Premium Essay

Steady Flow

In: Science

Submitted By danielwatkins
Words 1590
Pages 7
Introduction
The statement of the principle of conservation of energy when applied to the flow of a fluid through a system is defined as The Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE). The term ‘Fluid’ is defined as a substance that can flow. There are two types of fluids, gases and liquids. A Steady flow process occurs when the state of fluid conditions at any point in the control volume remain constant with respect to time. Specifically, the mass flow rate entering the system is equal to the mass flow rate exiting the system. Conversely, non-uniform flow process is when the velocity varies at any instant. The common systems which involve steady flow processes are open system turbines, compressors, pumps etc. [1] (W.BOLTON, 1990)
Background Theory

Steady flow energy equation
The development of the Steady Flow Energy Equation of fluid is derived from the principle of conservation of energy which state that: For any mass system, the net energy supplied to the system equals the increase of energy of the system plus the energy leaving the system.
Therefore, if is the increase of energy of the system, is the energy supplied to the system and the energy leaving the system. Therefore, the energy balance for the system is considered.

The energy of a mass of fluid contains the forms as followed: 1. Internal energy due to the activity of the molecules of the fluid forming the mass; 2. Kinetic energy due to the velocity of the mass of fluid itself; 3. Potential energy due to the mass of fluid being at a height above the datum level and acted upon by gravity. [2]

As steady flow operation concludes that no energy may be stored within the systems, therefore, the equations derive as follow:
Energy entering the system:

Total Energy leaving the system:

As First Law of Thermodynamic state that

Now:

The steady flow energy equation can be applied…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cash Flow

...CONCEPTS a. The statement of cash flows details the actual cash generated through a specific time period, usually for fiscal year ending 20XX, for example. The cash flow statement, specifically, identifies the actual cash flowing in and out of the company and reveals how a company spends its money. Conversely, the income statement is based on the accrual method of accounting and will contain revenue, for example, that has not been received or expenses that have not yet been paid. b. The two separate methods to prepare the statement of cash flows is the direct and indirect method. Weis Markets uses the indirect method of accounting due to the fact the company uses the accrual method of accounting and derives data from both the balance sheet and income statement. Most companies, public companies specifically, use the indirect method of accounting as most implement accrual accounting. Smaller companies on a cash basis would use the direct method for statement of cash flows. c. The three sections of the statement of cash flows is investing, operating, and financing activities. d. Operating activities pulls from items on the income statements. Investing activities reports the purchase and/or sale of investments and property, plant, and equipment on the balance sheet. Financing activities reports the issuance and repurchases of company stocks, bonds, and payments of dividends on the balance sheet. e. Cash equivalents are current, highly liquid assets......

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Info Flow

...Organizational Information Flow Garrett Strack CIS207 May 14th, 2012 Bob Sanders Organizational Information Flow Usage Information within an organization can be used in many different ways in an organization. Information can be used to make critical decisions for businesses that can have a large impact. Decisions such as what raw materials to order, when to order them, and at what price are all decisions that must be made with accurate information in order to remain profitable. If such decisions are not made with credible information a company may find itself not making a profit. Also an organization must have valid information to determine a fair and marketable price for their finished good but yet also be able to clear any overhead cost’s such as shipping or storage. The must also take into account things like electricity, human resources, and any other cost’s associated with the manufacture of their product. All of these things require information to flow between the different business units of an organization. Flow An organization’s information generally flows in two directions, upstream and downstream. Decisions made at the upper management levels and trickling down to the lower level employees would be an example of downstream information flow. Many critical decisions are made by managers and executives on a daily base that affect the day to day functions of an organization. On the opposite side of that coin many of the decisions executive make are......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Globalization of Flow

...Ritzer. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-3271-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Globalization. I. Title. JZ1318.R577 2009 303.48'2-dc22 2009004218 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Set in 10.5/13pt Minion by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed in Singapore 03 2011 To Bodhi Axel for a Ritzer, With Much Love a n d Great H o p e Better World in Y o u r Future List of F i g u r e s Preface xii xiii 1 Globalization I Liquids, Flows, a n d Structures S o m e of t h e Basics F r o m S o l i d s to L i q u i d s (to G a s e s ) Flows Does Globalization Hop Rather T h a n Flow? Heavy, Light, Weightless Heavy Structures T h a t Expedite Flows H e a v y S t r u c t u r e s a s Barriers t o F l o w s Subtler Structural Barriers S t r u c t u r e a n d Process O n t h e I n c r e a s i n g U b i q u i t y o f G l o b a l F l o w s ( a n d Processes) a n d Structures T h i n k i n g A b o u t Global Flows a n d Structures Chapter Summary 1 3 4 7 10 11 14 18 23 24 25 26 28 2 Globalization II S o m e Basic Issues, D e b a t e s , a n d Controversies Is T h e r e S u c h a T h i n g as G l o b a l i z a t i o n ? If T h e r e Is S u c h a T h i n g as G l o b a l i z a t i o n , W h e n D i d It B e g i n ? Globalization or Globalizations? W h a t Drives Globalization? If T h e r e Is S u c h a T h i n g as G l o b a l i z a t i o n , Is It I n e x o r a b l e ? D o e s Globaphilia or Globaphobia H......

Words: 320130 - Pages: 1281

Premium Essay

Slow and Steady

...Slow and Steady: the next big thing after sliced bread!! He kept looking down the entire time. She was scolding him for breaking yet another picture frame. All the picture frames hung on the wall and Tunji would always climb on the chairs so that he could reach the frames, pull them down and down they came shattered and broken. She had beaten him so many times, scolded him, counselled him but nothing worked. What could be wrong with this boy, she wondered. He was ten years old and very destructive. They had nicknamed him “wrecking ball”. He wrecked everything in his way. Tools, picture frames, phones, ipads, laptops, tumblers, books etc. “Tunji why, why” she sighed and for the first time she communicated something he had not heard since he started his “wrecking ball” career “I love you son no matter how much you cause me pain but it is really unfair to repay love with this amount of pain”, “Tunji when someone shows you love, you love right back”. On this note she ended her conversation with her 10 year old son and walked away. He did not move for a while, he felt sorry that mummy did not think that he loved her. He loved her, he drew a cartoon that looked like her on Monday and gave the character super powers because mummy could do so many things at the same time. “Okay I will let her know I love her” he thought in his mind. On his Eleventh birthday, Mummy was grinning from ear to ear celebrating Tunji her sweet little boy growing up to become a man. Tunji washed her...

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cash Flow

...1. Explain why investors should use the statement of cash flows. Cash flow is one of the most important measurements used by investors in valuing a company. You will hear the term used in the context of understanding how much a company is really growing (or not) after accounting conventions are stripped out of the income statement. Cash flow measures the amount of cash that a company brings in and uses during the course of an accounting period (quarter or year) after all fixed expenses are eliminated. This number is frequently called earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). The reason investors are interested in cash flow is that it gives them a clearer picture of what the company is truly doing. Deductions When you begin deducting interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, you distort what positive or negative cash flows the company’s operations generated. The four items (interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) have nothing to do with the company’s actual operations and are accounting conventions for reducing income for tax purposes. Here’s how each one distorts operating performance: * Interest – Companies can deduct interest expense from their income for tax purposes. This deduction will change from year-to-year as more or less debt is on the books. * Taxes – Taxes are subject to change as laws change and the company’s business and accounting practices may change. This deduction also reduces net income. ...

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cash Flow

...4/8/2011 Cash Flows Scribd Upload a Document Search Books, Presentations, Business, Academics... Search Documents Explore Documents Books - Fiction Books - Non-fiction Health & Medicine Brochures/Catalogs Government Docs How-To Guides/Manuals Magazines/Newspapers Recipes/Menus School Work + all categories Featured Recent People Authors Students Researchers Publishers Government & Nonprofits Businesses Musicians Artists & Designers Teachers + all categories Most Followed Popular Sign Up | Log In scribd.com/doc/22806908/Cash-Flows 1/48 4/8/2011 Cash Flows STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS 1. The statement of cash flows is a required statement that must be prepared along with an income statement, balance sheet, and retained earnings statement. For external reporting, a company must prepare either an income statement or a statement of cash flows, but not both. A primary objective of the statement of cash flows is to show the income or loss on investing and financing transactions. A statement of cash flows indicates the sources and uses of cash during a period. Operating activities include the cash effects of transactions that create revenues and expenses. In preparing a statement of cash flows, the issuance of debt should be reported separately from the retirement of debt. Noncash investing and financing activities must be reported in the body of a statement of cash flows. The statement of cash flows classifies cash receipts and......

Words: 1958 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cash Flow

...Cash Flow Assignment Companies are required to prepare a statement of cash flows (SCF) in their annual reports because it contains necessary information for external users, such as lenders and investors, who make economic decisions about the companies. It presents the sources and uses of cash and is a basis for cash flow analysis. Because it shows how much actual cash a company has generated, it presents if and how the company is able to pay for its operations and future growth. Companies produce and consume cash in different ways, so the cash flow statement is divided into three sections: cash flows from operations, financing and investing. Basically, the sections on operations and financing show how the company gets its cash, while the investing section shows how the company spends its cash. The cash flow statement is the newest of the three financial statements; companies have only been required to furnish investors with it since 1988. The cash flow statement is similar to the income statement, except that it dispenses with some of the abstract items found on the income statement (such as depreciation) and focuses on actual cash. Most of the information found on the cash flow statement is contained in either the income statement or the balance sheet, but here it is organized in such a way that it is difficult for companies to use accounting tricks to obscure the facts. The cash flow statement is broken down into three parts: Here you’ll find how much money the......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cash Flow

...Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss (Consolidated) STATUTORY REPORTS 44 Notice 53 Directors’ Report 69 Management Discussion & Analysis 104 Corporate Governance 125 Secretarial Audit Report Chairman’s Message To ensure long-term competitiveness of Tata Motors, the company also took several steps under the Horizonext strategy. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Standalone Financial Statements 126 Independent Auditors’ Report 130 Balance Sheet 131 Statement of Profit and Loss 132 Cash Flow Statement 134 Notes to Accounts Consolidated Financial Statements 170 Independent Auditors’ Report 172 Balance Sheet 173 Statement of Profit and Loss 174 Cash Flow Statement 176 Notes to Accounts Subsidiary Companies 207 Financial Highlights 210 Listed Securities issued by Subsidiary Companies during FY 2013-14 14 Major Launches during the Year Our products represent the Horizonext philosophy with best-in-class offerings. 38 Summarised Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss (Standalone) 40 Funds Flow - Last Five Years 41 Financial Statistics 30 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING Date Awards and Accolades Range Rover Sport won the SUV of the Year award by Top Gear magazine in the UK, EVO in MENA, Car and Drive in China. Thursday, July 31, 2014 Time 3.00 p.m. Venue Birla Matushri Sabhagar, 19, Sir Vithaldas Thackersey Marg, Mumbai 400 020 Horizonext, rolled out last year as a next-level strategy, helps us anticipate customer requirements and deliver exciting driving......

Words: 116965 - Pages: 468

Premium Essay

Cash Flow

...a company's cash inflows and outflows during a specified accounting period. This paper will focus more on how cash flow is helpful to external users. The statement of cash flow complements the income statement and the balance sheet. When credit decisions are made, many factors must be assessed. According to FASB (SFAS-95, paragraph 5) the information on actual cash flows is useful to help creditors, investors, and other external parties asses (1) the ability of an enterprise to generate positive future net cash flows, meet its obligations, and pay dividends; (2) the needs for external financing; (3) the reasons for the differences between cash flow from operating activities and net income (or change in net assets); and (4) the effects on financial position of cash and non-cash investing and financing activities. Cash flows are classified as operating, investing, or financing activities. Operating activities relates to company’s primary revenue generating activities such as cash generated from the sale of goods and cash paid from merchandise. Investing activities includes lending money and collecting on loans related to noncurrent assets. For example, cash generated from the sale of land. Financing activities include borrowing and repaying money from creditors related to noncurrent liabilities and owners’ equity. The goal is for company to have a positive cash flow from operating. This is the area that a company should focus most of their attention on because it paints the......

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cash Flows

...Direct Method: ABC Company Direct Statements of Cash Flow for December 31, 2013 © www.excel-skills.com 2013 Cash flows from operating activities Cash Sales 4,523.00 Collections on Receivables 6,739.00 Purchases (1,332.00) Cash paid to employees (wages) (987.00) Cash paid to suppliers (1,028.00) Cash generated from operations 7,915.00 Interest payments (12.00) Tax Payments (275.00) Net cash from operating activities 7,628.00 Cash flows from investing activities Capital Expenditures (1,389.00) Payments for Businesses Acquired (206.00) Proceeds from Sales of Property and Equipment 88.00 Net cash used in investing activities (1,507.00) Cash flows from financing activities Proceeds from Long-Term Borrowings 5,222.00 Repayments of Long-Term Debt (1,289.00) Repurchases of Common Stock (8,546.00) Proceeds from Sales of Common Stock 241.00 Cash Dividends Paid to Stockholders (2,243.00) Other Financing Activities (37.00) Net cash used in financing activities (6,652.00) Net increase (decrease) in cash (531.00) Indirect Method: ABC Company Indirect Statements of Cash Flow for December 31, 2013 © www.excel-skills.com 2013 Cash flows from operating activities Profit before taxation 8,467.00 Adjustments for: Depreciation 1,627.00 Investment......

Words: 428 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Measurements in Boundary Layer Flows

...also calculated to gain a better understand of boundary layers. The experimental values calculated were compared to the theoretical Blasius for laminar flow and Power Law Solutions for turbulent flow to see how they varied. It was found out the higher the Reynolds number the greater the boundary layer thickness. As the boundary layer progressed the flow went from Laminar to Turbulent. Turbulent flow is more erratic and had a steeper velocity profile affect the shear stress. The momentum thickness and displacement thickness were greater for turbulent flow. Other ideas were examined in the discussions. Content: Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….…2 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 Background Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 Apparatus………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 Experimental Procedure…………………………………………………………………………………………………6 Results………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………7 Discussions…………………………….……………………………………………………..…………………….........12 Conclusion………………………………….…………………………………………………..…………………………..14 References……………………….…………………………………………………………………..……………..........14 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 Introduction: The flow past an object is an important study in aerodynamics. Close to the surface of the aerofoil, the flow behaves differently due to the presence of viscous forces. Due to viscous forces there is a presence of a boundary layer. The boundary layer......

Words: 7310 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Cash Flows

...“Financial Accounting, sixth edition”, cash flow “permits a company to expand operations, replace worn assets, take advantage of new investment opportunities, and pay dividends to its owners”. Analyzing cash flow enables one to understand what happened to cash and cash equivalents throughout a specific period – how to the beginning balance of cash become the ending balance. The statement classifies cash flow in three different categories; operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. To better understand and prepare the statement manipulating the balance sheet equation is a must. Assets can be further broken down into cash/cash equivalents and noncash asset. It is important to note that any change in cash also results in a change of liabilities, stockholder’s equity or noncash assets. With all of this, the “new” equation follows, change in cash = change in liabilities + change in SE – change in noncash assets. Cash flows from operating activities relate directly to revenues and expenses on the income statement. Examples of cash inflow activities include cash received from customers, dividends and interest on investments. Examples of outflows would be salaries, wages and income taxes. There are two methods in which one can present operating activities on the statement. It is important to note that both methods will provide the same number. The first is the direct method. This method “reports components of cash flow as gross receipts and......

Words: 1340 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Flow

...last activity is to communicate. Communicating the economic events that have been identified and recording for a businesses or an organization to all parties or users of interest. The way organizations due this is by creating accounting reports or more commonly called financial statements. There are four basic financial statements. They are income statements, retained earnings statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flow. Organizations consistently use these four statements to analyze the numbers that are collected from the accounting activities. This and allow interested parties to analyze and make sound decision about how the organization is being run and if there can or needs to be adjustments as to how the organization is being run. All the statements have individual functions but they are all dependent on one another also. To complete the retained earnings statement you need to have the income statement and in order to complete the balance sheet you need to have the retained earnings statement and to complete the cash flow statement you need to have the balance sheet. The income statement use is to report the success or profitability of a company over a specific period. This statement shows the revenues and expenses that cause a net loss or a net income of a company. On the income statement, the revues are listed first then the expenses. This allows the statement to show net income or a net loss. Net income happens when revenues exceed expenses...

Words: 930 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Caash Flow

...Running Header: Cash Flow Management Cash Flow Management Althea M Pullins BUS313 Professor Robert Filling 10/22/2011 A cash flow forecast can be a major problem for any business; it could be even more challenging for a startup company. A negative cash flow is a major problem for small businesses and can lead to bankruptcy. This unfortunate trend will continue due to a business owner’s neglecting the principle of cash flow management. Understanding and developing a cash flow forecast is a key to business success. Most entrepreneurs launch their business with insufficient cash to keep the company afloat. Cash management consists of forecasting, cash flow revenue, disbursement, revenues, and disbursement. In order to be effective in cash flow management an owner must control when a company will collect cash and pay it out. Understanding these steps is an important task because cash is the least productive asset that a company owns. A new enterprise must have enough cash to meet its obligations it a timely manner. Unfortunately many new business owners do not engage in effective cash flow management. Although cash flow management can be challenging it is not an insurmountable task. There are steps a new business owner can take. The first step is to understand business cash flow revenues by preparing cash forecasts that recognize estimated sales each month. The second step is to consider cash flow disbursement such as wages, rent, and supplier......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Swing vs Steady

...Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*6 =$12000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*20%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*6 =$6000 Steady: Sales: 5000 Price per unit: $10 Variable Cost per unit: $5.5 Fixed Cost: $35000 Current Profit: $ 2500 New Price per additional unit: $8.5 New Contribution Margin = New Price per unit – Variable cost per unit =$8.5-$5.5 =$3 New Sales unit @40% additional sales= 5000*40%= 2000 Additional profit @40% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*3 =$6000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*20%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*3 =$3000 Both the companies should enter the market as they are realizing additional profits by charging a lower price for the new market. b)Swing : ∆P =-1.5 CM= Price- Variable Cost= $10-$2.5 =$7.5 % Break-even sales change= -∆P/(CM + ∆P) = 1.5/(7.5-1.5) = 25% % Break-even sales change in units =5000*25% =1250 Total Break-even sales=5000+1250= 6250 Change in Profit for 40% increase in sales= (Sales change in units- Break-even sales change) * New contribution Margin =(2000-1250)*6 =750*6 =$ 4500 Steady: ∆P =-1.5 CM= Price- Variable Cost= $10-$5.5 =$4.5 New CM= New Price – Variable Cost= 8.5-5.5= 3 % Break-even sales change= -∆P/(CM + ∆P) = 1.5/(4.5-1.5) = 50% % Break-even sales change in units =5000*50%......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4