Free Essay

Student

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By SaiKaushik1995
Words 3603
Pages 15
A PAPER PRESENTATION ON Artificial Intelligence

J.G.M.Jagagdeesh Kumar
Department of C.S.E. (III year)
Affiliated to JNTU K
DJR College of Engineering and Technology,
Gudavalli, Vijayawada
Krishna (dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.
Contact details: J.G.M.Jagagdeesh Kumar Mobile number:9700234518 Email Id:jjagadeesh13@gmail.com

Introduction
In which we try to explain why we consider artificial intelligence to be a subject most worthy of study, and in which we try to decide what exactly it is, this being a good thing to decide before embarking.
Humankind has given itself the scientific name homo sapiens--man the wise--because our mental capacities are so important to our everyday lives and our sense of self. The field of artificial intelligence, or AI, attempts to understand intelligent entities. Thus, one reason to study it is to learn more about ourselves. But unlike philosophy and psychology, which are also concerned with intelligence, AI strives to build intelligent entities as well as understand them. Another reason to study AI is that these constructed intelligent entities are interesting and useful in their own right. AI has produced many significant and impressive products even at this early stage in its development. Although no one can predict the future in detail, it is clear that computers with human-level intelligence (or better) would have a huge impact on our everyday lives and on the future course of civilization.
AI addresses one of the ultimate puzzles. How is it possible for a slow, tiny brain{brain}, whether biological or electronic, to perceive, understand, predict, and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated than itself? How do we go about making something with those properties? These are hard questions, but unlike the search for faster-than-light travel or an antigravity device, the researcher in AI has solid evidence that the quest is possible. All the researcher has to do is look in the mirror to see an example of an intelligent system.
AI is one of the newest disciplines. It was formally initiated in 1956, when the name was coined, although at that point work had been under way for about five years. Along with modern genetics, it is regularly cited as the ``field I would most like to be in'' by scientists in other disciplines. A student in physics might reasonably feel that all the good ideas have already been taken by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and the rest, and that it takes many years of study before one can contribute new ideas. AI, on the other hand, still has openings for a full-time Einstein.
The study of intelligence is also one of the oldest disciplines. For over 2000 years, philosophers have tried to understand how seeing, learning, remembering, and reasoning could, or should, be done. The advent of usable computers in the early 1950s turned the learned but armchair speculation concerning these mental faculties into a real experimental and theoretical discipline. Many felt that the new ``Electronic Super-Brains'' had unlimited potential for intelligence. ``Faster Than Einstein'' was a typical headline. But as well as providing a vehicle for creating artificially intelligent entities, the computer provides a tool for testing theories of intelligence, and many theories failed to withstand the test--a case of ``out of the armchair, into the fire.'' AI has turned out to be more difficult than many at first imagined, and modern ideas are much richer, more subtle, and more interesting as a result.
AI currently encompasses a huge variety of subfields, from general-purpose areas such as perception and logical reasoning, to specific tasks such as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, writing poetry{poetry}, and diagnosing diseases. Often, scientists in other fields move gradually into artificial intelligence, where they find the tools and vocabulary to systematize and automate the intellectual tasks on which they have been working all their lives. Similarly, workers in AI can choose to apply their methods to any area of human intellectual endeavor. In this sense, it is truly a universal field.
What is AI?
We have now explained why AI is exciting, but we have not said what it is. We could just say, ``Well, it has to do with smart programs, so let's get on and write some.'' But the history of science shows that it is helpful to aim at the right goals. Early alchemists, looking for a potion for eternal life and a method to turn lead into gold, were probably off on the wrong foot. Only when the aim changed, to that of finding explicit theories that gave accurate predictions of the terrestrial world, in the same way that early astronomy predicted the apparent motions of the stars and planets, could the scientific method emerge and productive science take place. Definitions of artificial intelligence according to eight recent textbooks are shown in the table below. These definitions vary along two main dimensions. The ones on top are concerned with thought processes and reasoning, whereas the ones on the bottom address behavior. Also, the definitions on the left measure success in terms of human performance, whereas the ones on the right measure against an ideal concept of intelligence, which we will callrationality. A system is rational if it does the right thing. ``The exciting new effort to make computers think ... machines with minds, in the full and literal sense'' (Haugeland, 1985)``The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning ...'' (Bellman, 1978) | ``The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models'' (Charniak and McDermott, 1985)``The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act'' (Winston, 1992) | ``The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people'' (Kurzweil, 1990)``The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better'' (Rich and Knight, 1991) | ``A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes'' (Schalkoff, 1990)``The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior'' (Luger and Stubblefield, 1993) |
This gives us four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence: Systems that think like humans. | Systems that think rationally. | Systems that act like humans | Systems that act rationally |
Historically, all four approaches have been followed. As one might expect, a tension exists between approaches centered around humans and approaches centered around rationality. (We should point out that by distinguishing between human and rational behavior, we are not suggesting that humans are necessarily ``irrational'' in the sense of ``emotionally unstable'' or ``insane.'' One merely need note that we often make mistakes; we are not all chess grandmasters even though we may know all the rules of chess; and unfortunately, not everyone gets an A on the exam. Some systematic errors in human reasoning are cataloged by Kahneman et al..) A human-centered approach must be an empirical science, involving hypothesis and experimental confirmation. A rationalist approach involves a combination of mathematics and engineering. People in each group sometimes cast aspersions on work done in the other groups, but the truth is that each direction has yielded valuable insights. Let us look at each in more detail.
Acting humanly: The Turing Test approach
The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing (Turing, 1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. Turing defined intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator. Roughly speaking, the test he proposed is that the computer should be interrogated by a human via a teletype, and passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or a human at the other end. Chapter 26 discusses the details of the test, and whether or not a computer is really intelligent if it passes. For now, programming a computer to pass the test provides plenty to work on. The computer would need to possess the following capabilities: * natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in English (or some other human language); * knowledge representation to store information provided before or during the interrogation; * automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions; * machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.
Turing's test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the interrogator and the computer, because physical simulation of a person is unnecessary for intelligence. However, the so-called total Turing Testincludes a video signal so that the interrogator can test the subject's perceptual abilities, as well as the opportunity for the interrogator to pass physical objects ``through the hatch.'' To pass the total Turing Test, the computer will need * computer vision to perceive objects, and * robotics to move them about.
Within AI, there has not been a big effort to try to pass the Turing test. The issue of acting like a human comes up primarily when AI programs have to interact with people, as when an expert system explains how it came to its diagnosis, or a natural language processing system has a dialogue with a user. These programs must behave according to certain normal conventions of human interaction in order to make themselves understood. The underlying representation and reasoning in such a system may or may not be based on a human model.
Thinking humanly: The cognitive modelling approach
If we are going to say that a given program thinks like a human, we must have some way of determining how humans think. We need to get inside the actual workings of human minds. There are two ways to do this: through introspection--trying to catch our own thoughts as they go by--or through psychological experiments. Once we have a sufficiently precise theory of the mind, it becomes possible to express the theory as a computer program. If the program's input/output and timing behavior matches human behavior, that is evidence that some of the program's mechanisms may also be operating in humans. For example, Newell and Simon, who developed GPS, the ``General Problem Solver'' (Newell and Simon, 1961), were not content to have their program correctly solve problems. They were more concerned with comparing the trace of its reasoning steps to traces of human subjects solving the same problems. This is in contrast to other researchers of the same time (such as Wang (1960)), who were concerned with getting the right answers regardless of how humans might do it. The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together computer models from AI and experimental techniques from psychology to try to construct precise and testable theories of the workings of the human mind. Although cognitive science is a fascinating field in itself, we are not going to be discussing it all that much in this book. We will occasionally comment on similarities or differences between AI techniques and human cognition. Real cognitive science, however, is necessarily based on experimental investigation of actual humans or animals, and we assume that the reader only has access to a computer for experimentation. We will simply note that AI and cognitive science continue to fertilize each other, especially in the areas of vision, natural language, and learning. The history of psychological theories of cognition is briefly covered on page 12.
Thinking rationally: The laws of thought approach
The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first to attempt to codify ``right thinking,'' that is, irrefutable reasoning processes. His famous syllogisms provided patterns for argument structures that always gave correct conclusions given correct premises. For example, ``Socrates is a man; all men are mortal; therefore Socrates is mortal.'' These laws of thought were supposed to govern the operation of the mind, and initiated the field oflogic.
The development of formal logic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which we describe in more detail in Chapter 6, provided a precise notation for statements about all kinds of things in the world and the relations between them. (Contrast this with ordinary arithmetic notation, which provides mainly for equality and inequality statements about numbers.) By 1965, programs existed that could, given enough time and memory, take a description of a problem in logical notation and find the solution to the problem, if one exists. (If there is no solution, the program might never stop looking for it.) The so-called logicist tradition within artificial intelligence hopes to build on such programs to create intelligent systems.
There are two main obstacles to this approach. First, it is not easy to take informal knowledge and state it in the formal terms required by logical notation, particularly when the knowledge is less than 100% certain. Second, there is a big difference between being able to solve a problem ``in principle'' and doing so in practice. Even problems with just a few dozen facts can exhaust the computational resources of any computer unless it has some guidance as to which reasoning steps to try first. Although both of these obstacles apply to any attempt to build computational reasoning systems, they appeared first in the logicist tradition because the power of the representation and reasoning systems are well-defined and fairly well understood.
Acting rationally: The rational agent approach
Acting rationally means acting so as to achieve one's goals, given one's beliefs. An agent is just something that perceives and acts. (This may be an unusual use of the word, but you will get used to it.) In this approach, AI is viewed as the study and construction of rational agents.
In the ``laws of thought'' approach to AI, the whole emphasis was on correct inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational agent, because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion that a given action will achieve one's goals, and then to act on that conclusion. On the other hand, correct inference is not all of rationality, because there are often situations where there is no provably correct thing to do, yet something must still be done. There are also ways of acting rationally that cannot be reasonably said to involve inference. For example, pulling one's hand off of a hot stove is a reflex action that is more successful than a slower action taken after careful deliberation.
All the ``cognitive skills'' needed for the Turing Test are there to allow rational actions. Thus, we need the ability to represent knowledge and reason with it because this enables us to reach good decisions in a wide variety of situations. We need to be able to generate comprehensible sentences in natural language because saying those sentences helps us get by in a complex society. We need learning not just for erudition, but because having a better idea of how the world works enables us to generate more effective strategies for dealing with it. We need visual perception not just because seeing is fun, but in order to get a better idea of what an action might achieve--for example, being able to see a tasty morsel helps one to move toward it.
The study of AI as rational agent design therefore has two advantages. First, it is more general than the ``laws of thought'' approach, because correct inference is only a useful mechanism for achieving rationality, and not a necessary one. Second, it is more amenable to scientific development than approaches based on human behavior or human thought, because the standard of rationality is clearly defined and completely general. Human behavior, on the other hand, is well-adapted for one specific environment and is the product, in part, of a complicated and largely unknown evolutionary process that still may be far from achieving perfection. This book will therefore concentrate on general principles of rational agents, and on components for constructing them. We will see that despite the apparent simplicity with which the problem can be stated, an enormous variety of issues come up when we try to solve it. Chapter 2 outlines some of these issues in more detail. One important point to keep in mind: we will see before too long that achieving perfect rationality--always doing the right thing--is not possible in complicated environments. The computational demands are just too high. However, for most of the book, we will adopt the working hypothesis that understanding perfect decision making is a good place to start. It simplifies the problem and provides the appropriate setting for most of the foundational material in the field. Chapters 5 and 17 deal explicitly with the issue of limited rationality--acting appropriately when there is not enough time to do all the computations one might like.

The ``History of AI'' sections from the book are omitted from this online version.

The State of the Art
International grandmaster Arnold Denker studies the pieces on the board in front of him. He realizes there is no hope; he must resign the game. His opponent, Hitech, becomes the first computer program to defeat a grandmaster in a game of chess.
``I want to go from Boston to San Francisco,'' the traveller says into the microphone. ``What date will you be travelling on?'' is the reply. The traveller explains she wants to go October 20th, nonstop, on the cheapest available fare, returning on Sunday. A speech understanding program named Pegasus handles the whole transaction, which results in a confirmed reservation that saves the traveller $894 over the regular coach fare. Even though the speech recognizer gets one out of ten words wrong, it is able to recover from these errors because of its understanding of how dialogs are put together.
An analyst in the Mission Operations room of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory suddenly starts paying attention. A red message has flashed onto the screen indicating an ``anomaly'' with the Voyager spacecraft, which is somewhere in the vicinity of Neptune. Fortunately, the analyst is able to correct the problem from the ground. Operations personnel believe the problem might have been overlooked had it not been for Marvel, a real-time expert system that monitors the massive stream of data transmitted by the spacecraft, handling routine tasks and alerting the analysts to more serious problems.
Cruising the highway outside of Pittsburgh at a comfortable 55 mph, the man in the driver's seat seems relaxed. He should be--for the past 90 miles, he has not had to touch the steering wheel. The real driver is a robotic system that gathers input from video cameras, sonar, and laser range finders attached to the van. It combines these inputs with experience learned from training runs and succesfully computes how to steer the vehicle.
A leading expert on lymph-node pathology describes a fiendishly difficult case to the expert system, and examines the system's diagnosis. He scoffs at the system's response. Only slightly worried, the creators of the system suggest he ask the computer for an explanation of the diagnosis. The machine points out the major factors influencing its decision, and explains the subtle interaction of several of the symptoms in this case. The expert admits his error, eventually.
From a camera perched on a street light above the crossroads, the traffic monitor watches the scene. If any humans were awake to read the main screen, they would see ``Citroen 2CV turning from Place de la Concorde into Champs Elysees,'' ``Large truck of unknown make stopped on Place de la Concorde,'' and so on into the night. And occasionally, ``Major incident on Place de la Concorde, speeding van collided with motorcyclist,'' and an automatic call to the emergency services.
These are just a few examples of artificial intelligence systems that exist today. Not magic or science fiction--but rather science, engineering, and mathematics, to which this book provides an introduction.
Summary
This chapter defines AI and establishes the cultural background against which it has developed. Some of the important points are as follows: * Different people think of AI differently. Two important questions to ask are: Are you concerned with thinking or behavior? Do you want to model humans, or work from an ideal standard? * In this book, we adopt the view that intelligence is concerned mainly with rational action. Ideally, an intelligent agent takes the best possible action in a situation. We will study the problem of building agents that are intelligent in this sense. * Philosophers (going back to 400 B.C.) made AI conceivable by considering the ideas that the mind is in some ways like a machine, that it operates on knowledge encoded in some internal language, and that thought can be used to help arrive at the right actions to take. * Mathematicians provided the tools to manipulate statements of logical certainty as well as uncertain, probabilistic statements. They also set the groundwork for reasoning about algorithms. * Psychologists strengthened the idea that humans and other animals can be considered information processing machines. Linguists showed that language use fits into this model. * Computer engineering provided the artifact that makes AI applications possible. AI programs tend to be large, and they could not work without the great advances in speed and memory that the computer industry has provided. * The history of AI has had cycles of success, misplaced optimism, and resulting cutbacks in enthusiasm and funding. There have also been cycles of introducing new creative approaches and systematically refining the best ones. * Recent progress in understanding the theoretical basis for intelligence has gone hand in hand with improvements in the capabilities of real systems.

| |
Refferences Links

http://www.aaai.org/

http://www-formal.stanford.edu/

http://insight.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/

http://www.genetic-programming.com/…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Student

...organizations from the public, private and not-for-profit sectors of society. Mission: The purpose of the organizational psychology program is to provide students with the finest possible education for practice and for becoming license eligible in New Jersey and other states.  Comparisons with Related Fields : Organizational psychology has common interests with both organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology. But the field also differs from these related disciplines. All three fields of study, for example, concern themselves with such topics as motivation, leadership and group dynamics. The related fields, however, differ in institutional location, intellectual emphasis, orientation to education for practice, and employment objectives of graduates. Organizational behavior tends to be located in schools of business or management, focuses mainly on profit-making enterprises, employs conceptual frameworks from economics, sociology, and psychology, and prepares students for academic positions in schools of business or management. Industrial/organizational psychology, for instance, tends to be located in academic departments of psychology, focuses on questions about selection, performance and satisfaction of individuals in organizations, emphasizes inductively derived statistical models and prepares students for academic positions in psychology departments or schools of management. Organizational psychology, in contrast, tends to be located in schools of......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Students

...In order to create a community where there is mutual respect and fairness, staff and students have jointly worked on setting out the Rights of students and their Responsibilities. Knowing your Responsibilities as well as your Rights, we believe is also vital preparation for the world beyond school. General Rights • To be Safe • To a Good Education • To be Respected Specific Rights • To work in a safe environment • To have Health & Safety Rules explained • To feel safe with staff and students • To take part in well planned lessons • To be expected to do my best • To expect lessons to start on time • To work without distractions • To have my work marked • To have homework set • To have information and instructions explained well • To be spoken to politely and with respect by staff and students • To be listened to carefully • To have my property respected General Responsibilities • To act safely • To learn as well as I can • To respect other people and property Specific Responsibilities This means that I will: • Work safely • Stay where I am meant to be • Walk safely in the school building • Follow all safety instructions • Behave safely towards staff and students • Attend lessons properly equipped and ready to learn • Have high expectations of myself • Arrive at lessons on time • Work with others without distracting them • Complete and hand in classwork and homework on time • Listen carefully to information and instructions • Speak politely......

Words: 1449 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Student

...For Students, What is the "Use of Social networking Effect" on Grades? Social media has several effects on academic work — some more positive than others. But what is social networking's overall impact on college students' performance? What’s the effect that social media has on students? According to OnlineEducation.net, there are some negative effects of students who pair studying with Face book.  In fact, students who do this specific type of multitasking earned 20% lower grades than their peers who were able to focus on their homework without the distraction. FINDINGS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research study is to explore the impact of social networking websites on students. A research questionnaire was designed to determine the factors of social networking websites that have impact on students. Variables identified are * Age * Gender * Education * Social influence * Academic performance. 50 respondents that were only students were randomly selected. OBJECTIVE * To analyze the impact of students’ age, gender, education and social influence. * To determine how social networking websites affects students’ academic performance. * To evaluate why mostly people use social networking websites. FACTORS * age * gender * education * Social networks. Academic performance depends upon use of social networking websites Dependent variable: * academic performance Independent variables: * use...

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Students

...Types of College Students You have just graduated from high school and passed the Standard Academic Test. Your application to college has been accepted and it’s your first day at class. It is most likely you will encounter three types of college students on your campus. The three types of college students are usually called the jocks, the nerds, and the normal people. The reason for this essay is to clear up some concepts regarding the three types of college students. One group, The Jocks, is the show-off type of people who puts off their homework assignments until the last minute. Once the assignment is completed at the last minute, the assignment is usually scored a low grade. The reason for this is because the jocks are always partying, going out on dates, or having fun with their sorority. The jocks wear anything to include torn jeans/shirts, work down sneakers or boots and cheap, expensive-looking jacket. The second group, known campus-wide, is the nerds because they are obsessed with books, constantly studying and learning about their interests. The nerds are usually annoying with their obnoxious laughter regarding a really stupid joke. The nerds wear a nice shirt with a bow tie, or a tie and a nicely ironed dress pants and always has a pocket protector to prevent ink stains from their pens. The nerd spends their school night with a tight schedule for recreation, school homework, and learning new things that captures their interests. Computer programming,......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Student

...affairs as well as the future of the practice. The goal of this course is to provide students with a broad understanding of PR concepts and principles. The course also meets the needs of those planning other professional and managerial careers that require an understanding of PR concepts, theories and practices. Learning Outcomes/Goals: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to: * Demonstrate knowledge of the PR industry’s history and background; * Demonstrate knowledge of public relations ethics; * Demonstrate knowledge of the processes through which quality public relations is achieved—research, planning, communication and evaluation; * Demonstrate an understanding of the many manifestations of public relations in industry; * Demonstrate an understanding of how social media and other technologies influence public relations; * Explain how audience analyses, type of media, persuasion, and communication theories are used in the practice of public relations; and * Recall practical guidelines for utilizing written, spoken and visual techniques to reach audiences Course Content 1) Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) (35%): On 11 occasions throughout the semester, you will take an individual quiz (IRAT) based on information presented in class and the textbook. Each quiz will contain 20 multiple choice and/or true/false questions. Students will take the individual quizzes through Blackboard. The quizzes will be timed –......

Words: 3270 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Student

...UNC Center for Public Television 142 Community Services 143 North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching 144 MCNC Contract 145 NC Center for School Leadership Development (NCCSLD) 150 Academic Support 151 Libraries 152 General Academic Support 160 Student Services 170 Institutional Support 180 Physical Plant Operations 190 AHEC Program 191 Operations 192 Residency Training 193 Health Sciences Support 200 Student Auxiliaries 201 Auxiliary Administration 202 Campus Center 203 Food Services 204 Health Services 205 Housing Services 206 Laundry Services 207 Recreational Services: (Recreational Service) 208 Student Stores 210 Institutional Auxiliaries 211 Central Motor Pool 212 Central Stores 213 Creamery 214 Printing and Duplicating: (Printing & Dupl) 215 Rental Property 216 Vehicle Registration 217 Utilities Support 219 Other Auxiliaries 220 Independent Operations 227 Utility Services 230 Student Financial Aid 235 SEAA Education Lottery Scholarships 240 Grants and Subventions 241 Regional Education Programs 242 Private Medical School Aid: (Private Med Sch Aid 243 Aid to Private Colleges: (Aid to Priv Colleges 244 Legislative Tuition Grants: (Legist. Tuition Grants 245 Medical Scholarships 246 Student Incentive Grants Program: (SIG Program) 247 Dental Scholarships 248 American Indian Grants 249 Other Aids and Grants 250 Reserves 251 Salary Related Reserves 252 Other Reserves 260 Board of Governors Reserves 300 Capital Improvements 400 Service......

Words: 1591 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Student

...Sunday, 08th of June 2014 Tourism and Environment in Cambodia After I joined this event, I felt that I can learn a lot of things from this event. At first, they start singing the our traditional song for remind people to know about their nation and then there is a khmer traditional dance to show all students or worker in Pannasatra University. And then they had speech about the development of tourism because Cambodia is Kingdom of Wonder, so everyone want to know and especially want to see our ancestor temple which is located in Siem Reap Province. Our teachers in PUC talked about the amount of students get into year 2 with 50 students. In addition, we want tourism involve with the government and we want all students in tourism major will be good at English and Khmer because English is for communicate with foreigner and Khmer is mother tongue, so we can’t forget our nation. Furthermore, there is about the environment to protect from destroying the environment in Cambodia because everyone need to use plastic bag to hold thing or keep things inside it. Hence, environment plastic bag is much better than plastic bag because it use from the banana left for keeping the thing and it won’t affect to our environment like a plastic bag. As a result this event want to show the 2015 about the ASEAN because it will be more people to get to know about one country, they will need guide and place to stay. While we also need to improve more security, so they will might enjoy to......

Words: 605 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Student

...to the students of Valparaiso. Expressing to all my fellow students the advantages of studying abroad as well as conveying knowledge and firsthand cultural views I would attain by engaging in such a fascinating program. This opportunity will allow me to articulate my life’s adventures to other business professionals in pursuit of my goals in the field of business. This is an opportunity/experience of a lifetime that will assist in becoming a well versified professional I long to become. I have always dreamed of studying abroad, meeting and working side by side with other intellects. Certainly, this will not be limited to solely a business and educational sense but also for a personal perspective. I have relatives who reside in Deddington, Oxford and Tunbridge Wells, Kent both located in the United Kingdom of close proximity to Cambridge. Giving me a wonderful chance to explore my roots and also earn credits toward obtaining my business degree from Valparaiso. Living in England will be life changing. To personally live amongst different lifestyles with educational facilities would not only be useful for my future career endeavors but this gift would also be a memorable life event.         I intend to use the knowledge that I obtain there at Cambridge, England to help encourage other students back home at Valparaiso University to achieve their dream of studying abroad. I want to actively participate in group lectures on the advantages to help other students......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student

...counts. If you have concerns about your final essay, or think you could benefit from assistance, take advantage of the writing lab. Finally, I am available for conversation, feel free to stop by the office. Laptops may not be used in class unless you have a specific need to do so. Here’s why: “We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content.” [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131512002254?np=y ] I am supportive of students with special learning needs.  My support depends on a partnership between us, and if you have issues that we should discuss please contact me immediately.  There are a range of accommodations possible, and you may find useful information through the Office of Disability Services. Part I - The Region Week 1* Introduction to the Region  Read Haass Article “The New Middle East” on Blackboard for Tuesday of week 2   Week 2* History/Religion Read “Century of Violence” and “Imperialistic Dealings” from the German magazine Der Spiegel online at......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Student

...mock interviews and written assignments to maximize student involvement in the subject matter. The dynamic nature of the Business Cornerstone course requires an interactive teaching and learning format that utilizes experiential learning activities to enhance each student’s involvement with the course content. 2.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this course, the student will have strengthened the academic skills needed for success as a business major and will have a solid understanding of how ethics, teams, professionalism and a strong work ethic affect business operations. Specifically, the student will: 1. Employ critical thinking skills to develop well-reasoned solutions to business problems 1. Assess group dynamics and how they are utilized in creating effective teams 2. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical decision making 3. Apply job related skills and strategies for implementing career development plans 4. Produce written assignments that are professional and free of the fundamental writing errors 3. Prerequisites Prerequisites ARE NOT optional; pre-requisites ARE requirements or courses that must be completed PRIOR to taking the course.  The pre-requisite(s) for this course are described in the UHD catalog course description as:  Sophomore standing. It is the students’ responsibility to insure that they meet the pre-requisites prior to enrollment in this course.  If the student enrolls and does not meet the pre-requisites,......

Words: 7068 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Student

...Study - Student Gets a Better Job Offer Step 1: Recognize: Define the ethical problem from all perspectives. • The student did not tell company B after accepting to work there that he already accepted to work company A. • The student did not notify career services office about any of this. Step 2: Clarify the Facts • The student agreed to work for company A at the beginning, because he did not hear from company B (yet). • The student later was accepted to work for company B; since this was his first choice he accepted that offer as well. • The student went back on his words and declined company A after already accepting it. • Career services office only found out about this after the student had reneged upon the job offer. Step 3: Create Alternatives • The student will not be permitted to work in company A or B. • The student will go work for company A, as he approved that offer first. • The student will work for company B, but will never be allowed to use career services again. • The student will be kicked out of school. Step 4: Evaluate Alternatives (short/long term effects) • Short term: student will not have a job Long term: the student might not be able to find another job that year but will learn an important lesson for life. • Short term: student will work for company A and be disappointed since he is not fulfilling his true ability. Long term: student will realize that what he did was the ethically correct choice. • Short term: student......

Words: 1413 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Student

...post it. | | |M3D2: Student Aid: Will Many|Module 3 | |Low-Income Students Be Left | | |Out? [pic] |Preparation: | | |Think about the following: | | |What are the current issues with student financial aid? | | |What can Congress do to help? | | |Read: Issues for Debate in Sociology, Read Chapter 10, Student Aid, pgs 221-244. | | |[pic] | | |Now complete the following: | | |As most of you know, the cost of higher education continues to increase, yet the available aid to students is | | ......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Students

...college students have worked while attending school. And the number of working students has grown as college enrollment and tuition have increased. While the percentage dipped slightly during and after the recession, the overall number of working students has increased over the past quarter-century (Rapacon, 2015). Rationale of the Study Despite the fact that work is a fundamental part of life for nearly half of all undergraduate students – with a substantial number of “traditional” dependent undergraduates in employment, and working independent undergraduates averaging 34.5 hours per week – little attention has been given to how working influences the integration and engagement experiences of students who work, especially those who work full-time, or how the benefits and costs of working differ between traditional age-students and adult students (Perna, 2010). A college or university scholarship is a big help to students to attain higher education, especially in today’s society where a college education is a necessity for success. There are thousands of scholarships available, and the financial aid they offer gives a huge advantage to the student and his or her parents. But being supported by the government in paying for one’s college costs are not the only benefits included (Thomas, 2010). This study aims to discuss the views and opinions of the recipients of the school scholarship program of the Holy Cross of Davao College. This study aims to benefit the students......

Words: 1789 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Student

...I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a I I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of......

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Student

...challenge for educators, parents, and employers for at least 30 years [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Haycock & Huang]. For many public school students’ particularly male students from low-income or ethnic minority families graduating from high school has remained problematic, even as the nation’s general educational level has increased [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Dillow]. According to 2000 current population survey (CPS) of the U.S. census bureau are used to compute dropout and completion rates by background characteristics, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and family income. Dropout rates in U.S are typical calculated in one of two ways: status rates and events rates. Status dropout rates indicate the number and percentage of people aged 15–24 who are not enrolled in school and have not obtained a high school credential. Event dropout rates, on the other hand, measure the number and percentage of students leaving school over a particular time period typically one year. Dropping out of school seems to be the result of a long-term process of disengaging from school [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Alexander & Entwisle, Finn, Hess]. Although research conducted by Blue & Cook (2004) has identified no single cause for dropping out, researchers typically have followed two distinct lines of inquiry. The first line examines individual student factors such as social and economic environment and ethnicity. The second line identifies the institutional factors and the......

Words: 9182 - Pages: 37