ordinal type. For example,
12..14 is a subrange of integer type. Subrange types were introduced by
Pascal and are included in Ada. There are no design issues that are specific to subrange types.

6.4.2.1 Ada’s Design
In Ada, subranges are included in the category of types called subtypes. As was stated in Chapter 5, subtypes are not new types; rather, they are new names for possibly restricted, or constrained, versions of existing types. For example, consider the following declarations: type Days is (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun); subtype Weekdays is Days range Mon..Fri; subtype Index is Integer range 1..100;

In these examples, the restriction on the existing types is in the range of possible values. All of the operations defined for the parent type are also defined

4. In C# and F#, an integer value can be cast to an enumeration type and assigned to the name of an enumeration variable. Such values must be tested with Enum.IsDefined method before assigning them to the name of an enumeration variable.

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259

for the subtype, except assignment of values outside the specified range. For example, in
Day1 : Days;
Day2 : Weekdays;
...
Day2 := Day1;

the assignment is legal unless the value of Day1 is Sat or Sun.
The compiler must generate range-checking code for every assignment to a subrange variable. While types are checked for compatibility at compile time, subranges require run-time range checking.
One of the most common uses of user-defined ordinal types is for the indices of arrays, as will be discussed in Section 6.5. They can also be used for loop variables. In fact, subranges of ordinal types are the only way the range of
Ada for loop variables can be specified.

6.4.2.2 Evaluation
Subrange types enhance readability by making it clear to readers that variables of subtypes can store only certain ranges of values. Reliability is increased with subrange types, because assigning a value to a subrange variable that is outside the specified range is detected as an error, either by the compiler (in the case of the assigned value being a literal value) or by the run-time system (in the case of a variable or expression). It is odd that no contemporary language except
Ada has subrange types.

6.4.3

Implementation of User-Defined Ordinal Types
As discussed earlier, enumeration types are usually implemented as integers.
Without restrictions on ranges of values and operations, this provides no increase in reliability.
Subrange types are implemented in exactly the same way as their parent types, except that range checks must be implicitly included by the compiler in every assignment of a variable or expression to a subrange variable. This step increases code size and execution time, but is usually considered well worth the cost. Also, a good optimizing compiler can optimize away some of the checking.

6.5 Array Types
An array is a homogeneous aggregate of data elements in which an individual element is identified by its position in the aggregate, relative to the first element. The individual data elements of an array are of the same type. References to individual array elements are specified using subscript expressions. If any of the subscript expressions in a reference include variables, then the reference

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will require an additional run-time calculation to determine the address of the memory location being referenced.
In many languages, such as C, C++, Java, Ada, and C#, all of the elements of an array are required to be of the same type. In these languages, pointers and references are restricted to point to or reference a single type. So the objects or data values being pointed to or referenced are also of a single type. In some other languages, such as JavaScript, Python, and Ruby, variables are typeless references to objects or data values. In these cases, arrays still consist of elements of a single type, but the elements can reference objects or data values of different types. Such arrays are still homogeneous, because the array elements are of the same type.
C# and Java 5.0 provide generic arrays, that is, arrays whose elements are references to objects, through their class libraries. These are discussed in
Section 6.5.3.

6.5.1

Design Issues
The primary design issues specific to arrays are the following:








What types are legal for subscripts?
Are subscripting expressions in element references range checked?
When are subscript ranges bound?
When does array allocation take place?
Are ragged or rectangular multidimensioned arrays allowed, or both?
Can arrays be initialized when they have their storage allocated?
What kinds of slices are allowed, if any?

In the following sections, examples of the design choices made for the arrays of the most common programming languages are discussed.

6.5.2

Arrays and Indices

Specific elements of an array are referenced by means of a two-level syntactic mechanism, where the first part is the aggregate name, and the second part is a possibly dynamic selector consisting of one or more items known as subscripts or indices. If all of the subscripts in a reference are constants, the selector is static; otherwise, it is dynamic. The selection operation can be thought of as a mapping from the array name and the set of subh is t or y n ot e script values to an element in the aggregate. Indeed, arrays are sometimes called finite mappings. Symbolically, this mapping
The designers of pre-90 Forcan be shown as trans and PL/I chose parentheses for array subscripts because no other suitable characters were available at the time. Card punches did not include bracket characters.

array_name(subscript_value_list) → element
The syntax of array references is fairly universal: The array name is followed by the list of subscripts, which is surrounded by either parentheses or brackets. In some languages that provide multidimensioned arrays as arrays of arrays, each subscript

6.5

his t or y n o t e
Fortran I limited the number of array subscripts to three, because at the time of the design, execution efficiency was a primary concern. Fortran
I designers had developed a very fast method for accessing the elements of arrays of up to three dimensions, using the three index registers of the IBM
704. Fortran IV was first implemented on an IBM 7094, which had seven index registers. This allowed Fortran IV’s designers to allow arrays with up to seven subscripts. Most other contemporary languages enforce no such limits.

Array Types

261

appears in its own brackets. A problem with using parentheses to enclose subscript expressions is that they often are also used to enclose the parameters in subprogram calls; this use makes references to arrays appear exactly like those calls. For example, consider the following Ada assignment statement:
Sum := Sum + B(I);

Because parentheses are used for both subprogram parameters and array subscripts in Ada, both program readers and compilers are forced to use other information to determine whether B(I) in this assignment is a function call or a reference to an array element. This results in reduced readability.
The designers of Ada specifically chose parentheses to enclose subscripts so there would be uniformity between array references and function calls in expressions, in spite of potential readability problems. They made this choice in part because both array element references and function calls are mappings. Array element references map the subscripts to a particular element of the array. Function calls map the actual parameters to the function definition and, eventually, a functional value.
Most languages other than Fortran and Ada use brackets to delimit their array indices.
Two distinct types are involved in an array type: the element type and the type of the subscripts. The type of the subscripts is often a subrange of integers, but Ada allows any ordinal type to be used as subscripts, such as Boolean, character, and enumeration. For example, in Ada one could have the following:

type Week_Day_Type is (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
Thursday, Friday); type Sales is array (Week_Day_Type) of Float;

An Ada for loop can use any ordinal type variable for its counter, as we will see in Chapter 8. This allows arrays with ordinal type subscripts to be conveniently processed.
Early programming languages did not specify that subscript ranges must be implicitly checked. Range errors in subscripts are common in programs, so requiring range checking is an important factor in the reliability of languages.
Many contemporary languages do not specify range checking of subscripts, but
Java, ML, and C# do. By default, Ada checks the range of all subscripts, but this feature can be disabled by the programmer.
Subscripting in Perl is a bit unusual in that although the names of all arrays begin with at signs (@), because array elements are always scalars and the names of scalars always begin with dollar signs ($), references to array elements use dollar signs rather than at signs in their names. For example, for the array @list, the second element is referenced with $list[1].

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One can reference an array element in Perl with a negative subscript, in which case the subscript value is an offset from the end of the array. For example, if the array @list has five elements with the subscripts 0..4, $list[-2] references the element with the subscript 3. A reference to a nonexistent element in Perl yields undef, but no error is reported.

6.5.3

Subscript Bindings and Array Categories
The binding of the subscript type to an array variable is usually static, but the subscript value ranges are sometimes dynamically bound.
In some languages, the lower bound of the subscript range is implicit. For example, in the C-based languages, the lower bound of all subscript ranges is fixed at 0; in Fortran 95+ it defaults to 1 but can be set to any integer literal.
In some other languages, the lower bounds of the subscript ranges must be specified by the programmer.
There are five categories of arrays, based on the binding to subscript ranges, the binding to storage, and from where the storage is allocated. The category names indicate the design choices of these three. In the first four of these categories, once the subscript ranges are bound and the storage is allocated, they remain fixed for the lifetime of the variable. Keep in mind that when the subscript ranges are fixed, the array cannot change size.
A static array is one in which the subscript ranges are statically bound and storage allocation is static (done before run time). The advantage of static arrays is efficiency: No dynamic allocation or deallocation is required. The disadvantage is that the storage for the array is fixed for the entire execution time of the program.
A fixed stack-dynamic array is one in which the subscript ranges are statically bound, but the allocation is done at declaration elaboration time during execution. The advantage of fixed stack-dynamic arrays over static arrays is space efficiency. A large array in one subprogram can use the same space as a large array in a different subprogram, as long as both subprograms are not active at the same time. The same is true if the two arrays are in different blocks that are not active at the same time. The disadvantage is the required allocation and deallocation time.
A stack-dynamic array is one in which both the subscript ranges and the storage allocation are dynamically bound at elaboration time. Once the subscript ranges are bound and the storage is allocated, however, they remain fixed during the lifetime of the variable. The advantage of stack-dynamic arrays over static and fixed stack-dynamic arrays is flexibility. The size of an array need not be known until the array is about to be used.
A fixed heap-dynamic array is similar to a fixed stack-dynamic array, in that the subscript ranges and the storage binding are both fixed after storage is allocated.
The differences are that both the subscript ranges and storage bindings are done when the user program requests them during execution, and the storage is allocated from the heap, rather than the stack. The advantage of fixed heap-dynamic arrays is flexibility—the array’s size always fits the problem. The disadvantage is allocation time from the heap, which is longer than allocation time from the stack.

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263

A heap-dynamic array is one in which the binding of subscript ranges and storage allocation is dynamic and can change any number of times during the array’s lifetime. The advantage of heap-dynamic arrays over the others is flexibility: Arrays can grow and shrink during program execution as the need for space changes. The disadvantage is that allocation and deallocation take longer and may happen many times during execution of the program. Examples of the five categories are given in the following paragraphs.
Arrays declared in C and C++ functions that include the static modifier are static.
Arrays that are declared in C and C++ functions (without the static specifier) are examples of fixed stack-dynamic arrays.
Ada arrays can be stack dynamic, as in the following:
Get(List_Len);
declare
List : array (1..List_Len) of Integer; begin ... end; In this example, the user inputs the number of desired elements for the array
List. The elements are then dynamically allocated when execution reaches the declare block. When execution reaches the end of the block, the List array is deallocated.
C and C++ also provide fixed heap-dynamic arrays. The standard C library functions malloc and free, which are general heap allocation and deallocation operations, respectively, can be used for C arrays. C++ uses the operators new and delete to manage heap storage. An array is treated as a pointer to a collection of storage cells, where the pointer can be indexed, as discussed in
Section 6.11.5.
In Java, all non-generic arrays are fixed heap-dynamic. Once created, these arrays keep the same subscript ranges and storage. C# also provides the same kind of arrays.
C# also provides generic heap-dynamic arrays, which are objects of the
List class. These array objects are created without any elements, as in
List stringList = new List();

Elements are added to this object with the Add method, as in stringList.Add("Michael"); Access to elements of these arrays is through subscripting.
Java includes a generic class similar to C#’s List, named ArrayList. It is different from C#’s List in that subscripting is not supported—get and set methods must be used to access the elements.

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A Perl array can be made to grow by using the push ( puts one or more new elements on the end of the array) and unshift ( puts one or more new elements on the beginning of the array), or by assigning a value to the array specifying a subscript beyond the highest current subscript of the array. An array can be made to shrink to no elements by assigning it the empty list, ().
The length of an array is defined to be the largest subscript plus one.
Like Perl, JavaScript allows arrays to grow with the push and unshift methods and shrink by setting them to the empty list. However, negative subscripts are not supported.
JavaScript arrays can be sparse, meaning the subscript values need not be contiguous. For example, suppose we have an array named list that has 10 elements with the subscripts 0..9.5 Consider the following assignment statement: list[50] = 42;

Now, list has 11 elements and length 51. The elements with subscripts
11..49 are not defined and therefore do not require storage. A reference to a nonexistent element in a JavaScript array yields undefined.
Arrays in Python, Ruby, and Lua can be made to grow only through methods to add elements or catenate other arrays. Ruby and Lua support negative subscripts, but Python does not. In Python, Ruby, and Lua an element or slice of an array can be deleted. A reference to a nonexistent element in Python results in a run-time error, whereas a similar reference in Ruby and Lua yields nil and no error is reported.
Although the ML definition does not include arrays, its widely used implementation, SML/NJ, does.
The only predefined collection type that is part of F# is the array (other collection types are provided through the .NET Framework Library). These arrays are like those of C#. A foreach statement is included in the language for array processing.

6.5.4

Array Initialization
Some languages provide the means to initialize arrays at the time their storage is allocated. In Fortran 95+, an array can be initialized by assigning it an array aggregate in its declaration. An array aggregate for a single-dimensioned array is a list of literals delimited by parentheses and slashes. For example, we could have
Integer, Dimension (3) :: List = (/0, 5, 5/)

C, C++, Java, and C# also allow initialization of their arrays, but with one new twist: In the C declaration int list [] = {4, 5, 7, 83};
5. The subscript range could just as easily have been 1000 . . 1009.

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265

the compiler sets the length of the array. This is meant to be a convenience but is not without cost. It effectively removes the possibility that the system could detect some kinds of programmer errors, such as mistakenly leaving a value out of the list.
As discussed in Section 6.3.2, character strings in C and C++ are implemented as arrays of char. These arrays can be initialized to string constants, as in char name [] = "freddie";

The array name will have eight elements, because all strings are terminated with a null character (zero), which is implicitly supplied by the system for string constants.
Arrays of strings in C and C++ can also be initialized with string literals. In this case, the array is one of pointers to characters. For example, char *names [] = {"Bob", "Jake", "Darcie"};

This example illustrates the nature of character literals in C and C++. In the previous example of a string literal being used to initialize the char array name, the literal is taken to be a char array. But in the latter example (names), the literals are taken to be pointers to characters, so the array is an array of pointers to characters. For example, names[0] is a pointer to the letter 'B' in the literal character array that contains the characters 'B', 'o', 'b', and the null character.
In Java, similar syntax is used to define and initialize an array of references to String objects. For example,
String[] names = ["Bob", "Jake", "Darcie"];

Ada provides two mechanisms for initializing arrays in the declaration statement: by listing them in the order in which they are to be stored, or by directly assigning them to an index position using the => operator, which in
Ada is called an arrow. For example, consider the following:
List : array (1..5) of Integer := (1, 3, 5, 7, 9);
Bunch : array (1..5) of Integer := (1 => 17, 3 => 34, others => 0);

In the first statement, all the elements of the array List have initializing values, which are assigned to the array element locations in the order in which they appear. In the second, the first and third array elements are initialized using direct assignment, and the others clause is used to initialize the remaining elements. As with Fortran, these parenthesized lists of values are called aggregate values.

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6.5.5

Data Types

Array Operations
An array operation is one that operates on an array as a unit. The most common array operations are assignment, catenation, comparison for equality and inequality, and slices, which are discussed separately in Section 6.5.5.
The C-based languages do not provide any array operations, except through the methods of Java, C++, and C#. Perl supports array assignments but does not support comparisons.
Ada allows array assignments, including those where the right side is an aggregate value rather than an array name. Ada also provides catenation, specified by the ampersand (&). Catenation is defined between two singledimensioned arrays and between a single-dimensioned array and a scalar.
Nearly all types in Ada have the built-in relational operators for equality and inequality. Python’s arrays are called lists, although they have all the characteristics of dynamic arrays. Because the objects can be of any types, these arrays are heterogeneous. Python provides array assignment, although it is only a reference change. Python also has operations for array catenation (+) and element membership (in). It includes two different comparison operators: one that determines whether the two variables reference the same object (is) and one that compares all corresponding objects in the referenced objects, regardless of how deeply they are nested, for equality (==).
Like Python, the elements of Ruby’s arrays are references to objects. And like Python, when a == operator is used between two arrays, the result is true only if the two arrays have the same length and the corresponding elements are equal. Ruby’s arrays can be catenated with an Array method.
Fortran 95+ includes a number of array operations that are called elemental because they are operations between pairs of array elements. For example, the add operator (+) between two arrays results in an array of the sums of the element pairs of the two arrays. The assignment, arithmetic, relational, and logical operators are all overloaded for arrays of any size or shape. Fortran 95+ also includes intrinsic, or library, functions for matrix multiplication, matrix transpose, and vector dot product.
F# includes many array operators in its Array module. Among these are
Array.append, Array.copy, and Array.length.
Arrays and their operations are the heart of APL; it is the most powerful array-processing language ever devised. Because of its relative obscurity and its lack of effect on subsequent languages, however, we present here only a glimpse into its array operations.
In APL, the four basic arithmetic operations are defined for vectors
(single-dimensioned arrays) and matrices, as well as scalar operands. For example, A + B

is a valid expression, whether A and B are scalar variables, vectors, or matrices. 6.5

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APL includes a collection of unary operators for vectors and matrices, some of which are as follows (where V is a vector and M is a matrix):
␾V reverses the elements of V
␾M reverses the columns of M
␪M reverses the rows of M
\
oM transposes M (its rows become its columns and vice versa)
÷M inverts M
APL also includes several special operators that take other operators as operands. One of these is the inner product operator, which is specified with a period (.). It takes two operands, which are binary operators. For example,
+.×

is a new operator that takes two arguments, either vectors or matrices. It first multiplies the corresponding elements of two arguments, and then it sums the results. For example, if A and B are vectors,
A × B

is the mathematical inner product of A and B (a vector of the products of the corresponding elements of A and B). The statement
A +.× B

is the sum of the inner product of A and B. If A and B are matrices, this expression specifies the matrix multiplication of A and B.
The special operators of APL are actually functional forms, which are described in Chapter 15.

6.5.6

Rectangular and Jagged Arrays
A rectangular array is a multidimensioned array in which all of the rows have the same number of elements and all of the columns have the same number of elements. Rectangular arrays model rectangular tables exactly.
A jagged array is one in which the lengths of the rows need not be the same. For example, a jagged matrix may consist of three rows, one with 5 elements, one with 7 elements, and one with 12 elements. This also applies to the columns and higher dimensions. So, if there is a third dimension (layers), each layer can have a different number of elements. Jagged arrays are made possible when multidimensioned arrays are actually arrays of arrays. For example, a matrix would appear as an array of single-dimensioned arrays.
C, C++, and Java support jagged arrays but not rectangular arrays. In those languages, a reference to an element of a multidimensioned array uses a separate pair of brackets for each dimension. For example, myArray[3][7] 268

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Fortran, Ada, C#, and F# support rectangular arrays. (C# and F# also support jagged arrays.) In these cases, all subscript expressions in references to elements are placed in a single pair of brackets. For example, myArray[3, 7]

6.5.7

Slices
A slice of an array is some substructure of that array. For example, if A is a matrix, then the first row of A is one possible slice, as are the last row and the first column. It is important to realize that a slice is not a new data type. Rather, it is a mechanism for referencing part of an array as a unit. If arrays cannot be manipulated as units in a language, that language has no use for slices.
Consider the following Python declarations: vector = [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16] mat = [[1, 2, 3],[4, 5, 6],[7, 8, 9]]

Recall that the default lower bound for Python arrays is 0. The syntax of a
Python slice reference is a pair of numeric expressions separated by a colon. The first is the first subscript of the slice; the second is the first subscript after the last subscript in the slice. Therefore, vector[3:6] is a three-element array with the fourth through sixth elements of vector (those elements with the subscripts 3,
4, and 5). A row of a matrix is specified by giving just one subscript. For example, mat[1] refers to the second row of mat; a part of a row can be specified with the same syntax as a part of a single dimensioned array. For example, mat[0][0:2] refers to the first and second element of the first row of mat, which is [1, 2].
Python also supports more complex slices of arrays. For example, vector[0:7:2] references every other element of vector, up to but not including the element with the subscript 7, starting with the subscript 0, which is
[2, 6, 10, 14].
Perl supports slices of two forms, a list of specific subscripts or a range of subscripts. For example,
@list[1..5] = @list2[3, 5, 7, 9, 13];

Notice that slice references use array names, not scalar names, because slices are arrays (not scalars).
Ruby supports slices with the slice method of its Array object, which can take three forms of parameters. A single integer expression parameter is interpreted as a subscript, in which case slice returns the element with the given subscript. If slice is given two integer expression parameters, the first is interpreted as a beginning subscript and the second is interpreted as the number of elements in the slice. For example, suppose list is defined as follows: list = [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

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269

list.slice(2, 2) returns [6, 8]. The third parameter form for slice is

a range, which has the form of an integer expression, two periods, and a second integer expression. With a range parameter, slice returns an array of the element with the given range of subscripts. For example, list.slice (1..3) returns [4, 6, 8].

6.5.8

Evaluation
Arrays have been included in virtually all programming languages. The primary advances since their introduction in Fortran I have been the inclusion of all ordinal types as possible subscript types, slices, and, of course, dynamic arrays. As discussed in Section 6.6, the latest advances in arrays have been in associative arrays.

6.5.9

Implementation of Array Types
Implementing arrays requires considerably more compile-time effort than does implementing primitive types. The code to allow accessing of array elements must be generated at compile time. At run time, this code must be executed to produce element addresses. There is no way to precompute the address to be accessed by a reference such as list[k] A single-dimensioned array is implemented as a list of adjacent memory cells. Suppose the array list is defined to have a subscript range lower bound of 0. The access function for list is often of the form address(list[k]) = address(list[0]) + k * element_size where the first operand of the addition is the constant part of the access function, and the second is the variable part.
If the element type is statically bound and the array is statically bound to storage, then the value of the constant part can be computed before run time.
However, the addition and multiplication operations must be done at run time.
The generalization of this access function for an arbitrary lower bound is address(list[k]) = address(list[lower_bound]) +
((k - lower_bound) * element_size)
The compile-time descriptor for single-dimensioned arrays can have the form shown in Figure 6.4. The descriptor includes information required to construct the access function. If run-time checking of index ranges is not done and the attributes are all static, then only the access function is required during execution; no descriptor is needed. If run-time checking of index ranges is done, then those index ranges may need to be stored in a run-time descriptor. If the subscript ranges of a particular array type are static, then the ranges may be

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Figure 6.4

Array

Compile-time descriptor for single-dimensioned arrays Element type
Index type
Index lower bound
Index upper bound
Address

incorporated into the code that does the checking, thus eliminating the need for the run-time descriptor. If any of the descriptor entries are dynamically bound, then those parts of the descriptor must be maintained at run time.
True multidimensional arrays, that is, those that are not arrays of arrays, are more complex to implement than single-dimensioned arrays, although the extension to more dimensions is straightforward. Hardware memory is linear— it is usually a simple sequence of bytes. So values of data types that have two or more dimensions must be mapped onto the single-dimensioned memory.
There are two ways in which multidimensional arrays can be mapped to one dimension: row major order and column major order. In row major order, the elements of the array that have as their first subscript the lower bound value of that subscript are stored first, followed by the elements of the second value of the first subscript, and so forth. If the array is a matrix, it is stored by rows. For example, if the matrix had the values
3
6
1

4
2
3

7
5
8

it would be stored in row major order as
3, 4, 7, 6, 2, 5, 1, 3, 8
In column major order, the elements of an array that have as their last subscript the lower bound value of that subscript are stored first, followed by the elements of the second value of the last subscript, and so forth. If the array is a matrix, it is stored by columns. If the example matrix were stored in column major order, it would have the following order in memory:
3, 6, 1, 4, 2, 3, 7, 5, 8
Column major order is used in Fortran, but other languages that have true multidimensional arrays use row major order.
The access function for a multidimensional array is the mapping of its base address and a set of index values to the address in memory of the element specified by the index values. The access function for two-dimensional arrays stored in row major order can be developed as follows. In general, the address

6.5

Array Types

271

Figure 6.5
The location of the
[i,j] element in a matrix of an element is the base address of the structure plus the element size times the number of elements that precede it in the structure. For a matrix in row major order, the number of elements that precedes an element is the number of rows above the element times the size of a row, plus the number of elements to the left of the element. This is illustrated in Figure 6.5, in which we assume that subscript lower bounds are all zero.
To get an actual address value, the number of elements that precede the desired element must be multiplied by the element size. Now, the access function can be written as location(a[i,j]) = address of a[0, 0]
+ ((((number of rows above the ith row) * (size of a row))
+ (number of elements left of the jth column)) * element size)
Because the number of rows above the ith row is i and the number of elements to the left of the jth column is j, we have location(a[i, j]) = address of a[0, 0] + (((i * n) + j) * element_size) where n is the number of elements per row. The first term is the constant part and the last is the variable part.
The generalization to arbitrary lower bounds results in the following access function: location(a[i, j]) = address of a[row_lb, col_lb]
+ (((i - row_lb) * n) + (j - col_lb)) * element_size where row_lb is the lower bound of the rows and col_lb is the lower bound of the columns. This can be rearranged to the form

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location(a[i, j]) = address of a[row_lb, col_lb]
- (((row_lb * n) + col_lb) * element_size)
+ (((i * n) + j) * element_size) where the first two terms are the constant part and the last is the variable part.
This can be generalized relatively easily to an arbitrary number of dimensions.
For each dimension of an array, one add and one multiply instruction are required for the access function. Therefore, accesses to elements of arrays with several subscripts are costly. The compile-time descriptor for a multidimensional array is shown in Figure 6.6.
Figure 6.6
A compile-time descriptor for a multidimensional array

0

6.6 Associative Arrays
An associative array is an unordered collection of data elements that are indexed by an equal number of values called keys. In the case of non-associative arrays, the indices never need to be stored (because of their regularity). In an associative array, however, the user-defined keys must be stored in the structure.
So each element of an associative array is in fact a pair of entities, a key and a value. We use Perl’s design of associative arrays to illustrate this data structure.
Associative arrays are also supported directly by Python, Ruby, and Lua and by the standard class libraries of Java, C++, C#, and F#.
The only design issue that is specific for associative arrays is the form of references to their elements.

6.6.1

Structure and Operations
In Perl, associative arrays are called hashes, because in the implementation their elements are stored and retrieved with hash functions. The namespace for Perl hashes is distinct: Every hash variable name must begin with a percent sign (%). Each hash element consists of two parts: a key, which is a string, and

6.6

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273

a value, which is a scalar (number, string, or reference). Hashes can be set to literal values with the assignment statement, as in
%salaries = ("Gary" => 75000, "Perry" => 57000,
"Mary" => 55750, "Cedric" => 47850);

Individual element values are referenced using notation that is similar to that used for Perl arrays. The key value is placed in braces and the hash name is replaced by a scalar variable name that is the same except for the first character.
Although hashes are not scalars, the value parts of hash elements are scalars, so references to hash element values use scalar names. Recall that scalar variable names begin with dollar signs ($). For example,
$salaries{"Perry"} = 58850;

A new element is added using the same assignment statement form. An element can be removed from the hash with the delete operator, as in delete $salaries{"Gary"};

The entire hash can be emptied by assigning the empty literal to it, as in
@salaries = ();

The size of a Perl hash is dynamic: It grows when an element is added and shrinks when an element is deleted, and also when it is emptied by assignment of the empty literal. The exists operator returns true or false, depending on whether its operand key is an element in the hash. For example, if (exists $salaries{"Shelly"}) . . .

The keys operator, when applied to a hash, returns an array of the keys of the hash. The values operator does the same for the values of the hash. The each operator iterates over the element pairs of a hash.
Python’s associative arrays, which are called dictionaries, are similar to those of Perl, except the values are all references to objects. The associative arrays supported by Ruby are similar to those of Python, except that the keys can be any object,6 rather than just strings. There is a progression from Perl’s hashes, in which the keys must be strings, to PHP’s arrays, in which the keys can be integers or strings, to Ruby’s hashes, in which any type object can be a key.
PHP’s arrays are both normal arrays and associative arrays. They can be treated as either. The language provides functions that allow both indexed and
6. Objects that change do not make good keys, because the changes could change the hash function value. Therefore, arrays and hashes are never used as keys.

in t e r vi ew

Lua
ROBERTO IERUSALIMSCHY
Roberto Ierusalimschy is one of the creators of the scripting language Lua, which is used widely in game development and embedded systems applications. He is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science at Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. (For more information about Lua, visit www.lua.org.) How and where did you first become involved with computing? Before I entered college in 1978, I had no idea about computing. I remember that I tried to read a book on programming in Fortran but did not pass the initial chapter on definitions for variables and constants.
In my first year in college I took a Programming
101 course in Fortran. At that time we ran our programming assignments in an IBM 370 mainframe. We had to punch cards with our code, surround the deck with some fixed JCL cards and give it to an operator.
Some time later (often a few hours) we got a listing with the results, which frequently were only compiler errors.
Soon after that a friend of mine brought from abroad a microcomputer, a Z80 CPU with 4K bytes of memory. We started to do all kinds of programs for this machine, all in assembly—or, more exactly, in machine code, as it did not have an assembler. We wrote our programs in assembly, then translated them by hand to hexadecimal to enter them into memory to run.
Since then I was hooked.

There have been few successful programming languages designed in academic environments in the last 25 years. Although you are an academic,
Lua was designed for very practical applications.
Do you consider Lua an academic or an industrial language? Lua is certainly an industrial language, but with an academic “accent.” Lua was created for two industrial applications, and it has been used in industrial applications all its life. We tried to be very pragmatic on its design. However, except for its first version, we were never under the typical pressure from an industrial environment. We always had the luxury of choosing when to release a new version or of choosing whether to accept user demands. That gave us some latitude that other languages have not enjoyed.

274

More recently, we have done some academic research with Lua. But it is a long process to merge these academic results into the official distribution; more often than not these results have little direct impact on Lua. Nevertheless, there have been some nice exceptions, such as the register-based virtual machine and “ephemeron tables” (to appear in Lua 5.2).

You have said Lua was raised, rather than designed. Can you comment on what you meant and what you think are the benefits of this approach? We meant that most important pieces of
Lua were not present in its first version. The language started as a very small and simple language and got several of its relevant features as it evolved.
Before talking about the benefits (and the drawbacks) of this approach, let me make it clear that we did not choose that approach. We never thought, “let us grow a new language.” It just happened.
I guess that a most difficult part when designing a language is to foresee how different mechanisms will interact in daily use. By raising a language—that is, creating it piece by piece—you may avoid most of those interaction problems, as you can think about each new feature only after the rest of the language is in place and has been tested by real users in real applications.
Of course, this approach has a major drawback, too:
You may arrive at a point where a most-needed new feature is incompatible with what you already have in place.

Lua has changed in a variety of ways since it was first released in 1994. You have said that there have been times when you regretted not including a Boolean type in Lua. Why didn’t you simply add one? This may sound funny, but what we really missed was the value “false”; we had no use for a “true” value.

Like the original LISP, Lua treated nil as false and everything else as true. The problem is that nil also represents an unitialized variable. There was no way to distinguish between an unitialized variable from a false variable. So, we needed a false value, to make that distinction possible. But the true value was useless; a 1 or any other constant was good enough.
I guess this is a typical example where our “industrial” mind conflicted with our “academic” mind. A really pragmatic mind would add the Boolean type without thinking twice. But our academic mind was upset by this inelegance. In the end the pragmatic side won, but it took some time.

What were the most important Lua features, other than the preprocessor, that later became recognized as misfeatures and were removed from the language? I do not remember other big misfeatures. We did remove several features from Lua, but mostly because they were superseded by a new, usually
“better” in some sense, feature. This happened with tag methods (superseded by metamethods), weak references in the C API (superseded by weak tables), and upvalues (superseded by proper lexical scoping).

When a new feature for Lua that would break backward compatibility is considered, how is that decision made? These are always hard decisions.
First, we try to find some other format that could avoid or at least reduce the incompatibility. If that is not possible, we try to provide easy ways around the incompatibility. (For instance, if we remove a function from the core library we may provide a separated implementation that the programmer may incorporate into her code.) Also, we try to measure how difficult it will be to detect and correct the incompatibility. If the new feature creates syntax errors (e.g., a new reserved word), that is not that bad; we may even provide an automatic tool to fix old code. However, if the new feature may produce subtle bugs (e.g., a preexisting function returning a different result), we consider it unacceptable.

Were iterator methods, like those of Ruby, considered for Lua, rather than the for statement that was added? What considerations led to the choice? They were not only considered, they were actually implemented! Since version 3.1 (from 1998),
Lua has had a function “foreach”, that applies a given function to all pairs in a table. Similarly, with

“gsub” it is easy to apply a given function to each character in a string.
Instead of a special “block” mechanism for the iterator body, Lua has used first-class functions for the task. See the next example:
—'t' is a table from names to values
—the next "loop" prints all keys with values greater than 10 foreach(t, function(key, value) if value > 10 then print(key) end end) However, when we first implemented iterators, functions in Lua did not have full lexical scoping. Moreover, the syntax is a little heavy (macros would help). Also, exit statements (break and return) are always confusing when used inside iteration bodies. So, in the end we decided for the for statement.
But “true iterators” are still a useful design in Lua, even more now that functions have proper lexical scoping. In my Lua book, I end the chapter about the for statement with a discussion of true iterators.

Can you briefly describe what you mean when you describe Lua as an extensible extension language? It is an “extensible language” because it is easy to register new functions and types defined in other languages. So it is easy to extend the language. From a more concrete point of view, it is easy to call C from Lua.
It is an “extension language” because it is easy to use Lua to extend an application, to morph Lua into a macro language for the application. (This is “scripting” in its purer meaning.) From a more concrete point of view, it is easy to call Lua from C.

Data structures have evolved from arrays, records, and hashes to combinations of these. Can you estimate the significance of Lua’s tables in the evolution of data structures in programming languages? I do not think the Lua table has had any significance in the evolution of other languages. Maybe that will change in the future, but I am not sure about it. In my view, the main benefit offered by Lua tables is its simplicity, an “all-in-one” solution. But this simplicity has its costs: For instance, static analysis of
Lua programs is very hard, partially because of tables being so generic and ubiquitous. Each language has its own priorities.

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hashed access to elements. An array can have elements that are created with simple numeric indices and elements that are created with string hash keys.
In Lua, the table type is the only data structure. A Lua table is an associative array in which both the keys and the values can be any type. A table can be used as a traditional array, an associative array, or a record (struct). When used as a traditional array or an associative array, brackets are used around the keys.
When used as a record, the keys are the field names and references to fields can use dot notation (record_name.field_name).
The use of Lua’s associative arrays as records is discussed in Section 6.7.
C# and F# support associative arrays through a .NET class.
An associative array is much better than an array if searches of the elements are required, because the implicit hashing operation used to access elements is very efficient. Furthermore, associative arrays are ideal when the data to be stored is paired, as with employee names and their salaries. On the other hand, if every element of a list must be processed, it is more efficient to use an array.

6.6.2

Implementing Associative Arrays
The implementation of Perl’s associative arrays is optimized for fast lookups, but it also provides relatively fast reorganization when array growth requires it. A 32-bit hash value is computed for each entry and is stored with the entry, although an associative array initially uses only a small part of the hash value.
When an associative array must be expanded beyond its initial size, the hash function need not be changed; rather, more bits of the hash value are used.
Only half of the entries must be moved when this happens. So, although expansion of an associative array is not free, it is not as costly as might be expected.
The elements in PHP’s arrays are placed in memory through a hash function. However, all elements are linked together in the order in which they were created. The links are used to support iterative access to elements through the current and next functions.

6.7 Record Types
A record is an aggregate of data elements in which the individual elements are identified by names and accessed through offsets from the beginning of the structure.
There is frequently a need in programs to model a collection of data in which the individual elements are not of the same type or size. For example, information about a college student might include name, student number, grade point average, and so forth. A data type for such a collection might use a character string for the name, an integer for the student number, a floatingpoint for the grade point average, and so forth. Records are designed for this kind of need.
It may appear that records and heterogeneous arrays are the same, but that is not the case. The elements of a heterogeneous array are all references to data

6.7

Record Types

277

objects that reside in scattered locations, often on the heap. The elements of a record are of potentially different sizes and reside in adjacent memory locations.
Records have been part of all of the most popular programming languages, except pre-90 versions of Fortran, since the early 1960s, when they were introduced by COBOL. In some languages that support object-oriented programming, data classes serve as records.
In C, C++, and C#, records are supported with the struct data type. In
C++, structures are a minor variation on classes. In C#, structs are also related to classes, but are also quite different. C# structs are stack-allocated value types, as opposed to class objects, which are heap-allocated reference types. Structs in C++ and C# are normally used as encapsulation structures, rather than data structures. They are further discussed in this capacity in Chapter 11.Structs are also included in ML and F#.
In Python and Ruby, records can be implemented as hashes, which themselves can be elements of arrays.
The following sections describe how records are declared or defined, how references to fields within records are made, and the common record operations. The following design issues are specific to records:
• What is the syntactic form of references to fields?
• Are elliptical references allowed?

6.7.1

Definitions of Records
The fundamental difference between a record and an array is that record elements, or fields, are not referenced by indices. Instead, the fields are named with identifiers, and references to the fields are made using these identifiers.
Another difference between arrays and records is that records in some languages are allowed to include unions, which are discussed in Section 6.10.
The COBOL form of a record declaration, which is part of the data division of a COBOL program, is illustrated in the following example:
01

EMPLOYEE-RECORD.
02 EMPLOYEE-NAME.
05 FIRST
PICTURE
05 MIDDLE PICTURE
05 LAST
PICTURE
02 HOURLY-RATE PICTURE

IS
IS
IS
IS

X(20).
X(10).
X(20).
99V99.

The EMPLOYEE-RECORD record consists of the EMPLOYEE-NAME record and the HOURLY-RATE field. The numerals 01, 02, and 05 that begin the lines of the record declaration are level numbers, which indicate by their relative values the hierarchical structure of the record. Any line that is followed by a line with a higher-level number is itself a record. The PICTURE clauses show the formats of the field storage locations, with X(20) specifying 20 alphanumeric characters and 99V99 specifying four decimal digits with the decimal point in the middle.

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Ada uses a different syntax for records; rather than using the level numbers of COBOL, record structures are indicated in an orthogonal way by simply nesting record declarations inside record declarations. In Ada, records cannot be anonymous—they must be named types. Consider the following Ada declaration: type Employee_Name_Type is record
First : String (1..20);
Middle : String (1..10);
Last : String (1..20); end record; type Employee_Record_Type is record
Employee_Name: Employee_Name_Type;
Hourly_Rate: Float; end record;
Employee_Record: Employee_Record_Type;

In Java and C#, records can be defined as data classes, with nested records defined as nested classes. Data members of such classes serve as the record fields.
As stated previously, Lua’s associative arrays can be conveniently used as records. For example, consider the following declaration: employee.name = "Freddie" employee.hourlyRate = 13.20

These assignment statements create a table (record) named employee with two elements (fields) named name and hourlyRate, both initialized.

6.7.2

References to Record Fields
References to the individual fields of records are syntactically specified by several different methods, two of which name the desired field and its enclosing records. COBOL field references have the form field_name OF record_name_1 OF . . . OF record_name_n where the first record named is the smallest or innermost record that contains the field. The next record name in the sequence is that of the record that contains the previous record, and so forth. For example, the MIDDLE field in the
COBOL record example above can be referenced with
MIDDLE OF EMPLOYEE-NAME OF EMPLOYEE-RECORD

Most of the other languages use dot notation for field references, where the components of the reference are connected with periods. Names in dot notation have the opposite order of COBOL references: They use the name of the largest enclosing record first and the field name last. For example, the following is a reference to the field Middle in the earlier Ada record example:
Employee_Record.Employee_Name.Middle

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Record Types

279

C and C++ use this same syntax for referencing the members of their structures. References to elements in a Lua table can appear in the syntax of record field references, as seen in the assignment statements in Section 6.7.1. Such references could also have the form of normal table elements—for example, employee["name"]. A fully qualified reference to a record field is one in which all intermediate record names, from the largest enclosing record to the specific field, are named in the reference. Both the COBOL and the Ada example field references above are fully qualified. As an alternative to fully qualified references,
COBOL allows elliptical references to record fields. In an elliptical reference, the field is named, but any or all of the enclosing record names can be omitted, as long as the resulting reference is unambiguous in the referencing environment. For example, FIRST, FIRST OF EMPLOYEE-NAME, and FIRST OF
EMPLOYEE-RECORD are elliptical references to the employee’s first name in the
COBOL record declared above. Although elliptical references are a programmer convenience, they require a compiler to have elaborate data structures and procedures in order to correctly identify the referenced field. They are also somewhat detrimental to readability.

6.7.3

Evaluation
Records are frequently valuable data types in programming languages. The design of record types is straightforward, and their use is safe.
Records and arrays are closely related structural forms, and it is therefore interesting to compare them. Arrays are used when all the data values have the same type and/or are processed in the same way. This processing is easily done when there is a systematic way of sequencing through the structure. Such processing is well supported by using dynamic subscripting as the addressing method.
Records are used when the collection of data values is heterogeneous and the different fields are not processed in the same way. Also, the fields of a record often need not be processed in a particular order. Field names are like literal, or constant, subscripts. Because they are static, they provide very efficient access to the fields. Dynamic subscripts could be used to access record fields, but it would disallow type checking and would also be slower.
Records and arrays represent thoughtful and efficient methods of fulfilling two separate but related applications of data structures.

6.7.4

Implementation of Record Types
The fields of records are stored in adjacent memory locations. But because the sizes of the fields are not necessarily the same, the access method used for arrays is not used for records. Instead, the offset address, relative to the beginning of the record, is associated with each field. Field accesses are all handled using these offsets. The compile-time descriptor for a record has the general form shown in Figure 6.7. Run-time descriptors for records are unnecessary.

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Figure 6.7

Record

A compile-time descriptor for a record

Name
Field 1

Type
Offset

Name
Field n

Type
Offset
Address

6.8 Tuple Types
A tuple is a data type that is similar to a record, except that the elements are not named.
Python includes an immutable tuple type. If a tuple needs to be changed, it can be converted to an array with the list function. After the change, it can be converted back to a tuple with the tuple function. One use of tuples is when an array must be write protected, such as when it is sent as a parameter to an external function and the user does not want the function to be able to modify the parameter.
Python’s tuples are closely related to its lists, except that tuples are immutable. A tuple is created by assigning a tuple literal, as in the following example: myTuple = (3, 5.8, 'apple')

Notice that the elements of a tuple need not be of the same type.
The elements of a tuple can be referenced with indexing in brackets, as in the following: myTuple[1] This references the first element of the tuple, because tuple indexing begins at 1.
Tuples can be catenated with the plus (+) operator. They can be deleted with the del statement. There are also other operators and functions that operate on tuples.
ML includes a tuple data type. An ML tuple must have at least two elements, whereas Python’s tuples can be empty or contain one element. As in

6.9

List Types

281

Python, an ML tuple can include elements of mixed types. The following statement creates a tuple: val myTuple = (3, 5.8, 'apple');

The syntax of a tuple element access is as follows:
#1(myTuple);

This references the first element of the tuple.
A new tuple type can be defined in ML with a type declaration, such as the following: type intReal = int * real;

Values of this type consist of an integer and a real.
F# also has tuples. A tuple is created by assigning a tuple value, which is a list of expressions separated by commas and delimited by parentheses, to a name in a let statement. If a tuple has two elements, they can be referenced with the functions fst and snd, respectively. The elements of a tuple with more than two elements are often referenced with a tuple pattern on the left side of a let statement. A tuple pattern is simply a sequence of names, one for each element of the tuple, with or without the delimiting parentheses. When a tuple pattern is the left side of a let construct, it is a multiple assignment. For example, consider the following let constructs: let tup = (3, 5, 7);; let a, b, c = tup;;

This assigns 3 to a, 5 to b, and 7 to c.
Tuples are used in Python, ML, and F# to allow functions to return multiple values.

6.9 List Types
Lists were first supported in the first functional programming language, LISP.
They have always been part of the functional languages, but in recent years they have found their way into some imperative languages.
Lists in Scheme and Common LISP are delimited by parentheses and the elements are not separated by any punctuation. For example,
(A B C D)

Nested lists have the same form, so we could have
(A (B C) D)

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In this list, (B C) is a list nested inside the outer list.
Data and code have the same syntactic form in LISP and its descendants.
If the list (A B C) is interpreted as code, it is a call to the function A with parameters B and C.
The fundamental list operations in Scheme are two functions that take lists apart and two that build lists. The CAR function returns the first element of its list parameter. For example, consider the following example:
(CAR '(A B C))

The quote before the parameter list is to prevent the interpreter from considering the list a call to the A function with the parameters B and C, in which case it would interpret it. This call to CAR returns A.
The CDR function returns its parameter list minus its first element. For example, consider the following example:
(CDR '(A B C))

This function call returns the list (B C).
Common LISP also has the functions FIRST (same as CAR), SECOND, . . . ,
TENTH, which return the element of their list parameters that is specified by their names.
In Scheme and Common LISP, new lists are constructed with the CONS and
LIST functions. The function CONS takes two parameters and returns a new list with its first parameter as the first element and its second parameter as the remainder of that list. For example, consider the following:
(CONS 'A '(B C))

This call returns the new list (A B C).
The LIST function takes any number of parameters and returns a new list with the parameters as its elements. For example, consider the following call to LIST:
(LIST 'A 'B '(C D))

This call returns the new list (A B (C D)).
ML has lists and list operations, although their appearance is not like those of Scheme. Lists are specified in square brackets, with the elements separated by commas, as in the following list of integers:
[5, 7, 9]
[] is the empty list, which could also be specified with nil.
The Scheme CONS function is implemented as a binary infix operator in
ML, represented as ::. For example,
3 :: [5, 7, 9]

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283

returns the following new list: [3, 5, 7, 9].
The elements of a list must be of the same type, so the following list would be illegal:
[5, 7.3, 9]

ML has functions that correspond to Scheme’s CAR and CDR, named hd
(head) and tl (tail). For example, hd [5, 7, 9] is 5 tl [5, 7, 9] is [7, 9]

Lists and list operations in Scheme and ML are more fully discussed in
Chapter 15.
Lists in F# are related to those of ML with a few notable differences. Elements of a list in F# are separated by semicolons, rather than the commas of
ML. The operations hd and tl are the same, but they are called as methods of the List class, as in List.hd [1; 3; 5; 7], which returns 1. The CONS operation of F# is specified as two colons, as in ML.
Python includes a list data type, which also serves as Python’s arrays.
Unlike the lists of Scheme, Common LISP, ML, and F#, the lists of Python are mutable. They can contain any data value or object. A Python list is created with an assignment of a list value to a name. A list value is a sequence of expressions that are separated by commas and delimited with brackets. For example, consider the following statement: myList = [3, 5.8, "grape"]

The elements of a list are referenced with subscripts in brackets, as in the following example: x = myList[1]

This statement assigns 5.8 to x. The elements of a list are indexed starting at zero. List elements also can be updated by assignment. A list element can be deleted with del, as in the following statement: del myList[1]

This statement removes the second element of myList.
Python includes a powerful mechanism for creating arrays called list comprehensions. A list comprehension is an idea derived from set notation. It first appeared in the functional programming language Haskell (see Chapter 15).
The mechanics of a list comprehension is that a function is applied to each of the elements of a given array and a new array is constructed from the results.
The syntax of a Python list comprehension is as follows:

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[expression for iterate_var in array if condition]
Consider the following example:
[x * x for x in range(12) if x % 3 == 0]

The range function creates the array [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12]. The conditional filters out all numbers in the array that are not evenly divisible by 3. Then, the expression squares the remaining numbers.
The results of the squaring are collected in an array, which is returned. This list comprehension returns the following array:
[0, 9, 36, 81]

Slices of lists are also supported in Python.
Haskell’s list comprehensions have the following form:
[body | qualifiers]

For example, consider the following definition of a list:
[n * n | n (i * i) |];;

This statement creates the array [1; 4; 9; 16; 25] and names it myArray.
Recall from Section 6.5 that C# and Java support generic heap-dynamic collection classes, List and ArrayList, respectively. These structures are actually lists.

6.10 Union Types
A union is a type whose variables may store different type values at different times during program execution. As an example of the need for a union type, consider a table of constants for a compiler, which is used to store the constants found in a program being compiled. One field of each table entry is for the value of the constant. Suppose that for a particular language being compiled, the types of constants were integer, floating point, and Boolean. In terms of table management, it would be convenient if the same location, a table field, could store a value of any of these three types. Then all constant values could be addressed in the same way. The type of such a location is, in a sense, the union of the three value types it can store.

6.10

6.10.1

Union Types

285

Design Issues
The problem of type checking union types, which is discussed in Section 6.12, leads to one major design issue. The other fundamental question is how to syntactically represent a union. In some designs, unions are confined to be parts of record structures, but in others they are not. So, the primary design issues that are particular to union types are the following:
• Should type checking be required? Note that any such type checking must be dynamic.
• Should unions be embedded in records?

6.10.2

Discriminated Versus Free Unions
C and C++ provide union constructs in which there is no language support for type checking. In C and C++, the union construct is used to specify union structures. The unions in these languages are called free unions, because programmers are allowed complete freedom from type checking in their use. For example, consider the following C union: union flexType { int intEl; float floatEl;
};
union flexType el1; float x;
...
el1.intEl = 27; x = el1.floatEl;

This last assignment is not type checked, because the system cannot determine the current type of the current value of el1, so it assigns the bit string representation of 27 to the float variable x, which of course is nonsense.
Type checking of unions requires that each union construct include a type indicator. Such an indicator is called a tag, or discriminant, and a union with a discriminant is called a discriminated union. The first language to provide discriminated unions was ALGOL 68. They are now supported by Ada, ML,
Haskell, and F#.

6.10.3

Ada Union Types
The Ada design for discriminated unions, which is based on that of its predecessor language, Pascal, allows the user to specify variables of a variant record type that will store only one of the possible type values in the variant. In this way, the user can tell the system when the type checking can be static. Such a restricted variable is called a constrained variant variable.

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The tag of a constrained variant variable is treated like a named constant.
Unconstrained variant records in Ada allow the values of their variants to change types during execution. However, the type of the variant can be changed only by assigning the entire record, including the discriminant. This disallows inconsistent records because if the newly assigned record is a constant data aggregate, the value of the tag and the type of the variant can be statically checked for consistency.7 If the assigned value is a variable, its consistency was guaranteed when it was assigned, so the new value of the variable now being assigned is sure to be consistent.
The following example shows an Ada variant record: type Shape is (Circle, Triangle, Rectangle); type Colors is (Red, Green, Blue); type Figure (Form : Shape) is record Filled : Boolean;
Color : Colors; case Form is when Circle =>
Diameter : Float; when Triangle =>
Left_Side : Integer;
Right_Side : Integer;
Angle : Float; when Rectangle =>
Side_1 : Integer;
Side_2 : Integer; end case; end record;

The structure of this variant record is shown in Figure 6.8. The following two statements declare variables of type Figure:
Figure_1 : Figure;
Figure_2 : Figure(Form => Triangle);
Figure_1 is declared to be an unconstrained variant record that has no initial value. Its type can change by assignment of a whole record, including the discriminant, as in the following:
Figure_1 := (Filled => True,
Color => Blue,
Form => Rectangle,
Side_1 => 12,
Side_2 => 3);

7. Consistency here means that if the tag indicates the current type of the union is Integer, the current value of the union is in fact Integer.

6.10

Figure 6.8

Union Types

287

Rectangle: Side_1, Side_2

A discriminated union of three shape variables
(assume all variables are the same size)

Circle:Diameter

Triangle: Left_Side, Right_Side, Angle
Discriminant (Form)
Color
Filled

The right side of this assignment is a data aggregate.
The variable Figure_2 is declared constrained to be a triangle and cannot be changed to another variant.
This form of discriminated union is safe, because it always allows type checking, although the references to fields in unconstrained variants must be dynamically checked. For example, suppose we have the following statement: if(Figure_1.Diameter > 3.0) . . .

The run-time system would need to check Figure_1 to determine whether its Form tag was Circle. If it was not, it would be a type error to reference its Diameter.

6.10.4

Unions in F#
A union is declared in F# with a type statement using OR operators (|) to define the components. For example, we could have the following: type intReal =
| IntValue of int
| RealValue of float;;

In this example, intReal is the union type. IntValue and RealValue are constructors. Values of type intReal can be created using the constructors as if they were a function, as in the following examples:8 let ir1 = IntValue 17;; let ir2 = RealValue 3.4;;
8. The let statement is used to assign values to names and to create a static scope; the double semicolons are used to terminate statements when the F# interactive interpreter is being used.

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Accessing the value of a union is done with a pattern-matching structure.
Pattern matching in F# is specified with the match reserved word. The general form of the construct is as follows: match pattern with
| expression_list1 - > expression 1
| ...
| expression_listn - > expression n

The pattern can be any data type. The expression list can include wild card characters ( _ ) or be solely a wild card character. For example, consider the following match construct: let a = 7;; let b = "grape";; let x = match (a, b) with
| 4, "apple" -> apple
| _, "grape" -> grape
| _ -> fruit;;

To display the type of the intReal union, the following function could be used: let printType value = match value with
| IntValue value -> printfn "It is an integer"
| RealValue value -> printfn "It is a float";;

The following lines show calls to this function and the output: printType ir1;;
It is an integer printType ir2;;
It is a float

6.10.5

Evaluation
Unions are potentially unsafe constructs in some languages. They are one of the reasons why C and C++ are not strongly typed: These languages do not allow type checking of references to their unions. On the other hand, unions can be safely used, as in their design in Ada, ML, Haskell, and F#.
Neither Java nor C# includes unions, which may be reflective of the growing concern for safety in some programming languages.

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Pointer and Reference Types

289

Implementation of Union Types
Unions are implemented by simply using the same address for every possible variant. Sufficient storage for the largest variant is allocated. The tag of a discriminated union is stored with the variant in a recordlike structure.
At compile time, the complete description of each variant must be stored.
This can be done by associating a case table with the tag entry in the descriptor.
The case table has an entry for each variant, which points to a descriptor for that particular variant. To illustrate this arrangement, consider the following
Ada example: type Node (Tag : Boolean) is record case Tag is when True => Count : Integer; when False => Sum : Float; end case; end record;

The descriptor for this type could have the form shown in Figure 6.9.
Figure 6.9
A compile-time descriptor for a discriminated union

Discriminated union
Tag

BOOLEAN
Count

Name

Integer

Type

Sum

Name

Float

Offset

Type

Case table
True
Address
False

6.11 Pointer and Reference Types
A pointer type is one in which the variables have a range of values that consists of memory addresses and a special value, nil. The value nil is not a valid address and is used to indicate that a pointer cannot currently be used to reference a memory cell.
Pointers are designed for two distinct kinds of uses. First, pointers provide some of the power of indirect addressing, which is frequently used in assembly language programming. Second, pointers provide a way to manage dynamic storage. A pointer can be used to access a location in an area where storage is dynamically allocated called a heap.

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Variables that are dynamically allocated from the heap are called heapdynamic variables. They often do not have identifiers associated with them and thus can be referenced only by pointer or reference type variables. Variables without names are called anonymous variables. It is in this latter application area of pointers that the most important design issues arise.
Pointers, unlike arrays and records, are not structured types, although they are defined using a type operator (* in C and C++ and access in Ada). Furthermore, they are also different from scalar variables because they are used to reference some other variable, rather than being used to store data. These two categories of variables are called reference types and value types, respectively.
Both kinds of uses of pointers add writability to a language. For example, suppose it is necessary to implement a dynamic structure like a binary tree in a language like Fortran 77, which does not have pointers. This would require the programmer to provide and maintain a pool of available tree nodes, which would probably be implemented in parallel arrays. Also, because of the lack of dynamic storage in Fortran 77, it would be necessary for the programmer to guess the maximum number of required nodes. This is clearly an awkward and error-prone way to deal with binary trees.
Reference variables, which are discussed in Section 6.11.6, are closely related to pointers.

6.11.1

Design Issues
The primary design issues particular to pointers are the following:
• What are the scope and lifetime of a pointer variable?
• What is the lifetime of a heap-dynamic variable (the value a pointer references)? • Are pointers restricted as to the type of value to which they can point?
• Are pointers used for dynamic storage management, indirect addressing, or both?
• Should the language support pointer types, reference types, or both?

6.11.2

Pointer Operations
Languages that provide a pointer type usually include two fundamental pointer operations: assignment and dereferencing. The first operation sets a pointer variable’s value to some useful address. If pointer variables are used only to manage dynamic storage, then the allocation mechanism, whether by operator or built-in subprogram, serves to initialize the pointer variable. If pointers are used for indirect addressing to variables that are not heap dynamic, then there must be an explicit operator or built-in subprogram for fetching the address of a variable, which can then be assigned to the pointer variable.
An occurrence of a pointer variable in an expression can be interpreted in two distinct ways. First, it could be interpreted as a reference to the contents

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291

of the memory cell to which it is bound, which in the case of a pointer is an address. This is exactly how a nonpointer variable in an expression would be interpreted, although in that case its value likely would not be an address.
However, the pointer could also be interpreted as a reference to the value in the memory cell pointed to by the memory cell to which the pointer variable is bound. In this case, the pointer is interpreted as an indirect reference. The former case is a normal pointer reference; the latter is the result of dereferencing the pointer. Dereferencing, which takes a reference through one level of indirection, is the second fundamental pointer operation.
Dereferencing of pointers can be either explicit or implicit. In Fortran 95+ it is implicit, but in many other contemporary languages, it occurs only when explicitly specified. In C++, it is explicitly specified with the asterisk (*) as a prefix unary operator. Consider the following example of dereferencing: If ptr is a pointer variable with the value 7080 and the cell whose address is 7080 has the value 206, then the assignment j = *ptr

sets j to 206. This process is shown in Figure 6.10.
Figure 6.10

7080
206

The assignment operation j = *ptr

ptr

An anonymous dynamic variable

7080

j

When pointers point to records, the syntax of the references to the fields of these records varies among languages. In C and C++, there are two ways a pointer to a record can be used to reference a field in that record. If a pointer variable p points to a record with a field named age, (*p).age can be used to refer to that field. The operator ->, when used between a pointer to a record and a field of that record, combines dereferencing and field reference. For example, the expression p -> age is equivalent to (*p).age. In Ada, p.age can be used, because such uses of pointers are implicitly dereferenced.
Languages that provide pointers for the management of a heap must include an explicit allocation operation. Allocation is sometimes specified with a subprogram, such as malloc in C. In languages that support object-oriented programming, allocation of heap objects is often specified with the new operator. C++, which does not provide implicit deallocation, uses delete as its deallocation operator.

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6.11.3

Pointer Problems
The first high-level programming language to include pointer variables was
PL/I, in which pointers could be used to refer to both heap-dynamic variables and other program variables. The pointers of PL/I were highly flexible, but their use could lead to several kinds of programming errors. Some of the problems of PL/I pointers are also present in the pointers of subsequent languages.
Some recent languages, such as Java, have replaced pointers completely with reference types, which, along with implicit deallocation, minimize the primary problems with pointers. A reference type is really only a pointer with restricted operations.

6.11.3.1 Dangling Pointers
A dangling pointer, or dangling reference, is a pointer that contains the address of a heap-dynamic variable that has been deallocated. Dangling pointers are dangerous for several reasons. First, the location being pointed to may have been reallocated to some new heap-dynamic variable. If the new variable is not the same type as the old one, type checks of uses of the dangling pointer are invalid. Even if the new dynamic variable is the same type, its new value will have no relationship to the old pointer’s dereferenced value. Furthermore, if the dangling pointer is used to change the heap-dynamic variable, the value of the new heap-dynamic variable will be destroyed. Finally, it is possible that the location now is being temporarily used by the storage management system, possibly as a pointer in a chain of available blocks of storage, thereby allowing a change to the location to cause the storage manager to fail.
The following sequence of operations creates a dangling pointer in many languages: 1. A new heap-dynamic variable is created and pointer p1 is set to point at it.
2. Pointer p2 is assigned p1’s value.
3. The heap-dynamic variable pointed to by p1 is explicitly deallocated
(possibly setting p1 to nil), but p2 is not changed by the operation. p2 is now a dangling pointer. If the deallocation operation did not change p1, both p1 and p2 would be dangling. (Of course, this is a problem of aliasing—p1 and p2 are aliases.)
For example, in C++ we could have the following: int * arrayPtr1; int * arrayPtr2 = new int[100]; arrayPtr1 = arrayPtr2; delete [] arrayPtr2;
// Now, arrayPtr1 is dangling, because the heap storage
// to which it was pointing has been deallocated.

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In C++, both arrayPtr1 and arrayPtr2 are now dangling pointers, because the
C++ delete operator has no effect on the value of its operand pointer. In
C++, it is common (and safe) to follow a delete operator with an assignment of zero, which represents null, to the pointer whose pointed-to value has been deallocated. Notice that the explicit deallocation of dynamic variables is the cause of dangling pointers.

his t or y n o t e
Pascal included an explicit deallocate operator: dispose.
Because of the problem of dangling pointers caused by dispose, some Pascal implementations simply ignored dispose when it appeared in a program.
Although this effectively prevents dangling pointers, it also disallows the reuse of heap storage that the program no longer needs. Recall that Pascal initially was designed as a teaching language, rather than as an industrial tool.

6.11.4

6.11.3.2 Lost Heap-Dynamic Variables
A lost heap-dynamic variable is an allocated heap-dynamic variable that is no longer accessible to the user program. Such variables are often called garbage, because they are not useful for their original purpose, and they also cannot be reallocated for some new use in the program. Lost heap-dynamic variables are most often created by the following sequence of operations:
1. Pointer p1 is set to point to a newly created heap-dynamic variable. 2. p1 is later set to point to another newly created heap-dynamic variable. The first heap-dynamic variable is now inaccessible, or lost.
This is sometimes called memory leakage. Memory leakage is a problem, regardless of whether the language uses implicit or explicit deallocation. In the following sections, we investigate how language designers have dealt with the problems of dangling pointers and lost heap-dynamic variables.

Pointers in Ada
Ada’s pointers are called access types. The dangling-pointer problem is partially alleviated by Ada’s design, at least in theory. A heap-dynamic variable may be (at the implementor’s option) implicitly deallocated at the end of the scope of its pointer type; thus, dramatically lessening the need for explicit deallocation. However, few if any Ada compilers implement this form of garbage collection, so the advantage is nearly always in theory only. Because heap-dynamic variables can be accessed by variables of only one type, when the end of the scope of that type declaration is reached, no pointers can be left pointing at the dynamic variable. This diminishes the problem, because improperly implemented explicit deallocation is the major source of dangling pointers. Unfortunately, the Ada language also has an explicit deallocator,
Unchecked_Deallocation. Its name is meant to discourage its use, or at least warn the user of its potential problems. Unchecked_Deallocation can cause dangling pointers.
The lost heap-dynamic variable problem is not eliminated by Ada’s design of pointers.

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6.11.5

Pointers in C and C++
In C and C++, pointers can be used in the same ways as addresses are used in assembly languages. This means they are extremely flexible but must be used with great care. This design offers no solutions to the dangling pointer or lost heap-dynamic variable problems. However, the fact that pointer arithmetic is possible in C and C++ makes their pointers more interesting than those of the other programming languages.
C and C++ pointers can point at any variable, regardless of where it is allocated. In fact, they can point anywhere in memory, whether there is a variable there or not, which is one of the dangers of such pointers.
In C and C++, the asterisk (*) denotes the dereferencing operation, and the ampersand (&) denotes the operator for producing the address of a variable.
For example, consider the following code: int *ptr; int count, init;
...
ptr = &init; count = *ptr;

The assignment to the variable ptr sets it to the address of init. The assignment to count dereferences ptr to produce the value at init, which is then assigned to count. So, the effect of the two assignment statements is to assign the value of init to count. Notice that the declaration of a pointer specifies its domain type.
Notice that the two assignment statements above are equivalent in their effect on count to the single assignment count = init;

Pointers can be assigned the address value of any variable of the correct domain type, or they can be assigned the constant zero, which is used for nil.
Pointer arithmetic is also possible in some restricted forms. For example, if ptr is a pointer variable that is declared to point at some variable of some data type, then ptr + index

is a legal expression. The semantics of such an expression is as follows.
Instead of simply adding the value of index to ptr, the value of index is first scaled by the size of the memory cell (in memory units) to which ptr is pointing (its base type). For example, if ptr points to a memory cell for a type that is four memory units in size, then index is multiplied by 4, and the result is added to ptr. The primary purpose of this sort of address arithmetic is array manipulation. The following discussion is related to singledimensioned arrays only.

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In C and C++, all arrays use zero as the lower bound of their subscript ranges, and array names without subscripts always refer to the address of the first element. Consider the following declarations: int list [10]; int *ptr;

Consider the assignment ptr = list;

which assigns the address of list[0] to ptr, because an array name without a subscript is interpreted as the base address of the array. Given this assignment, the following are true:
• *(ptr + 1) is equivalent to list[1].
• *(ptr + index) is equivalent to list[index].
• ptr[index] is equivalent to list[index].
It is clear from these statements that the pointer operations include the same scaling that is used in indexing operations. Furthermore, pointers to arrays can be indexed as if they were array names.
Pointers in C and C++ can point to functions. This feature is used to pass functions as parameters to other functions. Pointers are also used for parameter passing, as discussed in Chapter 9.
C and C++ include pointers of type void *, which can point at values of any type. They are in effect generic pointers. However, type checking is not a problem with void * pointers, because these languages disallow dereferencing them. One common use of void * pointers is as the types of parameters of functions that operate on memory. For example, suppose we wanted a function to move a sequence of bytes of data from one place in memory to another.
It would be most general if it could be passed two pointers of any type. This would be legal if the corresponding formal parameters in the function were void * type. The function could then convert them to char * type and do the operation, regardless of what type pointers were sent as actual parameters.

6.11.6

Reference Types
A reference type variable is similar to a pointer, with one important and fundamental difference: A pointer refers to an address in memory, while a reference refers to an object or a value in memory. As a result, although it is natural to perform arithmetic on addresses, it is not sensible to do arithmetic on references.
C++ includes a special kind of reference type that is used primarily for the formal parameters in function definitions. A C++ reference type variable is a constant pointer that is always implicitly dereferenced. Because a C++ reference type variable is a constant, it must be initialized with the address of some

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variable in its definition, and after initialization a reference type variable can never be set to reference any other variable. The implicit dereference prevents assignment to the address value of a reference variable.
Reference type variables are specified in definitions by preceding their names with ampersands (&). For example, int result = 0; int &ref_result = result;
...
ref_result = 100;

In this code segment, result and ref_result are aliases.
When used as formal parameters in function definitions, C++ reference types provide for two-way communication between the caller function and the called function. This is not possible with nonpointer primitive parameter types, because C++ parameters are passed by value. Passing a pointer as a parameter accomplishes the same two-way communication, but pointer formal parameters require explicit dereferencing, making the code less readable and less safe. Reference parameters are referenced in the called function exactly as are other parameters. The calling function need not specify that a parameter whose corresponding formal parameter is a reference type is anything unusual. The compiler passes addresses, rather than values, to reference parameters.
In their quest for increased safety over C++, the designers of Java removed
C++-style pointers altogether. Unlike C++ reference variables, Java reference variables can be assigned to refer to different class instances; they are not constants. All Java class instances are referenced by reference variables. That is, in fact, the only use of reference variables in Java. These issues are further discussed in Chapter 12.
In the following, String is a standard Java class:
String str1;
. . . str1 = "This is a Java literal string";

In this code, str1 is defined to be a reference to a String class instance or object. It is initially set to null. The subsequent assignment sets str1 to reference the String object, "This is a Java literal string".
Because Java class instances are implicitly deallocated (there is no explicit deallocation operator), there cannot be dangling references in Java.
C# includes both the references of Java and the pointers of C++. However, the use of pointers is strongly discouraged. In fact, any subprogram that uses pointers must include the unsafe modifier. Note that although objects pointed to by references are implicitly deallocated, that is not true for objects pointed to by pointers.
Pointers were included in C# primarily to allow C# programs to interoperate with
C and C++ code.

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All variables in the object-oriented languages Smalltalk, Python, Ruby, and
Lua are references. They are always implicitly dereferenced. Furthermore, the direct values of these variables cannot be accessed.

6.11.7

Evaluation
The problems of dangling pointers and garbage have already been discussed at length. The problems of heap management are discussed in Section 6.11.8.3.
Pointers have been compared with the goto. The goto statement widens the range of statements that can be executed next. Pointer variables widen the range of memory cells that can be referenced by a variable. Perhaps the most damning statement about pointers was made by Hoare (1973): “Their introduction into high-level languages has been a step backward from which we may never recover.”
On the other hand, pointers are essential in some kinds of programming applications. For example, pointers are necessary to write device drivers, in which specific absolute addresses must be accessed.
The references of Java and C# provide some of the flexibility and the capabilities of pointers, without the hazards. It remains to be seen whether programmers will be willing to trade the full power of C and C++ pointers for the greater safety of references. The extent to which C# programs use pointers will be one measure of this.

6.11.8

Implementation of Pointer and Reference Types
In most languages, pointers are used in heap management. The same is true for Java and C# references, as well as the variables in Smalltalk and Ruby, so we cannot treat pointers and references separately. First, we briefly describe how pointers and references are represented internally. We then discuss two possible solutions to the dangling pointer problem. Finally, we describe the major problems with heap-management techniques.

6.11.8.1 Representations of Pointers and References
In most larger computers, pointers and references are single values stored in memory cells. However, in early microcomputers based on Intel microprocessors, addresses have two parts: a segment and an offset. So, pointers and references are implemented in these systems as pairs of 16-bit cells, one for each of the two parts of an address.

6.11.8.2 Solutions to the Dangling-Pointer Problem
There have been several proposed solutions to the dangling-pointer problem.
Among these are tombstones (Lomet, 1975), in which every heap-dynamic variable includes a special cell, called a tombstone, that is itself a pointer to the heap-dynamic variable. The actual pointer variable points only at tombstones

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and never to heap-dynamic variables. When a heap-dynamic variable is deallocated, the tombstone remains but is set to nil, indicating that the heap-dynamic variable no longer exists. This approach prevents a pointer from ever pointing to a deallocated variable. Any reference to any pointer that points to a nil tombstone can be detected as an error.
Tombstones are costly in both time and space. Because tombstones are never deallocated, their storage is never reclaimed. Every access to a heapdynamic variable through a tombstone requires one more level of indirection, which requires an additional machine cycle on most computers. Apparently none of the designers of the more popular languages have found the additional safety to be worth this additional cost, because no widely used language uses tombstones. An alternative to tombstones is the locks-and-keys approach used in the implementation of UW-Pascal (Fischer and LeBlanc, 1977, 1980). In this compiler, pointer values are represented as ordered pairs (key, address), where the key is an integer value. Heap-dynamic variables are represented as the storage for the variable plus a header cell that stores an integer lock value. When a heap-dynamic variable is allocated, a lock value is created and placed both in the lock cell of the heap-dynamic variable and in the key cell of the pointer that is specified in the call to new. Every access to the dereferenced pointer compares the key value of the pointer to the lock value in the heap-dynamic variable. If they match, the access is legal; otherwise the access is treated as a run-time error. Any copies of the pointer value to other pointers must copy the key value. Therefore, any number of pointers can reference a given heapdynamic variable. When a heap-dynamic variable is deallocated with dispose, its lock value is cleared to an illegal lock value. Then, if a pointer other than the one specified in the dispose is dereferenced, its address value will still be intact, but its key value will no longer match the lock, so the access will not be allowed.
Of course, the best solution to the dangling-pointer problem is to take deallocation of heap-dynamic variables out of the hands of programmers. If programs cannot explicitly deallocate heap-dynamic variables, there will be no dangling pointers. To do this, the run-time system must implicitly deallocate heap-dynamic variables when they are no longer useful. LISP systems have always done this. Both Java and C# also use this approach for their reference variables. Recall that C#’s pointers do not include implicit deallocation.

6.11.8.3 Heap Management
Heap management can be a very complex run-time process. We examine the process in two separate situations: one in which all heap storage is allocated and deallocated in units of a single size, and one in which variable-size segments are allocated and deallocated. Note that for deallocation, we discuss only implicit approaches. Our discussion will be brief and far from comprehensive, since a thorough analysis of these processes and their associated problems is not so much a language design issue as it is an implementation issue.

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Single-Size Cells The simplest situation is when all allocation and deallocation is of single-size cells. It is further simplified when every cell already contains a pointer. This is the scenario of many implementations of LISP, where the problems of dynamic storage allocation were first encountered on a large scale. All LISP programs and most LISP data consist of cells in linked lists.
In a single-size allocation heap, all available cells are linked together using the pointers in the cells, forming a list of available space. Allocation is a simple matter of taking the required number of cells from this list when they are needed. Deallocation is a much more complex process. A heap-dynamic variable can be pointed to by more than one pointer, making it difficult to determine when the variable is no longer useful to the program. Simply because one pointer is disconnected from a cell obviously does not make it garbage; there could be several other pointers still pointing to the cell.
In LISP, several of the most frequent operations in programs create collections of cells that are no longer accessible to the program and therefore should be deallocated (put back on the list of available space). One of the fundamental design goals of LISP was to ensure that reclamation of unused cells would not be the task of the programmer but rather that of the run-time system. This goal left LISP implementors with the fundamental design question: When should deallocation be performed?
There are several different approaches to garbage collection. The two most common traditional techniques are in some ways opposite processes. These are named reference counters, in which reclamation is incremental and is done when inaccessible cells are created, and mark-sweep, in which reclamation occurs only when the list of available space becomes empty. These two methods are sometimes called the eager approach and the lazy approach, respectively.
Many variations of these two approaches have been developed. In this section, however, we discuss only the basic processes.
The reference counter method of storage reclamation accomplishes its goal by maintaining in every cell a counter that stores the number of pointers that are currently pointing at the cell. Embedded in the decrement operation for the reference counters, which occurs when a pointer is disconnected from the cell, is a check for a zero value. If the reference counter reaches zero, it means that no program pointers are pointing at the cell, and it has thus become garbage and can be returned to the list of available space.
There are three distinct problems with the reference counter method. First, if storage cells are relatively small, the space required for the counters is significant. Second, some execution time is obviously required to maintain the counter values. Every time a pointer value is changed, the cell to which it was pointing must have its counter decremented, and the cell to which it is now pointing must have its counter incremented. In a language like LISP, in which nearly every action involves changing pointers, that can be a significant portion of the total execution time of a program. Of course, if pointer changes are not too frequent, this is not a problem. Some of the inefficiency of reference counters can be eliminated by an approach named deferred reference counting, which avoids reference counters for some pointers. The third problem is that complications

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arise when a collection of cells is connected circularly. The problem here is that each cell in the circular list has a reference counter value of at least 1, which prevents it from being collected and placed back on the list of available space. A solution to this problem can be found in Friedman and Wise (1979).
The advantage of the reference counter approach is that it is intrinsically incremental. Its actions are interleaved with those of the application, so it never causes significant delays in the execution of the application.
The original mark-sweep process of garbage collection operates as follows:
The run-time system allocates storage cells as requested and disconnects pointers from cells as necessary, without regard for storage reclamation (allowing garbage to accumulate), until it has allocated all available cells. At this point, a mark-sweep process is begun to gather all the garbage left floating around in the heap. To facilitate the process, every heap cell has an extra indicator bit or field that is used by the collection algorithm.
The mark-sweep process consists of three distinct phases. First, all cells in the heap have their indicators set to indicate they are garbage. This is, of course, a correct assumption for only some of the cells. The second part, called the marking phase, is the most difficult. Every pointer in the program is traced into the heap, and all reachable cells are marked as not being garbage. After this, the third phase, called the sweep phase, is executed: All cells in the heap that have not been specifically marked as still being used are returned to the list of available space.
To illustrate the flavor of algorithms used to mark the cells that are currently in use, we provide the following simple version of a marking algorithm.
We assume that all heap-dynamic variables, or heap cells, consist of an information part; a part for the mark, named marker; and two pointers named llink and rlink. These cells are used to build directed graphs with at most two edges leading from any node. The marking algorithm traverses all spanning trees of the graphs, marking all cells that are found. Like other graph traversals, the marking algorithm uses recursion. for every pointer r do mark(r) void mark(void * ptr) { if (ptr != 0) if (*ptr.marker is not marked) { set *ptr.marker mark(*ptr.llink) mark(*ptr.rlink)
}
}

An example of the actions of this procedure on a given graph is shown in
Figure 6.11. This simple marking algorithm requires a great deal of storage (for stack space to support recursion). A marking process that does not require additional stack space was developed by Schorr and Waite (1967). Their method

6.11

Figure 6.11

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1

r

An example of the actions of the marking algorithm x

x

x

2

6

3

x

7

8

x

x

x

4

5 x x

9

x

11

10

x

12

Dashed lines show the order of node_marking

reverses pointers as it traces out linked structures. Then, when the end of a list is reached, the process can follow the pointers back out of the structure.
The most serious problem with the original version of mark-sweep was that it was done too infrequently—only when a program had used all or nearly all of the heap storage. Mark-sweep in that situation takes a good deal of time, because most of the cells must be traced and marked as being currently used. This causes a significant delay in the progress of the application. Furthermore, the process may yield only a small number of cells that can be placed on the list of available space. This problem has been addressed in a variety of improvements. For example, incremental mark-sweep garbage collection occurs more frequently, long before memory is exhausted, making the process more effective in terms of the amount of storage that is reclaimed. Also, the time required for each run of the process is obviously shorter, thus reducing the delay in application execution. Another alternative is to perform the mark-sweep process on parts, rather than all of the memory associated with the application, at different times. This provides the same kinds of improvements as incremental mark-sweep.
Both the marking algorithms for the mark-sweep method and the processes required by the reference counter method can be made more efficient by use of the pointer rotation and slide operations that are described by Suzuki (1982).
Variable-Size Cells Managing a heap from which variable-size cells9 are allocated has all the difficulties of managing one for single-size cells, but also has additional problems. Unfortunately, variable-size cells are required by most
9. The cells have variable sizes because these are abstract cells, which store the values of variables, regardless of their types. Furthermore, a variable could be a structured type.

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programming languages. The additional problems posed by variable-size cell management depend on the method used. If mark-sweep is used, the following additional problems occur:
• The initial setting of the indicators of all cells in the heap to indicate that they are garbage is difficult. Because the cells are different sizes, scanning them is a problem. One solution is to require each cell to have the cell size as its first field. Then the scanning can be done, although it takes slightly more space and somewhat more time than its counterpart for fixed-size cells.
• The marking process is nontrivial. How can a chain be followed from a pointer if there is no predefined location for the pointer in the pointed-to cell? Cells that do not contain pointers at all are also a problem. Adding an internal pointer to each cell, which is maintained in the background by the run-time system, will work. However, this background maintenance processing adds both space and execution time overhead to the cost of running the program.
• Maintaining the list of available space is another source of overhead. The list can begin with a single cell consisting of all available space. Requests for segments simply reduce the size of this block. Reclaimed cells are added to the list. The problem is that before long, the list becomes a long list of various-size segments, or blocks. This slows allocation because requests cause the list to be searched for sufficiently large blocks. Eventually, the list may consist of a large number of very small blocks, which are not large enough for most requests. At this point, adjacent blocks may need to be collapsed into larger blocks. Alternatives to using the first sufficiently large block on the list can shorten the search but require the list to be ordered by block size. In either case, maintaining the list is additional overhead.
If reference counters are used, the first two problems are avoided, but the available-space list-maintenance problem remains.
For a comprehensive study of memory management problems, see Wilson
(2005).

6.12 Type Checking
For the discussion of type checking, the concept of operands and operators is generalized to include subprograms and assignment statements. Subprograms will be thought of as operators whose operands are their parameters.
The assignment symbol will be thought of as a binary operator, with its target variable and its expression being the operands.
Type checking is the activity of ensuring that the operands of an operator are of compatible types. A compatible type is one that either is legal for the operator or is allowed under language rules to be implicitly converted by compiler-generated code (or the interpreter) to a legal type. This automatic conversion is called a coercion. For example, if an int variable and a float

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variable are added in Java, the value of the int variable is coerced to float and a floating-point add is done.
A type error is the application of an operator to an operand of an inappropriate type. For example, in the original version of C, if an int value was passed to a function that expected a float value, a type error would occur
(because compilers for that language did not check the types of parameters).
If all bindings of variables to types are static in a language, then type checking can nearly always be done statically. Dynamic type binding requires type checking at run time, which is called dynamic type checking.
Some languages, such as JavaScript and PHP, because of their dynamic type binding, allow only dynamic type checking. It is better to detect errors at compile time than at run time, because the earlier correction is usually less costly. The penalty for static checking is reduced programmer flexibility. Fewer shortcuts and tricks are possible. Such techniques, though, are now generally recognized to be error prone and detrimental to readability.
Type checking is complicated when a language allows a memory cell to store values of different types at different times during execution. Such memory cells can be created with Ada variant records, C and C++ unions, and the discriminated unions of ML, Haskell, and F#. In these cases, type checking, if done, must be dynamic and requires the run-time system to maintain the type of the current value of such memory cells. So, even though all variables are statically bound to types in languages such as C++, not all type errors can be detected by static type checking.

6.13 Strong Typing
One of the ideas in language design that became prominent in the so-called structured-programming revolution of the 1970s was strong typing. Strong typing is widely acknowledged as being a highly valuable language characteristic. Unfortunately, it is often loosely defined, and it is often used in computing literature without being defined at all.
A programming language is strongly typed if type errors are always detected. This requires that the types of all operands can be determined, either at compile time or at run time. The importance of strong typing lies in its ability to detect all misuses of variables that result in type errors. A strongly typed language also allows the detection, at run time, of uses of the incorrect type values in variables that can store values of more than one type.
Ada is nearly strongly typed. It is only nearly strongly typed because it allows programmers to breach the type-checking rules by specifically requesting that type checking be suspended for a particular type conversion. This temporary suspension of type checking can be done only when an instantiation of the generic function Unchecked_Conversion is called. Such functions can be instantiated for any pair of subtypes. One takes a value of its parameter type and returns the bit string that is the parameter’s current value. No actual conversion takes place; it is merely a means of extracting the value of a variable

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of one type and using it as if it were of a different type. This kind of conversion is sometimes called a nonconverting cast. Unchecked conversions can be useful for user-defined storage allocation and deallocation operations, in which addresses are manipulated as integers but must be used as pointers. Because no checking is done in Unchecked_Conversion, it is the programmer’s responsibility to ensure that the use of a value gotten from it is meaningful.
C and C++ are not strongly typed languages because both include union types, which are not type checked.
ML is strongly typed, even though the types of some function parameters may not be known at compile time. F# is strongly typed.
Java and C#, although they are based on C++, are strongly typed in the same sense as Ada. Types can be explicitly cast, which could result in a type error. However, there are no implicit ways type errors can go undetected.
The coercion rules of a language have an important effect on the value of type checking. For example, expressions are strongly typed in Java. However, an arithmetic operator with one floating-point operand and one integer operand is legal. The value of the integer operand is coerced to floating-point, and a floating-point operation takes place. This is what is usually intended by the programmer. However, the coercion also results in a loss of one of the benefits of strong typing—error detection. For example, suppose a program had the int variables a and b and the float variable d. Now, if a programmer meant to type a + b, but mistakenly typed a + d, the error would not be detected by the compiler. The value of a would simply be coerced to float. So, the value of strong typing is weakened by coercion. Languages with a great deal of coercion, like C, and C++, are less reliable than those with little coercion, such as Ada, and those with no coercion, such as ML and F#. Java and C# have half as many assignment type coercions as C++, so their error detection is better than that of C++, but still not nearly as effective as that of ML and F#. The issue of coercion is examined in detail in Chapter 7.

6.14 Type Equivalence
The idea of type compatibility was defined when the issue of type checking was introduced. The compatibility rules dictate the types of operands that are acceptable for each of the operators and thereby specify the possible type errors of the language.10 The rules are called compatibility because in some cases the type of an operand can be implicitly converted by the compiler or run-time system to make it acceptable to the operator.
The type compatibility rules are simple and rigid for the predefined scalar types. However, in the cases of structured types, such as arrays and records and

10. Type compatibility is also an issue in the relationship between the actual parameters in a subprogram call and the formal parameters of the subprogram definition. This issue is discussed in Chapter 9.

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some user-defined types, the rules are more complex. Coercion of these types is rare, so the issue is not type compatibility, but type equivalence. That is, two types are equivalent if an operand of one type in an expression is substituted for one of the other type, without coercion. Type equivalence is a strict form of type compatibility—compatibility without coercion. The central issue here is how type equivalence is defined.
The design of the type equivalence rules of a language is important, because it influences the design of the data types and the operations provided for values of those types. With the types discussed here, there are very few predefined operations. Perhaps the most important result of two variables being of equivalent types is that either one can have its value assigned to the other.
There are two approaches to defining type equivalence: name type equivalence and structure type equivalence. Name type equivalence means that two variables have equivalent types if they are defined either in the same declaration or in declarations that use the same type name. Structure type equivalence means that two variables have equivalent types if their types have identical structures. There are some variations of these two approaches, and many languages use combinations of them.
Name type equivalence is easy to implement but is more restrictive. Under a strict interpretation, a variable whose type is a subrange of the integers would not be equivalent to an integer type variable. For example, supposing Ada used strict name type equivalence, consider the following Ada code: type Indextype is 1..100; count : Integer; index : Indextype;

The types of the variables count and index would not be equivalent; count could not be assigned to index or vice versa.
Another problem with name type equivalence arises when a structured or user-defined type is passed among subprograms through parameters. Such a type must be defined only once, globally. A subprogram cannot state the type of such formal parameters in local terms. This was the case with the original version of Pascal.
Note that to use name type equivalence, all types must have names. Most languages allow users to define types that are anonymous—they do not have names. For a language to use name type equivalence, such types must implicitly be given internal names by the compiler.
Structure type equivalence is more flexible than name type equivalence, but it is more difficult to implement. Under name type equivalence, only the two type names must be compared to determine equivalence. Under structure type equivalence, however, the entire structures of the two types must be compared.
This comparison is not always simple. (Consider a data structure that refers to its own type, such as a linked list.) Other questions can also arise. For example, are two record (or struct) types equivalent if they have the same structure but different field names? Are two single-dimensioned array types in a Fortran or

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Ada program equivalent if they have the same element type but have subscript ranges of 0..10 and 1..11? Are two enumeration types equivalent if they have the same number of components but spell the literals differently?
Another difficulty with structure type equivalence is that it disallows differentiating between types with the same structure. For example, consider the following Ada-like declarations: type Celsius = Float;
Fahrenheit = Float;

The types of variables of these two types are considered equivalent under structure type equivalence, allowing them to be mixed in expressions, which is surely undesirable in this case, considering the difference indicated by the type’s names. In general, types with different names are likely to be abstractions of different categories of problem values and should not be considered equivalent.
Ada uses a restrictive form of name type equivalence but provides two type constructs, subtypes and derived types, that avoid the problems associated with name type equivalence. A derived type is a new type that is based on some previously defined type with which it is not equivalent, although it may have identical structure. Derived types inherit all the properties of their parent types.
Consider the following example: type Celsius is new Float; type Fahrenheit is new Float;

The types of variables of these two derived types are not equivalent, although their structures are identical. Furthermore, variables of both types are not type equivalent with any other floating-point type. Literals are exempt from the rule. A literal such as 3.0 has the type universal real and is type equivalent to any floating-point type. Derived types can also include range constraints on the parent type, while still inheriting all of the parent’s operations.
An Ada subtype is a possibly range-constrained version of an existing type.
A subtype is type equivalent with its parent type. For example, consider the following declaration: subtype Small_type is Integer range 0..99;

The type Small_type is equivalent to the type Integer.
Note that Ada’s derived types are very different from Ada’s subrange types.
For example, consider the following type declarations: type Derived_Small_Int is new Integer range 1..100; subtype Subrange_Small_Int is Integer range 1..100;

Variables of both types, Derived_Small_Int and Subrange_Small_Int, have the same range of legal values and both inherit the operations of Integer.

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However, variables of type Derived_Small_Int are not compatible with any
Integer type. On the other hand, variables of type Subrange_Small_Int are compatible with variables and constants of Integer type and any subtype of Integer.
For variables of an Ada unconstrained array type, structure type equivalence is used. For example, consider the following type declaration and two object declarations: type Vector is array (Integer range ) of Integer;
Vector_1: Vector (1..10);
Vector_2: Vector (11..20);

The types of these two objects are equivalent, even though they have different names and different subscript ranges, because for objects of unconstrained array types, structure type equivalence rather than name type equivalence is used. Because both types have 10 elements and the elements of both are of type
Integer, they are type equivalent.
For constrained anonymous types, Ada uses a highly restrictive form of name type equivalence. Consider the following Ada declarations of constrained anonymous types:
A : array (1..10) of Integer;

In this case, A has an anonymous but unique type assigned by the compiler and unavailable to the program. If we also had
B : array (1..10) of Integer;
A and B would be of anonymous but distinct and not equivalent types, though

they are structurally identical. The multiple declaration
C, D : array (1..10) of Integer;

creates two anonymous types, one for C and one for D, which are not equivalent.
This declaration is actually treated as if it were the following two declarations:
C : array (1..10) of Integer;
D : array (1..10) of Integer;

Note that Ada’s form of name type equivalence is more restrictive than the name type equivalence that is defined at the beginning of this section. If we had written instead type List_10 is array (1..10) of Integer;
C, D : List_10;

then the types of C and D would be equivalent.

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Name type equivalence works well for Ada, in part because all types, except anonymous arrays, are required to have type names (and anonymous types are given internal names by the compiler).
Type equivalence rules for Ada are more rigid than those for languages that have many coercions among types. For example, the two operands of an addition operator in Java can have virtually any combination of numeric types in the language. One of the operands will simply be coerced to the type of the other. But in Ada, there are no coercions of the operands of an arithmetic operator. C uses both name and structure type equivalence. Every struct, enum, and union declaration creates a new type that is not equivalent to any other type. So, name type equivalence is used for structure, enumeration, and union types. Other nonscalar types use structure type equivalence. Array types are equivalent if they have the same type components. Also, if an array type has a constant size, it is equivalent either to other arrays with the same constant size or to with those without a constant size. Note that typedef in C and C++ does not introduce a new type; it simply defines a new name for an existing type.
So, any type defined with typedef is type equivalent to its parent type. One exception to C using name type equivalence for structures, enumerations, and unions is if two structures, enumerations, or unions are defined in different files, in which case structural type equivalence is used. This is a loophole in the name type equivalence rule to allow equivalence of structures, enumerations, and unions that are defined in different files.
C++ is like C except there is no exception for structures and unions defined in different files.
In languages that do not allow users to define and name types, such as
Fortran and COBOL, name equivalence obviously cannot be used.
Object-oriented languages such as Java and C++ bring another kind of type compatibility issue with them. The issue is object compatibility and its relationship to the inheritance hierarchy, which is discussed in Chapter 12.
Type compatibility in expressions is discussed in Chapter 7; type compatibility for subprogram parameters is discussed in Chapter 9.

6.15 Theory and Data Types
Type theory is a broad area of study in mathematics, logic, computer science, and philosophy. It began in mathematics in the early 1900s and later became a standard tool in logic. Any general discussion of type theory is necessarily complex, lengthy, and highly abstract. Even when restricted to computer science, type theory includes such diverse and complex subjects as typed lambda calculus, combinators, the metatheory of bounded quantification, existential types, and higher-order polymorphism. All of these topics are far beyond the scope of this book.
In computer science there are two branches of type theory: practical and abstract. The practical branch is concerned with data types in commercial

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programming languages; the abstract branch primarily focuses on typed lambda calculus, an area of extensive research by theoretical computer scientists over the past half century. This section is restricted to a brief description of some of the mathematical formalisms that underlie data types in programming languages.
A data type defines a set of values and a collection of operations on those values. A type system is a set of types and the rules that govern their use in programs. Obviously, every typed programming language defines a type system. The formal model of a type system of a programming language consists of a set of types and a collection of functions that define the type rules of the language, which are used to determine the type of any expression. A formal system that describes the rules of a type system, attribute grammars, is introduced in Chapter 3.
An alternative model to attribute grammars uses a type map and a collection of functions, not associated with grammar rules, that specify the type rules. A type map is similar to the state of a program used in denotational semantics, consisting of a set of ordered pairs, with the first element of each pair being a variable’s name and the second element being its type. A type map is constructed using the type declarations in the program. In a static typed language, the type map need only be maintained during compilation, although it changes as the program is analyzed by the compiler. If any type checking is done dynamically, the type map must be maintained during execution. The concrete version of a type map in a compilation system is the symbol table, constructed primarily by the lexical and syntax analyzers. Dynamic types sometimes are maintained with tags attached to values or objects.
As stated previously, a data type is a set of values, although in a data type the elements are often ordered. For example, the elements in all ordinal types are ordered. Despite this difference, set operations can be used on data types to describe new data types. The structured data types of programming languages are defined by type operators, or constructors that correspond to set operations.
These set operations/type constructors are briefly introduced in the following paragraphs. A finite mapping is a function from a finite set of values, the domain set, onto values in the range set. Finite mappings model two different categories of types in programming languages, functions and arrays, although in some languages functions are not types. All languages include arrays, which are defined in terms of a mapping function that maps indices to elements in the array. For traditional arrays, the mapping is simple—integer values are mapped to the addresses of array elements; for associative arrays, the mapping is defined by a function that describes a hashing operation. The hashing function maps the keys of the associate arrays, usually character strings,11 to the addresses of the array elements.
A Cartesian, or cross product of n sets, S 1, S 2, c , S n, is a set denoted S 1 * S 2 * c * S n. Each element of the
11. In Ruby and Lua, the associative array keys need not be character strings—they can be any type.

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Cartesian product set has one element from each of the constituant sets. So,
S 1 * S 2 = {(x, y) ͉ x is in S 1 and y is in S 2}. For example, if S 1 = {1, 2} and
S 2 = {a, b}, S 1 * S 2 = {(1, a), (1, b), (2, a), (2, b)}. A Cartesian product defines tuples in mathematics, which appear in Python, ML, and F# as a data type (see
Section 6.5). Cartesian products also model records, or structs, although not exactly. Cartesian products do not have element names, but records require them. For example, consider the following C struct: struct intFloat { int myInt; float myFloat;
};

This struct defines the Cartesian product type int * float. The names of the elements are myInt and myFloat.
The union of two sets, S 1 and S 2, is defined as S 1 h S 2 = {x ͉ x is in S 1 or x is in S 2}. Set union models the union data types, as described in Section 6.10.
Mathematical subsets are defined by providing a rule that elements must follow. These sets model the subtypes of Ada, although not exactly, because subtypes must consist of contiguous elements of their parent sets. Elements of mathematical sets are unordered, so the model is not perfect.
Notice that pointers, defined with type operators, such as * in C, are not defined in terms of a set operation.
This concludes our discussion of formalisms in data types, as well as our whole discussion of data types.

S U M M A R Y

The data types of a language are a large part of what determines that language’s style and usefulness. Along with control structures, they form the heart of a language. The primitive data types of most imperative languages include numeric, character, and Boolean types. The numeric types are often directly supported by hardware.
The user-defined enumeration and subrange types are convenient and add to the readability and reliability of programs.
Arrays are part of most programming languages. The relationship between a reference to an array element and the address of that element is given in an access function, which is an implementation of a mapping. Arrays can be either static, as in C++ arrays whose definition includes the static specifier; fixed stack-dynamic, as in C functions (without the static specifier); stackdynamic, as in Ada blocks; fixed heap dynamic, as with Java’s objects; or heap dynamic, as in Perl’s arrays. Most languages allow only a few operations on complete arrays.

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Records are now included in most languages. Fields of records are specified in a variety of ways. In the case of COBOL, they can be referenced without naming all of the enclosing records, although this is messy to implement and harmful to readability. In several languages that support object-oriented programming, records are supported with objects.
Tuples are similar to records, but do not have names for their constituent parts. They are part of Python, ML, and F#.
Lists are staples of the functional programming languages, but are now also included in Python and C#.
Unions are locations that can store different type values at different times.
Discriminated unions include a tag to record the current type value. A free union is one without the tag. Most languages with unions do not have safe designs for them, the exceptions being Ada, ML, and F#.
Pointers are used for addressing flexibility and to control dynamic storage management. Pointers have some inherent dangers: Dangling pointers are difficult to avoid, and memory leakage can occur.
Reference types, such as those in Java and C#, provide heap management without the dangers of pointers.
The level of difficulty in implementing a data type has a strong influence on whether the type will be included in a language. Enumeration types, subrange types, and record types are all relatively easy to implement. Arrays are also straightforward, although array element access is an expensive process when the array has several subscripts. The access function requires one addition and one multiplication for each subscript.
Pointers are relatively easy to implement, if heap management is not considered. Heap management is relatively easy if all cells have the same size but is complicated for variable-size cell allocation and deallocation.
Strong typing is the concept of requiring that all type errors be detected.
The value of strong typing is increased reliability.
The type equivalence rules of a language determine what operations are legal among the structured types of a language. Name type equivalence and structure type equivalence are the two fundamental approaches to defining type equivalence. Type theories have been developed in many areas. In computer science, the practical branch of type theory defines the types and type rules of programming languages. Set theory can be used to model most of the structured data types in programming languages.

B I B L I O G R A P H I C

N O T E S

A wealth of literature exists that is concerned with data type design, use, and implementation. Hoare gives one of the earliest systematic definitions of structured types in Dahl et al. (1972). A general discussion of a wide variety of data types is given in Cleaveland (1986).

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Implementing run-time checks on the possible insecurities of Pascal data types is discussed in Fischer and LeBlanc (1980). Most compiler design books, such as Fischer and LeBlanc (1991) and Aho et al. (1986), describe implementation methods for data types, as do the other programming language texts, such as Pratt and Zelkowitz (2001) and Scott (2000).
A detailed discussion of the problems of heap management can be found in Tenenbaum et al. (1990). Garbage-collection methods are developed by
Schorr and Waite (1967) and Deutsch and Bobrow (1976). A comprehensive discussion of garbage-collection algorithms can be found in Cohen (1981) and Wilson (2005).

R E V I E W

Q U E S T I O N S

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

What is a descriptor?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of decimal data types?
What are the design issues for character string types?
Describe the three string length options.
Define ordinal, enumeration, and subrange types.
What are the advantages of user-defined enumeration types?
In what ways are the user-defined enumeration types of C# more reliable than those of C++?
What are the design issues for arrays?
Define static, fixed stack-dynamic, stack-dynamic, fixed heap-dynamic, and heap-dynamic arrays. What are the advantages of each?
What happens when a nonexistent element of an array is referenced in Perl?
How does JavaScript support sparse arrays?
What languages support negative subscripts?
What languages support array slices with stepsizes?
What array initialization feature is available in Ada that is not available in other common imperative languages?
What is an aggregate constant?
What array operations are provided specifically for single-dimensioned arrays in Ada?
Define row major order and column major order.
What is an access function for an array?
What are the required entries in a Java array descriptor, and when must they be stored (at compile time or run time)?
What is the structure of an associative array?

Review Questions

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
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42.
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55.

313

What is the purpose of level numbers in COBOL records?
Define fully qualified and elliptical references to fields in records.
What is the primary difference between a record and a tuple?
Are the tuples of Python mutable?
What is the purpose of an F# tuple pattern?
In what primarily imperative language do lists serve as arrays?
What is the action of the Scheme function CAR?
What is the action of the F# function tl?
In what way does Scheme’s CDR function modify its parameter?
On what are Python’s list comprehensions based?
Define union, free union, and discriminated union.
What are the design issues for unions?
Are the unions of Ada always type checked?
Are the unions of F# discriminated?
What are the design issues for pointer types?
What are the two common problems with pointers?
Why are the pointers of most languages restricted to pointing at a single type variable?
What is a C++ reference type, and what is its common use?
Why are reference variables in C++ better than pointers for formal parameters? What advantages do Java and C# reference type variables have over the pointers in other languages?
Describe the lazy and eager approaches to reclaiming garbage.
Why wouldn’t arithmetic on Java and C# references make sense?
What is a compatible type?
Define type error.
Define strongly typed.
Why is Java not strongly typed?
What is a nonconverting cast?
What languages have no type coercions?
Why are C and C++ not strongly typed?
What is name type equivalence?
What is structure type equivalence?
What is the primary advantage of name type equivalence?
What is the primary disadvantage to structure type equivalence?
For what types does C use structure type equivalence?
What set operation models C’s struct data type?

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P R O B L E M

S E T

1. What are the arguments for and against representing Boolean values as single bits in memory?
2. How does a decimal value waste memory space?
3. VAX minicomputers use a format for floating-point numbers that is not the same as the IEEE standard. What is this format, and why was it chosen by the designers of the VAX computers? A reference for VAX floating-point representations is Sebesta (1991).
4. Compare the tombstone and lock-and-key methods of avoiding dangling pointers, from the points of view of safety and implementation cost.
5. What disadvantages are there in implicit dereferencing of pointers, but only in certain contexts? For example, consider the implicit dereference of a pointer to a record in Ada when it is used to reference a record field.
6. Explain all of the differences between Ada’s subtypes and derived types.
7. What significant justification is there for the -> operator in C and C++?
8. What are all of the differences between the enumeration types of C++ and those of Java?
9. The unions in C and C++ are separate from the records of those languages, rather than combined as they are in Ada. What are the advantages and disadvantages to these two choices?
10. Multidimensional arrays can be stored in row major order, as in C++, or in column major order, as in Fortran. Develop the access functions for both of these arrangements for three-dimensional arrays.
11. In the Burroughs Extended ALGOL language, matrices are stored as a single-dimensioned array of pointers to the rows of the matrix, which are treated as single-dimensioned arrays of values. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a scheme?
12. Analyze and write a comparison of C’s malloc and free functions with
C++’s new and delete operators. Use safety as the primary consideration in the comparison.
13. Analyze and write a comparison of using C++ pointers and Java reference variables to refer to fixed heap-dynamic variables. Use safety and convenience as the primary considerations in the comparison.
14. Write a short discussion of what was lost and what was gained in Java’s designers’ decision to not include the pointers of C++.
15. What are the arguments for and against Java’s implicit heap storage recovery, when compared with the explicit heap storage recovery required in C++? Consider real-time systems.
16. What are the arguments for the inclusion of enumeration types in C#, although they were not in the first few versions of Java?

Programming Exercises

315

17. What would you expect to be the level of use of pointers in C#? How often will they be used when it is not absolutely necessary?
18. Make two lists of applications of matrices, one for those that require jagged matrices and one for those that require rectangular matrices.
Now, argue whether just jagged, just rectangular, or both should be included in a programming language.
19. Compare the string manipulation capabilities of the class libraries of
C++, Java, and C#.
20. Look up the definition of strongly typed as given in Gehani (1983) and compare it with the definition given in this chapter. How do they differ?
21. In what way is static type checking better than dynamic type checking?
22. Explain how coercion rules can weaken the beneficial effect of strong typing? P R O G R A M M I N G

E X E R C I S E S

1. Design a set of simple test programs to determine the type compatibility rules of a C compiler to which you have access. Write a report of your findings. 2. Determine whether some C compiler to which you have access implements the free function.
3. Write a program that does matrix multiplication in some language that does subscript range checking and for which you can obtain an assembly language or machine language version from the compiler. Determine the number of instructions required for the subscript range checking and compare it with the total number of instructions for the matrix multiplication process.
4. If you have access to a compiler in which the user can specify whether subscript range checking is desired, write a program that does a large number of matrix accesses and time their execution. Run the program with subscript range checking and without it, and compare the times.
5. Write a simple program in C++ to investigate the safety of its enumeration types. Include at least 10 different operations on enumeration types to determine what incorrect or just silly things are legal. Now, write a C# program that does the same things and run it to determine how many of the incorrect or silly things are legal. Compare your results.
6. Write a program in C++ or C# that includes two different enumeration types and has a significant number of operations using the enumeration types. Also write the same program using only integer variables. Compare the readability and predict the reliability differences between the two programs.

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7. Write a C program that does a large number of references to elements of two-dimensioned arrays, using only subscripting. Write a second program that does the same operations but uses pointers and pointer arithmetic for the storage-mapping function to do the array references.
Compare the time efficiency of the two programs. Which of the two programs is likely to be more reliable? Why?
8. Write a Perl program that uses a hash and a large number of operations on the hash. For example, the hash could store people’s names and their ages. A random-number generator could be used to create three-character names and ages, which could be added to the hash. When a duplicate name was generated, it would cause an access to the hash but not add a new element. Rewrite the same program without using hashes. Compare the execution efficiency of the two. Compare the ease of programming and readability of the two.
9. Write a program in the language of your choice that behaves differently if the language used name equivalence than if it used structural equivalence. 10. For what types of A and B is the simple assignment statement A = B legal in C++ but not Java?
11. For what types of A and B is the simple assignment statement A = B legal in Java but not in Ada?

7
Expressions and
Assignment Statements
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Arithmetic Expressions
7.3 Overloaded Operators
7.4 Type Conversions
7.5 Relational and Boolean Expressions
7.6 Short-Circuit Evaluation
7.7 Assignment Statements
7.8 Mixed-Mode Assignment

317

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A

s the title indicates, the topic of this chapter is expressions and assignment statements. The semantics rules that determine the order of evaluation of operators in expressions are discussed first. This is followed by an explanation of a potential problem with operand evaluation order when functions can have side effects. Overloaded operators, both predefined and user defined, are then discussed, along with their effects on the expressions in programs. Next, mixed-mode expressions are described and evaluated. This leads to the definition and evaluation of widening and narrowing type conversions, both implicit and explicit. Relational and Boolean expressions are then discussed, including the process of short-circuit evaluation. Finally, the assignment statement, from its simplest form to all of its variations, is covered, including assignments as expressions and mixed-mode assignments.
Character string pattern-matching expressions were covered as a part of the material on character strings in Chapter 6, so they are not mentioned in this chapter.

7.1 Introduction
Expressions are the fundamental means of specifying computations in a programming language. It is crucial for a programmer to understand both the syntax and semantics of expressions of the language being used. A formal mechanism (BNF) for describing the syntax of expressions was introduced in
Chapter 3. In this chapter, the semantics of expressions are discussed.
To understand expression evaluation, it is necessary to be familiar with the orders of operator and operand evaluation. The operator evaluation order of expressions is dictated by the associativity and precedence rules of the language.
Although the value of an expression sometimes depends on it, the order of operand evaluation in expressions is often unstated by language designers. This allows implementors to choose the order, which leads to the possibility of programs producing different results in different implementations. Other issues in expression semantics are type mismatches, coercions, and short-circuit evaluation.
The essence of the imperative programming languages is the dominant role of assignment statements. The purpose of these statements is to cause the side effect of changing the values of variables, or the state, of the program. So an integral part of all imperative languages is the concept of variables whose values change during program execution.
Functional languages use variables of a different sort, such as the parameters of functions. These languages also have declaration statements that bind values to names. These declarations are similar to assignment statements, but do not have side effects.

7.2 Arithmetic Expressions
Automatic evaluation of arithmetic expressions similar to those found in mathematics, science, and engineering was one of the primary goals of the first

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Arithmetic Expressions

319

high-level programming languages. Most of the characteristics of arithmetic expressions in programming languages were inherited from conventions that had evolved in mathematics. In programming languages, arithmetic expressions consist of operators, operands, parentheses, and function calls. An operator can be unary, meaning it has a single operand, binary, meaning it has two operands, or ternary, meaning it has three operands.
In most programming languages, binary operators are infix, which means they appear between their operands. One exception is Perl, which has some operators that are prefix, which means they precede their operands.
The purpose of an arithmetic expression is to specify an arithmetic computation. An implementation of such a computation must cause two actions: fetching the operands, usually from memory, and executing arithmetic operations on those operands. In the following sections, we investigate the common design details of arithmetic expressions.
Following are the primary design issues for arithmetic expressions, all of which are discussed in this section:







7.2.1

What are the operator precedence rules?
What are the operator associativity rules?
What is the order of operand evaluation?
Are there restrictions on operand evaluation side effects?
Does the language allow user-defined operator overloading?
What type mixing is allowed in expressions?

Operator Evaluation Order
The operator precedence and associativity rules of a language dictate the order of evaluation of its operators.

7.2.1.1 Precedence
The value of an expression depends at least in part on the order of evaluation of the operators in the expression. Consider the following expression: a + b * c

Suppose the variables a, b, and c have the values 3, 4, and 5, respectively. If evaluated left to right (the addition first and then the multiplication), the result is 35. If evaluated right to left, the result is 23.
Instead of simply evaluating the operators in an expression from left to right or right to left, mathematicians long ago developed the concept of placing operators in a hierarchy of evaluation priorities and basing the evaluation order of expressions partly on this hierarchy. For example, in mathematics, multiplication is considered to be of higher priority than addition, perhaps due to its higher level of complexity. If that convention were applied in the previous

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example expression, as would be the case in most programming languages, the multiplication would be done first.
The operator precedence rules for expression evaluation partially define the order in which the operators of different precedence levels are evaluated.
The operator precedence rules for expressions are based on the hierarchy of operator priorities, as seen by the language designer. The operator precedence rules of the common imperative languages are nearly all the same, because they are based on those of mathematics. In these languages, exponentiation has the highest precedence (when it is provided by the language), followed by multiplication and division on the same level, followed by binary addition and subtraction on the same level.
Many languages also include unary versions of addition and subtraction.
Unary addition is called the identity operator because it usually has no associated operation and thus has no effect on its operand. Ellis and Stroustrup (1990, p. 56), speaking about C++, call it a historical accident and correctly label it useless. Unary minus, of course, changes the sign of its operand. In Java and C#, unary minus also causes the implicit conversion of short and byte operands to int type.
In all of the common imperative languages, the unary minus operator can appear in an expression either at the beginning or anywhere inside the expression, as long as it is parenthesized to prevent it from being next to another operator. For example, a + (- b) * c

is legal, but a + - b * c

usually is not.
Next, consider the following expressions:
- a / b
- a * b
- a ** b

In the first two cases, the relative precedence of the unary minus operator and the binary operator is irrelevant—the order of evaluation of the two operators has no effect on the value of the expression. In the last case, however, it does matter.
Of the common programming languages, only Fortran, Ruby, Visual
Basic, and Ada have the exponentiation operator. In all four, exponentiation has higher precedence than unary minus, so
- A ** B

is equivalent to
-(A ** B)

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321

The precedences of the arithmetic operators of Ruby and the C-based languages are as follows:
Ruby

postfix ++, -prefix ++, --, unary +, -

*, /, %

Lowest

**

unary +, -

Highest

C-Based Languages

*, /, %

binary +, -

binary +, -

The ** operator is exponentiation. The % operator takes two integer operands and yields the remainder of the first after division by the second.1 The
++ and -- operators of the C-based languages are described in Section 7.7.4.
APL is odd among languages because it has a single level of precedence, as illustrated in the next section.
Precedence accounts for only some of the rules for the order of operator evaluation; associativity rules also affect it.

7.2.1.2 Associativity
Consider the following expression: a - b + c - d

If the addition and subtraction operators have the same level of precedence, as they do in programming languages, the precedence rules say nothing about the order of evaluation of the operators in this expression.
When an expression contains two adjacent 2 occurrences of operators with the same level of precedence, the question of which operator is evaluated first is answered by the associativity rules of the language. An operator can have either left or right associativity, meaning that when there are two adjacent operators with the same precedence, the left operator is evaluated first or the right operator is evaluated first, respectively.
Associativity in common languages is left to right, except that the exponentiation operator (when provided) sometimes associates right to left. In the
Java expression a - b + c

the left operator is evaluated first.
1. In versions of C before C99, the % operator was implementation dependent in some situations, because division was also implementation dependent.
2. We call operators “adjacent” if they are separated by a single operand.

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Exponentiation in Fortran and Ruby is right associative, so in the expression
A ** B ** C

the right operator is evaluated first.
In Ada, exponentiation is nonassociative, which means that the expression
A ** B ** C

is illegal. Such an expression must be parenthesized to show the desired order, as in either
(A ** B) ** C

or
A ** (B ** C)

In Visual Basic, the exponentiation operator, ^, is left associative.
The associativity rules for a few common languages are given here:
Language

Associativity Rule

Ruby

Left: *, /, +, Right: **

C-based languages

Left: *, /, %, binary +, binary Right: ++, --, unary -, unary +

Ada

Left: all except **
Nonassociative: **

As stated in Section 7.2.1.1, in APL, all operators have the same level of precedence. Thus, the order of evaluation of operators in APL expressions is determined entirely by the associativity rule, which is right to left for all operators. For example, in the expression
A × B + C

the addition operator is evaluated first, followed by the multiplication operator
( * is the APL multiplication operator). If A were 3, B were 4, and C were 5, then the value of this APL expression would be 27.
Many compilers for the common languages make use of the fact that some arithmetic operators are mathematically associative, meaning that the associativity rules have no impact on the value of an expression containing only those operators. For example, addition is mathematically associative, so in mathematics the value of the expression

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323

A + B + C

does not depend on the order of operator evaluation. If floating-point operations for mathematically associative operations were also associative, the compiler could use this fact to perform some simple optimizations. Specifically, if the compiler is allowed to reorder the evaluation of operators, it may be able to produce slightly faster code for expression evaluation. Compilers commonly do these kinds of optimizations.
Unfortunately, in a computer, both floating-point representations and floating-point arithmetic operations are only approximations of their mathematical counterparts (because of size limitations). The fact that a mathematical operator is associative does not necessarily imply that the corresponding floating-point operation is associative. In fact, only if all the operands and intermediate results can be exactly represented in floating-point notation will the process be precisely associative. For example, there are pathological situations in which integer addition on a computer is not associative. For example, suppose that a program must evaluate the expression
A + B + C + D

and that A and C are very large positive numbers, and B and D are negative numbers with very large absolute values. In this situation, adding B to A does not cause an overflow exception, but adding C to A does. Likewise, adding C to B does not cause overflow, but adding D to B does. Because of the limitations of computer arithmetic, addition is catastrophically nonassociative in this case.
Therefore, if the compiler reorders these addition operations, it affects the value of the expression. This problem, of course, can be avoided by the programmer, assuming the approximate values of the variables are known. The programmer can specify the expression in two parts (in two assignment statements), ensuring that overflow is avoided. However, this situation can arise in far more subtle ways, in which the programmer is less likely to notice the order dependence. 7.2.1.3 Parentheses
Programmers can alter the precedence and associativity rules by placing parentheses in expressions. A parenthesized part of an expression has precedence over its adjacent unparenthesized parts. For example, although multiplication has precedence over addition, in the expression
(A + B) * C

the addition will be evaluated first. Mathematically, this is perfectly natural. In this expression, the first operand of the multiplication operator is not available until the addition in the parenthesized subexpression is evaluated. Also, the expression from Section 7.2.1.2 could be specified as

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(A + B) + (C + D)

to avoid overflow.
Languages that allow parentheses in arithmetic expressions could dispense with all precedence rules and simply associate all operators left to right or right to left. The programmer would specify the desired order of evaluation with parentheses. This approach would be simple because neither the author nor the readers of programs would need to remember any precedence or associativity rules. The disadvantage of this scheme is that it makes writing expressions more tedious, and it also seriously compromises the readability of the code. Yet this was the choice made by Ken Iverson, the designer of APL.

7.2.1.4 Ruby Expressions
Recall that Ruby is a pure object-oriented language, which means, among other things, that every data value, including literals, is an object. Ruby supports the collection of arithmetic and logic operations that are included in the C-based languages. What sets Ruby apart from the C-based languages in the area of expressions is that all of the arithmetic, relational, and assignment operators, as well as array indexing, shifts, and bitwise logic operators, are implemented as methods. For example, the expression a + b is a call to the
+ method of the object referenced by a, passing the object referenced by b as a parameter.
One interesting result of the implementation of operators as methods is that they can be overridden by application programs. Therefore, these operators can be redefined. While it is often not useful to redefine operators for predefined types, it is useful, as we will see in Section 7.3, to define predefined operators for user-defined types, which can be done with operator overloading in some languages.

7.2.1.5 Expressions in LISP
As is the case with Ruby, all arithmetic and logic operations in LISP are performed by subprograms. But in LISP, the subprograms must be explicitly called. For example, to specify the C expression a + b * c in LISP, one must write the following expression:3
(+ a (* b c))

In this expression, + and * are the names of functions.

3. When a list is interpreted as code in LISP, the first element is the function name and others are parameters to the function.

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325

7.2.1.6 Conditional Expressions if-then-else statements can be used to perform a conditional expression

assignment. For example, consider if (count == 0) average = 0; else average = sum / count;

In the C-based languages, this code can be specified more conveniently in an assignment statement using a conditional expression, which has the form expression_1 ? expression_2 : expression_3 where expression_1 is interpreted as a Boolean expression. If expression_1 evaluates to true, the value of the whole expression is the value of expression_2; otherwise, it is the value of expression_3. For example, the effect of the example if-then-else can be achieved with the following assignment statement, using a conditional expression: average = (count == 0) ? 0 : sum / count;

In effect, the question mark denotes the beginning of the then clause, and the colon marks the beginning of the else clause. Both clauses are mandatory.
Note that ? is used in conditional expressions as a ternary operator.
Conditional expressions can be used anywhere in a program (in a C-based language) where any other expression can be used. In addition to the C-based languages, conditional expressions are provided in Perl, JavaScript, and Ruby.

7.2.2

Operand Evaluation Order
A less commonly discussed design characteristic of expressions is the order of evaluation of operands. Variables in expressions are evaluated by fetching their values from memory. Constants are sometimes evaluated the same way. In other cases, a constant may be part of the machine language instruction and not require a memory fetch. If an operand is a parenthesized expression, all of the operators it contains must be evaluated before its value can be used as an operand.
If neither of the operands of an operator has side effects, then operand evaluation order is irrelevant. Therefore, the only interesting case arises when the evaluation of an operand does have side effects.

7.2.2.1 Side Effects
A side effect of a function, naturally called a functional side effect, occurs when the function changes either one of its parameters or a global variable. (A global variable is declared outside the function but is accessible in the function.)

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Consider the expression a + fun(a)

If fun does not have the side effect of changing a, then the order of evaluation of the two operands, a and fun(a), has no effect on the value of the expression.
However, if fun changes a, there is an effect. Consider the following situation: fun returns 10 and changes the value of its parameter to 20. Suppose we have the following: a = 10; b = a + fun(a);

Then, if the value of a is fetched first (in the expression evaluation process), its value is 10 and the value of the expression is 20. But if the second operand is evaluated first, then the value of the first operand is 20 and the value of the expression is 30.
The following C program illustrates the same problem when a function changes a global variable that appears in an expression: int a = 5; int fun1() { a = 17; return 3;
} /* end of fun1 */ void main() { a = a + fun1();
} /* end of main */

The value computed for a in main depends on the order of evaluation of the operands in the expression a + fun1(). The value of a will be either 8 (if a is evaluated first) or 20 (if the function call is evaluated first).
Note that functions in mathematics do not have side effects, because there is no notion of variables in mathematics. The same is true for functional programming languages. In both mathematics and functional programming languages, functions are much easier to reason about and understand than those in imperative languages, because their context is irrelevant to their meaning. There are two possible solutions to the problem of operand evaluation order and side effects. First, the language designer could disallow function evaluation from affecting the value of expressions by simply disallowing functional side effects. Second, the language definition could state that operands in expressions are to be evaluated in a particular order and demand that implementors guarantee that order.
Disallowing functional side effects in the imperative languages is difficult, and it eliminates some flexibility for the programmer. Consider the case of C and C++, which have only functions, meaning that all subprograms return one

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327

value. To eliminate the side effects of two-way parameters and still provide subprograms that return more than one value, the values would need to be placed in a struct and the struct returned. Access to globals in functions would also have to be disallowed. However, when efficiency is important, using access to global variables to avoid parameter passing is an important method of increasing execution speed. In compilers, for example, global access to data such as the symbol table is commonplace.
The problem with having a strict evaluation order is that some code optimization techniques used by compilers involve reordering operand evaluations.
A guaranteed order disallows those optimization methods when function calls are involved. There is, therefore, no perfect solution, as is borne out by actual language designs.
The Java language definition guarantees that operands appear to be evaluated in left-to-right order, eliminating the problem discussed in this section.

7.2.2.2 Referential Transparency and Side Effects
The concept of referential transparency is related to and affected by functional side effects. A program has the property of referential transparency if any two expressions in the program that have the same value can be substituted for one another anywhere in the program, without affecting the action of the program.
The value of a referentially transparent function depends entirely on its parameters.4 The connection of referential transparency and functional side effects is illustrated by the following example: result1 = (fun(a) + b) / (fun(a) - c); temp = fun(a); result2 = (temp + b) / (temp - c);

If the function fun has no side effects, result1 and result2 will be equal, because the expressions assigned to them are equivalent. However, suppose fun has the side effect of adding 1 to either b or c. Then result1 would not be equal to result2. So, that side effect violates the referential transparency of the program in which the code appears.
There are several advantages to referentially transparent programs. The most important of these is that the semantics of such programs is much easier to understand than the semantics of programs that are not referentially transparent. Being referentially transparent makes a function equivalent to a mathematical function, in terms of ease of understanding.
Because they do not have variables, programs written in pure functional languages are referentially transparent. Functions in a pure functional language cannot have state, which would be stored in local variables. If such a function uses a value from outside the function, that value must be a constant, since there
4. Furthermore, the value of the function cannot depend on the order in which its parameters are evaluated.

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are no variables. Therefore, the value of the function depends on the values of its parameters.
Referential transparency will be further discussed in Chapter 15.

7.3 Overloaded Operators
Arithmetic operators are often used for more than one purpose. For example,
+ usually is used to specify integer addition and floating-point addition. Some languages—Java, for example—also use it for string catenation. This multiple use of an operator is called operator overloading and is generally thought to be acceptable, as long as neither readability nor reliability suffers.
As an example of the possible dangers of overloading, consider the use of the ampersand (&) in C++. As a binary operator, it specifies a bitwise logical
AND operation. As a unary operator, however, its meaning is totally different.
As a unary operator with a variable as its operand, the expression value is the address of that variable. In this case, the ampersand is called the address-of operator. For example, the execution of x = &y;

causes the address of y to be placed in x. There are two problems with this multiple use of the ampersand. First, using the same symbol for two completely unrelated operations is detrimental to readability. Second, the simple keying error of leaving out the first operand for a bitwise AND operation can go undetected by the compiler, because it is interpreted as an address-of operator.
Such an error may be difficult to diagnose.
Virtually all programming languages have a less serious but similar problem, which is often due to the overloading of the minus operator. The problem is only that the compiler cannot tell if the operator is meant to be binary or unary.5 So once again, failure to include the first operand when the operator is meant to be binary cannot be detected as an error by the compiler. However, the meanings of the two operations, unary and binary, are at least closely related, so readability is not adversely affected.
Some languages that support abstract data types (see Chapter 11), for example, C++, C#, and F#, allow the programmer to further overload operator symbols. For instance, suppose a user wants to define the * operator between a scalar integer and an integer array to mean that each element of the array is to be multiplied by the scalar. Such an operator could be defined by writing a function subprogram named * that performs this new operation. The compiler will choose the correct meaning when an overloaded operator is specified, based on the types of the operands, as with language-defined overloaded operators. For example, if this new definition for * is defined in a C# program, a C#
5. ML alleviates this problem by using different symbols for unary and binary minus operators, tilde (~) for unary and dash (–) for binary.

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compiler will use the new definition for * whenever the * operator appears with a simple integer as the left operand and an integer array as the right operand.
When sensibly used, user-defined operator overloading can aid readability.
For example, if + and * are overloaded for a matrix abstract data type and A, B,
C, and D are variables of that type, then
A * B + C * D

can be used instead of
MatrixAdd(MatrixMult(A, B), MatrixMult(C, D))

On the other hand, user-defined overloading can be harmful to readability.
For one thing, nothing prevents a user from defining + to mean multiplication.
Furthermore, seeing an * operator in a program, the reader must find both the types of the operands and the definition of the operator to determine its meaning. Any or all of these definitions could be in other files.
Another consideration is the process of building a software system from modules created by different groups. If the different groups overloaded the same operators in different ways, these differences would obviously need to be eliminated before putting the system together.
C++ has a few operators that cannot be overloaded. Among these are the class or structure member operator (.) and the scope resolution operator (::).
Interestingly, operator overloading was one of the C++ features that was not copied into Java. However, it did reappear in C#.
The implementation of user-defined operator overloading is discussed in
Chapter 9.

7.4 Type Conversions
Type conversions are either narrowing or widening. A narrowing conversion converts a value to a type that cannot store even approximations of all of the values of the original type. For example, converting a double to a float in
Java is a narrowing conversion, because the range of double is much larger than that of float. A widening conversion converts a value to a type that can include at least approximations of all of the values of the original type.
For example, converting an int to a float in Java is a widening conversion.
Widening conversions are nearly always safe, meaning that the magnitude of the converted value is maintained. Narrowing conversions are not always safe— sometimes the magnitude of the converted value is changed in the process. For example, if the floating-point value 1.3E25 is converted to an integer in a Java program, the result will be only distantly related to the original value.
Although widening conversions are usually safe, they can result in reduced accuracy. In many language implementations, although integer-to-floating-point conversions are widening conversions, some precision may be lost. For example,

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in many cases, integers are stored in 32 bits, which allows at least nine decimal digits of precision. But floating-point values are also stored in 32 bits, with only about seven decimal digits of precision (because of the space used for the exponent). So, integer-to-floating-point widening can result in the loss of two digits of precision.
Coercions of nonprimitive types are, of course, more complex. In Chapter 5, the complications of assignment compatibility of array and record types were discussed. There is also the question of what parameter types and return types of a method allow it to override a method in a superclass—only when the types are the same, or also some other situations. That issue, as well as the concept of subclasses as subtypes, is discussed in Chapter 12.
Type conversions can be either explicit or implicit. The following two subsections discuss these kinds of type conversions.

7.4.1

Coercion in Expressions
One of the design decisions concerning arithmetic expressions is whether an operator can have operands of different types. Languages that allow such expressions, which are called mixed-mode expressions, must define conventions for implicit operand type conversions because computers do not have binary operations that take operands of different types. Recall that in Chapter 5, coercion was defined as an implicit type conversion that is initiated by the compiler. Type conversions explicitly requested by the programmer are referred to as explicit conversions, or casts, not coercions.
Although some operator symbols may be overloaded, we assume that a computer system, either in hardware or in some level of software simulation, has an operation for each operand type and operator defined in the language.6
For overloaded operators in a language that uses static type binding, the compiler chooses the correct type of operation on the basis of the types of the operands. When the two operands of an operator are not of the same type and that is legal in the language, the compiler must choose one of them to be coerced and supply the code for that coercion. In the following discussion, the coercion design choices of several common languages are examined.
Language designers are not in agreement on the issue of coercions in arithmetic expressions. Those against a broad range of coercions are concerned with the reliability problems that can result from such coercions, because they reduce the benefits of type checking. Those who would rather include a wide range of coercions are more concerned with the loss in flexibility that results from restrictions. The issue is whether programmers should be concerned with this category of errors or whether the compiler should detect them.
As a simple illustration of the problem, consider the following Java code: int a; float b, c, d;
...
d = b * a;
6. This assumption is not true for many languages. An example is given later in this section.

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Assume that the second operand of the multiplication operator was supposed to be c, but because of a keying error it was typed as a. Because mixed-mode expressions are legal in Java, the compiler would not detect this as an error. It would simply insert code to coerce the value of the int operand, a, to float.
If mixed-mode expressions were not legal in Java, this keying error would have been detected by the compiler as a type error.
Because error detection is reduced when mixed-mode expressions are allowed, Ada allows very few mixed type operands in expressions. It does not allow mixing of integer and floating-point operands in an expression, with one exception: The exponentiation operator, **, can take either a floating-point or an integer type for the first operand and an integer type for the second operand. Ada allows a few other kinds of operand type mixing, usually related to subrange types. If the Java code example were written in Ada, as in
A : Integer;
B, C, D : Float;
...
C := B * A;

then the Ada compiler would find the expression erroneous, because Float and Integer operands cannot be mixed for the * operator.
ML and F# do not coerce operands in expressions. Any necessary conversions must be explicit. This results in the same high level of reliability in expressions that is provided by Ada.
In most of the other common languages, there are no restrictions on mixed-mode arithmetic expressions.
The C-based languages have integer types that are smaller than the int type. In Java, they are byte and short. Operands of all of these types are coerced to int whenever virtually any operator is applied to them. So, while data can be stored in variables of these types, it cannot be manipulated before conversion to a larger type. For example, consider the following Java code: byte a, b, c;
...
a = b + c;

The values of b and c are coerced to int and an int addition is performed.
Then, the sum is converted to byte and put in a. Given the large size of the memories of contemporary computers, there is little incentive to use byte and short, unless a large number of them must be stored.

7.4.2

Explicit Type Conversion
Most languages provide some capability for doing explicit conversions, both widening and narrowing. In some cases, warning messages are produced when an explicit narrowing conversion results in a significant change to the value of the object being converted.

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h is t or y n ot e
As a more extreme example of the dangers and costs of too much coercion, consider
PL/I’s efforts to achieve flexibility in expressions. In PL/I, a character string variable can be combined with an integer in an expression. At run time, the string is scanned for a numeric value. If the value happens to contain a decimal point, the value is assumed to be of floating-point type, the other operand is coerced to floatingpoint, and the resulting operation is floating-point. This coercion policy is very expensive, because both the type check and the conversion must be done at run time.
It also eliminates the possibility of detecting programmer errors in expressions, because a binary operator can combine an operand of any type with an operand of virtually any other type.

In the C-based languages, explicit type conversions are called casts. To specify a cast, the desired type is placed in parentheses just before the expression to be converted, as in
(int) angle

One of the reasons for the parentheses around the type name in these conversions is that the first of these languages, C, has several two-word type names, such as long int.
In ML and F#, the casts have the syntax of function calls. For example, in F# we could have the following: float(sum) 7.4.3 Errors in Expressions

A number of errors can occur during expression evaluation. If the language requires type checking, either static or dynamic, then operand type errors cannot occur. The errors that can occur because of coercions of operands in expressions have already been discussed. The other kinds of errors are due to the limitations of computer arithmetic and the inherent limitations of arithmetic.
The most common error occurs when the result of an operation cannot be represented in the memory cell where it must be stored. This is called overflow or underflow, depending on whether the result was too large or too small. One limitation of arithmetic is that division by zero is disallowed. Of course, the fact that it is not mathematically allowed does not prevent a program from attempting to do it.
Floating-point overflow, underflow, and division by zero are examples of run-time errors, which are sometimes called exceptions. Language facilities that allow programs to detect and deal with exceptions are discussed in Chapter 14.

7.5 Relational and Boolean Expressions
In addition to arithmetic expressions, programming languages support relational and Boolean expressions.

7.5.1

Relational Expressions
A relational operator is an operator that compares the values of its two operands. A relational expression has two operands and one relational operator.
The value of a relational expression is Boolean, except when Boolean is not a type included in the language. The relational operators are often overloaded for a variety of types. The operation that determines the truth or falsehood

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of a relational expression depends on the operand types. It can be simple, as for integer operands, or complex, as for character string operands. Typically, the types of the operands that can be
The Fortran I designers used used for relational operators are numeric types, strings, and ordiEnglish abbreviations for the nal types. relational operators because the
The syntax of the relational operators for equality and symbols > and < were not on inequality differs among some programming languages. For the card punches at the time of example, for inequality, the C-based languages use !=, Ada uses
Fortran I’s design (mid-1950s).
/=, Lua uses ~=, Fortran 95+ uses .NE. or , and ML and F# use .
JavaScript and PHP have two additional relational operators,
=== and !==. These are similar to their relatives, == and !=, but prevent their operands from being coerced. For example, the expression

his t or y n o t e

"7" == 7

is true in JavaScript, because when a string and a number are the operands of a relational operator, the string is coerced to a number. However,
"7" === 7

is false, because no coercion is done on the operands of this operator.
Ruby uses == for the equality relational operator that uses coercions, and eql? for equality with no coercions. Ruby uses === only in the when clause of its case statement, as discussed in Chapter 8.
The relational operators always have lower precedence than the arithmetic operators, so that in expressions such as a + 1 > 2 * b

the arithmetic expressions are evaluated first.

7.5.2

Boolean Expressions
Boolean expressions consist of Boolean variables, Boolean constants, relational expressions, and Boolean operators. The operators usually include those for the
AND, OR, and NOT operations, and sometimes for exclusive OR and equivalence. Boolean operators usually take only Boolean operands (Boolean variables, Boolean literals, or relational expressions) and produce Boolean values.
In the mathematics of Boolean algebras, the OR and AND operators must have equal precedence. In accordance with this, Ada’s AND and OR operators have equal precedence. However, the C-based languages assign a higher precedence to AND than OR. Perhaps this resulted from the baseless correlation of multiplication with AND and of addition with OR, which would naturally assign higher precedence to AND.
Because arithmetic expressions can be the operands of relational expressions, and relational expressions can be the operands of Boolean expressions,

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the three categories of operators must be placed in different precedence levels, relative to each other.
The precedence of the arithmetic, relational, and Boolean operators in the
C-based languages is as follows:
Highest

postfix ++, -unary +, -, prefix ++, --, !
* , /, %

binary +, , =
=, !=
&&

Lowest

||

Versions of C prior to C99 are odd among the popular imperative languages in that they have no Boolean type and thus no Boolean values. Instead, numeric values are used to represent Boolean values. In place of Boolean operands, scalar variables (numeric or character) and constants are used, with zero considered false and all nonzero values considered true. The result of evaluating such an expression is an integer, with the value 0 if false and 1 if true. Arithmetic expressions can also be used for Boolean expressions in C99 and C++.
One odd result of C’s design of relational expressions is that the following expression is legal: a > b > c

The leftmost relational operator is evaluated first because the relational operators of C are left associative, producing either 0 or 1. Then, this result is compared with the variable c. There is never a comparison between b and c in this expression. Some languages, including Perl and Ruby, provide two sets of the binary logic operators, && and and for AND and || and or for OR. One difference between && and and (and || and or) is that the spelled versions have lower precedence. Also, and and or have equal precedence, but && has higher precedence than ||.
When the nonarithmetic operators of the C-based languages are included, there are more than 40 operators and at least 14 different levels of precedence.
This is clear evidence of the richness of the collections of operators and the complexity of expressions possible in these languages.
Readability dictates that a language should include a Boolean type, as was stated in Chapter 6, rather than simply using numeric types in Boolean expressions.
Some error detection is lost in the use of numeric types for Boolean operands,

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335

because any numeric expression, whether intended or not, is a legal operand to a
Boolean operator. In the other imperative languages, any non-Boolean expression used as an operand of a Boolean operator is detected as an error.

7.6 Short-Circuit Evaluation
A short-circuit evaluation of an expression is one in which the result is determined without evaluating all of the operands and/or operators. For example, the value of the arithmetic expression
(13 * a) * (b / 13 - 1)

is independent of the value of (b / 13 - 1) if a is 0, because 0 * x = 0 for any x. So, when a is 0, there is no need to evaluate (b / 13 - 1) or perform the second multiplication. However, in arithmetic expressions, this shortcut is not easily detected during execution, so it is never taken.
The value of the Boolean expression
(a >= 0) && (b < 10)

is independent of the second relational expression if a < 0, because the expression (FALSE && (b < 10)) is FALSE for all values of b. So, when a 6 0, there is no need to evaluate b, the constant 10, the second relational expression, or the && operation. Unlike the case of arithmetic expressions, this shortcut can be easily discovered during execution.
To illustrate a potential problem with non-short-circuit evaluation of
Boolean expressions, suppose Java did not use short-circuit evaluation. A table lookup loop could be written using the while statement. One simple version of
Java code for such a lookup, assuming that list, which has listlen elements, is the array to be searched and key is the searched-for value, is index = 0; while ((index < listlen) && (list[index] != key)) index = index + 1;

If evaluation is not short-circuit, both relational expressions in the Boolean expression of the while statement are evaluated, regardless of the value of the first. Thus, if key is not in list, the program will terminate with a subscript out-of-range exception. The same iteration that has index == listlen will reference list[listlen], which causes the indexing error because list is declared to have listlen-1 as an upper-bound subscript value.
If a language provides short-circuit evaluation of Boolean expressions and it is used, this is not a problem. In the preceding example, a short-circuit evaluation scheme would evaluate the first operand of the AND operator, but it would skip the second operand if the first operand is false.

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A language that provides short-circuit evaluations of Boolean expressions and also has side effects in expressions allows subtle errors to occur. Suppose that short-circuit evaluation is used on an expression and part of the expression that contains a side effect is not evaluated; then the side effect will occur only in complete evaluations of the whole expression. If program correctness depends on the side effect, short-circuit evaluation can result in a serious error.
For example, consider the Java expression
(a > b) || ((b++) / 3)

In this expression, b is changed (in the second arithmetic expression) only when a and Lowest
Associativity

Left to right

or, xor

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Show the order of evaluation of the following expressions by parenthesizing all subexpressions and placing a superscript on the right parenthesis to indicate order. For example, for the expression a + b * c + d

the order of evaluation would be represented as
((a + (b * c)1)2 + d)3

a.
b.
c.
d.

a * b - 1 + c a * (b - 1) / c mod d
(a - b) / c & (d * e / a - 3)
-a or c = d and e

e. a > b xor c or d y : x = y print "case 1"

All statements equally indented are included in the compound statement.2
Notice that rather than then, a colon is used to introduce the then clause in
Python.
The variations in clause form have implications for the specification of the meaning of nested selectors, as discussed in the next subsection.

8.2.1.4 Nesting Selectors
Recall that in Chapter 3, we discussed the problem of syntactic ambiguity of a straightforward grammar for a two-way selector statement. That ambiguous grammar was as follows: → if then
| if then else
The issue was that when a selection statement is nested in the then clause of a selection statement, it is not clear to which if an else clause should be associated. This problem is reflected in the semantics of selection statements. Consider the following Java-like code: if (sum == 0) if (count == 0) result = 0; else result = 1;

This statement can be interpreted in two different ways, depending on whether the else clause is matched with the first then clause or the second. Notice that the indentation seems to indicate that the else clause belongs with the first then clause. However, with the exceptions of Python and F#, indentation has no effect on semantics in contemporary languages and is therefore ignored by their compilers.

1. Actually, in Ada and Fortran it is two reserved words, end if (Ada) or End If (Fortran).
2. The statement following the compound statement must have the same indentation as the if.

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The crux of the problem in this example is that the else clause follows two then clauses with no intervening else clause, and there is no syntactic indicator to specify a matching of the else clause to one of the then clauses. In Java, as in many other imperative languages, the static semantics of the language specify that the else clause is always paired with the nearest previous unpaired then clause. A static semantics rule, rather than a syntactic entity, is used to provide the disambiguation. So, in the example, the else clause would be paired with the second then clause. The disadvantage of using a rule rather than some syntactic entity is that although the programmer may have meant the else clause to be the alternative to the first then clause and the compiler found the structure syntactically correct, its semantics is the opposite. To force the alternative semantics in Java, the inner if is put in a compound, as in if (sum == 0) { if (count == 0) result = 0;
}
else result = 1;

C, C++, and C# have the same problem as Java with selection statement nesting. Because Perl requires that all then and else clauses be compound, it does not. In Perl, the previous code would be written as if (sum == 0) { if (count == 0) { result = 0;
}
} else { result = 1;
}

If the alternative semantics were needed, it would be if (sum == 0) { if (count == 0) { result = 0;
}
else { result = 1;
}
}

Another way to avoid the issue of nested selection statements is to use an alternative means of forming compound statements. Consider the syntactic structure of the Java if statement. The then clause follows the control expression and the else clause is introduced by the reserved word else. When the

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353

then clause is a single statement and the else clause is present, although there is no need to mark the end, the else reserved word in fact marks the end of the then clause. When the then clause is a compound, it is terminated by a right brace. However, if the last clause in an if, whether then or else, is not a compound, there is no syntactic entity to mark the end of the whole selection statement. The use of a special word for this purpose resolves the question of the semantics of nested selectors and also adds to the readability of the statement. This is the design of the selection statement in Fortran 95+ Ada, Ruby, and Lua. For example, consider the following Ruby statement: if a > b then sum = sum + a acount = acount + 1 else sum = sum + b bcount = bcount + 1 end The design of this statement is more regular than that of the selection statements of the C-based languages, because the form is the same regardless of the number of statements in the then and else clauses. (This is also true for Perl.)
Recall that in Ruby, the then and else clauses consist of statement sequences rather than compound statements. The first interpretation of the selector example at the beginning of this section, in which the else clause is matched to the nested if, can be written in Ruby as follows: if sum == 0 then if count == 0 then result = 0 else result = 1 end end

Because the end reserved word closes the nested if, it is clear that the else clause is matched to the inner then clause.
The second interpretation of the selection statement at the beginning of this section, in which the else clause is matched to the outer if, can be written in Ruby as follows: if sum == 0 then if count == 0 then result = 0 end else result = 1 end 354

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The following statement, written in Python, is semantically equivalent to the last Ruby statement above: if sum == 0 : if count == 0 : result = 0 else: result = 1

If the line else: were indented to begin in the same column as the nested if, the else clause would be matched with the inner if.
ML does not have a problem with nested selectors because it does not allow else-less if statements.

8.2.1.5 Selector Expressions
In the functional languages ML, F#, and LISP, the selector is not a statement; it is an expression that results in a value. Therefore, it can appear anywhere any other expression can appear. Consider the following example selector written in F#: let y = if x > 0 then x else 2 * x;;

This creates the name y and sets it to either x or 2 * x, depending on whether x is greater than zero.
An F# if need not return a value, for example if its clause or clauses create side effects, perhaps with output statements. However, if the if expression does return a value, as in the example above, it must have an else clause.

8.2.2

Multiple-Selection Statements
The multiple-selection statement allows the selection of one of any number of statements or statement groups. It is, therefore, a generalization of a selector.
In fact, two-way selectors can be built with a multiple selector.
The need to choose from among more than two control paths in a program is common. Although a multiple selector can be built from two-way selectors and gotos, the resulting structures are cumbersome, unreliable, and difficult to write and read. Therefore, the need for a special structure is clear.

8.2.2.1 Design Issues
Some of the design issues for multiple selectors are similar to some of those for two-way selectors. For example, one issue is the question of the type of expression on which the selector is based. In this case, the range of possibilities is larger, in part because the number of possible selections is larger. A two-way

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selector needs an expression with only two possible values. Another issue is whether single statements, compound statements, or statement sequences may be selected. Next, there is the question of whether only a single selectable segment can be executed when the statement is executed. This is not an issue for two-way selectors, because they always allow only one of the clauses to be on a control path during one execution. As we shall see, the resolution of this issue for multiple selectors is a trade-off between reliability and flexibility. Another issue is the form of the case value specifications. Finally, there is the issue of what should result from the selector expression evaluating to a value that does not select one of the segments. (Such a value would be unrepresented among the selectable segments.) The choice here is between simply disallowing the situation from arising and having the statement do nothing at all when it does arise.
The following is a summary of these design issues:
• What is the form and type of the expression that controls the selection?
• How are the selectable segments specified?
• Is execution flow through the structure restricted to include just a single selectable segment?
• How are the case values specified?
• How should unrepresented selector expression values be handled, if at all?

8.2.2.2 Examples of Multiple Selectors
The C multiple-selector statement, switch, which is also part of C++, Java, and JavaScript, is a relatively primitive design. Its general form is switch (expression) { case constant_expression 1:statement1;
...

case constantn: statement_n;
[default: statementn + 1]
}
where the control expression and the constant expressions are some discrete type. This includes integer types, as well as characters and enumeration types.
The selectable statements can be statement sequences, compound statements, or blocks. The optional default segment is for unrepresented values of the control expression. If the value of the control expression is not represented and no default segment is present, then the statement does nothing.
The switch statement does not provide implicit branches at the end of its code segments. This allows control to flow through more than one selectable code segment on a single execution. Consider the following example: switch (index) { case 1:

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case 3: odd += 1; sumodd += index; case 2: case 4: even += 1; sumeven += index; default: printf("Error in switch, index = %d\n", index);
}

This code prints the error message on every execution. Likewise, the code for the 2 and 4 constants is executed every time the code at the 1 or 3 constants is executed. To separate these segments logically, an explicit branch must be included. The break statement, which is actually a restricted goto, is normally used for exiting switch statements.
The following switch statement uses break to restrict each execution to a single selectable segment: switch (index) { case 1: case 3: odd += 1; sumodd += index; break; case 2: case 4: even += 1; sumeven += index; break; default: printf("Error in switch, index = %d\n", index);
}

Occasionally, it is convenient to allow control to flow from one selectable code segment to another. For example, in the example above, the segments for the case values 1 and 2 are empty, allowing control to flow to the segments for
3 and 4, respectively. This is the reason why there are no implicit branches in the switch statement. The reliability problem with this design arises when the mistaken absence of a break statement in a segment allows control to flow to the next segment incorrectly. The designers of C’s switch traded a decrease in reliability for an increase in flexibility. Studies have shown, however, that the ability to have control flow from one selectable segment to another is rarely used. C’s switch is modeled on the multiple-selection statement in ALGOL
68, which also does not have implicit branches from selectable segments.
The C switch statement has virtually no restrictions on the placement of the case expressions, which are treated as if they were normal statement labels.
This laxness can result in highly complex structure within the switch body. The following example is taken from Harbison and Steele (2002). switch (x) default: if (prime(x))

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case 2: case 3: case 5: case 7: process_prime(x); else case 4: case 6: case 8: case 9: case 10: process_composite(x); This code may appear to have diabolically complex form, but it was designed for a real problem and works correctly and efficiently to solve that problem.3
The Java switch prevents this sort of complexity by disallowing case expressions from appearing anywhere except the top level of the body of the switch. The C# switch statement differs from that of its C-based predecessors in two ways. First, C# has a static semantics rule that disallows the implicit execution of more than one segment. The rule is that every selectable segment must end with an explicit unconditional branch statement: either a break, which transfers control out of the switch statement, or a goto, which can transfer control to one of the selectable segments (or virtually anywhere else).
For example, switch (value) { case -1:
Negatives++;
break; case 0:
Zeros++;
goto case 1; case 1:
Positives++;
default:
Console.WriteLine("Error in switch \n");
}

Note that Console.WriteLine is the method for displaying strings in C#.
The other way C#’s switch differs from that of its predecessors is that the control expression and the case statements can be strings in C#.
PHP’s switch uses the syntax of C’s switch but allows more type flexibility. The case values can be any of the PHP scalar types—string, integer, or double precision. As with C, if there is no break at the end of the selected segment, execution continues into the next segment.
Ruby has two forms of multiple-selection constructs, both of which are called case expressions and both of which yield the value of the last expression

3. The problem is to call process_prime when x is prime and process_composite when x is not prime. The design of the switch body resulted from an attempt to optimize based on the knowledge that x was most often in the range of 1 to 10.

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evaluated. The only version of Ruby’s case expressions that is described here is semantically similar to a list of nested if statements: case when Boolean_expression then expression
...
when Boolean_expression then expression
[else expression] end The semantics of this case expression is that the Boolean expressions are evaluated one at a time, top to bottom. The value of the case expression is the value of the first then expression whose Boolean expression is true. The else represents true in this statement, and the else clause is optional. For example,4 leap = case when year % 400 == 0 then true when year % 100 == 0 then false else year % 4 == 0 end This case expression evaluates to true if year is a leap year.
The other Ruby case expression form is similar to the switch of Java. Perl,
Python, and Lua do not have multiple-selection statements.

8.2.2.3 Implementing Multiple Selection Structures
A multiple selection statement is essentially an n-way branch to segments of code, where n is the number of selectable segments. Implementing such a statement must be done with multiple conditional branch instructions. Consider again the general form of the C switch statement, with breaks: switch (expression) { case constant_expression 1: statement1; break; ... case constantn: statementn; break; [default: statementn + 1]
}
4. This example is from Thomas et al. (2005).

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One simple translation of this statement follows:
Code to evaluate expression into t goto branches label1: code for statement1 goto out
...
labeln: code for statementn goto out default: code for statementn + 1 goto out branches: if t = constant_expression 1 goto label1
...
if t = constant_expression n goto labeln goto default out: The code for the selectable segments precedes the branches so that the targets of the branches are all known when the branches are generated. An alternative to these coded conditional branches is to put the case values and labels in a table and use a linear search with a loop to find the correct label. This requires less space than the coded conditionals.
The use of conditional branches or a linear search on a table of cases and labels is a simple but inefficient approach that is acceptable when the number of cases is small, say less than 10. It takes an average of about half as many tests as there are cases to find the right one. For the default case to be chosen, all other cases must be tested. In statements with 10 or more cases, the low efficiency of this form is not justified by its simplicity.
When the number of cases is 10 or greater, the compiler can build a hash table of the segment labels, which would result in approximately equal (and short) times to choose any of the selectable segments. If the language allows ranges of values for case expressions, as in Ada and Ruby, the hash method is not suitable. For these situations, a binary search table of case values and segment addresses is better.
If the range of the case values is relatively small and more than half of the whole range of values is represented, an array whose indices are the case values and whose values are the segment labels can be built. Array elements whose indices are not among the represented case values are filled with the default segment’s label. Then finding the correct segment label is found by array indexing, which is very fast.
Of course, choosing among these approaches is an additional burden on the compiler. In many compilers, only two different methods are available.
As in other situations, determining and using the most efficient method costs more compiler time.

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8.2.2.4 Multiple Selection Using if
In many situations, a switch or case statement is inadequate for multiple selection (Ruby’s case is an exception). For example, when selections must be made on the basis of a Boolean expression rather than some ordinal type, nested two-way selectors can be used to simulate a multiple selector. To alleviate the poor readability of deeply nested two-way selectors, some languages, such as
Perl and Python, have been extended specifically for this use. The extension allows some of the special words to be left out. In particular, else-if sequences are replaced with a single special word, and the closing special word on the nested if is dropped. The nested selector is then called an else-if clause. Consider the following Python selector statement (note that else-if is spelled elif in Python): if count < 10 : bag1 = True elif count < 100 : bag2 = True elif count < 1000 : bag3 = True

which is equivalent to the following: if count < 10 : bag1 = True else : if count < 100 : bag2 = True else : if count < 1000 : bag3 = True else : bag4 = True

The else-if version (the first) is the more readable of the two. Notice that this example is not easily simulated with a switch statement, because each selectable statement is chosen on the basis of a Boolean expression. Therefore, the else-if statement is not a redundant form of switch. In fact, none of the multiple selectors in contemporary languages are as general as the if-then-else-if statement. An operational semantics description of a general selector statement with else-if clauses, in which the E’s are logic expressions and the S’s are statements, is given here: if E 1 goto 1 if E 2 goto 2
...
1: S 1 goto out
2: S 2

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goto out
...
out: . . .
From this description, we can see the difference between multiple selection structures and else-if statements: In a multiple selection statement, all the E’s would be restricted to comparisons between the value of a single expression and some other values.
Languages that do not include the else-if statement can use the same control structure, with only slightly more typing.
The Python example if-then-else-if statement above can be written as the
Ruby case statement: case when count < 10 then bag1 = true when count < 100 then bag2 = true when count < 1000 then bag3 = true end Else-if statements are based on the common mathematics statement, the conditional expression.
The Scheme multiple selector, which is based on mathematical conditional expressions, is a special form function named COND. COND is a slightly generalized version of the mathematical conditional expression; it allows more than one predicate to be true at the same time. Because different mathematical conditional expressions have different numbers of parameters, COND does not require a fixed number of actual parameters. Each parameter to COND is a pair of expressions in which the first is a predicate (it evaluates to either #T or #F).
The general form of COND is
(COND
(predicate1 expression1)
(predicate2 expression2)

...
(predicaten expressionn)
[(ELSE expressionn+1)]
)

where the ELSE clause is optional.
The semantics of COND is as follows: The predicates of the parameters are evaluated one at a time, in order from the first, until one evaluates to #T. The expression that follows the first predicate that is found to be #T is then evaluated and its value is returned as the value of COND. If none of the predicates is true and there is an ELSE, its expression is evaluated and the value is returned.
If none of the predicates is true and there is no ELSE, the value of COND is unspecified. Therefore, all CONDs should include an ELSE.

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Consider the following example call to COND:
(COND
((> x y) "x is greater than y")
((< x y) "y is greater than x")
(ELSE "x and y are equal")
)

Note that string literals evaluate to themselves, so that when this call to COND is evaluated, it produces a string result.
F# includes a match expression that uses pattern matching as the selector to provide a multiple-selection construct.

8.3 Iterative Statements
An iterative statement is one that causes a statement or collection of statements to be executed zero, one, or more times. An iterative statement is often called a loop. Every programming language from Plankalkül on has included some method of repeating the execution of segments of code. Iteration is the very essence of the power of the computer. If some means of repetitive execution of a statement or collection of statements were not possible, programmers would be required to state every action in sequence; useful programs would be huge and inflexible and take unacceptably large amounts of time to write and mammoth amounts of memory to store.
The first iterative statements in programming languages were directly related to arrays. This resulted from the fact that in the earliest years of computers, computing was largely numerical in nature, frequently using loops to process data in arrays.
Several categories of iteration control statements have been developed.
The primary categories are defined by how designers answered two basic design questions:
• How is the iteration controlled?
• Where should the control mechanism appear in the loop statement?
The primary possibilities for iteration control are logical, counting, or a combination of the two. The main choices for the location of the control mechanism are the top of the loop or the bottom of the loop. Top and bottom here are logical, rather than physical, denotations. The issue is not the physical placement of the control mechanism; rather, it is whether the mechanism is executed and affects control before or after execution of the statement’s body.
A third option, which allows the user to decide where to put the control, is discussed in Section 8.3.3.
The body of an iterative statement is the collection of statements whose execution is controlled by the iteration statement. We use the term pretest to mean that the test for loop completion occurs before the loop body is executed

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and posttest to mean that it occurs after the loop body is executed. The iteration statement and the associated loop body together form an iteration statement.
In addition to the primary iteration statements, we discuss an alternative form that is in a class by itself: user-defined iteration control.

8.3.1

Counter-Controlled Loops
A counting iterative control statement has a variable, called the loop variable, in which the count value is maintained. It also includes some means of specifying the initial and terminal values of the loop variable, and the difference between sequential loop variable values, often called the stepsize.
The initial, terminal, and stepsize specifications of a loop are called the loop parameters. Although logically controlled loops are more general than countercontrolled loops, they are not necessarily more commonly used. Because counter-controlled loops are more complex, their design is more demanding.
Counter-controlled loops are sometimes supported by machine instructions designed for that purpose. Unfortunately, machine architecture might outlive the prevailing approaches to programming at the time of the architecture design. For example, VAX computers have a very convenient instruction for the implementation of posttest counter-controlled loops, which Fortran had at the time of the design of the VAX (mid-1970s). But Fortran no longer had such a loop by the time VAX computers became widely used (it had been replaced by a pretest loop).

8.3.1.1 Design Issues
There are many design issues for iterative counter-controlled statements. The nature of the loop variable and the loop parameters provide a number of design issues. The type of the loop variable and that of the loop parameters obviously should be the same or at least compatible, but what types should be allowed?
One apparent choice is integer, but what about enumeration, character, and floating-point types? Another question is whether the loop variable is a normal variable, in terms of scope, or whether it should have some special scope.
Allowing the user to change the loop variable or the loop parameters within the loop can lead to code that is very difficult to understand, so another question is whether the additional flexibility that might be gained by allowing such changes is worth that additional complexity. A similar question arises about the number of times and the specific time when the loop parameters are evaluated: If they are evaluated just once, it results in simple but less flexible loops.
The following is a summary of these design issues:
• What are the type and scope of the loop variable?
• Should it be legal for the loop variable or loop parameters to be changed in the loop, and if so, does the change affect loop control?
• Should the loop parameters be evaluated only once, or once for every iteration?

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8.3.1.2 The Ada for Statement
The Ada for statement has the following form: for variable in [reverse] discrete_range loop
...
end loop;

A discrete range is a subrange of an integer or enumeration type, such as 1..10 or Monday..Friday. The reverse reserved word, when present, indicates that the values of the discrete range are assigned to the loop variable in reverse order.
The most interesting new feature of the Ada for statement is the scope of the loop variable, which is the range of the loop. The variable is implicitly declared at the for statement and implicitly undeclared after loop termination.
For example, in
Count : Float := 1.35; for Count in 1..10 loop
Sum := Sum + Count; end loop;

the Float variable Count is unaffected by the for loop. Upon loop termination, the variable Count is still Float type with the value of 1.35. Also, the
Float-type variable Count is hidden from the code in the body of the loop, being masked by the loop counter Count, which is implicitly declared to be the type of the discrete range, Integer.
The Ada loop variable cannot be assigned a value in the loop body. Variables used to specify the discrete range can be changed in the loop, but because the range is evaluated only once, these changes do not affect loop control. It is not legal to branch into the Ada for loop body. Following is an operational semantics description of the Ada for loop:
[define for_var (its type is that of the discrete range)]
[evaluate discrete range] loop: if [there are no elements left in the discrete range] goto out for_var = [next element of discrete range]
[loop body] goto loop out: [undefine for_var]
Because the scope of the loop variable is the loop body, loop variables are not defined after loop termination, so their values there are not relevant.

8.3.1.3 The for Statement of the C-Based Languages
The general form of C’s for statement is

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for (expression_1; expression_2; expression_3)

loop body
The loop body can be a single statement, a compound statement, or a null statement. Because assignment statements in C produce results and thus can be considered expressions, the expressions in a for statement are often assignment statements. The first expression is for initialization and is evaluated only once, when the for statement execution begins. The second expression is the loop control and is evaluated before each execution of the loop body. As is usual in
C, a zero value means false and all nonzero values mean true. Therefore, if the value of the second expression is zero, the for is terminated; otherwise, the loop body statements are executed. In C99, the expression also could be a Boolean type. A C99 Boolean type stores only the values 0 or 1. The last expression in the for is executed after each execution of the loop body. It is often used to increment the loop counter. An operational semantics description of the C for statement is shown next. Because C expressions can be used as statements, expression evaluations are shown as statements. expression_1 loop: if expression_2 = 0 goto out
[loop body] expression_3 goto loop out: . . .
Following is an example of a skeletal C for statement: for (count = 1; count 0);

Note that all variables in these examples are integer type. The ReadLine method of the Console object gets a line of text from the keyboard.
Int32.Parse finds the number in its string parameter, converts it to int type, and returns it.
In the pretest version of a logical loop (while), the statement or statement segment is executed as long as the expression evaluates to true. In the posttest version (do), the loop body is executed until the expression evaluates to false.
The only real difference between the do and the while is that the do always causes the loop body to be executed at least once. In both cases, the statement can be compound. The operational semantics descriptions of those two statements follows: while loop: if control_expression is false goto out
[loop body] goto loop out: . . . do-while loop:
[loop body] if control_expression is true goto loop
It is legal in both C and C++ to branch into both while and do loop bodies. The C89 version uses an arithmetic expression for control; in C99 and
C++, it may be either arithmetic or Boolean.

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Java’s while and do statements are similar to those of C and C++, except the control expression must be boolean type, and because Java does not have a goto, the loop bodies cannot be entered anywhere but at their beginnings.
Posttest loops are infrequently useful and also can be somewhat dangerous, in the sense that programmers sometimes forget that the loop body will always be executed at least once. The syntactic design of placing a posttest control physically after the loop body, where it has its semantic effect, helps avoid such problems by making the logic clear.
A pretest logical loop can be simulated in a purely functional form with a recursive function that is similar to the one used to simulate a counting loop statement in Section 8.3.1.5. In both cases, the loop body is written as a function. Following is the general form of a simulated logical pretest loop, written in F#: let rec whileLoop test body = if test() then body() whileLoop test body else ();;

8.3.3

User-Located Loop Control Mechanisms
In some situations, it is convenient for a programmer to choose a location for loop control other than the top or bottom of the loop body. As a result, some languages provide this capability. A syntactic mechanism for user-located loop control can be relatively simple, so its design is not difficult. Such loops have the structure of infinite loops but include user-located loop exits. Perhaps the most interesting question is whether a single loop or several nested loops can be exited. The design issues for such a mechanism are the following:
• Should the conditional mechanism be an integral part of the exit?
• Should only one loop body be exited, or can enclosing loops also be exited?
C, C++, Python, Ruby, and C# have unconditional unlabeled exits (break).
Java and Perl have unconditional labeled exits (break in Java, last in Perl).
Following is an example of nested loops in Java, in which there is a break out of the outer loop from the nested loop: outerLoop: for (row = 0; row < numRows; row++) for (col = 0; col < numCols; col++) { sum += mat[row][col]; if (sum > 1000.0) break outerLoop;
}

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C, C++, and Python include an unlabeled control statement, continue, that transfers control to the control mechanism of the smallest enclosing loop.
This is not an exit but rather a way to skip the rest of the loop statements on the current iteration without terminating the loop structure. For example, consider the following: while (sum < 1000) { getnext(value); if (value < 0) continue; sum += value;
}

A negative value causes the assignment statement to be skipped, and control is transferred instead to the conditional at the top of the loop. On the other hand, in while (sum < 1000) { getnext(value); if (value < 0) break; sum += value;
}

a negative value terminates the loop.
Both last and break provide for multiple exits from loops, which may seem to be somewhat of a hindrance to readability. However, unusual conditions that require loop termination are so common that such a statement is justified. Furthermore, readability is not seriously harmed, because the target of all such loop exits is the first statement after the loop (or an enclosing loop) rather than just anywhere in the program. Finally, the alternative of using multiple breaks to leave more than one level of loops is much worse for readability.
The motivation for user-located loop exits is simple: They fulfill a common need for goto statements through a highly restricted branch statement. The target of a goto can be many places in the program, both above and below the goto itself. However, the targets of user-located loop exits must be below the exit and can only follow immediately the end of a compound statement.

8.3.4

Iteration Based on Data Structures
A Do statement in Fortran uses a simple iterator over integer values. For example, consider the following statement:
Do Count = 1, 9, 2

In this statement, 1 is the initial value of Count, 9 is the last value, and the step size between values is 2. An internal function, the iterator, must be called

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for each iteration to compute the next value of Count (by adding 2 to the last value of Count, in this example) and test whether the iteration should continue.
In Python, this same loop can be written as follows: for count in range [0, 9, 2]:

In this case, the iterator is named range. While these looping statements are usually used to iterate over arrays, there is no connection between the iterator and the array.
Ada allows the range of a loop iterator and the subscript range of an array to be connected with subranges. For example, a subrange can be defined, such as in the following declaration: subtype MyRange is Integer range 0..99;
MyArray: array (MyRange) of Integer; for Index in MyRange loop
...
end loop;

The subtype MyRange is used both to declare the array and to iterate through the array. An index range overflow is not possible when a subrange is used this way. A general data-based iteration statement uses a user-defined data structure and a user-defined function (the iterator) to go through the structure’s elements. The iterator is called at the beginning of each iteration, and each time it is called, the iterator returns an element from a particular data structure in some specific order. For example, suppose a program has a user-defined binary tree of data nodes, and the data in each node must be processed in some particular order. A user-defined iteration statement for the tree would successively set the loop variable to point to the nodes in the tree, one for each iteration. The initial execution of the user-defined iteration statement needs to issue a special call to the iterator to get the first tree element. The iterator must always remember which node it presented last so that it visits all nodes without visiting any node more than once. So an iterator must be history sensitive. A user-defined iteration statement terminates when the iterator fails to find more elements.
The for statement of the C-based languages, because of its great flexibility, can be used to simulate a user-defined iteration statement. Once again, suppose the nodes of a binary tree are to be processed. If the tree root is pointed to by a variable named root, and if traverse is a function that sets its parameter to point to the next element of a tree in the desired order, the following could be used: for (ptr = root; ptr == null; ptr = traverse(ptr)) {
...
}

In this statement, traverse is the iterator.

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Predefined iterators are used to provide iterative access to PHP’s unique arrays. The current pointer points at the element last accessed through iteration. The next iterator moves current to the next element in the array. The prev iterator moves current to the previous element. current can be set or reset to the array’s first element with the reset operator. The following code displays all of the elements of an array of numbers $list: reset $list; print ("First number: " + current($list) + ""); while ($current_value = next($list)) print ("Next number: " + $current_value + "");

User-defined iteration statements are more important in object-oriented programming than they were in earlier software development paradigms, because users of object-oriented programming routinely use abstract data types for data structures, especially collections. In such cases, a user-defined iteration statement and its iterator must be provided by the author of the data abstraction because the representation of the objects of the type is not known to the user.
An enhanced version of the for statement was added to Java in Java 5.0.
This statement simplifies iterating through the values in an array or objects in a collection that implements the Iterable interface. (All of the predefined generic collections in Java implement Iterable.) For example, if we had an
ArrayList5 collection named myList of strings, the following statement would iterate through all of its elements, setting each to myElement: for (String myElement : myList) { . . . }

This new statement is referred to as “foreach,” although its reserved word is for. C# and F# (and the other .NET languages) also have generic library classes for collections. For example, there are generic collection classes for lists, which are dynamic length arrays, stacks, queues, and dictionaries (hash table). All of these predefined generic collections have built-in iterators that are used implicitly with the foreach statement. Furthermore, users can define their own collections and write their own iterators, which can implement the IEnumerator interface, which enables the use of foreach on these collections.
For example, consider the following C# code:
List names = new List(); names.Add("Bob"); names.Add("Carol"); names.Add("Alice"); ...

5. An ArrayList is a predefined generic collection that is actually a dynamic-length array of whatever type it is declared to store.

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foreach (String name in names)
Console.WriteLine(name);

In Ruby, a block is a sequence of code, delimited by either braces or the do and end reserved words. Blocks can be used with specially written methods to create many useful constructs, including iterators for data structures. This construct consists of a method call followed by a block. A block is actually an anonymous method that is sent to the method (whose call precedes it) as a parameter.
The called method can then call the block, which can produce output or objects.
Ruby predefines several iterator methods, such as times and upto for counter-controlled loops, and each for simple iterations of arrays and hashes.
For example, consider the following example of using times:
>> 4.times {puts "Hey!"}
Hey!
Hey!
Hey!
Hey!
=> 4

Note that >> is the prompt of the interactive Ruby interpreter and => is used to indicate the return value of the expression. The Ruby puts statement displays its parameter. In this example, the times method is sent to the object 4, with the block sent along as a parameter. The times method calls the block four times, producing the four lines of output. The destination object, 4, is the return value from times.
The most common Ruby iterator is each , which is often used to go through arrays and apply a block to each element.6 For this purpose, it is convenient to allow blocks to have parameters, which, if present, appear at the beginning of the block, delimited by vertical bars (͉ ). The following example, which uses a block parameter, illustrates the use of each:
>>
=>
>>
2
4
6
8
=>

list = [2, 4, 6, 8]
[2, 4, 6, 8] list.each {|value| puts value}

[2, 4, 6, 8]

In this example, the block is called for each element of the array to which the each method is sent. The block produces the output, which is a list of the array’s elements. The return value of each is the array to which it is sent.

6. This is similar to the map functions discussed in Chapter 15.

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Instead of a counting loop, Ruby has the upto method. For example, we could have the following:
1.upto(5) {|x| print x, " "}

This produces the following output:
1 2 3 4 5

Syntax that resembles a for loop in other languages could also be used, as in the following: for x in 1..5 print x, " " end Ruby actually has no for statement—constructs like the above are converted by Ruby into upto method calls.
Now we consider how blocks work. The yield statement is similar to a method call, except that there is no receiver object and the call is a request to execute the block attached to the method call, rather than a call to a method. yield is only called in a method that has been called with a block. If the block has parameters, they are specified in parentheses in the yield statement. The value returned by a block is that of the last expression evaluated in the block. It is this process that is used to implement the built-in iterators, such as times.

8.4 Unconditional Branching
An unconditional branch statement transfers execution control to a specified location in the program. The most heated debate in language design in the late
1960s was over the issue of whether unconditional branching should be part of any high-level language, and if so, whether its use should be restricted. The unconditional branch, or goto, is the most powerful statement for controlling the flow of execution of a program’s statements. However, using the goto carelessly can lead to serious problems. The goto has stunning power and great flexibility (all other control structures can be built with goto and a selector), but it is this power that makes its use dangerous. Without restrictions on use, imposed by either language design or programming standards, goto statements can make programs very difficult to read, and as a result, highly unreliable and costly to maintain.
These problems follow directly from a goto’s capability of forcing any program statement to follow any other in execution sequence, regardless of whether that statement precedes or follows the previously executed statement in textual order. Readability is best when the execution order of statements is

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h is t or y n ot e
Although several thoughtful people had suggested them earlier, it was Edsger Dijkstra who gave the computing world the first widely read exposé on the dangers of the goto. In his letter he noted, “The goto statement as it stands is just too primitive; it is too much an invitation to make a mess of one’s program”
(Dijkstra, 1968a). During the first few years after publication of Dijkstra’s views on the goto, a large number of people argued publicly for either outright banishment or at least restrictions on the use of the goto.
Among those who did not favor complete elimination was Donald Knuth (1974), who argued that there were occasions when the efficiency of the goto outweighed its harm to readability.

nearly the same as the order in which they appear—in our case, this would mean top to bottom, which is the order with which we are accustomed. Thus, restricting gotos so they can transfer control only downward in a program partially alleviates the problem. It allows gotos to transfer control around code sections in response to errors or unusual conditions but disallows their use to build any sort of loop.
A few languages have been designed without a goto—for example, Java, Python, and Ruby. However, most currently popular languages include a goto statement. Kernighan and
Ritchie (1978) call the goto infinitely abusable, but it is nevertheless included in Ritchie’s language, C. The languages that have eliminated the goto have provided additional control statements, usually in the form of loop exits, to code one of the justifiable applications of the goto.
The relatively new language, C#, includes a goto, even though one of the languages on which it is based, Java, does not.
One legitimate use of C#’s goto is in the switch statement, as discussed in Section 8.2.2.2.
All of the loop exit statements discussed in Section 8.3.3 are actually camouflaged goto statements. They are, however, severely restricted gotos and are not harmful to readability. In fact, it can be argued that they improve readability, because to avoid their use results in convoluted and unnatural code that would be much more difficult to understand.

8.5 Guarded Commands
New and quite different forms of selection and loop structures were suggested by Dijkstra (1975). His primary motivation was to provide control statements that would support a program design methodology that ensured correctness during development rather than when verifying or testing completed programs. This methodology is described in Dijkstra (1976). Another motivation for developing guarded commands is that nondeterminism is sometimes needed in concurrent programs, as will be discussed in Chapter 13. Yet another motivation is the increased clarity in reasoning that is possible with guarded commands. Simply put, a selectable segment of a selection statement in a guarded-command statement can be considered independently of any other part of the statement, which is not true for the selection statements of the common programming languages.
Guarded commands are covered in this chapter because they are the basis for two linguistic mechanisms developed later for concurrent programming in two languages, CSP (Hoare, 1978) and Ada. Concurrency in Ada is discussed in Chapter 13. Guarded commands are also used to define functions in Haskell, as discussed in Chapter 15.

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Guarded Commands

377

Dijkstra’s selection statement has the form if []
[]
[] fi -> ->
...
->

The closing reserved word, fi, is the opening reserved word spelled backward. This form of closing reserved word is taken from ALGOL 68. The small blocks, called fatbars, are used to separate the guarded clauses and allow the clauses to be statement sequences. Each line in the selection statement, consisting of a Boolean expression (a guard) and a statement or statement sequence, is called a guarded command.
This selection statement has the appearance of a multiple selection, but its semantics is different. All of the Boolean expressions are evaluated each time the statement is reached during execution. If more than one expression is true, one of the corresponding statements can be nondeterministically chosen for execution. An implementation may always choose the statement associated with the first Boolean expression that evaluates to true. But it may choose any statement associated with a true Boolean expression. So, the correctness of the program cannot depend on which statement is chosen (among those associated with true
Boolean expressions). If none of the Boolean expressions is true, a run-time error occurs that causes program termination. This forces the programmer to consider and list all possibilities. Consider the following example: if i = 0 -> sum := sum + i
[] i > j -> sum := sum + j
[] j > i -> sum := sum + i fi If i = 0 and j > i, this statement chooses nondeterministically between the first and third assignment statements. If i is equal to j and is not zero, a runtime error occurs because none of the conditions is true.
This statement can be an elegant way of allowing the programmer to state that the order of execution, in some cases, is irrelevant. For example, to find the largest of two numbers, we can use if x >= y -> max := x
[] y >= x -> max := y fi This computes the desired result without overspecifying the solution. In particular, if x and y are equal, it does not matter which we assign to max. This is a form of abstraction provided by the nondeterministic semantics of the statement. 378

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Now, consider this same process coded in a traditional programming language selector: if (x >= y) max = x; else max = y;

This could also be coded as follows: if (x > y) max = x; else max = y;

There is no practical difference between these two statements. The first assigns x to max when x and y are equal; the second assigns y to max in the same circumstance. This choice between the two statements complicates the formal analysis of the code and the correctness proof of it. This is one of the reasons why guarded commands were developed by Dijkstra.
The loop structure proposed by Dijkstra has the form do ->
[] ->
[] . . .
[] -> od The semantics of this statement is that all Boolean expressions are evaluated on each iteration. If more than one is true, one of the associated statements is nondeterministically (perhaps randomly) chosen for execution, after which the expressions are again evaluated. When all expressions are simultaneously false, the loop terminates.
Consider the following problem: Given four integer variables, q1, q2, q3, and q4, rearrange the values of the four so that q1 ≤ q2 ≤ q3 ≤ q4. Without guarded commands, one straightforward solution is to put the four values into an array, sort the array, and then assign the values from the array back into the scalar variables q1, q2, q3, and q4. While this solution is not difficult, it requires a good deal of code, especially if the sort process must be included.
Now, consider the following code, which uses guarded commands to solve the same problem but in a more concise and elegant way.7 do q1 > q2 -> temp := q1; q1 := q2; q2 := temp;
[] q2 > q3 -> temp := q2; q2 := q3; q3 := temp;
7. This code appears in a slightly different form in Dijkstra (1975).

8.6

Conclusions

379

[] q3 > q4 -> temp := q3; q3 := q4; q4 := temp; od Dijkstra’s guarded command control statements are interesting, in part because they illustrate how the syntax and semantics of statements can have an impact on program verification and vice versa. Program verification is virtually impossible when goto statements are used. Verification is greatly simplified if
(1) only logical loops and selections are used or (2) only guarded commands are used. The axiomatic semantics of guarded commands is conveniently specified (Gries, 1981). It should be obvious, however, that there is considerably increased complexity in the implementation of the guarded commands over their conventional deterministic counterparts.

8.6 Conclusions
We have described and discussed a variety of statement-level control structures.
A brief evaluation now seems to be in order.
First, we have the theoretical result that only sequence, selection, and pretest logical loops are absolutely required to express computations (Böhm and
Jacopini, 1966). This result has been used by those who wish to ban unconditional branching altogether. Of course, there are already sufficient practical problems with the goto to condemn it without also using a theoretical reason.
One of the main legitimate needs for gotos—premature exits from loops—can be met with highly restricted branch statements, such as break.
One obvious misuse of the Böhm and Jacopini result is to argue against the inclusion of any control structures beyond selection and pretest logical loops. No widely used language has yet taken that step; furthermore, we doubt that any ever will, because of the negative effect on writability and readability.
Programs written with only selection and pretest logical loops are generally less natural in structure, more complex, and therefore harder to write and more difficult to read. For example, the C# multiple selection structure is a great boost to C# writability, with no obvious negatives. Another example is the counting loop structure of many languages, especially when the statement is simple, as in Ada.
It is not so clear that the utility of many of the other control structures that have been proposed is worth their inclusion in languages (Ledgard and
Marcotty, 1975). This question rests to a large degree on the fundamental question of whether the size of languages must be minimized. Both Wirth (1975) and Hoare (1973) strongly endorse simplicity in language design. In the case of control structures, simplicity means that only a few control statements should be in a language, and they should be simple.
The rich variety of statement-level control structures that have been invented shows the diversity of opinion among language designers. After all the invention, discussion, and evaluation, there is still no unanimity of opinion on the precise set of control statements that should be in a language. Most

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contemporary languages do, of course, have similar control statements, but there is still some variation in the details of their syntax and semantics. Furthermore, there is still disagreement on whether a language should include a goto; C++ and C# do, but Java and Ruby do not.

S U M M A R Y

Control statements occur in several categories: selection, multiple selection, iterative, and unconditional branching.
The switch statement of the C-based languages is representative of multiple-selection statements. The C# version eliminates the reliability problem of its predecessors by disallowing the implicit continuation from a selected segment to the following selectable segment.
A large number of different loop statements have been invented for highlevel languages. Ada’s for statement is, in terms of complexity, the opposite. It elegantly implements only the most commonly needed counting loop forms.
C’s for statement is the most flexible iteration statement, although its flexibility leads to some reliability problems.
Most languages have exit statements for their loops; these statements take the place of one of the most common uses of goto statements.
Data-based iterators are loop statements for processing data structures, such as linked lists, hashes, and trees. The for statement of the C-based languages allows the user to create iterators for user-defined data. The foreach statement of Perl and C# is a predefined iterator for standard data structures. In the contemporary object-oriented languages, iterators for collections are specified with standard interfaces, which are implemented by the designers of the collections.
Ruby includes iterators that are a special form of methods that are sent to various objects. The language predefines iterators for common uses, but also allows user-defined iterators.
The unconditional branch, or goto, has been part of most imperative languages. Its problems have been widely discussed and debated. The current consensus is that it should remain in most languages but that its dangers should be minimized through programming discipline.
Dijkstra’s guarded commands are alternative control statements with positive theoretical characteristics. Although they have not been adopted as the control statements of a language, part of the semantics appear in the concurrency mechanisms of CSP and Ada and the function definitions of Haskell.

R E V I E W

Q U E S T I O N S

1. What is the definition of control structure?
2. What did Böhm and Jocopini prove about flowcharts?

Review Questions

381

3. What is the definition of block?
4. What is/are the design issue(s) for all selection and iteration control statements? 5. What are the design issues for selection structures?
6. What is unusual about Python’s design of compound statements?
7. Under what circumstances must an F# selector have an else clause?
8. What are the common solutions to the nesting problem for two-way selectors? 9. What are the design issues for multiple-selection statements?
10. Between what two language characteristics is a trade-off made when deciding whether more than one selectable segment is executed in one execution of a multiple selection statement?
11. What is unusual about C’s multiple-selection statement?
12. On what previous language was C’s switch statement based?
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Explain how C#’s switch statement is safer than that of C.
What are the design issues for all iterative control statements?
What are the design issues for counter-controlled loop statements?
What is a pretest loop statement? What is a posttest loop statement?
What is the difference between the for statement of C++ and that of Java?
In what way is C’s for statement more flexible than that of many other languages? What does the range function in Python do?
What contemporary languages do not include a goto?
What are the design issues for logically controlled loop statements?
What is the main reason user-located loop control statements were invented? What are the design issues for user-located loop control mechanisms?
What advantage does Java’s break statement have over C’s break statement? What are the differences between the break statement of C++ and that of Java?
What is a user-defined iteration control?
What Scheme function implements a multiple selection statement?
How does a functional language implement repetition?
How are iterators implemented in Ruby?
What language predefines iterators that can be explicitly called to iterate over its predefined data structures?
What common programming language borrows part of its design from
Dijkstra’s guarded commands?

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P R O B L E M

S E T

1. Describe three situations where a combined counting and logical looping statement is needed.
2. Study the iterator feature of CLU in Liskov et al. (1981) and determine its advantages and disadvantages.
3. Compare the set of Ada control statements with those of C# and decide which are better and why.
4. What are the pros and cons of using unique closing reserved words on compound statements?
5. What are the arguments, pro and con, for Python’s use of indentation to specify compound statements in control statements?
6. Analyze the potential readability problems with using closure reserved words for control statements that are the reverse of the corresponding initial reserved words, such as the case-esac reserved words of
ALGOL 68. For example, consider common typing errors such as transposing characters.
7. Use the Science Citation Index to find an article that refers to Knuth
(1974). Read the article and Knuth’s paper and write a paper that summarizes both sides of the goto issue.
8. In his paper on the goto issue, Knuth (1974) suggests a loop control statement that allows multiple exits. Read the paper and write an operational semantics description of the statement.
9. What are the arguments both for and against the exclusive use of Boolean expressions in the control statements in Java (as opposed to also allowing arithmetic expressions, as in C++)?
10. In Ada, the choice lists of the case statement must be exhaustive, so that there can be no unrepresented values in the control expression. In C++, unrepresented values can be caught at run time with the default selector. If there is no default, an unrepresented value causes the whole statement to be skipped. What are the pros and cons of these two designs
(Ada and C++)?
11. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Java for statement, compared to Ada’s for.
12. Describe a programming situation in which the else clause in Python’s for statement would be convenient.
13. Describe three specific programming situations that require a posttest loop. 14. Speculate as to the reason control can be transferred into a C loop statement. Programming Exercises

P R O G R A M M I N G

383

E X E R C I S E S

1. Rewrite the following pseudocode segment using a loop structure in the specified languages: k = (j + 13) / 27 loop: if k > 10 then goto out k = k + 1 i = 3 * k - 1 goto loop out: . . .

a. Fortran 95
b. Ada
c. C, C++, Java, or C#
d. Python
e. Ruby
Assume all variables are integer type. Discuss which language, for this code, has the best writability, the best readability, and the best combination of the two.
2. Redo Programming Exercise 1, except this time make all the variables and constants floating-point type, and change the statement k = k + 1

to k = k + 1.2

3. Rewrite the following code segment using a multiple-selection statement in the following languages: if if if if

((k == 1)
((k == 3)
(k == 4)
((k == 6)

|| (k
|| (k j = 4
|| (k

== 2)) j = 2 * k - 1
== 5)) j = 3 * k + 1
* k - 1
== 7) || (k == 8)) j = k - 2

a. Fortran 95 (you’ll probably need to look this one up)
b. Ada
c. C, C++, Java, or C#

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d. Python
e. Ruby
Assume all variables are integer type. Discuss the relative merits of the use of these languages for this particular code.
4. Consider the following C program segment. Rewrite it using no gotos or breaks. j = -3; for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) { switch (j + 2) { case 3: case 2: j--; break; case 0: j += 2; break; default: j = 0;
}
if (j > 0) break; j = 3 - i
}

5. In a letter to the editor of CACM, Rubin (1987) uses the following code segment as evidence that the readability of some code with gotos is better than the equivalent code without gotos. This code finds the first row of an n by n integer matrix named x that has nothing but zero values. for (i = 1; i value pairs, which are placed in an anonymous hash and a reference to that hash is passed to the next formal parameter. These are used as a substitute for keyword parameters, which Ruby does not support. The hash item can be followed by a single parameter preceded by an asterisk. This parameter is called the array formal parameter. When the method is called, the array formal parameter is set to reference a new Array object. All remaining actual parameters are assigned to the elements of the new Array object. If the actual parameter that corresponds to the array formal parameter is an array, it must also be preceded by an asterisk, and it must be the last actual parameter.3 So, Ruby allows a variable number of parameters in a way similar to that of C#. Because Ruby arrays can store different types, there is no requirement that the actual parameters passed to the array have the same type.
The following example skeletal function definition and call illustrate the parameter structure of Ruby: list = [2, 4, 6, 8] def tester(p1, p2, p3, *p4)
...
end
...
tester('first', mon => 72, tue => 68, wed => 59, *list)

Inside tester, the values of its formal parameters are as follows: p1 p2 p3 p4

is is is is 'first'
{mon => 72, tue => 68, wed => 59}
2
[4, 6, 8]

Python supports parameters that are similar to those of Ruby.
3. Not quite true, because the array formal parameter can be followed by a method or function reference, which is preceded by an ampersand (&).

9.2

Fundamentals of Subprograms

395

Lua uses a simple mechanism for supporting a variable number of parameters—such parameters are represented by an ellipsis (. . .). This ellipsis can be treated as an array or as a list of values that can be assigned to a list of variables.
For example, consider the following two function examples: function multiply (. . .) local product = 1 for i, next in ipairs{. . .} do product = product * next end return sum end ipairs is an iterator for arrays (it returns the index and value of the elements of an array, one element at a time). {. . .} is an array of the actual parameter values. function DoIt (. . .) local a, b, c = . . .
...
end

Suppose DoIt is called with the following call: doit(4, 7, 3)

In this example, a, b, and c will be initialized in the function to the values 4,
7, and 3, respectively.
The three-period parameter need not be the only parameter—it can appear at the end of a list of named formal parameters.

9.2.4

Procedures and Functions
There are two distinct categories of subprograms—procedures and functions— both of which can be viewed as approaches to extending the language. All subprograms are collections of statements that define parameterized computations.
Functions return values and procedures do not. In most languages that do not include procedures as a separate form of subprogram, functions can be defined not to return values and they can be used as procedures. The computations of a procedure are enacted by single call statements. In effect, procedures define new statements. For example, if a particular language does not have a sort statement, a user can build a procedure to sort arrays of data and use a call to that procedure in place of the unavailable sort statement. In Ada, procedures are called just that; in Fortran, they are called subroutines. Most other languages do not support procedures.
Procedures can produce results in the calling program unit by two methods: (1) If there are variables that are not formal parameters but are still visible

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in both the procedure and the calling program unit, the procedure can change them; and (2) if the procedure has formal parameters that allow the transfer of data to the caller, those parameters can be changed.
Functions structurally resemble procedures but are semantically modeled on mathematical functions. If a function is a faithful model, it produces no side effects; that is, it modifies neither its parameters nor any variables defined outside the function. Such a pure function returns a value—that is its only desired effect. In practice, the functions in most programming languages have side effects.
Functions are called by appearances of their names in expressions, along with the required actual parameters. The value produced by a function’s execution is returned to the calling code, effectively replacing the call itself. For example, the value of the expression f(x) is whatever value f produces when called with the parameter x. For a function that does not produce side effects, the returned value is its only effect.
Functions define new user-defined operators. For example, if a language does not have an exponentiation operator, a function can be written that returns the value of one of its parameters raised to the power of another parameter. Its header in C++ could be float power(float base, float exp)

which could be called with result = 3.4 * power(10.0, x)

The standard C++ library already includes a similar function named pow. Compare this with the same operation in Perl, in which exponentiation is a built-in operation: result = 3.4 * 10.0 ** x

In some programming languages, users are permitted to overload operators by defining new functions for operators. User-defined overloaded operators are discussed in Section 9.11.

9.3 Design Issues for Subprograms
Subprograms are complex structures in programming languages, and it follows from this that a lengthy list of issues is involved in their design. One obvious issue is the choice of one or more parameter-passing methods that will be used.
The wide variety of approaches that have been used in various languages is a reflection of the diversity of opinion on the subject. A closely related issue is whether the types of actual parameters will be type checked against the types of the corresponding formal parameters.

9.4

Local Referencing Environments

397

The nature of the local environment of a subprogram dictates to some degree the nature of the subprogram. The most important question here is whether local variables are statically or dynamically allocated.
Next, there is the question of whether subprogram definitions can be nested. Another issue is whether subprogram names can be passed as parameters. If subprogram names can be passed as parameters and the language allows subprograms to be nested, there is the question of the correct referencing environment of a subprogram that has been passed as a parameter.
Finally, there are the questions of whether subprograms can be overloaded or generic. An overloaded subprogram is one that has the same name as another subprogram in the same referencing environment. A generic subprogram is one whose computation can be done on data of different types in different calls. A closure is a nested subprogram and its referencing environment, which together allow the subprogram to be called from anywhere in a program.
The following is a summary of these design issues for subprograms in general. Additional issues that are specifically associated with functions are discussed in Section 9.10.









Are local variables statically or dynamically allocated?
Can subprogram definitions appear in other subprogram definitions?
What parameter-passing method or methods are used?
Are the types of the actual parameters checked against the types of the formal parameters?
If subprograms can be passed as parameters and subprograms can be nested, what is the referencing environment of a passed subprogram?
Can subprograms be overloaded?
Can subprograms be generic?
If the language allows nested subprograms, are closures supported?

These issues and example designs are discussed in the following sections.

9.4 Local Referencing Environments
This section discusses the issues related to variables that are defined within subprograms. The issue of nested subprogram definitions is also briefly covered.

9.4.1

Local Variables
Subprograms can define their own variables, thereby defining local referencing environments. Variables that are defined inside subprograms are called local variables, because their scope is usually the body of the subprogram in which they are defined.
In the terminology of Chapter 5, local variables can be either static or stack dynamic. If local variables are stack dynamic, they are bound to storage

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when the subprogram begins execution and are unbound from storage when that execution terminates. There are several advantages of stack-dynamic local variables, the primary one being the flexibility they provide to the subprogram.
It is essential that recursive subprograms have stack-dynamic local variables.
Another advantage of stack-dynamic locals is that the storage for local variables in an active subprogram can be shared with the local variables in all inactive subprograms. This is not as great an advantage as it was when computers had smaller memories.
The main disadvantages of stack-dynamic local variables are the following:
First, there is the cost of the time required to allocate, initialize (when necessary), and deallocate such variables for each call to the subprogram. Second, accesses to stack-dynamic local variables must be indirect, whereas accesses to static variables can be direct.4 This indirectness is required because the place in the stack where a particular local variable will reside can be determined only during execution (see Chapter 10). Finally, when all local variables are stack dynamic, subprograms cannot be history sensitive; that is, they cannot retain data values of local variables between calls. It is sometimes convenient to be able to write history-sensitive subprograms. A common example of a need for a history-sensitive subprogram is one whose task is to generate pseudorandom numbers. Each call to such a subprogram computes one pseudorandom number, using the last one it computed. It must, therefore, store the last one in a static local variable. Coroutines and the subprograms used in iterator loop constructs (discussed in Chapter 8) are other examples of subprograms that need to be history sensitive.
The primary advantage of static local variables over stack-dynamic local variables is that they are slightly more efficient—they require no run-time overhead for allocation and deallocation. Also, if accessed directly, these accesses are obviously more efficient. And, of course, they allow subprograms to be history sensitive. The greatest disadvantage of static local variables is their inability to support recursion. Also, their storage cannot be shared with the local variables of other inactive subprograms.
In most contemporary languages, local variables in a subprogram are by default stack dynamic. In C and C++ functions, locals are stack dynamic unless specifically declared to be static. For example, in the following C (or C++) function, the variable sum is static and count is stack dynamic. int adder(int list[], int listlen) { static int sum = 0; int count; for (count = 0; count < listlen; count ++) sum += list [count]; return sum;
}
4. In some implementations, static variables are also accessed indirectly, thereby eliminating this disadvantage.

9.5

Parameter-Passing Methods

399

The methods of C++, Java, and C# have only stack-dynamic local variables.
In Python, the only declarations used in method definitions are for globals. Any variable declared to be global in a method must be a variable defined outside the method. A variable defined outside the method can be referenced in the method without declaring it to be global, but such a variable cannot be assigned in the method. If the name of a global variable is assigned in a method, it is implicitly declared to be a local and the assignment does not disturb the global. All local variables in Python methods are stack dynamic.
Only variables with restricted scope are declared in Lua. Any block, including the body of a function, can declare local variables with the local declaration, as in the following: local sum

All nondeclared variables in Lua are global. Access to local variables in Lua are faster than access to global variables according to Ierusalimschy
(2006).

9.4.2

Nested Subprograms
The idea of nesting subprograms originated with Algol 60. The motivation was to be able to create a hierarchy of both logic and scopes. If a subprogram is needed only within another subprogram, why not place it there and hide it from the rest of the program? Because static scoping is usually used in languages that allow subprograms to be nested, this also provides a highly structured way to grant access to nonlocal variables in enclosing subprograms. Recall that in
Chapter 5, the problems introduced by this were discussed. For a long time, the only languages that allowed nested subprograms were those directly descending from Algol 60, which were Algol 68, Pascal, and Ada. Many other languages, including all of the direct descendants of C, do not allow subprogram nesting. Recently, some new languages again allow it. Among these are JavaScript,
Python, Ruby, and Lua. Also, most functional programming languages allow subprograms to be nested.

9.5 Parameter-Passing Methods
Parameter-passing methods are the ways in which parameters are transmitted to and/or from called subprograms. First, we focus on the different semantics models of parameter-passing methods. Then, we discuss the various implementation models invented by language designers for these semantics models. Next, we survey the design choices of several languages and discuss the actual methods used to implement the implementation models. Finally, we

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consider the design considerations that face a language designer in choosing among the methods.

9.5.1

Semantics Models of Parameter Passing
Formal parameters are characterized by one of three distinct semantics models:
(1) They can receive data from the corresponding actual parameter; (2) they can transmit data to the actual parameter; or (3) they can do both. These models are called in mode, out mode, and inout mode, respectively. For example, consider a subprogram that takes two arrays of int values as parameters—list1 and list2. The subprogram must add list1 to list2 and return the result as a revised version of list2. Furthermore, the subprogram must create a new array from the two given arrays and return it. For this subprogram, list1 should be in mode, because it is not to be changed by the subprogram. list2 must be inout mode, because the subprogram needs the given value of the array and must return its new value. The third array should be out mode, because there is no initial value for this array and its computed value must be returned to the caller.
There are two conceptual models of how data transfers take place in parameter transmission: Either an actual value is copied (to the caller, to the called, or both ways), or an access path is transmitted. Most commonly, the access path is a simple pointer or reference. Figure 9.1 illustrates the three semantics models of parameter passing when values are copied.

9.5.2

Implementation Models of Parameter Passing
A variety of models have been developed by language designers to guide the implementation of the three basic parameter transmission modes. In the following sections, we discuss several of these, along with their relative strengths and weaknesses.

Figure 9.1
The three semantics models of parameter passing when physical moves are used

Caller
(sub (a, b, c))

Call

a

Callee
(void sub (int x, int y, int z))

x

In mode
Return

b

y

Out mode

Call

c

z

Inout mode

Return

9.5

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401

9.5.2.1 Pass-by-Value
When a parameter is passedby value, the value of the actual parameter is used to initialize the corresponding formal parameter, which then acts as a local variable in the subprogram, thus implementing in-mode semantics.
Pass-by-value is normally implemented by copy, because accesses often are more efficient with this approach. It could be implemented by transmitting an access path to the value of the actual parameter in the caller, but that would require that the value be in a write-protected cell (one that can only be read).
Enforcing the write protection is not always a simple matter. For example, suppose the subprogram to which the parameter was passed passes it in turn to another subprogram. This is another reason to use copy transfer. As we will see in Section 9.5.4, C++ provides a convenient and effective method for specifying write protection on pass-by-value parameters that are transmitted by access path.
The advantage of pass-by-value is that for scalars it is fast, in both linkage cost and access time.
The main disadvantage of the pass-by-value method if copies are used is that additional storage is required for the formal parameter, either in the called subprogram or in some area outside both the caller and the called subprogram. In addition, the actual parameter must be copied to the storage area for the corresponding formal parameter. The storage and the copy operations can be costly if the parameter is large, such as an array with many elements.

9.5.2.2 Pass-by-Result
Pass-by-result is an implementation model for out-mode parameters. When a parameter is passed by result, no value is transmitted to the subprogram. The corresponding formal parameter acts as a local variable, but just before control is transferred back to the caller, its value is transmitted back to the caller’s actual parameter, which obviously must be a variable. (How would the caller reference the computed result if it were a literal or an expression?)
The pass-by-result method has the advantages and disadvantages of passby-value, plus some additional disadvantages. If values are returned by copy (as opposed to access paths), as they typically are, pass-by-result also requires the extra storage and the copy operations that are required by pass-by-value. As with pass-by-value, the difficulty of implementing pass-by-result by transmitting an access path usually results in it being implemented by copy. In this case, the problem is in ensuring that the initial value of the actual parameter is not used in the called subprogram.
One additional problem with the pass-by-result model is that there can be an actual parameter collision, such as the one created with the call sub(p1, p1)

In sub, assuming the two formal parameters have different names, the two can obviously be assigned different values. Then, whichever of the two is copied to

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their corresponding actual parameter last becomes the value of p1 in the caller.
Thus, the order in which the actual parameters are copied determines their value. For example, consider the following C# method, which specifies the pass-by-result method with the out specifier on its formal parameter.5 void Fixer(out int x, out int y) { x = 17; y = 35;
}
...
f.Fixer(out a, out a);

If, at the end of the execution of Fixer, the formal parameter x is assigned to its corresponding actual parameter first, then the value of the actual parameter a in the caller will be 35. If y is assigned first, then the value of the actual parameter a in the caller will be 17.
Because the order can be implementation dependent for some languages, different implementations can produce different results.
Calling a procedure with two identical actual parameters can also lead to different kinds of problems when other parameter-passing methods are used, as discussed in Section 9.5.2.4.
Another problem that can occur with pass-by-result is that the implementor may be able to choose between two different times to evaluate the addresses of the actual parameters: at the time of the call or at the time of the return. For example, consider the following C# method and following code: void DoIt(out int x, int index){ x = 17; index = 42;
}
... sub = 21;
f.DoIt(list[sub], sub);

The address of list[sub] changes between the beginning and end of the method. The implementor must choose the time to bind this parameter to an address—at the time of the call or at the time of the return. If the address is computed on entry to the method, the value 17 will be returned to list[21]; if computed just before return, 17 will be returned to list[42]. This makes programs unportable between an implementation that chooses to evaluate the addresses for out-mode parameters at the beginning of a subprogram and one that chooses to do that evaluation at the end. An obvious way to avoid this problem is for the language designer to specify when the address to be used to return the parameter value must be computed.
5. The out specifier must also be specified on the corresponding actual parameter.

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403

9.5.2.3 Pass-by-Value-Result
Pass-by-value-result is an implementation model for inout-mode parameters in which actual values are copied. It is in effect a combination of pass-by-value and pass-by-result. The value of the actual parameter is used to initialize the corresponding formal parameter, which then acts as a local variable. In fact, pass-by-value-result formal parameters must have local storage associated with the called subprogram. At subprogram termination, the value of the formal parameter is transmitted back to the actual parameter.
Pass-by-value-result is sometimes called pass-by-copy, because the actual parameter is copied to the formal parameter at subprogram entry and then copied back at subprogram termination.
Pass-by-value-result shares with pass-by-value and pass-by-result the disadvantages of requiring multiple storage for parameters and time for copying values. It shares with pass-by-result the problems associated with the order in which actual parameters are assigned.
The advantages of pass-by-value-result are relative to pass-by-reference, so they are discussed in Section 9.5.2.4.

9.5.2.4 Pass-by-Reference
Pass-by-reference is a second implementation model for inout-mode parameters. Rather than copying data values back and forth, however, as in pass-byvalue-result, the pass-by-reference method transmits an access path, usually just an address, to the called subprogram. This provides the access path to the cell storing the actual parameter. Thus, the called subprogram is allowed to access the actual parameter in the calling program unit. In effect, the actual parameter is shared with the called subprogram.
The advantage of pass-by-reference is that the passing process itself is efficient, in terms of both time and space. Duplicate space is not required, nor is any copying required.
There are, however, several disadvantages to the pass-by-reference method.
First, access to the formal parameters will be slower than pass-by-value parameters, because of the additional level of indirect addressing that is required.6
Second, if only one-way communication to the called subprogram is required, inadvertent and erroneous changes may be made to the actual parameter.
Another problem of pass-by-reference is that aliases can be created. This problem should be expected, because pass-by-reference makes access paths available to the called subprograms, thereby providing access to nonlocal variables.
The problem with these kinds of aliasing is the same as in other circumstances:
It is harmful to readability and thus to reliability. It also makes program verification more difficult.
There are several ways pass-by-reference parameters can create aliases. First, collisions can occur between actual parameters. Consider a C++ function that has two parameters that are to be passed by reference (see Section 9.5.3), as in
6. This is further explained in Section 9.5.3.

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void fun(int &first, int &second)

If the call to fun happens to pass the same variable twice, as in fun(total, total)

then first and second in fun will be aliases.
Second, collisions between array elements can also cause aliases. For example, suppose the function fun is called with two array elements that are specified with variable subscripts, as in fun(list[i], list[j])

If these two parameters are passed by reference and i happens to be equal to j, then first and second are again aliases.
Third, if two of the formal parameters of a subprogram are an element of an array and the whole array, and both are passed by reference, then a call such as fun1(list[i], list)

could result in aliasing in fun1, because fun1 can access all elements of list through the second parameter and access a single element through its first parameter. Still another way to get aliasing with pass-by-reference parameters is through collisions between formal parameters and nonlocal variables that are visible. For example, consider the following C code: int * global; void main() {
...
sub(global);
...
} void sub(int * param) {
...
}

Inside sub, param and global are aliases.
All these possible aliasing situations are eliminated if pass-by-value-result is used instead of pass-by-reference. However, in place of aliasing, other problems sometimes arise, as discussed in Section 9.5.2.3.

9.5.2.5 Pass-by-Name
Pass-by-name is an inout-mode parameter transmission method that does not correspond to a single implementation model. When parameters are passed by name, the actual parameter is, in effect, textually substituted for the corresponding

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formal parameter in all its occurrences in the subprogram. This method is quite different from those discussed thus far; in which case, formal parameters are bound to actual values or addresses at the time of the subprogram call. A pass-byname formal parameter is bound to an access method at the time of the subprogram call, but the actual binding to a value or an address is delayed until the formal parameter is assigned or referenced. Implementing a pass-by-name parameter requires a subprogram to be passed to the called subprogram to evaluate the address or value of the formal parameter. The referencing environment of the passed subprogram must also be passed. This subprogram/referencing environment is a closure (see Section 9.12).7 Pass-by-name parameters are both complex to implement and inefficient. They also add significant complexity to the program, thereby lowering its readability and reliability.
Because pass-by-name is not part of any widely used language, it is not discussed further here. However, it is used at compile time by the macros in assembly languages and for the generic parameters of the generic subprograms in C++, Java 5.0, and C# 2005, as discussed in Section 9.9.

9.5.3

Implementing Parameter-Passing Methods
We now address the question of how the various implementation models of parameter passing are actually implemented.
In most contemporary languages, parameter communication takes place through the run-time stack. The run-time stack is initialized and maintained by the run-time system, which manages the execution of programs. The runtime stack is used extensively for subprogram control linkage and parameter passing, as discussed in Chapter 10. In the following discussion, we assume that the stack is used for all parameter transmission.
Pass-by-value parameters have their values copied into stack locations.
The stack locations then serve as storage for the corresponding formal parameters. Pass-by-result parameters are implemented as the opposite of pass-byvalue. The values assigned to the pass-by-result actual parameters are placed in the stack, where they can be retrieved by the calling program unit upon termination of the called subprogram. Pass-by-value-result parameters can be implemented directly from their semantics as a combination of pass-by-value and pass-by-result. The stack location for such a parameter is initialized by the call and is then used like a local variable in the called subprogram.
Pass-by-reference parameters are perhaps the simplest to implement.
Regardless of the type of the actual parameter, only its address must be placed in the stack. In the case of literals, the address of the literal is put in the stack. In the case of an expression, the compiler must build code to evaluate the expression just before the transfer of control to the called subprogram. The address of the memory cell in which the code places the result of its evaluation is then put in the stack. The compiler must be sure to prevent the called subprogram from changing parameters that are literals or expressions.
7. These closures were originally (in ALGOL 60) called thunks. Closures are discussed in Section 9.12.

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Figure 9.2
One possible stack implementation of the common parameterpassing methods

Function header: void sub (int a, int b, int c, int d)
Function call in main: sub (w,x,y,z)
(pass w by value, x by result, y by value-result, z by reference)

Access to the formal parameters in the called subprogram is by indirect addressing from the stack location of the address. The implementation of passby-value, -result, -value-result, and -reference, where the run-time stack is used, is shown in Figure 9.2. Subprogram sub is called from main with the call sub(w, x, y, z), where w is passed by value, x is passed by result, y is passed by value-result, and z is passed by reference.

9.5.4

Parameter-Passing Methods of Some Common Languages
C uses pass-by-value. Pass-by-reference (inout mode) semantics is achieved by using pointers as parameters. The value of the pointer is made available to the called function and nothing is copied back. However, because what was passed is an access path to the data of the caller, the called function can change the caller’s data. C copied this use of the pass-by-value method from ALGOL 68. In both C and C++, formal parameters can be typed as pointers to constants. The corresponding actual parameters need not be constants, for in such cases they are coerced to constants. This allows pointer parameters to provide the efficiency of pass-by-reference with the one-way semantics of pass-by-value. Write protection of those parameters in the called function is implicitly specified.
C++ includes a special pointer type, called a reference type, as discussed in Chapter 6, which is often used for parameters. Reference parameters are implicitly dereferenced in the function or method, and their semantics is passby-reference. C++ also allows reference parameters to be defined to be constants. For example, we could have

9.5

his t or y n o t e
ALGOL 60 introduced the pass-by-name method. It also allows pass-by-value as an option. Primarily because of the difficulty in implementing them, pass-by-name parameters were not carried from ALGOL
60 to any subsequent languages that became popular (other than SIMULA 67).

his t or y n o t e
ALGOL W (Wirth and Hoare,
1966) introduced the pass-byvalue-result method of parameter passing as an alternative to the inefficiency of pass-byname and the problems of pass-by-reference. Parameter-Passing Methods

407

void fun(const int &p1, int p2, int &p3) { . . . }

where p1 is pass-by-reference but cannot be changed in the function fun, p2 is pass-by-value, and p3 is pass-by-reference. Neither p1 nor p3 need be explicitly dereferenced in fun.
Constant parameters and in-mode parameters are not exactly alike. Constant parameters clearly implement in mode. However, in all of the common imperative languages except Ada, in-mode parameters can be assigned in the subprogram even though those changes are never reflected in the values of the corresponding actual parameters. Constant parameters can never be assigned.
As with C and C++, all Java parameters are passed by value.
However, because objects can be accessed only through reference variables, object parameters are in effect passed by reference.
Although an object reference passed as a parameter cannot itself be changed in the called subprogram, the referenced object can be changed if a method is available to cause the change. Because reference variables cannot point to scalar variables directly and Java does not have pointers, scalars cannot be passed by reference in
Java (although a reference to an object that contains a scalar can).
Ada and Fortran 95+ allow the programmer to specify in mode, out mode, or inout mode on each formal parameter.
The default parameter-passing method of C# is pass-byvalue. Pass-by-reference can be specified by preceding both a formal parameter and its corresponding actual parameter with ref.
For example, consider the following C# skeletal method and call:

void sumer(ref int oldSum, int newOne) { . . . }
...
sumer(ref sum, newValue);

The first parameter to sumer is passed by reference; the second is passed by value. C# also supports out-mode parameters, which are pass-by-reference parameters that do not need initial values. Such parameters are specified in the formal parameter list with the out modifier.
PHP’s parameter passing is similar to that of C#, except that either the actual parameter or the formal parameter can specify pass-by-reference. Passby-reference is specified by preceding one or both of the parameters with an ampersand. Perl employs a primitive means of passing parameters. All actual parameters are implicitly placed in a predefined array named @_ (of all things!). The subprogram retrieves the actual parameter values (or addresses) from this array.
The most peculiar thing about this array is its magical nature, exposed by the fact that its elements are in effect aliases for the actual parameters. Therefore, if an element of @_ is changed in the called subprogram, that change is reflected in the corresponding actual parameter in the call, assuming there is a

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corresponding actual parameter (the number of actual parameters need not be the same as the number of formal parameters) and it is a variable.
The parameter-passing method of Python and Ruby is called pass-byassignment. Because all data values are objects, every variable is a reference to an object. In pass-by-assignment, the actual parameter value is assigned to the formal parameter. Therefore, pass-by-assignment is in effect pass-by-reference, because the value of all actual parameters are references. However, only in certain cases does this result in pass-by-reference parameter-passing semantics.
For example, many objects are essentially immutable. In a pure object-oriented language, the process of changing the value of a variable with an assignment statement, as in x = x + 1

does not change the object referenced by x. Rather, it takes the object referenced by x, increments it by 1, thereby creating a new object (with the value x + 1), and then changes x to reference the new object. So, when a reference to a scalar object is passed to a subprogram, the object being referenced cannot be changed in place. Because the reference is passed by value, even though the formal parameter is changed in the subprogram, that change has no effect on the actual parameter in the caller.
Now, suppose a reference to an array is passed as a parameter. If the corresponding formal parameter is assigned a new array object, there is no effect on the caller. However, if the formal parameter is used to assign a value to an element of the array, as in list[3] = 47

the actual parameter is affected. So, changing the reference of the formal parameter has no effect on the caller, but changing an element of the array that is passed as a parameter does.

9.5.5

Type Checking Parameters
It is now widely accepted that software reliability demands that the types of actual parameters be checked for consistency with the types of the corresponding formal parameters. Without such type checking, small typographical errors can lead to program errors that may be difficult to diagnose because they are not detected by the compiler or the run-time system. For example, in the function call result = sub1(1)

the actual parameter is an integer constant. If the formal parameter of sub1 is a floating-point type, no error will be detected without parameter type checking. Although an integer 1 and a floating-point 1 have the same value, the

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representations of these two are very different. sub1 cannot produce a correct result given an integer actual parameter value when it expects a floating-point value. Early programming languages, such as Fortran 77 and the original version of C, did not require parameter type checking; most later languages require it. However, the relatively recent languages Perl, JavaScript, and PHP do not.
C and C++ require some special discussion in the matter of parameter type checking. In the original C, neither the number of parameters nor their types were checked. In C89, the formal parameters of functions can be defined in two ways. They can be defined as in the original C; that is, the names of the parameters are listed in parentheses and the type declarations for them follow, as in the following function: double sin(x) double x;
{ ... }

Using this method avoids type checking, thereby allowing calls such as double value; int count;
...
value = sin(count);

to be legal, although they are never correct.
The alternative to the original C definition approach is called the prototype method, in which the formal parameter types are included in the list, as in double sin(double x)
{ ... }

If this version of sin is called with the same call, that is, with the following, it is also legal: value = sin(count);

The type of the actual parameter (int) is checked against that of the formal parameter (double). Although they do not match, int is coercible to double
(it is a widening coercion), so the conversion is done. If the conversion is not possible (for example, if the actual parameter had been an array) or if the number of parameters is wrong, then a semantics error is detected. So in C89, the user chooses whether parameters are to be type checked.
In C99 and C++, all functions must have their formal parameters in prototype form. However, type checking can be avoided for some of the parameters by replacing the last part of the parameter list with an ellipsis, as in int printf(const char* format_string, . . .);

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A call to printf must include at least one parameter, a pointer to a literal character string. Beyond that, anything (including nothing) is legal. The way printf determines whether there are additional parameters is by the presence of format codes in the string parameter. For example, the format code for integer output is %d. This appears as part of the string, as in the following: printf("The sum is %d\n", sum);

The % tells the printf function that there is one more parameter.
There is one more interesting issue with actual to formal parameter coercions when primitives can be passed by reference, as in C#. Suppose a call to a method passes a float value to a double formal parameter. If this parameter is passed by value, the float value is coerced to double and there is no problem. This particular coercion is very useful, for it allows a library to provide double versions of subprograms that can be used for both float and double values. However, suppose the parameter is passed by reference. When the value of the double formal parameter is returned to the float actual parameter in the caller, the value will overflow its location. To avoid this problem, C# requires the type of a ref actual parameter to match exactly the type of its corresponding formal parameter (no coercion is allowed).
In Python and Ruby, there is no type checking of parameters, because typing in these languages is a different concept. Objects have types, but variables do not, so formal parameters are typeless. This disallows the very idea of type checking parameters.

9.5.6

Multidimensional Arrays as Parameters
The storage-mapping functions that are used to map the index values of references to elements of multidimensional arrays to addresses in memory were discussed at length in Chapter 6. In some languages, such as C and C++, when a multidimensional array is passed as a parameter to a subprogram, the compiler must be able to build the mapping function for that array while seeing only the text of the subprogram (not the calling subprogram). This is true because the subprograms can be compiled separately from the programs that call them. Consider the problem of passing a matrix to a function in C.
Multidimensional arrays in C are really arrays of arrays, and they are stored in row major order. Following is a storage-mapping function for row major order for matrices when the lower bound of all indices is 0 and the element size is 1: address(mat[i, j]) = address(mat[0,0]) + i * number_of_columns + j
Notice that this mapping function needs the number of columns but not the number of rows. Therefore, in C and C++, when a matrix is passed as a

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parameter, the formal parameter must include the number of columns in the second pair of brackets. This is illustrated in the following skeletal C program: void fun(int matrix[][10]) {
... } void main() { int mat[5][10];
...
fun(mat);
...
}

The problem with this method of passing matrixes as parameters is that it does not allow a programmer to write a function that can accept matrixes with different numbers of columns; a new function must be written for every matrix with a different number of columns. This, in effect, disallows writing flexible functions that may be effectively reusable if the functions deal with multidimensional arrays. In C and C++, there is a way around the problem because of their inclusion of pointer arithmetic. The matrix can be passed as a pointer, and the actual dimensions of the matrix also can be passed as parameters. Then, the function can evaluate the user-written storage-mapping function using pointer arithmetic each time an element of the matrix must be referenced. For example, consider the following function prototype: void fun(float *mat_ptr, int num_rows, int num_cols);

The following statement can be used to move the value of the variable x to the [row][col] element of the parameter matrix in fun:
*(mat_ptr + (row * num_cols) + col) = x;

Although this works, it is obviously difficult to read, and because of its complexity, it is error prone. The difficulty with reading this can be alleviated by using a macro to define the storage-mapping function, such as
#define mat_ptr(r,c)

(*mat_ptr + ((r) *
(num_cols) + (c)))

With this, the assignment can be written as mat_ptr(row,col) = x;

Other languages use different approaches to dealing with the problem of passing multidimensional arrays. Ada compilers are able to determine the defined

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size of the dimensions of all arrays that are used as parameters at the time subprograms are compiled. In Ada, unconstrained array types can be formal parameters.
An unconstrained array type is one in which the index ranges are not given in the array type definition. Definitions of variables of unconstrained array types must include index ranges. The code in a subprogram that is passed an unconstrained array can obtain the index range information of the actual parameter associated with such parameters. For example, consider the following definitions: type Mat_Type is array (Integer range ,
Integer range ) of Float;
Mat_1 : Mat_Type(1..100, 1..20);

A function that returns the sum of the elements of arrays of Mat_Type type follows: function Sumer(Mat : in Mat_Type) return Float is
Sum : Float := 0.0; begin for Row in Mat'range(1) loop for Col in Mat'range(2) loop
Sum := Sum + Mat(Row, Col); end loop; -- for Col . . . end loop; -- for Row . . . return Sum; end Sumer;

The range attribute returns the subscript range of the named subscript of the actual parameter array, so this works regardless of the size or index ranges of the parameter.
In Fortran, the problem is addressed in the following way. Formal parameters that are arrays must have a declaration after the header. For singledimensioned arrays, the subscripts in such declarations are irrelevant. But for multidimensional arrays, the subscripts in such declarations allow the compiler to build the storage-mapping function. Consider the following example skeletal
Fortran subroutine:
Subroutine Sub(Matrix, Rows, Cols, Result)
Integer, Intent(In) :: Rows, Cols
Real, Dimension(Rows, Cols), Intent(In) :: Matrix
Real, Intent(In) :: Result
...
End Subroutine Sub

This works perfectly as long as the Rows actual parameter has the value used for the number of rows in the definition of the passed matrix. The number of rows is needed because Fortran stores arrays in column major order. If the array to be passed is not currently filled with useful data to the defined size,

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then both the defined index sizes and the filled index sizes can be passed to the subprogram. Then, the defined sizes are used in the local declaration of the array, and the filled index sizes are used to control the computation in which the array elements are referenced. For example, consider the following Fortran subprogram: Subroutine Matsum(Matrix, Rows, Cols, Filled_Rows,
Filled_Cols, Sum)
Real, Dimension(Rows, Cols), Intent(In) :: Matrix
Integer, Intent(In) :: Rows, Cols, Filled_Rows,
Filled_Cols
Real, Intent(Out) :: Sum
Integer :: Row_Index, Col_Index
Sum = 0.0
Do Row_Index = 1, Filled_Rows
Do Col_Index = 1, Filled_Cols
Sum = Sum + Matrix(Row_Index, Col_Index)
End Do
End Do
End Subroutine Matsum

Java and C# use a technique for passing multidimensional arrays as parameters that is similar to that of Ada. In Java and C#, arrays are objects. They are all single dimensioned, but the elements can be arrays. Each array inherits a named constant (length in Java and Length in C#) that is set to the length of the array when the array object is created. The formal parameter for a matrix appears with two sets of empty brackets, as in the following Java method that does what the Ada example function Sumer does: float sumer(float mat[][]) { float sum = 0.0f; for (int row = 0; row < mat.length; row++) { for (int col = 0; col < mat[row].length; col++) { sum += mat[row][col];
} //** for (int row . . .
} //** for (int col . . . return sum;
}

Because each array has its own length value, in a matrix the rows can have different lengths.

9.5.7

Design Considerations
Two important considerations are involved in choosing parameter-passing methods: efficiency and whether one-way or two-way data transfer is needed.

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Contemporary software-engineering principles dictate that access by subprogram code to data outside the subprogram should be minimized. With this goal in mind, in-mode parameters should be used whenever no data are to be returned through parameters to the caller. Out-mode parameters should be used when no data are transferred to the called subprogram but the subprogram must transmit data back to the caller. Finally, inout-mode parameters should be used only when data must move in both directions between the caller and the called subprogram.
There is a practical consideration that is in conflict with this principle. Sometimes it is justifiable to pass access paths for one-way parameter transmission.
For example, when a large array is to be passed to a subprogram that does not modify it, a one-way method may be preferred. However, pass-by-value would require that the entire array be moved to a local storage area of the subprogram.
This would be costly in both time and space. Because of this, large arrays are often passed by reference. This is precisely the reason why the Ada 83 definition allowed implementors to choose between the two methods for structured parameters. C++ constant reference parameters offer another solution. Another alternative approach would be to allow the user to choose between the methods.
The choice of a parameter-passing method for functions is related to another design issue: functional side effects. This issue is discussed in Section 9.10.

9.5.8

Examples of Parameter Passing
Consider the following C function: void swap1(int a, int b) { int temp = a; a = b; b = temp;
}

Suppose this function is called with swap1(c, d);

Recall that C uses pass-by-value. The actions of swap1 can be described by the following pseudocode: a = c b = d temp = a a = b b = temp

— Move first parameter value in
— Move second parameter value in

Although a ends up with d’s value and b ends up with c’s value, the values of c and d are unchanged because nothing is transmitted back to the caller.

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415

We can modify the C swap function to deal with pointer parameters to achieve the effect of pass-by-reference: void swap2(int *a, int *b) { int temp = *a;
*a = *b;
*b = temp;
}
swap2 can be called with swap2(&c, &d);

The actions of swap2 can be described with a = &c b = &d temp = *a
*a = *b
*b = temp

— Move first parameter address in
— Move second parameter address in

In this case, the swap operation is successful: The values of c and d are in fact interchanged. swap2 can be written in C++ using reference parameters as follows: void swap2(int &a, int &b) { int temp = a; a = b; b = temp;
}

This simple swap operation is not possible in Java, because it has neither pointers nor C++’s kind of references. In Java, a reference variable can point to only an object, not a scalar value.
The semantics of pass-by-value-result is identical to those of pass-byreference, except when aliasing is involved. Recall that Ada uses pass-by-valueresult for inout-mode scalar parameters. To explore pass-by-value-result, consider the following function, swap3, which we assume uses pass-by-valueresult parameters. It is written in a syntax similar to that of Ada. procedure swap3(a : in out Integer, b : in out Integer) is temp : Integer; begin temp := a; a := b; b := temp; end swap3;

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Suppose swap3 is called with swap3(c, d);

The actions of swap3 with this call are addr_c = &c addr_d = &d a = *addr_c b = *addr_d temp = a a = b b = temp
*addr_c = a
*addr_d = b






Move
Move
Move
Move

first parameter address in second parameter address in first parameter value in second parameter value in

— Move first parameter value out
— Move second parameter value out

So once again, this swap subprogram operates correctly. Next, consider the call swap3(i, list[i]);

In this case, the actions are addr_i = &i addr_listi= &list[i] a = *addr_i b = *addr_listi temp = a a = b b = temp
*addr_i = a
*addr_listi = b






Move
Move
Move
Move

first parameter address in second parameter address in first parameter value in second parameter value in

— Move first parameter value out
— Move second parameter value out

Again, the subprogram operates correctly, in this case because the addresses to which to return the values of the parameters are computed at the time of the call rather than at the time of the return. If the addresses of the actual parameters were computed at the time of the return, the results would be wrong.
Finally, we must explore what happens when aliasing is involved with passby-value-result and pass-by-reference. Consider the following skeletal program written in C-like syntax: int i = 3; /* i is a global variable */ void fun(int a, int b) { i = b;
}
void main() { int list[10];

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417

list[i] = 5; fun(i, list[i]);
}

In fun, if pass-by-reference is used, i and a are aliases. If pass-by-value-result is used, i and a are not aliases. The actions of fun, assuming pass-by-valueresult, are as follows: addr_i = &i addr_listi = &list[i] a = *addr_i b = *addr_listi i = b
*addr_i = a
*addr_listi = b









Move
Move
Move
Move
Sets
Move
Move

first parameter address in second parameter address in first parameter value in second parameter value in i to 5 first parameter value out second parameter value out

In this case, the assignment to the global i in fun changes its value from 3 to
5, but the copy back of the first formal parameter (the second to last line in the example) sets it back to 3. The important observation here is that if pass-byreference is used, the result is that the copy back is not part of the semantics, and i remains 5. Also note that because the address of the second parameter is computed at the beginning of fun, any change to the global i has no effect on the address used at the end to return the value of list[i].

9.6 Parameters That Are Subprograms
In programming, a number of situations occur that are most conveniently handled if subprogram names can be sent as parameters to other subprograms.
One common example of these occurs when a subprogram must sample some mathematical function. For example, a subprogram that does numerical integration estimates the area under the graph of a function by sampling the function at a number of different points. When such a subprogram is written, it should be usable for any given function; it should not need to be rewritten for every function that must be integrated. It is therefore natural that the name of a program function that evaluates the mathematical function to be integrated be sent to the integrating subprogram as a parameter.
Although the idea is natural and seemingly simple, the details of how it works can be confusing. If only the transmission of the subprogram code was necessary, it could be done by passing a single pointer. However, two complications arise.
First, there is the matter of type checking the parameters of the activations of the subprogram that was passed as a parameter. In C and C++, functions cannot be passed as parameters, but pointers to functions can. The type of a pointer to a function includes the function’s protocol. Because the protocol includes all parameter types, such parameters can be completely type checked.

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Fortran 95+ has a mechanism for providing types of parameters for subprograms that are passed as parameters, and they must be checked.
The second complication with parameters that are subprograms appears only with languages that allow nested subprograms. The issue is what referencing environment for executing the passed subprogram should be used. There are three choices:
• The environment of the call statement that enacts the passed subprogram
(shallow binding)
• The environment of the definition of the passed subprogram (deep binding) • The environment of the call statement that passed the subprogram as an actual parameter (ad hoc binding)
The following example program, written with the syntax of JavaScript, illustrates these choices: function sub1() { var x; function sub2() { alert(x); // Creates a dialog box with the value of x
};
function sub3() { var x; x = 3; sub4(sub2); }; function sub4(subx) { var x; x = 4; subx(); }; x = 1; sub3(); };

Consider the execution of sub2 when it is called in sub4. For shallow binding, the referencing environment of that execution is that of sub4, so the reference to x in sub2 is bound to the local x in sub4, and the output of the program is 4. For deep binding, the referencing environment of sub2’s execution is that of sub1, so the reference to x in sub2 is bound to the local x in sub1, and the output is 1. For ad hoc binding, the binding is to the local x in sub3, and the output is 3.
In some cases, the subprogram that declares a subprogram also passes that subprogram as a parameter. In those cases, deep binding and ad hoc binding are the same. Ad hoc binding has never been used because, one might surmise,

9.7

his t or y n o t e
The original definition of Pascal
(Jensen and Wirth, 1974) allowed subprograms to be passed as parameters without including their parameter type information. If independent compilation is possible (which it was not in the original Pascal), the compiler is not even allowed to check for the correct number of parameters. In the absence of independent compilation, checking for parameter consistency is possible but is a very complex task, and it usually is not done.

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419

the environment in which the procedure appears as a parameter has no natural connection to the passed subprogram.
Shallow binding is not appropriate for static-scoped languages with nested subprograms. For example, suppose the procedure Sender passes the procedure Sent as a parameter to the procedure Receiver. The problem is that Receiver may not be in the static environment of Sent, thereby making it very unnatural for Sent to have access to Receiver’s variables.
On the other hand, it is perfectly normal in such a language for any subprogram, including one sent as a parameter, to have its referencing environment determined by the lexical position of its definition. It is therefore more logical for these languages to use deep binding. Some dynamic-scoped languages use shallow binding. 9.7 Calling Subprograms Indirectly

There are situations in which subprograms must be called indirectly. These most often occur when the specific subprogram to be called is not known until run time. The call to the subprogram is made through a pointer or reference to the subprogram, which has been set during execution before the call is made. The two most common applications of indirect subprogram calls are for event handling in graphical user interfaces, which are now part of nearly all Web applications, as well as many non-Web applications, and for callbacks, in which a subprogram is called and instructed to notify the caller when the called subprogram has completed its work. As always, our interest is not in these specific kinds of programming, but rather in programming language support for them.
The concept of calling subprograms indirectly is not a recently developed concept. C and C++ allow a program to define a pointer to a function, through which the function can be called. In C++, pointers to functions are typed according to the return type and parameter types of the function, so that such a pointer can point only at functions with one particular protocol.
For example, the following declaration defines a pointer (pfun) that can point to any function that takes a float and an int as parameters and returns a float: float (*pfun)(float, int);

Any function with the same protocol as this pointer can be used as the initial value of this pointer or be assigned to the pointer in a program. In C and C++, a function name without following parentheses, like an array name without following brackets, is the address of the function (or array). So, both of the following are legal ways of giving an initial value or assigning a value to a pointer to a function:

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int myfun2 (int, int); // A function declaration int (*pfun2)(int, int) = myfun2; // Create a pointer and
// initialize
// it to point to myfun2 pfun2 = myfun2; // Assigning a function's address to a
// pointer

The function myfun2 can now be called with either of the following statements:
(*pfun2)(first, second); pfun2(first, second);

The first of these explicitly dereferences the pointer pfun2, which is legal, but unnecessary. The function pointers of C and C++ can be sent as parameters and returned from functions, although functions cannot be used directly in either of those roles. In C#, the power and flexibility of method pointers is increased by making them objects. These are called delegates, because instead of calling a method, a program delegates that action to a delegate.
To use a delegate, first the delegate class must be defined with a specific method protocol. An instantiation of a delegate holds the name of a method with the delegate’s protocol that it is able to call. The syntax of a declaration of a delegate is the same as that of a method declaration, except that the reserved word delegate is inserted just before the return type. For example, we could have the following: public delegate int Change(int x);

This delegate can be instantiated with any method that takes an int as a parameter and returns an int. For example, consider the following method declaration: static int fun1(int x);

The delegate Change can be instantiated by sending the name of this method to the delegate’s constructor, as in the following:
Change chgfun1 = new Change(fun1);

This can be shortened to the following:
Change chgfun1 = fun1;

Following is an example call to fun1 through the delegate chgfun1: chgfun1(12); 9.8

Overloaded Subprograms

421

Objects of a delegate class can store more than one method. A second method can be added using the operator +=, as in the following:
Change chgfun1 += fun2;

This places fun2 in the chgfun1 delegate, even if it previously had the value null. All of the methods stored in a delegate instance are called in the order in which they were placed in the instance. This is called a multicast delegate. Regardless of what is returned by the methods, only the value or object returned by the last one called is returned. Of course, this means that in most cases, void is returned by the methods called through a multicast delegate.
In our example, a static method is placed in the delegate Change. Instance methods can also be called through a delegate, in which case the delegate must store a reference to the method. Delegates can also be generic.
Delegates are used for event handling by .NET applications. They are also used to implement closures (see Section 9.12).
As is the case with C and C++, the name of a function in Python without the following parentheses is a pointer to that function. Ada 95 has pointers to subprograms, but Java does not. In Python and Ruby, as well as most functional languages, subprograms are treated like data, so they can be assigned to variables. Therefore, in these languages, there is little need for pointers to subprograms. 9.8 Overloaded Subprograms
An overloaded operator is one that has multiple meanings. The meaning of a particular instance of an overloaded operator is determined by the types of its operands. For example, if the * operator has two floating-point operands in a
Java program, it specifies floating-point multiplication. But if the same operator has two integer operands, it specifies integer multiplication.
An overloaded subprogram is a subprogram that has the same name as another subprogram in the same referencing environment. Every version of an overloaded subprogram must have a unique protocol; that is, it must be different from the others in the number, order, or types of its parameters, and possibly in its return type if it is a function. The meaning of a call to an overloaded subprogram is determined by the actual parameter list (and/or possibly the type of the returned value, in the case of a function). Although it is not necessary, overloaded subprograms usually implement the same process.
C++, Java, Ada, and C# include predefined overloaded subprograms. For example, many classes in C++, Java, and C# have overloaded constructors.
Because each version of an overloaded subprogram has a unique parameter profile, the compiler can disambiguate occurrences of calls to them by the different type parameters. Unfortunately, it is not that simple. Parameter coercions, when allowed, complicate the disambiguation process enormously. Simply stated, the issue is that if no method’s parameter profile matches the number and types of

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the actual parameters in a method call, but two or more methods have parameter profiles that can be matched through coercions, which method should be called? For a language designer to answer this question, he or she must decide how to rank all of the different coercions, so that the compiler can choose the method that “best” matches the call. This can be a complicated task. To understand the level of complexity of this process, we suggest the reader refer to the rules for disambiguation of method calls used in C++ (Stroustrup, 1997).
Because C++, Java, and C# allow mixed-mode expressions, the return type is irrelevant to disambiguation of overloaded functions (or methods). The context of the call does not allow the determination of the return type. For example, if a
C++ program has two functions named fun and both take an int parameter but one returns an int and one returns a float, the program would not compile, because the compiler could not determine which version of fun should be used.
Users are also allowed to write multiple versions of subprograms with the same name in Ada, Java, C++, C#, and F#. Once again, in C++, Java, and C# the most common user-defined overloaded methods are constructors.
Overloaded subprograms that have default parameters can lead to ambiguous subprogram calls. For example, consider the following C++ code: void fun(float b = 0.0); void fun();
...
fun();

The call is ambiguous and will cause a compilation error.

9.9 Generic Subprograms
Software reuse can be an important contributor to software productivity. One way to increase the reusability of software is to lessen the need to create different subprograms that implement the same algorithm on different types of data. For example, a programmer should not need to write four different sort subprograms to sort four arrays that differ only in element type.
A polymorphic subprogram takes parameters of different types on different activations. Overloaded subprograms provide a particular kind of polymorphism called ad hoc polymorphism. Overloaded subprograms need not behave similarly.
Languages that support object-oriented programming usually support subtype polymorphism. Subtype polymorphism means that a variable of type T can access any object of type T or any type derived from T.
A more general kind of polymorphism is provided by the methods of
Python and Ruby. Recall that variables in these languages do not have types, so formal parameters do not have types. Therefore, a method will work for any type of actual parameter, as long as the operators used on the formal parameters in the method are defined.

9.9

Generic Subprograms

423

Parametric polymorphism is provided by a subprogram that takes generic parameters that are used in type expressions that describe the types of the parameters of the subprogram. Different instantiations of such subprograms can be given different generic parameters, producing subprograms that take different types of parameters. Parametric definitions of subprograms all behave the same. Parametrically polymorphic subprograms are often called generic subprograms. Ada, C++, Java 5.0+, C# 2005+, and F# provide a kind of compile-time parametric polymorphism.

9.9.1

Generic Functions in C++
Generic functions in C++ have the descriptive name of template functions. The definition of a template function has the general form template —a function definition that may include the template parameters
A template parameter (there must be at least one) has one of the forms class identifier typename identifier

The class form is used for type names. The typename form is used for passing a value to the template function. For example, it is sometimes convenient to pass an integer value for the size of an array in the template function.
A template can take another template, in practice often a template class that defines a user-defined generic type, as a parameter, but we do not consider that option here.8
As an example of a template function, consider the following: template Type max(Type first, Type second) { return first > second ? first : second;
}

where Type is the parameter that specifies the type of data on which the function will operate. This template function can be instantiated for any type for which the operator > is defined. For example, if it were instantiated with int as the parameter, it would be int max(int first, int second) { return first > second ? first : second;
}

8. Template classes are discussed in Chapter 11.

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Although this process could be defined as a macro, a macro would have the disadvantage of not operating correctly if the parameters were expressions with side effects. For example, suppose the macro were defined as
#define max(a, b) ((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b)

This definition is generic in the sense that it works for any numeric type.
However, it does not always work correctly if called with a parameter that has a side effect, such as max(x++, y)

which produces
((x++) > (y) ? (x++) : (y))

Whenever the value of x is greater than that of y, x will be incremented twice. C++ template functions are instantiated implicitly either when the function is named in a call or when its address is taken with the & operator. For example, the example template function defined would be instantiated twice by the following code segment—once for int type parameters and once for char type parameters: int a, b, c; char d, e, f;
...
c = max(a, b); f = max(d, e);

The following is a C++ generic sort subprogram: template void generic_sort(Type list[], int len) { int top, bottom;
Type temp; for (top = 0; top < len - 2; top++) for (bottom = top + 1; bottom < len - 1; bottom++) if (list[top] > list[bottom]) { temp = list[top]; list[top] = list[bottom]; list[bottom] = temp;
} //** end of if (list[top] . . .
} //** end of generic_sort

The following is an example instantiation of this template function:

9.9

Generic Subprograms

425

float flt_list[100];
...
generic_sort(flt_list, 100);

The templated functions of C++ are a kind of poor cousin to a subprogram in which the types of the formal parameters are dynamically bound to the types of the actual parameters in a call. In this case, only a single copy of the code is needed, whereas with the C++ approach, a copy must be created at compile time for each different type that is required and the binding of subprogram calls to subprograms is static.

9.9.2

Generic Methods in Java 5.0
Support for generic types and methods was added to Java in Java 5.0. The name of a generic class in Java 5.0 is specified by a name followed by one or more type variables delimited by pointed brackets. For example, generic_class where T is the type variable. Generic types are discussed in more detail in
Chapter 11.
Java’s generic methods differ from the generic subprograms of C++ in several important ways. First, generic parameters must be classes—they cannot be primitive types. This requirement disallows a generic method that mimics our example in C++, in which the component types of arrays are generic and can be primitives. In Java, the components of arrays (as opposed to containers) cannot be generic. Second, although Java generic methods can be instantiated any number of times, only one copy of the code is built. The internal version of a generic method, which is called a raw method, operates on Object class objects. At the point where the generic value of a generic method is returned, the compiler inserts a cast to the proper type. Third, in
Java, restrictions can be specified on the range of classes that can be passed to the generic method as generic parameters. Such restrictions are called bounds. As an example of a generic Java 5.0 method, consider the following skeletal method definition: public static T doIt(T[] list) {
...
}

This defines a method named doIt that takes an array of elements of a generic type. The name of the generic type is T and it must be an array. Following is an example call to doIt: doIt(myList); 426

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Now, consider the following version of doIt, which has a bound on its generic parameter: public static T doIt(T[] list) {
...
}

This defines a method that takes a generic array parameter whose elements are of a class that implements the Comparable interface. That is the restriction, or bound, on the generic parameter. The reserved word extends seems to imply that the generic class subclasses the following class. In this context, however, extends has a different meaning. The expression specifies that T should be a “subtype” of the bounding type. So, in this context, extends means the generic class (or interface) either extends the bounding class
(the bound if it is a class) or implements the bounding interface (if the bound is an interface). The bound ensures that the elements of any instantiation of the generic can be compared with the Comparable method, compareTo.
If a generic method has two or more restrictions on its generic type, they are added to the extends clause, separated by ampersands (&). Also, generic methods can have more than one generic parameter.
Java 5.0 supports wildcard types. For example, Collection is a wildcard type for collection classes. This type can be used for any collection type of any class components. For example, consider the following generic method: void printCollection(Collection c) { for (Object e: c) {
System.out.println(e);
}
}

This method prints the elements of any Collection class, regardless of the class of its components. Some care must be taken with objects of the wildcard type.
For example, because the components of a particular object of this type have a type, other type objects cannot be added to the collection. For example, consider:
Collection c = new ArrayList();

It would be illegal to use the add method to put something into this collection unless its type were String.
Wildcard types can be restricted, as is the case with nonwildcard types.
Such types are called bounded wildcard types. For example, consider the following method header: public void drawAll(ArrayList…...

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...challenge for educators, parents, and employers for at least 30 years [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Haycock & Huang]. For many public school students’ particularly male students from low-income or ethnic minority families graduating from high school has remained problematic, even as the nation’s general educational level has increased [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Dillow]. According to 2000 current population survey (CPS) of the U.S. census bureau are used to compute dropout and completion rates by background characteristics, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and family income. Dropout rates in U.S are typical calculated in one of two ways: status rates and events rates. Status dropout rates indicate the number and percentage of people aged 15–24 who are not enrolled in school and have not obtained a high school credential. Event dropout rates, on the other hand, measure the number and percentage of students leaving school over a particular time period typically one year. Dropping out of school seems to be the result of a long-term process of disengaging from school [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Alexander & Entwisle, Finn, Hess]. Although research conducted by Blue & Cook (2004) has identified no single cause for dropping out, researchers typically have followed two distinct lines of inquiry. The first line examines individual student factors such as social and economic environment and ethnicity. The second line identifies the institutional factors and the......

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