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ABSTRACT This research project attempt to highlight the challenges of information and communication technology in Nigeria business organization. It intends to determine how the information system helps an organization to perform effectively. Moreover, it also aimed at appraising the possible problems encountered in the installation and structural framework of information and communication technology systems as well as analyzing the socio-economic and indigenous cultural factors that affects the stream (flow) of information in Nigeria business organization. It has been observed that information and communication technology contribute greatly to the success of business organization in Nigeria. It has been deduced from the research that individual peculiar culture does not affect information system in functioning effectively. Finally, in other to make an organization to perform effectively and function well, management should allow flow of information and communication technology system in an organization.
Introduction
The world is in the mist of the most radical and rapid transformation of commerce and society since the invention of the automobile. During the next few years, electronic markets will grow and begin operating over cheap, accessible public networks, the so-called electronic highway. Whole industries will be destroyed and new ones born. Productivity will leap and competitive advantage shift in the direction of small business. Thousands of jobs will become obsolete and disappear, and thousands of others will be created. The electronic frontier, like the frontiers that preceded it, is at once a realm of boundless opportunity and a harsh, brutal place.
The technological basis of electronic commerce is simultaneously simple and complex. The simple part is that all images and sounds - a voice, a movie, a document, a tune, can be expressed in a digital code, streams of ones and zeros. Once digitized, they can be shipped electronically or stored in electronic memories and retrieved later. The complex part lies in making the network easy to use, changing organizations to enable them to incorporate the network's benefits, developing the services it will make possible (examples - electronic shopping malls, world-wide yellow pages), and training and developing the people necessary to make the organizations function effectively within the electronic environment.
The rise of electronic networks is staggering. The market for networking between companies barely existed few years ago; today it exceeds billions annually. Most stunning of all of this has been the growth of the Internet, a loosely confederated network of networks, public and private.
According to Vinton Cerf, President of the Internet Society, "Internet is growing faster than any other telecommunications system ever built, including the telephone network." Internet reaches from Greenland to Antarctica, connecting more than 50 countries. Internet's growth must invariably slow. At the current growth rate everyone on earth would be connected by the year 2010. Even though a slowdown is inevitable, Cerf says a reasonable estimate is that 100 million new users per year will be connected to the system in five years.
All that is needed is the construction of a high-capacity highway into the homes and businesses of potential users. The enormous market for entertainment will pay for the construction of this highway. Existing highways, Internet in particular, will connect with it, widening its reach, driven by the burgeoning business-to-business markets.
The so called "information highway" is just one example of the many extraordinary advances in technology which are affecting individuals and organizations throughout the world in a way never before felt in the history of mankind. Information technology will reshape every organization that survives through the 90s, every job within those organizations, and every individual that holds those jobs. However, businesses will not be able to incorporate technology advances if they do not find a way to make workers comfortable with computers.
Additionally, workers will not have the requisite skills and abilities to succeed and advance if they are not able to work with computers.

PEOPLE AND THEIR CRUCIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORGANIZATION
"American management, in general, has not done a very good job of understanding how you link the people and the computer into a functional process. In the past, projects became automated disasters because management became enamored with the technology and computer side of the program. They completely forgot about the people side and neglected to incorporate people into the development process. American management has been predominantly insensitive to the needs and desires of its employees when implementing computer technologies. Almost every white-collar job in America requires some level of familiarity with computers. Additionally, it is estimated that 75% of industrial workers also need at least elementary computer skills.
Before the computer can be successfully integrated into an organization's structure, management must both understand the benefits of the system for the organization and understand the impact of computers on people and organizations. The next section will examine the positive and negative effects on the individual in the workplace, then extend this examination to the organization.

COMPUTERS IMPACT ON PEOPLE
The computer is one of the most powerful forces in society today. It is being put to use in organizations of all types and sizes. No one can doubt that this usage is having a strong impact on many people, organizations, and organization structures. But the computer is the driving force behind an information revolution, and as in any revolution, some innocent people may be harmed. In this section we will examine the positive and negative effects that the computer may have on people.

THE POSITIVE IMPACT
Many people challenging careers in computer positions as information systems managers, systems designers, programmers, operators, and data processors. But people in all jobs benefit in many ways from computers. People benefit on the job even though they are not directly employed as computer specialists. They benefit as consumers of the goods and services provided by computer-using organizations. People benefit away from the job by using personal computers for work and play.

Employment Benefits
Each day computers help millions of people do their jobs more effectively. For example, they can help managers decide on what action is most effective for the organization, computers assist in planning of future activities, and also assist in follow-up and control of activities in process. By using facts supplied by computers that are timely, relevant, and accurate, a manager can do a better job of identifying problems, opportunities, and solutions.
The facts retrieved by this type of software can then be manipulated by spreadsheet programs to assist the manager in planning alternative plans of action. Managers may not need to spend as much time controlling operations when a computer can respond with computed reports of performance variables compared to anticipated results.
The time saved in the control function may allow managers additional time to give more attention to employee concerns, and this, in turn, may result in improved morale. But employment benefits are not restricted to management. Health-care providers, researchers, and other scientists now use computers to conduct research into complex problems that could not otherwise be studied. Lawyers use online legal data banks to locate precedent cases in order to serve clients better. Sales people can receive more timely information about products in stock, can promise customers that their sales orders will be handled promptly, and can thus improve their performance because of computer systems. And the job duties of some office and factory worker have changed from routine, repetitive operations to more varied and appealing tasks through computer usage.

Benefits received from computer-using organizations
People also benefit as the consumers of the goods and services provided by computer-using organizations for several reasons:

Greater Efficiency: Because businesses have avoided waste and have improved efficiency through the use of computers, the prices we pay for goods and services are less than they would have been without computers. Computers can significantly improve productivity, the amount of goods or services that people and machines can produce from a given amount of input. And such productivity gains usually lead to higher levels of real income for more people.

Higher Quality Products: Computers may also help improve the quality of the products and services we receive. The following examples show how computers are already improving the quality of the products produced by organizations today:
Microcomputers installed in cars not provide a more efficient means of controlling an engines fuel mixture. * Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is a term that refers to the integration of computers and graphics- oriented software for the purpose of automating the design and drafting process. * Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) refers to the process of integrating all functional areas of a manufacturing facility through the use of computers.

Better Service: Consumers not receive faster, more accurate service from government agencies, businesses, and health care agencies through the use of computers.

Recreational and Educational Benefits: Some businesses are using computers solely to amuse and entertain us. Computer animation firms have programs that give the illusion of movement to inanimate objects. Schools are using computers as educational aids. Multi-media systems are available to teach children how to read and write by showing an object, spelling its name, and speaking the word to provide the child visual, written and audio stimuli.

Better Information Retrieval: The advantages computers have over the human brain are speed, accuracy, and storage capacity. Computers allow information to be retrieved and stored at speeds inconceivable for the unassisted individual.

THE POTENTIAL DANGERS OF COMPUTER USAGE
Regardless of the many advantages and benefits obtained as the result of using computers, this use also has its share of potential problems and dangers.

Employment Problems
The greatest hazard caused by computer use to the individual in the workplace is that of displacement. Displacement is a type of unemployment that results when technological change eliminates jobs. If displaced workers can't find similar jobs elsewhere or are not retrained enabling them to perform jobs created by technological implementation, then there is an increase in unemployment. Many examples of displacement occurred during the 1980s. As managers learned that computers could be used to make decisions which were routine, structured, and repetitive, fewer lower level managers were needed to perform the remaining job functions. Thus, middle- management ranks were reduced in many businesses. The speed and accuracy of computers eliminated the need for many clerical employees, and a significant displacement problem was accompanied by the increased use of computer-controlled robots in production operations.
The automobile industry is a leading user of robots, which for years have performed such routine production tasks as stamping, welding, and spray panting. Robots perform these tasks without complaints, breaks, or time off. Because robots are unaffected by adverse conditions, they have often been used to perform the dreary and dirty tasks that lead to worker discontent. But automobile production techniques are rapidly changing as a result of technological advancements, and auto builders are replacing old machines with a new family of robots. According to the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, twenty percent of the direct labor formerly needed in automobile final assembly has already been replaced by programmable robots. An additional thirty percent might be displaced by 1995. Half of the direct labor formerly needed to assemble small components such as starters and alternators has already been eliminated.
During his tenure as Chairman of General Motors, Roger Smith had an admirable vision for the company: "I want General Motors to be number one and not just in sales. I want us to be number one in quality. I want us to be number one in employee relations. I want us to be number one in profitability. And I want us to be a diversified, growing corporation implementing new products like robotics and new products like electronics."
Implementing robotics became one of the highest priorities at G.M. under Smith. Without consideration for the effect these decisions had on the individual, he initiated corporate-wide robotics and cost-cutting moves that contributed to layoffs for 27,000 white-collar workers and 172,000 blue-collar workers.
Even where workers are not displaced, management must understand what enables workers at any skill level to be able to master their computers. Companies that have successfully transformed their work forces with technology have distilled a set of principles that apply equally to workers on an assembly line or in the front office. [4]
These principles include the following:
THINK OF HOW TO EMPOWER YOUR WORKERS, INSTEAD OF DUMPING TECHNOLOGY ON THEM
The most advanced enterprises have realized that they have got to deal with the people side at the same time they deal with the technology.
LISTEN TO YOUR EMPLOYEES WHEN DESIGNING A SYSTEM (BOTTOM UP)
Managers of highly automated operations are unanimous, if you don't involve the users, you will develop the wrong system. Nobody understands the job like the people who do it. They can tell you how to design the tools that will let them work more efficiently. They will trust new technology more if they had a say in it and knew it was coming. The company wins more commitment from its workers when they feel their contributions were valuable in the design of the system.
[4] David Kirkpatrick, "Making It All Worker-Friendly," Fortune Special Issue, 1994 Information Technology Guide , Autumn 1993, pp. 44-48.

UNDERSTAND AND COMMUNICATE YOUR BUSINESS OBJECTIVES
Employees will accept and learn new technologies if they understand their importance. Fancy computers seldom make much difference in productivity if workers do not understand how the technology helps achieve business goals. It is important to see new technology as only part of a total vision of a changed organizations. Therefore, management must look at the information employees need, the materials they need, the incentives they need, and all other aspects of the business, not just automating.
TEACH YOUR EMPLOYEES BY HELPING THEM IMPROVE THEIR PERFORMANCE
The most important aspect of incorporating new technology is learning to do the job better, not learning how to operate the computer. Traditional classroom instruction is seldom the best way to go. The most useful training comes only when workers need it.
Three common approaches are: 1. Mentors, other employees in the organization who know a little more than most, who can help others when questions arise. 2. On-line help programs within the software. 3. Simultaneous interactive video training for workers.
Don't ignore the generation gap - people who grew up in the Nintendo generation have an advantage over their elders. These younger workers adapt more readily to technological incorporation into the workplace. Conversely, big-time computer klutzes may slip in the pecking order if they can't handle the new technology deftly. Some companies introduce workers to computers by using computer games to make them comfortable interacting with a screen.
The most important part of successful technological integration is top management commitment and participation. It is estimated that technological illiteracy at the top plagues 90% of American companies. Yet there is no better way to get middle management and supervisors to use computerized tools than to let them see the boss using it first. The first worker who has to be brought up to techno-speed is the person on top.

The Impact of Computers on Organizations
When examining the impact of computer technology on organizations one must first understand the basic functional purpose of computers. Computers process information. Whether a computer is calculating a spreadsheet, forecasting future production, or controlling a robotic welding machine, it is processing information.
Business in the second half of the twentieth century is characterized by ever increasing amounts of information to be processed into ever more complex decisions. Estimates for the size of the information sector in advanced economies run from twenty-five to forty percent of the total economy. Because of the magnitude of these estimates, many economists consider modern capitalist economies as evolving toward information-processing economies. 5 "The greater the task uncertainty, the greater the amount of information that must be processed among decision makers during task execution in order to achieve a given level of performance." 6 Uncertainty is defined as "the condition under which managers are unable to predict outcomes of activities accurately every time - limits the ability of managers to preplan and to make decisions." 7 When dealing with uncertainty from the aspect of computer technology and information processing, there are two basic strategies. From these two strategies, four organizational design structure strategies result: 8
Reduce the Need for Computer Technology
This strategy is based on the assumption that information requirements can vary with different organizational structures. Thus, the information requirements can be reduced by pursuing one of the two following courses:
Reduce Expected Performance Level - Reducing performance expectations reduces the number of variables that management must deal with. Since variable management requires information, a reduction in variables reduces information requirements, thereby reducing dependence on technologies. This strategy is self- defeating. If the organization attempts to deal with technology by withdrawing into a shell it will soon become uncompetitive and lose market share. As a result of competition and its shrinking market share, the organization will enter the design stage of the organizational lifecycle, and eventually cease to exist. 9
Establish Self-Contained Tasked - Self contained work groups can perform their complete task without dependence on the activities and performance of other groups and departments. They rely completely on internal resources. Information processing, and the resultant dependance on computer technology, is reduced because the group has fewer interdepartmental inputs. While this strategy is more effective than the one above, the focus here is still the reduction of information requirements. By developing organizational structure around this strategy, growth of the organization is restricted and the firms competitive ability is limited.
This will eventually lead the organization into the same decline stage of the lifecycle. 9Stephen P. Robbins, Organization Theory - Structure, Design, and Applications (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990) p.21.

Increase Information Processing Capacity
In contrast to the previous strategy, organizations may decide to improve their ability to process information. The methods of accomplishing this are by developing a vertical information systems structure or a later relations structure.
Use of Vertical Information Systems - Improved vertical information systems are designed to increase the flow of information up and down the management structure. This gives management information needed to make decisions sooner and provides for these decisions to be more accurate and responsive to the organization's needs. The vertical information system improves information processing ability by adding additional staff members, improving the information processing (computer) systems, improving databases, and training personnel in the use of the system to increase their proficiency. Information collecting ability is improved by developing improved procedures to gather information at its source and by developing procedures to ensure proper dissemination of this information. Information processing ability is thereby improved by combining a redeveloped organization structure, improved technology, and retrained employees.

Create a System of Lateral Relations - The alternative to improving the flow of information to decision makers is to move the decision-making authority and responsibility down the levels of the management hierarchy to the point where the information is available. "in the ideal organization, information should be available to those who will use it. Particularly if you are looking for increased flexibility or shortened response time, you will be asking people at lower levels to make more decisions than they previously had been expected to make. They must have access to the information that they need - drawings, part numbers, material specifications, and so forth, but, especially, the overall vision of the organization's mission. The key to moving decision-making nearer to the point of action is to be sure that the decision makers are well informed." 10
Lateral relations decision making is decentralized, but unlike the Self- Contained Tasks Structure, the group is not self-sufficient and still depends on interactions with other departments and groups. Lateral relations occur both formally and informally, in a multitude of forms including: 11 1. Direct contact between members of different groups. 2. Liaison staffers whose responsibility is to maintain contact between groups. 3. Task forces consisting of members of several groups who work. together temporarily to deal with common problems or decisions. 4. Teams of individuals permanently assigned to work together. 5. Personnel who provide leadership of lateral processes. 6. Matrix organizations for dual authority. 7. Increasing computer communication and lateral databases which are shared across department boundaries increases the need for lateral relations.

10 Emily E. Schultheiss, Optimizing the Organization, How to Link People and Technology (Cambridge, Ballinger Publishing, 1988) p.170.
11 James A. Senn, Information Systems in Management (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing), 1990, p.
125.
Lateral relations structures have two major advantages: 1. Reducing response time by eliminating the need for information to travel up and down a hierarchy, 2. Reducing the fear in middle of being displaced by computers by making them more participative in the decision making process of the organization.
Although any of these structures or a combination of them can be used, it should be remembered that the main objective of information processing is to reduce uncertainty while maintaining or improving the state of the organization. The system or combination selected should maximize responsiveness within the organization and also maximize the individual employee's acceptance of the system implemented.
The Positive Impact of Computers on Using Organizations
There are a multitude of organizational applications for computers including government, law, health care, education, science, engineering, business and manufacturing. Computers can help government agencies with their planning, control, and law enforcement agencies. Computer planning models help city managers and planners gain insights into cause and effect relationships like effluent discharge and water pollution levels. These calculations can provide guidance for budgeting, zoning, etc. Computer simulations assist in evaluating traffic patterns, evaluating transportation routes, and planning the future infrastructure based on projected growth. Perhaps the best example of the benefits of computers is their use in manufacturing.

Computers in Manufacturing
One of the most controversial areas of computer usage has been the implementation of computers and automated systems into manufacturing. The installation of advanced computer technology systems, both information processing and robotics, in a manufacturing environment can provide significant benefits. It also presents significant problems for the organization and its employees.
The benefits most often cited by business executives are reduced manufacturing costs, improved flexibility on the shop floor, responsiveness to the market, improved product quality, improved product design, small lot manufacturing, reduced inventories, and optimal customer service. 12 While these benefits are sometimes hard to quantify, they can reduce operating costs, improve customer relations, and stimulate sales. The key to evaluating these benefits is to understand that a computer integrated structure allows for fewer levels of management and therefore provides for better use of the business's assets, both human and mechanical. The result for the company is a simplified information flow, improved decision making and significantly improved profitability. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is one of several contemporary manufacturing concepts that comprise modern manufacturing technologies.
As with other modern manufacturing tools (Decision Support Systems, just in time, total quality assurance), CIM's capabilities are based on the power of modern technologies. But it is greater than just a new technology, it is an organizational strategy upon which organizational structure is based. "The word integrated is the most important of the entire lexicon of CIM. It means coming together, the antithesis of standing alone. It is the cornerstone of the CIM philosophy. It implies that all functions, activities, decisions, and questions be acted on not solely for the immediate task at hand but for what it means for the entire entity." 13
The modern view of integrated manufacturing includes all of the necessary activities for transformation of raw materials and labor (human or mechanical) into the finished product, delivery of these products to the end users, and supporting the product's performance in the field. Conceptually, this begins in development, which can be part of the marketing function. It includes customer survey, product design, and specification activities. These design and specification activities are usually the responsibility of the engineering function. The traditional manufacturing concept, the actual production of the product is at the core of the modern view. Finally, delivery and after-sales activities (customer support, warranty repair) that are usually part of the sales function. This definition of manufacturing is much more encompassing than the traditional responsibilities associated with the manufacturing component of a corporation. 14
Computer integrated manufacturing, by joining all the functional areas in the business, can provide a variety of automated services in the factory. For businesses to remain competitive, advanced manufacturing technologies must characterize the factory of the future. In this regard, computer integrated manufacturing has many applications:
Order management: CIM allows for faster delivery and responsiveness to customers and to customer orders through electronic data interchange. In essence, customers will electronically secure and lock in supplier capacity for the product. Additionally, a business will be able to respond to inquiries from its customers instantaneously through electronic data interchange. Being able to respond to customers with rapid information will result in extra business, retaining customers, and getting closer to the customer.
Computer-aided design (CAD): Through CAD, CIM allows the computer to assist in minute details and specifications of a customer order or to simulate variations of the order.
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II): This allows the production schedule to be simulated and integrated using one information base to direct the operations on the plant floor to balance supply and demand.
Computer technology: CIM allows different hardware to be integrated to communicate with one another (open system). It provides a database foundation for both artificial intelligence and expert systems.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM): CAM allows for factory machinery to be programmed through numeral controls (NC) tape preparation and computer numerical control (CNC).
Robotics: Robotics allow for the minimization of human activity in the areas of pick/pack, excessive lifting, transportation, and repetitive manufacturing operations.
Automated guided vehicle systems (AGV's): AGV's allow for driverless forklifts and automated storage and retrieval systems. As technology becomes more imbedded in future manufacturing disciplines, the role of computerized material-bundling equipment will become more vital.
Group technology: Allows for the coding and classification system to group various families of parts or activities, and to aid in both inventory use and part standardization.
Vendor scheduling: CIM provides for improved scheduling of customer orders to improve delivery and internal processing. In the future, orders will be booked directly via electronic data interchange into a vendors upcoming production schedule.
Although this is just a partial list of the uses for computer integrated manufacturing in the factory, it shows that CIM is much more than a means of computers controlling machines. An integrated system provides the basis for an organizational structure. It is a structure focused on rapid information flow, high quality, responsive customer service, and controlled costs. However, for all the many advantages of computers and integrated systems, there also exist disadvantages which managers must be prepared to overcome.
The Potential Problems For Computer Using Organizations
There are numerous potential problems for organizations that are caused or complicated by computer technology. Four of these problems are common to many different types of organizations and therefore the most problematic. They are organizational stress, organizational rights versus individual privacy, the changing nature of workers, and resistance to change.
Organizational Stress
Perhaps the greatest danger for the organization that results from computer use is the danger of organizational stress. Organizations group people, information, raw materials, and equipment resources into logical and efficient units to carry out plans and achieve goals. In manufacturing firms, for example, people may be grouped by type of work performed (production, marketing), by geographic area (eastern district, southern district), and by product line produced or sold. As new computer systems are designed and implemented decision-making powers and data processing activities may move from one group to another, and computing resources and stored data may be centralized or distributed. When such changes occur, organizational stress is likely to appear. Work groups may be created, disbanded, or realigned. Existing departments bay be added to or eliminated. The people affected by such changes react in different ways. At one extreme, they may temporarily feel threatened, but after a brief adjustment period they resume their previous behavior. At the other extreme, they may resort to open opposition and even sabotage of the system. Between these extremes, a number of other stress symptoms appear, including withholding facts, providing inaccurate data, and displaying an indifferent attitude. Resisting employees and managers are able to sidetrack or even destroy systems installation efforts.
Organizational Rights Versus Individual Privacy
The introduction of computer technology into the workplace has led to other problems in addition to organizational stress. The technologically related phenomenon of electronic performance monitoring, and electronic mail interception are examples of privacy invasions related to computers. 15 The privacy issue in organizations is a duel-edged sword which raises numerous questions regarding individual versus organizational rights:

* Does an organization has a right to access any part of a system it owns or to data and information developed on its time and on that system? * Does the organization have the right to electronically monitor its workplace for productivity of its employees? * Does the organization have the right to monitor its computer systems to ensure they are not being used for personal business? * Is electronic mail received on an organization's computer entitled to the same privacy it would get if sent through the Post Office?
Since privacy is not a specific constitutional right, and since a balance has to be struck between the personal need for privacy and the organization's need for legitimate information, the extent to which individuals are given privacy protection in the workplace must depend on judicial and legislative decisions yet to come. Undoubted, as the capabilities of technological privacy invasion grow and the issue expands in organizational settings, these questions will be addressed by the courts and Congress.
The Changing Nature of Workers
In the past the dominant requirements of business included capital, raw materials, and an abundant supply of unskilled or semiskilled labor. With the advent of a high-technology based economy these changing. For business to be successful today, a highly skilled, computer literate work force is a necessity. "To build the requisite well-trained work force, employers will be compelled to do several things: * They will have to be more inclusive in recruiting workers, actively seeking to bring in and train marginal candidates rather than screening them out as they have in the past. * They will have to invest heavily in expanded, continuous educational and training programs for all employees. * They must find ways to make employees more productive, especially by tapping their ability to contribute to improvements in the work process. * Companies must replace adversarial labor relations with an approach that focuses on cooperation.
By the year 2,000, experts say, 60% of all new jobs will require a high school education. Unfortunately, 70% of labor force entrants will have less than a high school education." 16 Employers are going to be forced to spend an ever increasing percentage of their revenues on employee training, both remedial and job related. The work force will not have the required skills to function in the technological workplace. The burden will fall on the employer to provide these skills. With an ever increasing investment in the employee, employee retention becomes an even more important issue than it is today.
Resistance to Change
Although resistance to change is a problem that spans many aspects of organizations, it is of particular concern in the introduction of computer technologies because of the fears of middle management and direct labor that they will be displaced by this technology. "The cultural norms in most organizations are centered on stability. These norms are largely perpetuated by middle management and possibly the unions. Both tend to see their knowledge of, and stake in, the present system as a key to their survival and continued crucial role. Major organizational changes, such as may take place with the introduction of new technology, are therefore resisted by these groups, from early conception through final production. This resistance can be highly effective." 17
As stated previously, involving middle managers and direct labor in the decision-making processes regarding the implementation of computer technologies can reduce their resistance. However, some resistance will inevitably remain in all organizations and this resistance must be dealt with by management.

CONCLUSION
Computer use in organizations will result in numerous benefits for these organizations and the individuals who comprise them. The computer-assisted manufacturing concepts discussed herein can lead to productivity gains that will result in a higher standard of living, a shorter workweek, and increased leisure time. Technology is changing the definition of the workplace. Telecommunications technology is allowing the worker to be far removed from the office setting and still accomplish the task assigned. Telecommunications allows working parents to stay home with sick children and not miss work. It allows an executive to remain in contact with the daily activities of the business while on a vacation or business trip. It even allows other workers to remove themselves from the office setting and perform their jobs entirely from their homes. However, telecommunications has drawbacks. It makes it more difficult for managers to supervise employees when they are not on site. It makes evaluation and training difficult.
Finally, it removes the employee from contact with their coworkers, reducing teamwork and the employees sense of belonging. 18
"New technologies increasingly are being introduced into the workplace to accommodate people with disabilities allowing those with physical challenges for the first time to become more productive and versatile members in an office environment." 19 These technological innovations will give handicapped workers greater equality and access in the workplace than ever before. There is no way technological evolution can be stopped. Computers will continue to change the business, government, and social organizations of society. The organizations that will be successful in face of increased competition and consumer demand will be those that utilize this tool to its maximum potential by remaining flexible, responsive to its customers, and progressive with its employees. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Addressing New Hazards of the High Technology Workplace, Harvard Law Review , June 1991, pp. 1898-1916.
Technology Gives Workers Greater Freedom in the Office, HR Focus , July 1992, pp. 12-13.
Cordtz, Dan. The Changing Nature of Work, Financial World, June 23, 1992, p. 66.
Galbraith, Jay. Organizational Design: An Information Processing View, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1973.
Janal, Daniel. Workplace: You Can Go Home Again, Compute! , October 1991, p. 76.
Kirkpatrick, David. "Making It All Worker-Friendly," Fortune Special Issue, 1994 Information Technology Guide, Autumn 1993, pp. 44-48.
Koenig, Daniel T. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1990.
Perelman, Michael. Information, social Relations and the Economics of High Technology , (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991) p. 186.
Robbins, Stephen P., Organization Theory - Structure, Design, and Applications (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990).
Schultheiss, Emily E. Optimizing the Organization, How to Link People and Technology (Cambridge, Ballinger Publishing, 1988).
Senn, James A. Information Systems in Management (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990). Sheridan, John H., "The CIM Evolution," Industry Week , (April 20, 1992) pp. 29-51.
Stewart, Thomas. "Boom Time on the New Frontier," Fortune Special Issue, Making High Tech Work for You , Autumn 1993, p. 153.
Stewart, Thomas, "Boom Time on the New Frontier," Fortune Special Issue, Making High Tech Work for You, Autumn 1993, p. 153.
Thompson, Arthur A. and Strickland, A. J., Strategic Management, Concepts and Cases , (Boston, Irwin Publishing, 1992).
Wall, Toby D.; Clegg, Chris W.; and Kemp, Nigel J., The Human side of Advanced Manufacturing Technology , (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1987).
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...For Students, What is the "Use of Social networking Effect" on Grades? Social media has several effects on academic work — some more positive than others. But what is social networking's overall impact on college students' performance? What’s the effect that social media has on students? According to OnlineEducation.net, there are some negative effects of students who pair studying with Face book.  In fact, students who do this specific type of multitasking earned 20% lower grades than their peers who were able to focus on their homework without the distraction. FINDINGS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research study is to explore the impact of social networking websites on students. A research questionnaire was designed to determine the factors of social networking websites that have impact on students. Variables identified are * Age * Gender * Education * Social influence * Academic performance. 50 respondents that were only students were randomly selected. OBJECTIVE * To analyze the impact of students’ age, gender, education and social influence. * To determine how social networking websites affects students’ academic performance. * To evaluate why mostly people use social networking websites. FACTORS * age * gender * education * Social networks. Academic performance depends upon use of social networking websites Dependent variable: * academic performance Independent variables: * use...

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...Types of College Students You have just graduated from high school and passed the Standard Academic Test. Your application to college has been accepted and it’s your first day at class. It is most likely you will encounter three types of college students on your campus. The three types of college students are usually called the jocks, the nerds, and the normal people. The reason for this essay is to clear up some concepts regarding the three types of college students. One group, The Jocks, is the show-off type of people who puts off their homework assignments until the last minute. Once the assignment is completed at the last minute, the assignment is usually scored a low grade. The reason for this is because the jocks are always partying, going out on dates, or having fun with their sorority. The jocks wear anything to include torn jeans/shirts, work down sneakers or boots and cheap, expensive-looking jacket. The second group, known campus-wide, is the nerds because they are obsessed with books, constantly studying and learning about their interests. The nerds are usually annoying with their obnoxious laughter regarding a really stupid joke. The nerds wear a nice shirt with a bow tie, or a tie and a nicely ironed dress pants and always has a pocket protector to prevent ink stains from their pens. The nerd spends their school night with a tight schedule for recreation, school homework, and learning new things that captures their interests. Computer programming,......

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...affairs as well as the future of the practice. The goal of this course is to provide students with a broad understanding of PR concepts and principles. The course also meets the needs of those planning other professional and managerial careers that require an understanding of PR concepts, theories and practices. Learning Outcomes/Goals: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to: * Demonstrate knowledge of the PR industry’s history and background; * Demonstrate knowledge of public relations ethics; * Demonstrate knowledge of the processes through which quality public relations is achieved—research, planning, communication and evaluation; * Demonstrate an understanding of the many manifestations of public relations in industry; * Demonstrate an understanding of how social media and other technologies influence public relations; * Explain how audience analyses, type of media, persuasion, and communication theories are used in the practice of public relations; and * Recall practical guidelines for utilizing written, spoken and visual techniques to reach audiences Course Content 1) Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) (35%): On 11 occasions throughout the semester, you will take an individual quiz (IRAT) based on information presented in class and the textbook. Each quiz will contain 20 multiple choice and/or true/false questions. Students will take the individual quizzes through Blackboard. The quizzes will be timed –......

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...UNC Center for Public Television 142 Community Services 143 North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching 144 MCNC Contract 145 NC Center for School Leadership Development (NCCSLD) 150 Academic Support 151 Libraries 152 General Academic Support 160 Student Services 170 Institutional Support 180 Physical Plant Operations 190 AHEC Program 191 Operations 192 Residency Training 193 Health Sciences Support 200 Student Auxiliaries 201 Auxiliary Administration 202 Campus Center 203 Food Services 204 Health Services 205 Housing Services 206 Laundry Services 207 Recreational Services: (Recreational Service) 208 Student Stores 210 Institutional Auxiliaries 211 Central Motor Pool 212 Central Stores 213 Creamery 214 Printing and Duplicating: (Printing & Dupl) 215 Rental Property 216 Vehicle Registration 217 Utilities Support 219 Other Auxiliaries 220 Independent Operations 227 Utility Services 230 Student Financial Aid 235 SEAA Education Lottery Scholarships 240 Grants and Subventions 241 Regional Education Programs 242 Private Medical School Aid: (Private Med Sch Aid 243 Aid to Private Colleges: (Aid to Priv Colleges 244 Legislative Tuition Grants: (Legist. Tuition Grants 245 Medical Scholarships 246 Student Incentive Grants Program: (SIG Program) 247 Dental Scholarships 248 American Indian Grants 249 Other Aids and Grants 250 Reserves 251 Salary Related Reserves 252 Other Reserves 260 Board of Governors Reserves 300 Capital Improvements 400 Service......

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...Sunday, 08th of June 2014 Tourism and Environment in Cambodia After I joined this event, I felt that I can learn a lot of things from this event. At first, they start singing the our traditional song for remind people to know about their nation and then there is a khmer traditional dance to show all students or worker in Pannasatra University. And then they had speech about the development of tourism because Cambodia is Kingdom of Wonder, so everyone want to know and especially want to see our ancestor temple which is located in Siem Reap Province. Our teachers in PUC talked about the amount of students get into year 2 with 50 students. In addition, we want tourism involve with the government and we want all students in tourism major will be good at English and Khmer because English is for communicate with foreigner and Khmer is mother tongue, so we can’t forget our nation. Furthermore, there is about the environment to protect from destroying the environment in Cambodia because everyone need to use plastic bag to hold thing or keep things inside it. Hence, environment plastic bag is much better than plastic bag because it use from the banana left for keeping the thing and it won’t affect to our environment like a plastic bag. As a result this event want to show the 2015 about the ASEAN because it will be more people to get to know about one country, they will need guide and place to stay. While we also need to improve more security, so they will might enjoy to......

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...to the students of Valparaiso. Expressing to all my fellow students the advantages of studying abroad as well as conveying knowledge and firsthand cultural views I would attain by engaging in such a fascinating program. This opportunity will allow me to articulate my life’s adventures to other business professionals in pursuit of my goals in the field of business. This is an opportunity/experience of a lifetime that will assist in becoming a well versified professional I long to become. I have always dreamed of studying abroad, meeting and working side by side with other intellects. Certainly, this will not be limited to solely a business and educational sense but also for a personal perspective. I have relatives who reside in Deddington, Oxford and Tunbridge Wells, Kent both located in the United Kingdom of close proximity to Cambridge. Giving me a wonderful chance to explore my roots and also earn credits toward obtaining my business degree from Valparaiso. Living in England will be life changing. To personally live amongst different lifestyles with educational facilities would not only be useful for my future career endeavors but this gift would also be a memorable life event.         I intend to use the knowledge that I obtain there at Cambridge, England to help encourage other students back home at Valparaiso University to achieve their dream of studying abroad. I want to actively participate in group lectures on the advantages to help other students......

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...counts. If you have concerns about your final essay, or think you could benefit from assistance, take advantage of the writing lab. Finally, I am available for conversation, feel free to stop by the office. Laptops may not be used in class unless you have a specific need to do so. Here’s why: “We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content.” [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131512002254?np=y ] I am supportive of students with special learning needs.  My support depends on a partnership between us, and if you have issues that we should discuss please contact me immediately.  There are a range of accommodations possible, and you may find useful information through the Office of Disability Services. Part I - The Region Week 1* Introduction to the Region  Read Haass Article “The New Middle East” on Blackboard for Tuesday of week 2   Week 2* History/Religion Read “Century of Violence” and “Imperialistic Dealings” from the German magazine Der Spiegel online at......

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...mock interviews and written assignments to maximize student involvement in the subject matter. The dynamic nature of the Business Cornerstone course requires an interactive teaching and learning format that utilizes experiential learning activities to enhance each student’s involvement with the course content. 2.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this course, the student will have strengthened the academic skills needed for success as a business major and will have a solid understanding of how ethics, teams, professionalism and a strong work ethic affect business operations. Specifically, the student will: 1. Employ critical thinking skills to develop well-reasoned solutions to business problems 1. Assess group dynamics and how they are utilized in creating effective teams 2. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical decision making 3. Apply job related skills and strategies for implementing career development plans 4. Produce written assignments that are professional and free of the fundamental writing errors 3. Prerequisites Prerequisites ARE NOT optional; pre-requisites ARE requirements or courses that must be completed PRIOR to taking the course.  The pre-requisite(s) for this course are described in the UHD catalog course description as:  Sophomore standing. It is the students’ responsibility to insure that they meet the pre-requisites prior to enrollment in this course.  If the student enrolls and does not meet the pre-requisites,......

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...Study - Student Gets a Better Job Offer Step 1: Recognize: Define the ethical problem from all perspectives. • The student did not tell company B after accepting to work there that he already accepted to work company A. • The student did not notify career services office about any of this. Step 2: Clarify the Facts • The student agreed to work for company A at the beginning, because he did not hear from company B (yet). • The student later was accepted to work for company B; since this was his first choice he accepted that offer as well. • The student went back on his words and declined company A after already accepting it. • Career services office only found out about this after the student had reneged upon the job offer. Step 3: Create Alternatives • The student will not be permitted to work in company A or B. • The student will go work for company A, as he approved that offer first. • The student will work for company B, but will never be allowed to use career services again. • The student will be kicked out of school. Step 4: Evaluate Alternatives (short/long term effects) • Short term: student will not have a job Long term: the student might not be able to find another job that year but will learn an important lesson for life. • Short term: student will work for company A and be disappointed since he is not fulfilling his true ability. Long term: student will realize that what he did was the ethically correct choice. • Short term: student......

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...post it. | | |M3D2: Student Aid: Will Many|Module 3 | |Low-Income Students Be Left | | |Out? [pic] |Preparation: | | |Think about the following: | | |What are the current issues with student financial aid? | | |What can Congress do to help? | | |Read: Issues for Debate in Sociology, Read Chapter 10, Student Aid, pgs 221-244. | | |[pic] | | |Now complete the following: | | |As most of you know, the cost of higher education continues to increase, yet the available aid to students is | | ......

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...college students have worked while attending school. And the number of working students has grown as college enrollment and tuition have increased. While the percentage dipped slightly during and after the recession, the overall number of working students has increased over the past quarter-century (Rapacon, 2015). Rationale of the Study Despite the fact that work is a fundamental part of life for nearly half of all undergraduate students – with a substantial number of “traditional” dependent undergraduates in employment, and working independent undergraduates averaging 34.5 hours per week – little attention has been given to how working influences the integration and engagement experiences of students who work, especially those who work full-time, or how the benefits and costs of working differ between traditional age-students and adult students (Perna, 2010). A college or university scholarship is a big help to students to attain higher education, especially in today’s society where a college education is a necessity for success. There are thousands of scholarships available, and the financial aid they offer gives a huge advantage to the student and his or her parents. But being supported by the government in paying for one’s college costs are not the only benefits included (Thomas, 2010). This study aims to discuss the views and opinions of the recipients of the school scholarship program of the Holy Cross of Davao College. This study aims to benefit the students......

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...I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a I I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of......

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...challenge for educators, parents, and employers for at least 30 years [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Haycock & Huang]. For many public school students’ particularly male students from low-income or ethnic minority families graduating from high school has remained problematic, even as the nation’s general educational level has increased [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Dillow]. According to 2000 current population survey (CPS) of the U.S. census bureau are used to compute dropout and completion rates by background characteristics, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and family income. Dropout rates in U.S are typical calculated in one of two ways: status rates and events rates. Status dropout rates indicate the number and percentage of people aged 15–24 who are not enrolled in school and have not obtained a high school credential. Event dropout rates, on the other hand, measure the number and percentage of students leaving school over a particular time period typically one year. Dropping out of school seems to be the result of a long-term process of disengaging from school [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Alexander & Entwisle, Finn, Hess]. Although research conducted by Blue & Cook (2004) has identified no single cause for dropping out, researchers typically have followed two distinct lines of inquiry. The first line examines individual student factors such as social and economic environment and ethnicity. The second line identifies the institutional factors and the......

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