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The communication policy and the marketing strategy of the French Stage Brief presented by Pereira Jeremiah In order to obtain the 1st year of Master of Marketing and Production of Services Under the direction of: Briot Eugenie
Academic Year 2007-2008
Pereira Jeremiah Master 1 MIE 2
Summary
Introduction… … … … … … . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .p 4 1. The growth strategy of the French Stage… … … … … … … … … … … .p10 1.1 . The development of the sporting club … . … … … … … … … …................... p11 1.2 . The policy of sponsorship of the stadium Francais………………………………… .... p12 1.2.1 . Sponsorship: an evolving activity since 1990 … … … … … … .p12 1.2.1.1 . The economic evolution… … … … … … … … … … … … … …................... p12 1.2.1.2 . An evolution of methodes………………………………………… … …p13 1.2.2 . The foundations of the sponsoring………………………………………………… ... p13 12.2.1 . The characteristics of l'echange……………………………………… …p13 1.2.2.2 . The sponsorship as a component of a comprehensive system… … … … … … …p15 1.2.2.3 . The objectives of the sponsorship… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p15 1.2.3 . Why the French Stage attracts t-it both for sponsors ? ......................................... p18 1.2.3.1 . Sponsorship: a dynamic positive……… … … … … … … … … … … .p19 1.2.3.2 . A search of positionnement………………………………………… ... … ..p20 1.2.3.3 . The creation of a link between the consumer and the brand.. … … … . … …p21 1.2.4 . The dangers of sponsorship… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .p21 1.3 . The communication policy… … … … … … … … … … … … … … .p23 1.3.1 . Definition of a communication policy… … … … … … … … … … …p23 1.3.1.1 . The definition of the target… … … … … … … … … … … … … . … … … .p23 1.3.1.2 . A target in mouvement……………………………………….……………… ... p24 1.3.1.3 . The lessons learned from the effect "1998 World Cup " … … … …......................................................................................... p25 1.3.2 . The communication by event videography… … … … … … … … … … … ..p26 1.3.2.1 . The first "trial" at the Parc Princes……………………….……………… ... p26 1.3.2.2 . The importance of media… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p27 1.3.2.3 . The "feast of rugby" at the stage of France… … … … … … … … … … … … …p28 1.3.2.4 . The analysis of a displayed publicitaire…………………………………………… ... p30 1.3.3 . The communication media: analysis of Web site: www.stade.fr ............................ p31 2. Business French Stage… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p35 2.1 The marketing strategy of the stadium Francais………………………… … … …p35 2.1.1 . Why can we talk of strategy ? .................................................................... p35 2.1.2 . The definition of strategic objectives… … … … … … … … .. … …p36 3
2.1.2.1 . The objectives of an association sportive……………………………..………… ... p36 2.1.2.2 . The choice of a strategy… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. …p37 2.1.2.3 . The analysis of the market… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. … .p38 2.1.2.4 The model SWOT analysis applied to sports clubs … … … … … … .p39 2.1.3 . Positioning in the market… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p43 2.1.3.1 The segmentation of the market… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p43 2.1.3.2 The targeting… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p44 2.1.3.3 . Positioning… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …......................................................................................... p45 2.2 . Management of the Stage company French… … … … … … . … … … ..p48 2.2.1 . The brand Stage French… … … … … … … . … …......................................................................................... p48 2.2.1.1 . Why can we talk about brand? ............................................................. p48 2.2.1.2 . The importance of the mark for a company… … … … …................... p49 2.2.1.3 . The trade mark as a vector of identity… … … … … … … … … … … … … … .p50 2.2.2 . The range of products Stage Francais………… … … … … … … … … … … … … .p52 2.2.2.1 . The basic package: a benefit of service……… … … … … … … … … … … … ..p52 2.2.2.2 . The products of the trademark Stage French … … .. … … … … … … … … …p53 2.2.2.3 . A mark of innovation… … … … … … … .. … … … … … … … .p55 2.2 .3Stage French VS Olympique Lyonnais… … … … … … . … … … … …p56 Conclusion… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . …......................................................................................... p59 Annexs… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p66 Bibliography… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …p69 4
INTRODUCTION
"Sport is the opium of the people "1. This adage seems to have strongly inspired by the new president of the French stage. Taking into 1993 the reins of the French Stage, Max Guazzini seems to want to make of his club, of his sport, rugby, the new opium of the population francilienne. In effect, this brilliant business leader has taken in hand the parisian club after leaving his functions as president director of the NRJ group, with the goal to give him greater visibility in the Ile de France and more long-term on the national scene. Through this ambitious project, he wants to both popularize a club and a sport in lack of media recognition. But this visibility that Max Guazzini wants to give his club is not only sports, but also and perhaps even especially commercial. He is going to use the great ascension of the sports stadium French to create a truly dynamic commercial around the club, who as a any other business will be a source of large profits. The implementation of this strategy will be done in several steps. It was initiated in 1992, the date of resumption of the club by Mr. Guazzini. It entailed the implementation of significant financial resources. It is also Mr. Guazzini itself which invests a part of his personal fortune for the development of the club. This strategy will go in a first time by a renewal of the club on the sport plan with the merger of the French stage and of the CASG Paris who is the owner of the stade Jean Bouin or now plays the club. Then follows the establishment of an ambitious recruitment of players of qualities at cost price to be able to quickly restore the French stage a wingspan of first division club. This strategy has proved lucrative since the club acceded to the TOP 16 of 1997 and accesses the supreme title of "Champion of France" the same year. It is on this athletic success that will base the second part of the strategy of M Guazzini. He is going to do his club a real commercial machine using all the expertise developed in the direction of the group NRJ. Because, as he says himself: "between the adventure NRJ and the reorganization of the French stage there is a common point: the one of having imposed an innovative approach in a universe conservative and conventional ". He will be leading the club for the 1 Guy Lagorce, the fabulous history of the Olympic Games, Ed Minerva, 2004. 5
Same way that he would have directed another company. Today, the strategy appears to once more have been pay to the extent or the French Stage, club almost unknown to the majority of French a dozen years ago is currently one of the most well known on the national scene. To do this, fairly substantial investments will be made in communication and marketing. As well, to revive the rugby clubs in the Parisian region, it will decide to create real events around its sport, so that now the games are seen as family feasts. In a period of after 1998 football World Cup, it is going to use the excitement of women for the sport to try to bring them to the stage. As well, during the season 1998-1999, of many "sports entertainment" will be offered to the public, with particularly of the shows of pom pom girls, karaoke giants, the presence" of girls from Moulin Rouge" on the lawn of the stage during the half-time ... All of this is that in a few years, the stadium French was able to shake up the image of the aging rugby and attract spectators and spectators of various horizons in the galleries. This passion for the club has obviously resulted in economic benefits very positive. First of all thanks to the very good revenue produced by the cashpoint but also and especially thanks to the signing of contracts with new sponsors. They are hoping to take advantage of the notoriety gained by the club to associate their image. Thus, since 1992, the club saw the revenue of the sponsorship increase dramatically, from less than EUR 30 000 to almost EUR 3 million in 2006. This is due to the signing of major contracts with including the telephone operator Orange or even the insurer Axa. In addition, sponsorship contracts have also been signed with Moet et Chandon, Calyon or even Volvo. Finally, after having acquired this notoriety on the regional scene and then national, the French stage will decide the launching of many derivative products. For example, a song is chosen each year as hymn of the club and will be widely disseminated in the radios and television. It will be recalled including the success sound of the resumption of "I will survive" in 1998. The success of this single elapsed to more than 800,000 copies will of more help to increase the visibility at the time of the growing club. Then, the French stage to organize other great shots media and commercial including the most striking example is the operation called "the gods of the stadium". Are thus to be marketed on a large scale of calendars or the player will appear rather bare. This operation will once more be a large commercial success especially among women, and has also enabled a huge media uproar around the stadium French. Finally, since 5 years now, the club has relied heavily on the sale of swimwear, and trying of designs more originals, more innovative. They may think especially to the success of the pink shirt marketed 6
Last year. The latter appearing more as a fashion effect that a real sign of affection. The target was therefore very wide and will permit the flow in large quantity of models.
Max Guazzini will therefore, to make the Stage French what it is today used 2 tools essential to the development of any business. The first among them is the communication. Indeed, in a world of media such as that or we are moving, it is almost impossible to make known a product, a company without communicating. And the whole problem of leaders will consist to enhance thanks to this communication policy the "benefits" of the French Stage compared to these direct competitors, including the Paris Saint Germain, who is by its geographical proximity the main rival. And to do this, all means are good: advertising screens on television channels, display on the walls of towns, prospectus, or even mailing. It is also thanks to the proliferation of modes of communication that companies start to communicate more and more. But paradoxically, although the modes of communication have multiplied, it appears as more and more difficult to put in place a communication clear and effective. Thus, very often, the latter is being put in place in an intuitive manner, empirical. The strategy is much more difficult to put in place that it is not always obvious to the company to differentiate formal communication (organized, desired) and informal (which can be caused by other marketing actions). Thus, we can define the communication as "the whole of the signals emitted by the company in the direction of different audiences, that is to say to its customers, distributors, suppliers, shareholders, to public authorities and also screw-to-bolt of its own staff. " (J. J. Lambin). The whole difficulty of the establishment of the communication strategy of the French stage lies in the fact that this is not a business like any other. Max Guazzini, on his arrival at the head of the club has had to adapt to cope with a new environment that he knew not necessarily. We do communicates in effect not in the same way on a radio station and a sports association.
Then, the second lever used by the club to develop, economically speaking, is the marketing. After you have put in place a policy of communication quite comprehensive, aimed to make themselves known by the greatest number, the French stage will implement a marketing strategy targeted enough, to attract different populations well identified thanks to a policy of effective communication. A policy of so-called marketing 7
Differential treatment will be developed. The first step this strategy is to conduct a segmentation. We will thus be able to precisely identify different homogeneous groups of consumers in order to be able to best adapt to their desires. Several groups will be able to be as well marks: connoisseurs, the novice, women ... a marketing-mix will be developed for each segment identified. The derivative products well will be specific as well marketed, in the aim of responding to the request of each segment or to create demand among some of them. In this way, we can expect a maximum adaptation to the needs of the consumers and therefore an overall increase of the level of sales. For example, for women, the French stage has marketed a calendar become today very famous, or appear of the rugby players quite bare. The club has thus been able to take advantage of the growing interest of women for rugby for commercial purposes. In the same way, the creation and marketing of a swimsuit of the French Stage of pink color has been a great success. But very often it is not the club fans who have purchased, but rather of the consumers who are looking for an effect of mode, find the bikini line "fashion", and the purchased as well more for reasons purely aesthetic that to claim an affection for the club. The 2 products mentioned previously have been the past few years "the flagship products" of the wide range of derivative products marketed by the brand Stage French and attest well to a policy of marketing effective and well thought.
The French stage must therefore its wonderful development of the last 15 years to the excellent communication strategy put in place by the presidency of the club, in order to publicize and love of the public at large. And then, subsequently, the club has capitalized on its growing fame to implement a marketing strategy which has enabled him to reap the benefits of its media recognition. One may therefore ask that is what characterized the policy of communication and marketing strategy conducted by the French stage since the early 1990s? What is the its success?
To answer these questions we will endeavor to put in place a methodology for rigorous study. First of all, our thinking will rely on several works dealing with communication, marketing of the sport or even of the sponsorship. As well, you can ask for a precise theoretical framework. This allow also to be able to accurately define some terms relatively important in the construction of our reasoning (the 8
Books used will be cited in a bibliography). Then, to transpose the theoretical framework poses in the facts, we will undertake a study exploratory documentary in order to capture a large part of the articles written in the last years on the cde policy communication and marketing strategy of the French stage. The press is here the only way to be able to obtain information on our topic in the measurement or no book making reference on the matter has to this day been edited.
Our theoretical framework will be based on books dealing with the communication and marketing. It thus allowing us to define the basic concepts required to carry out this study. These books will help us by example to better define concepts such as the marketing-mix, the positioning, the targeting or even the segmentation which are essential to the proper understanding of a marketing policy. We will also be used in our analysis of different models such as the SWOT model, to better understand the environment facing the French stage. In the case of a sports association, we will use a variant of this model, the "model of Ansoff applied to sports clubs". The analysis of the mark French stage will require in addition the use of the "prism of the identity" of the mark theorised by Kapferer. This study will therefore rely on various concepts that we before to explain at best, as well as on the analysis of the club through various theoretical models that we will seek to apply to a more practical approach to the subject in which we are interested. The condition of the places of the literature devoted to the management of sports clubs seems to show that the subject is of interest today many authors. Several books are interesting to the management of the sport, sports marketing or even to the communication of sport can thus be identified. The edition May/June 2004 of the French magazine of Management devoted even a whole folder to the management of the sport. This study will be based on several books which Gary Tribou has contributed. This author is in effect much focused on this subject. He is also master of conference and directs a master of marketing and management of sport.
In addition, contact has been made with a blogger having obtained a master in marketing and communication at the Higher Institute of the Commerce of Paris. His memory was in fact devoted to the "Sports Marketing at the service of the company". The reading of his memory, the exchange of email messages has been able bring me a few leads to follow in the preparation of this analysis. 9
As well, our thinking will develop around 2 major parties. In the first, we will strive to characterize the growth strategy of the club. How does the Stage French was he able move so quickly to the anonymity the most comprehensive to a success if impressive. To do this, we will consider its development through several stages. First of all, we will see that growth, the success of the club past first by obtaining sports results conclusive. This are the results which will give the club of the visibility on the national scene, this is what will be used to publicize the French stage. Then, we will analyze the policy of sponsorship, partnerships undertaking by the club from 1997 onwards, with the goal to develop the club economically, by injecting liquidity in the crates, to capitalize on their growing fame . Then, we will see that this notoriety could never be gained so quickly without the communication policy put in place by the presidency of the French stage. In a second part, we will try to explain how the club has taken advantage of its notoriety to become a true "commercial machine ". In this context, we will first of all we have a closer look at the marketing strategy that leads the French stage for about ten years. We see what it has contributed to the growth of the club, what are the distinctive features of this policy. To do this, we will analyze what could be called the "mark French stage" to see what types of products are marketed, and to which audiences they are? Finally we will compare the model of athletic success of the rugby club to a different model of athletic success, but this time in the middle of football: Olympique Lyonnais. 10
I/ the growth strategy of the French Stage
Before becoming a rugby clubs the most recognized on the national scene, the French stage has crossed a black period. Thus, in order to develop economically and become a real business, the club to in a prime time of the distinguish themselves by sports results conclusive. Indeed, how can one imagine market and sell products derived concerning a club who languished in the depths of the classification of minor divisions?
Once the club will have acquired a certain notoriety, a credibility of by its sports results, it will be then to grow by building a solid financial structure. In this perspective, the club is going to put in the search for partners, sponsors likely to bring him quickly the necessary funding for the economic growth of the club
Finally, to definitively establish the reputation of the club, he will have to get the word out and make love. It is for this reason that the large communication campaigns will be conducted by the leaders of the French stage. This policy will take various forms and we will see that it is going to pay dividends. 11
1.1 . The development of the sports club When in 1993 Max Guazzini becomes chairman of the French stage, the club languished in the depths of the classification of the 4th national division. There then remains at the club than a distant glorious past (eight national titles between 1893 and 1908). The games do not attract therefore that a few tens of fans on the forums of the stage Jean Bouin. "We will become major" stated at the time the president in the columns of the sports daily. At the outset, few people believed in this project which seemed completely crazy to bring the club among the elite of French rugby. In addition, many questioned the capabilities of this business man to lead a rugby club. But its know-how of manager acquired within the group NRJ (of which he is the co-founder) but also and especially his money (he holds at the time one of the largest fortunes in France) will contribute to get out little by little, the club of the anonymity the most comprehensive in which it was located. Firstly, it will recruit competent men. Bernard Laporte2 will be chosen as coach. Though not as widely publicised as it can be today, he enjoyed already in 1992 a good reputation in the world of rugby. Together, they will develop an ambitious recruitment policy, ranging from search according to their own terms" of players revanchists". The club will thus build on the older players, having already evolved in the senior divisions and in search of a last challenge, to accompany the players already present in the workforce, less experienced. They will thus seduce a whole team of talented players motivated by the challenge ambitious athlete who their was proposed. This strategy does not take long to bear fruit. In 1995, the club acceded to the hen B3. And then a year later, the French Stage is found in chicken A24. The following year, the club finally won his ticket to the TOP 165. The year of the accession to the TOP 16, the Stage French won the bumper of Brennus6 more than 90 years after his last sacred. The bet to Max Guazzini was therefore in past to be successful. He then decided to set higher goals by trying to win the European Cup. Despite 2 final lost in 2001 and in 2005, this objective is still not reached and remains the next big challenge of the club in order to be able to acquire a true legitimacy on the international scene. 2 Former coach of the French team of rugby and current Secretary of State for sports. 3 The equivalent of the 3rd division. 4 The equivalent of the 2nd division. 5 1st national division. 6 Trophy awarded to the champion of France rugby. 12
The club has therefore experienced a ascension meteoric sports in less than a decade ago. This success is primarily due to the skill of its president Max Guazzini who was able to impose its vision, its taste of the challenge to all the players of the club. But to arrive at such a high level of performance in so little time, the club had to also find external sources of finance. Modern sport is today dominated by the money, the club has of obtaining funds for having the means to live up to its ambitions. Therefore, we will see how the club has managed to release a financial windfall in order to be able to invest and continue to develop.
1.2 . The policy of sponsorship of the French stage here we will be interested in the activities of sponsorship of the rugby club Francilien. In a first time we are going to ask the theoretical foundations related to the field of sponsorship to then be able to analyze more specifically the case of the French stage, the benefits of these activities, the reasons for such a craze sponsors for this club.
1.2.1 . Sponsorship: an evolving activity since the 1990s
1.2.1.1 The economic evolution To grow up and become a club of scale, any business must have substantial financial resources. This was one of the great problems of the French stage since the end of 1990: how to acquire a financial capacity to the height of the ambitions that the president Max Guazzini has for the club? The views of the economic impact that the sponsorship has on the middle of the sport in general, the signing of contracts with new partners has emerged as an obvious fact. Indeed, according to a study conducted by TNS Sport for the newspaper "The Echoes", the sponsorship activities would have generated in France during 2004 a turnover of almost 4 billion of grant7. At the global level, it is estimated this figure to nearly 30 billion. And the prospects seem to go toward an increase in these values in the years to come. The investments in sponsorship have indeed experienced a growth very 7 Les Echos 15/10/2004. 13
Important During the years 1990 (nearly 10% increase per year), although this phenomenon either to qualify according to the country or even according to the disciplines.
1.2.1 .2a evolution of methods In the early 1990s by sponsorship is meant the activity which is to focus on the enhancement of brand exposure. It was more to show at any price the trademark, logo across different media (banners, shirts, bibs). Gradually, it is passed to a logic somewhat different which consists of an "activation of the brand with persons interested in the event ". We will now attempt to distract, to give the pleasure to consumers, to keep inform on developments of the mark. The sponsorship will become an activity more and more strategic. We will seek to present to assess the results of the policies of sponsorship activities, to find new interesting opportunities in relationship with the overall strategy of the company as well as to update the synergies between the activity of sponsorship and the other activities of the business (including marketing). The sponsorship is also very present in the world of sport. Some brand rather than sponsored a club in particular will even go so far as to sponsor a sporting event which they will lend their name. Louis Vuitton organized by example of the regatta, the " Cut Louis Vuitton ", one of the most prestigious in the world. This is beneficial in terms of image, because this contributes to convey an image of luxury, prestige which can only have a positive impact on a mark as we will see later. 1.2.2 . The foundations of the sponsorship 12.2.1 . The characteristics of the exchange
The activity of sponsorship will be characterized by a process of exchange. It is going to be for each of the parties who undertake to obtain something in return for this commitment. This is going to assume several conditions: 1. the organization in search of sponsors must devise an offer of sponsorship in relation with the rights that it owns, so that any problem at the legal level can be avoided 2. The offer must have a value for the potential sponsor 14
3. The organization must be able to deliver the provision specified in the exchange 4. the potential sponsor must be free to accept or refuse the offer (that this door on the exchange of a product or a service)
These relationships between the sponsor and the organization owner of rights can be modeled by the following diagram:
Therefore it is going to that the relationship between the sponsor and the organization that owns the rights is organized so that this cooperation can be beneficial to both parties. This approach can be highlighted by 5 points8 : 1. the various stages of the process for the 2 parties in presence. This goes for the analysis and diagnosis to the development of a strategy which will be jointly planned, executed and controlled 2. the definition of the objective pursued 3. The area covered 8 Kotler and Dubois. 1992.
Organization owner of rights
Sponsor
Exchange and transaction
Ability to deliver a service that meets the proposed offer
Freedom to accept or refuse
P. Chantelat, the professionalization of sports organizations. New challenges, new debates, Paris, The Harmattan, 2001 15
4. The competitive context 5. the value as well as economic social of the exchange which will be carried out between the 2 parties
1.2.2.2 . The sponsorship as a component of a comprehensive system
The sport, is developing is institutionalized, if is has rules and regulations that will have an impact on various stakeholders. In this framework, the sponsorship will no longer be defined as a bilateral activity between an organization and a sponsor. It is in reality a multilateral relationship between the various parties involved (sports, clubs, local authorities etc. ). Therefore it is going to take into account the existence of these different stakeholders which will reveal the interdependencies. In our case, the interactions between the organization owner of rights, namely the French stage and the media, especially television (which are a stakeholder as sponsor and diffuser of events) will be dominant. Indeed, it is because that the rugby becomes a sport more popular and the French stage one of the favorite clubs of french that Canal + (who owns the rights of retransmission of the TOP 14 since 1998) will decide to broadcast the matches of the club rather than those of another. Thus the 2 parties will find their account. Canal + will be able to attract more viewers and therefore increase its sales of subscriptions and its advertising revenue by the same opportunity. In return, the French stage will see its media presence increase yet a little, and thus its popularity among the French public will continue to grow.
1.2.2.3 . The objectives of the sponsorship
The sponsorship may appear as an activity largely mercantile, for both the entity that sponsored for the sponsor, whose sole purpose would be to increase the sales of a product or service. Although this design is not totally wrong, the sponsorship activities can also respond to other objectives. These objectives are explicit by F. Ohl in a book entitled Marketing of the boats a fitness room9 9 Michel Desbordes, Fabien Ohl, Gary Tribou, sport Marketing, Paris, Editions Economica, 2001, 513p. 16
The sponsorship of credibility
The "sponsorship of credibility" will in effect be the prime objectives of this kind of activities. The mark which will join with the owner organization of human will to want to do the evidence of the reliability, the quality, the performance of these products. These are in general the brands who are "official suppliers" who have this kind of objectives. In the case of the French stage, through its activity of sponsorship, Adidas will want to demonstrate all its expertise as a sports equipment manufacturer. Given that some players are already under contract with other brands who provide them in general the cleats, Adidas to decide to exercise its expertise through the shirts provided at the club. The brand was in fact one of the first to innovate in the design of the swimsuits, by being the first to use new materials lighter, more tight sequinned in order to improve the performance of the players. It has therefore been able to demonstrate the full extent of his technical expertise through its action of sponsorship with the French stage.
The sponsorship of notoriety
The fact to sponsor a club or a mark may indeed have a positive impact in terms of awareness for the sponsor. The notoriety corresponds to the reputation, the dissemination, knowledge of a brand or a product in its population. " In the strict sense, one can consider the notoriety as the fact to be acknowledged or cited, regardless of the qualitative components of the image10 ". There are 2 types of notorietes. The spontaneous awareness, which will correspond to the percentage of people able to quote the mark spontaneously in the universe of the product concerned (the aim being to be the "top of mind", i.e. the brand most often cited in first position). It distinguishes it from the notoriety assisted, who will this time correspond to the percentage of people able to quote the brand from a list relating to a product category. As well, by joining a club of the stature of the French Stage, sponsors are virtually assured of very significant impact in terms of awareness. This is what will enable the club to negotiate financial compensation important for any sponsor wishing to associate its image to that of the club. Thanks to this willingness on the part of certain brands of wanting to acquire more than 10 quotation of Serraf, sports sociologist, used by: Gary Tribou, sports sponsorship, Paris, Editions Economica, 2004. 17
Notoriety, the French stage has in the last few years recorded the signing of several important contracts of sponsorship with renowned companies such as the insurer Axa or the telephony operator Orange.
The sponsorship of image
The image can be defined here as a set of associations made by the consumer between a brand and an event. The sponsors will here seek to own some elements of the mark French Stage likely to be beneficial for them in terms of image. In fact, we know that the image of the brand may have a direct impact on the decision to purchase and therefore on the sales. The sponsors will therefore seek to strengthen their image by transferring elements of the entity sponsored. On the other hand, efforts will be made to strengthen the associations between the sponsor and the sponsored entity. Thus, the brand sponsor will be directly associated with the image of the entity sponsored, in this case the French stage. All consumers having a positive image of the club will be likely to have a more positive image of the sponsors of the club, possibly influencing the purchase decision. It is therefore necessary to carry out a strategic diagnosis before conducting an action sponsorship. It is this that Ferrand and Pages we seek to theorize about across the diagram presented below. It is in a prime time to analyze the image of the sponsor and of the mark sponsorisable. And then on the basis of this diagnosis, the sponsor will have to develop its strategy. He may decide to transfer some elements of the entity sponsorisable, it may also decide to strengthen its brand image through different marketing actions. Then, following an analysis of the identity of the sponsor, the latter will be able to judge the relevance of its association with the entity sponsorisable. It will assess the interest of sponsor this brand, what it can provide in terms of image, of credibility. This can be done for example by the development of a "focus group" relative to the association between the sponsor and the entity. One might as well collect the opinion of consumers on the relevance of the association or even on the image lines that it would be wise to transfer. 18
1.2.3 . Why the French Stage attracts t-it both for sponsors?
The French Stage is a club that attracts a multitude of sponsors. Today there are more than a dozen. The signing of contracts for sponsorship is rather advantageous because it allows him to have substantial financial resources against a "simple loan of its image". During the season 2006/2007, nearly a third of the income of the club came from the various contracts signed with sponsors, as shown in the following diagram11 11 Daniel Rovira, The French stage it is also a business, in the Business no260 (October 2077), p. 64.
Image entity sponsorisable
Image of the sponsor
Identity of the sponsor
Assessment and Diagnosis
Dissemination and credibility of the association
Strategy for strengthening and/or transfer
Source: Alain Ferrand, Luigino Torrigiani, Andreu Camps i Povill, Sport and sponsorship, Paris, publications, INSEP 2006 19
We will therefore seek to explain why so many brand wants to associate their name, their image to that of the French stage.
1.2.3.1 Sponsorship: a positive dynamic The historical analysis of sponsorship activities of the French stage we demonstrated that, in fact this phenomenon fits in a kind of dynamic. At the outset, it was rather difficult for the club to find sponsors of weight. The club had to therefore confine himself at the time of regional sponsors (Paris City Hall) and count on the financial support of its president. But as the club progressed sportingly and began to do talk about him, the sponsors have poured. The prime sponsor of scale to have associated his name to that of the club is Brother. This company specialized in the activities of printing and fax will decide in 1999 to sign a partnership agreement with the French stage so that the mark appears on the shirt of the club. And this was the first of a long series. The same year, Moet Hennessy Wine Estates also decided to sponsor the club and to provide him with wines and spirits for the feasts of after matches. In 2001, it is the turn of the automobile manufacturer Renault to enter into an agreement with the club Francilien. This is the same year that the German giant Adidas becomes the oem of the club. The following year, this are RSI (company specialized in temporary work) and the CA LYON who will join also the French stage. 20
Then in 2004, the telephone operator Orange and the insurer AXA will come " swell the ranks" of the team of the sponsors of the club. More recently, in 2006, Phone House and Sony Ericsson have become partners for a specific project: the creation and marketing of a mobile phone.
1.2.3.2 A search of positioning The companies which will sponsored an event, a brand, a club will seek to give a positive image with consumers, communicate on their positioning. However, "the sport as media is the only media which maintains with his hearing also a strong emotional relationship, which made him in vector of communication without equivalent for the marks "12. Thus, the fact to sponsor a club, a sports event will prove to be particularly interesting in term of image for the business sponsors. It is all the more true with the French stage, to the extent that it associated often to rugby values of combativeness, selflessness but also of feast. The marks by this opportunity refine their positioning and will thus be able to differentiate themselves from their competitors. As it was growing and was gaining in popularity, the French stage has become a privileged target of businesses seeking to find a partner that they could sponsor. OF or the multiplication of sponsorship contracts in recent years. The French Stage account today more than a dozen sponsors among which of large multinationals such as Sony Ericsson, Renault or Adidas. We'll talk more far the commercial links that will weave the partners and the various commercial offerings to be put in place following these partnerships. 1.2.3.3 The creation of a link between the consumer and the brand By the association of its image to a sporting event, the sponsor can hope to create an emotional link between its brand and the consumer. In effect, the sporting event is characterized as being prior to any "a social fact fort, place or of men and women gather 12 Jean Claude Darmon, Internet site www.darmonsport.com, May 2002. 21
In a sort of collective celebration to attend a sporting spectacle or cultural "13. The participation in a sporting event will therefore contribute to create a kind of social relationship between the individuals present in the stadium. For the sociologist Bourdieu, "the sporting events have an anchor sociocultural possessing an identity which is their own "14. In this optic, the sporting event will appear as a factor of differentiation, a vector of values and social representations. However, the emotion being one of the main components which are pushing the spectators to attend a sporting event, the latter will bring together all the optimum conditions for that to happen what Rhyme called "emotional contagion "15, the creation of "communities affectuelles ". Thus, in listed as sponsor of the club during a sporting event, the brand will remain anchored in the spirit of spectators and will be directly associated with the emotions experienced during the experience. The sponsorship will therefore appear as a good way to create associations between a brand and the consumers in associating them with the experiences, helping to give a positive image of the brand. The sponsorship is therefore a positioning tool very effective at the provision of marks through the creation of an emotional connection. 1.2.4 . The dangers of sponsorship
Although as we have seen previously the sponsorship can be an exciting opportunity for brands wanting to increase their brand awareness, enhance their image, position themselves in the minds of consumers, this activity can sometimes be have effects rather mixed. In fact, as we have seen, the actions of sponsorship are based on an association of 2 marks, 2 images. Thus, the success of the action of sponsorship will greatly depend on the results of the sponsored entity. In the case of the French stage, in the case of a sports organization , this will depend heavily on the results achieved on the ground. Poor performance could lead to some degradation of the image of the club and therefore those of its sponsors. One can imagine the consequences of a descent in 2nd division on revenue in sponsorship for the club. The sponsors finding no no interest in the association with the French stage, 13 Citation of Piquet, sociologist of sport, from: P. Duret, Sociology of sport, Paris, Armand Collin, 2001. 14 P. Bourdieu, how can there be a sportsman?, French Review of Marketing, 138, 1992, p. 8-16. 15 French sociologist, extracted from: Patrick Bouchet and Claude Sobry, Management and marketing of sport: from local to global, to editions University presses of the North, 2005. 22
Whose image would be offset with the their, surely decide to break the contracts the uniting. We will take for example the failure of the French team of football at the World Cup 2002. At the time the world champion and Europe, sponsors were tearing everything that could touch on this team. But a premature elimination (of the first round) with poor benefits put the sponsors in a delicate position. Then they wanted to strengthen their image by associating with a team which symbolized the values of selflessness, of success, of victories, they have to face to a reversal of the situation in their disfavour following the elimination. The sponsors have had to confront in an offset between the image that they wanted to convey and the actual image. Some of them have decided to stop the dissemination of advertising spots which were supposed to be disseminated throughout the competition. This was in particular the case of Adidas, whose dissemination of spot having slogan for the victory is in us" to the day next day been stopped because of this image shift.
The situation experienced by the PSG during the 2007-2008 season also seems perfectly illustrate one of the facets of the "dangers of sponsorship". The image of the club tends to deteriorate for several years, particularly because of the influence of groups of pseudo fans (Boulogne Boys). These groups are often perpetrator of violence in margin of matches, clashes with groups of rival fans. This degradation of the image of the club seems to be reaching its peak this year with what the press has called "the case of the banner ". In the final of the French Cup football, these supporters have deployed a giant banner to the attention of supporters of the RC Lens, the opponent of the evening. You could read "pedophiles, unemployed, consanguineous: welcome to the Ch'tis ". This case which has caused a veritable media plate has had a heavy impact. First of all the club has been excluded from the competition for the upcoming season. But even more serious for the club, some sponsors, image conscious, have decided to break their contract with the club. This is particularly the case for Louis Vuitton, which was nevertheless one of the historical partners of the club. But considering that the association of its image to that of the Paris Club could harm him, this sponsor has preferred to disengage.
The sponsorship has therefore allowed the club to grow thanks to the financial windfall that represents the signature of many contracts with including several multinational firms (Renault, Adidas, Orange etc. ). The sponsorship is also today the activity that generates the most revenue within the club. The French stage, which benefited from a 23
Image fairly attractive to the public French manages to attract a multitude of businesses want to associate their image to that of the club. The sponsors are of course a counterparty. They are going through the actions of sponsorship strengthen their image to the public, assert their positioning and thus be able to increase the sales of their products or services. But this activity can also be dangerous to the extent that it is based on a sports performance, which is by definition uncertain. Despite everything, the French Stage attracted as we have just seen from the see more and more sponsors. This is mainly due to the high visibility of the club to the public national. We will now try to understand how this club almost unknown there is a couple of years has managed to become so popular.
1.3 . The communication policy
One of the major strengths of the French stage is to have been able to make known thy quickly from the general public. The leaders have indeed managed to develop an effective communication policy aimed the accession of the francilien public and then of the French public to the brand "Stage French "
1.3.1 . Definition of a communication policy
1.3.1.1 . The definition of the target
The main objective of a communication policy is to acquire a certain notoriety with the intended audience. It is therefore in a prime time to take action to define a target in order to talk only to a fringe of the population which is estimated likely to be interested in the offer made to him. Thus, the leaders of the French stage will have a vision very pragmatic in the definition of this target. They will decide in a prime time to go to a public geographically close to the club, that is to say the population francilienne. It would in effect not very relevant to communicate in a first time at the national level. The rugby being at the end of 1990 a sport still in search of popularity. Only the regions of the south of France are already anchored in what we might call the "culture rugby". But the commitment of the fans at the club in their region is 24
So strong that it would be totally useless to communicate with that audience on a other than their own. It will as well be decided to go to a population predominantly present in the Ile de France. The segmentation will not then be refined by age or by sex, the bid is wanting to be aimed at all. No section of the population will be excluded from this target, the aim being to popularize a sport still a little marginal. It is therefore appropriate to accede the largest number. But this target, which was initially defined on a geographical basis is then extended more widely.
1.3.1.2 A moving target
But the evolution of the target goes hand in hand with the evolution of the image that will seek to convey the French stage. The goal of the policy of communication carried out by the club is to make themselves known, it will be necessary to define a "brand name" in which a large number of people will be able to recognize while ensuring to se that it is different from what may propose its competitors, that is to say the other rugby clubs "recognized media frenzy" and more widely the other sports associations which affect other areas that the rugby (essentially the football clubs). It goes in a prime time to act to seduce the Francilienne population. The main competitor which he will have to differentiate themselves is another sports association: the Paris Saint Germain. The sport king in Ile de France is in effect for a very long time the football. The whole problematic of the leaders of the French stage will be structured around the following question: "how interested in rugby a population which at the origin is more oriented toward the world of football ? ". The leaders will first of all seek to give a festive image in rugby, who just contrast with the resurgence of violence in football stadiums that we begin to observe toward the end of 1990. They will thus seek to give an image of friendliness, of a warm sport that could bring the whole family in a festive atmosphere. "A hymn of the French Stage" will thus be chosen each year and a single will be marketed and distributed widely on the radio waves and on the plates of televisions. It is as well from 1998 onwards, with the resounding success that has known the resumption of "I will survive"16 of Gloria Gaynor that we will begin to truly hear talk of this club. And very paradoxically, it is the world of football that must be this huge success. It is in fact due to the football World Cup in 1998 that this song has benefited from such a 16 Sold more than 500,000 copies according to the FIFG. 25
Resonance. This title was in fact sung by the players of the team of France the world champion in the locker rooms and then after the games to celebrate the victories. It is as well as during the summer 1998 this title has been the symbol of the success of the team of France football for millions of French. It is thus that, taking advantage of the effect of the World Cup, the French stage will acquire a certain reputation thanks to the use of music as a means of communication. In addition, it is the effect of mode aroused by this song due to the 1998 World Cup which will be very largely contributed to publicize the club and to disseminate this festive image which will become in some way its trademark. But over time, the image of the club will evolve, it is going to be enriched through other communication actions which will be carried out.
1.3.1.3 . The lessons learned from the effect "1998 World Cup"
This first major action of communication having been a great success, the French stage will succeed in attracting the sympathy of the population francilienne which goes by the same opportunity begin to pay attention to this sport. As well the galleries will begin to fill more and more asking of elsewhere the problem of capacity of the stage on which we will discuss later. But the population of Ile de France seems not to have been the only one to succumb to the effect of mode generate by the club of Max Guazzini. The excitement in the French stage will in effect be able to measure at the national level. Thus, the directorate will seek to capitalize on the " phenomenon Stage French" to continue to promote the image of the club on the national scene. But they noted however that this sport still attracted a population predominantly male. Gold during the 1998 football World Cup, it was realized that women began more and more to show a real interest in the sport. As well, the communication unit of the club will seek to give an image more "glamour" to rugby so that women can also be interested. It is in this way that will be born the idea of the famous " calendar of the French stage ". The club players will indeed accept to install, so rather stripped (cf. Annex 2), in a timetable which will then be marketed on a large scale. The different players having posed will also mutate into real VRP of the club, multiplying the apparitions on the trays or tvs in the written press to make the promotion of this famous calendar. In addition, a portion of the funds collected through the sale of this calendar will be donated to charitable organizations. As well, the club is going 26
Succeed to "feminize" its target, in "attracting" the female population by the aesthetic aspect of this sport well often judge as fairly rough. On the other hand, it will succeed to give themselves an image rather positive with the French through its participation in charitable works.
1.3.2 . The communication by event videography
We discussed previously the problem posed by the capacity of the stadium Jean Bouin, or evolved usually the French stage during the reception of these adversaries. But it is precisely in this constraint that will be born one of the most brilliant ideas of the direction of the club, which will permanently sit down the reputation of the French stage. In view of the age of the house (built in 1925 and renovated in the last time there was more than 30 years) and its low reception capacity, the leaders of the club will explore the idea of use of stages larger of the Paris region to accommodate the meetings played at domiciled. Two opportunities will be offered to the leaders: the Parc des Princes, stage of the Paris Saint Germain or the stage of France who is him unoccupied and is used only on rare occasions (for matches of the team of France of football or to shows various). In a first time, it is the because of the Princes who will be chosen, the bet of the stage of France having surely appeared somewhat ambitious for a first operation of this kind.
1.3.2.1 The first "trial" at the Parc des Princes
It is as well as the September 9, 1998, and for the first time, the French stage has hosted the team of Castres in the enclosure of the Paris Saint Germain. But on this occasion, Max Guazzini has wanted to see the great things. It must be according to his own words "dress the game as much as this may '17. It has thus wanted to create a real festive atmosphere around this game. This event is accompanied by a campaign of communication outside of the media. Signs of promotion have been distributed as in the streets of the capital. These shelf talkers wore the message "You are our invited" (entrance to the stage being for this opportunity free for women), showing clearly the desire of people to bring women to the stage. Several players of the club have also lent their image to this communication campaign. For this which is the festivity of the event, Max Guazzini has not skimped on the means, do not hesitate to bring in the "Girls of the Moulin Rouge, "for a 17 The World, 9 September 1998. 27
Exclusive representation before the beginning of the match. During the dead time, the pom pom girls chauffered to entertain the public in order to create a genuine atmosphere, for that this experience may be lived as something unique by the spectators. It is here that is located all the stakes of the area of the event videography: given the competition which is growing in harsh, the organizer of an event whatever it is must be innovative. It is to propose to the spectator a spectacle that he could not review elsewhere, him to live an experience of which he will be remembered long and who will give him want to return if the opportunity presents itself. The objective being to create a true break with the existing offer, in order to best meet the customer, or the spectator in the case of the French stage. It is in this sense that we can say that the events can be defined as "the art of creating, to innovate for that expressed the force and the movement "18. It is for this reason that the idea of creating these events around the rugby was one of the greatest successes of the club in terms of communication. The event appears in effect as a powerful tool to convey an image, communicate on a product or brand. And we can say that the first bet of Max Guazzini has proved to be a true success, since more than 18,000 people had attended to this match, a first in the Ile de France.
1.3.2.2 The importance of the media and, in addition to the notoriety from the spectators, who are over the various actions of communication become more and more numerous and passionate, this type of events has also allowed the French stage to acquire real media recognition. Although the rugby was the 2nd sport the most publicised in France, it was up to now far from the sport regarded as the "sport king", that is to say, the football. But, thanks to the organization of these real shows, the club has little by little began to have the favors of the media. The leaders of the club have thus been able to count on the help of the private channel Canal + (which becomes from 1998 onwards the new exclusive partner of the French rugby) to organize and retransmit the matches in the French stage. Because we must not forget that the media are the first applicants for this kind of entertainment, well before the spectators who represent only a minority share in relation to potential viewers. They place themselves in a logic more economic than in a real process of accompaniment of a sports discipline in the purpose of the promote. The main objective of the private channel Canal + when 18 Olympic Committee of the Olympic Games in 1998 in Atlanta. 28
The acquisition of TV rights of the TOP 16 was to glean market share to competing chains by making this sport to the growing fame a sort of "product of appeal", in order to encourage the fans of rugby to subscribe to the encrypted string. Canal + is in effect the chain which has the broadest sports programming in France. The volume of hours sports broadcast in all genres (basketball, football, golf, rugby etc. ) represents more than 50% of the hourly volume of six terrestrial channels. The sport is the commercial argument number 1 of Canal + to convince subscribers. On average over the year, more than 3 hours per day are devoted to the broadcasting of sporting events. It is for this reason that the presence of Canal + as a partner of the French championship of rugby is preponderant in the communication strategy of the French stage. The dissemination of the matches of the club, more particularly those made at the stage of France represents a unique opportunity to show up on the national scene and hitting a target much more extensive than the 80,000 people who will be physically presented to the stadium to attend the meeting. It can be hoped that the place given to retransmissions of rugby increased considerably in the next few years. In effect, the retransmissions scores of hearing of more and more convincing evidence, with a historic record for the met Stage French-Clermont of October 27, 2007 (more than 30% of audience shares19). In addition, hearings collected during the championship games of France of football being in slight decline in 2007 (-14 % )20, it could well be that the encrypted string to make the rugby its new sport phare, which would allow the French stage to be once more under the spotlight.
1.3.2.3 The "feast of rugby" at the stage of France
In effect, following the success of the first test at the Parc des Princes, Max Guazzini decided to renew several times the experience for other games of prestige with each time more successful. Thus, the premises of the PSG will appear as more and more inappropriate to the flow of spectators that generate these events. The leaders of the club will then take the decision to move to a stage of greater capacity and se will be to present the stage of France which will be put to good use to accommodate the "great feast of rugby", this image that seeks to promote the president of the French stage. For the first at the stage of France, Max Guazzini had once again decided to see great things. Many animations were thus proposed to spectators who made the move. All 19 According to the institute of Médiamétrie. 20 According to the institute of Médiamétrie. 29
To been done to create a real festive atmosphere, with the organization of a giant karaoke, or of the major standards of French song were resumed in court by nearly 80,000 people. Since 4 years, close to 10 meetings of the club have been played in this stage, by bringing together each time nearly 80,000 persons. The last in date, Stage French-Stade Toulousain has beaten all records of affluence with 79,793 spectators. All this clearly shows us that Max Guazzini, by its communication strategy outside of the media, based mainly on the organization of major events has succeeded the bet to make love a club. Now he is able to fill a stadium of 80,000 people, whereas it was 15 years ago, barely a few tens of spectators were present in the spans of the stade Jean Bouin.
This type of event is also very interesting to the extent where it can create what some researchers in psychology or sociology have called "the commitment instead". This concept has subsequently been incorporated in the field of marketing to characterize "the sustainable relationship between a consumer and a trademark in a relational perspective" (Cristau, 2001, Heilbrunn, 2001, Lacoeuilhe, 1997, 2000, Thomson, Mc Innis and Park, 2005). These studies have for starting point of a complex concept, that of commitment, in other words the emotional bond that unites a consumer to a trademark. However, the place of consumption may be one of the variables which fosters the creation of this emotional link. "The commitment to the place of consumption is an emotional connection and positive identity of long-term between a consumer and a link of consumption basis.21thus, shows organized at the stage of France foster the creation of this link thanks to the atmosphere, to the communion of the public. This will be beneficial to the French Stage in generating "responses and cognitive behavioral recurrent"22: "a militant loyalty on the part of the consumer: there is talk of loyalty because the consumer will seek to go back on the place, even if this proves binding in order to relive the experience of consumption. This fidelity is so-called activist because the consumer will seek to defend this place when he made the subject of criticism. "A behavior of ambassador: which may consist in perform a word-of-mouth positive or to discover the place to close. 21 Debenedetti S. (2003), the experience of visiting places of recreation: the central role of the companions, Research Applications in Marketing, 18, 4, 71-87. 22 Debenedetti S. (2003), the experience of visiting places of recreation: the central role of the companions, Research Applications in Marketing, 18, 4, 71-87. 30
• An idealization of the place: which characterizes the tendency of consumers to become impervious to the negative sides of the place as their commitment grows.
The fact that the consumers are committed as well to the linked to consumption, the stadium of France can only be beneficial to the French stage, to the extent that this will assure him of positive spillovers, both in term of image in the mind of the consumer and in term of potential consumers. The mouth-to-ear will have a tendency to increase the number of potential viewers, likely to come to the stage in order to live an experience that their will have been described in terms advantageous.
Now we are going to study a posters advertising intended to promote the shows organized by the French stage.
1.3.2.4 The analysis of an advertising poster 31
The communication on the events organized by the club is done also through posters of the type of the latter. These advertising posters will have 2 main functions. First of all it is going to be to communicate on the event itself, to give envy to potential viewers to come to attend the meeting. The displays is therefore deliberately quite colorful, with a lot of pink including, which become somehow the color "symbol" of the club. In the background, we can see a stage illuminated or the public seems to be in celebration, with confetti in the air. In the foreground, one can see 2 players of the club as well as the flag the colors of the French stage. It seeks in this way to show that you came to see a rugby match (foreground), but that it also just to share and live a festive atmosphere. But in reality, these posters are not carried out with the simple aim to sell seats. The spaces for this kind of events are in effect very often already all sold when the posters are plastered on the walls of the capital. For evidence, the next game which will be played at the Stade de France (French Stage-Biarritz) in June 2008 already shows complete since the month of March. These posters are in fact created for the purpose of attracting spectators for the following matches. In this LED displays, the potential viewers attracted by the promise perceived (atmosphere, feast of rugby), will seek to obtain seats. Given that very often there will be already more, it will seek at any price to not miss the next event and become stained to procure its tickets of their updates for sale. Thus, by placing the spectators in a state that one might call "lack", these posters will be used to promote future games of the club as well as its image. (Cf. : other posters annex No. 1)
1.3.3 . The communication media: analysis of Web site: www.stage.fr
The leaders of the French stage is very quickly understood the usefulness of the Internet as a means of communication among young people especially. As well, a web site has been developed early enough, which allows the club to have a good length on its competitors in this area. The site of the club is indeed very well designed and perfectly reflects the image that the leaders want to give to the club. It is indeed a real tool of communication, 70% of internet users 32
French regard that a trade mark without Internet site is disinterested in its clients23. It is therefore essential to offer to its consumers a site of quality, for their loyalty, show them that the mark also cares for them. A study 24 has shown that the Internet site could act as a factor of influence on the intention to purchase +5% on average when the site is of good quality), on the image of the brand. But it also exerts an influence on the reports to the products at the level relational and emotional. Thus, according to this study, 87% of women European internet users say that the Internet developed their interest for brands that they idolise already. However, when one is aware of the desire of the leaders of the French stage to seduce a population more and more women, the development of a site of quality can be a major asset. Therefore, we will see if the site developed by the club is actually of quality. To do this we will analyze through the method of 7 C.
The model of 7 C
This model, theorised by Mohamed R.A. , Fischer R. J. , Jaworski J. B. and Paddison J. G proposes to analyze the quality of an Internet site through 7 criteria: • The content: all the media present on site  The site of the Stage French has a very great wealth of content, with a large quantity of videos available and downloadable directly from the site (summary of games, live entertainment at the stage of France, 'making of the timetable" for a total of more than 200 videos available in the topic "Stage TV" ). The funds of screens are also available and downloadable for free. A photo library retracing the great moments in the history of the club has been created and the photos can also be downloaded by internet users. "The context: the content of the site and the features  The site is very complete, very rich in information of all kinds. The Internet user is kept aware of the sporting news thanks to the publication of articles summarizing the latest games played, the ranking of the TOP 14 is also available on the home page. The internet user can have access to more general information on the club, the past seasons and competitions in which the French stage is still engaged. 23 Www.journaldunet.fr, 2006 survey. 24 TNS Sofres-aufeminin.com, January 2008. 33
"The communities: groups which are formed on the basis of the interests for a same subject  a tab "Forum" is available on the ribbon drop-down of the home page of the site. Internet surfers have as well the possibility to meet and to talk about subjects that interest them, share their impressions on the latest results of the club or of the of the French rugby team. "Customization: the ability of the site to be changed (by the user including)  no customisation is possible on this site. "The communication: dialog between the site and the users  the surfer has the ability to send email messages to the administrator of the site, on condition that you have previously created an account. It is also possible to be kept informed of the club news through the inclusion in newsletters. • Connections: network to link with other sites  The site of the club offers a multitude of links available on a tab "our links" provided for that purpose. There are links to redirect to all sponsors of the French stage. But it can also be found in this topic links to access to the site of a restaurant (owned by Max Guazzini), to sites of sports information. More surprising, there are links to go to the Internet sites of other rugby clubs in possessing a. It is quite sensible because as well the internet users can realize the difference between the site of the French stage and those of other clubs. Reinforcing the image of modernity, club caring of its fans. "The trade: capacity of the transactional site  The site is equipped with a transactional capacity important enough. We can first of all y buy the tickets for the events to come. But the tab "store" will offer the internet user a wide range of products in all genres of the mark French stage. More than 500 articles are proposed, ranging from the traditional swimwear, calendars of the gods of the stadium as well as games of bedding. The site is therefore clearly used as a sales tool.
The site of the French stage may therefore through this analysis of 7 C be recognized as a site of quality, share the wealth of its multimedia content, of the wealth of information on the club. This site is also very useful financially since the on-line store is likely to generate a turnover of important enough. 34 Since he took the reins of the French Stage, Max Guazzini has done to a club with a glorious past a club ambitious and full of future. He won the bet that many felt was as crazy to improving the fortunes of a club having experienced the glory at the beginning of the century and this, in less than 10 years. First, he allowed the club to return to the highest level on the sport plan. Then, thanks to the popularity gained by these actions of communications to success, he has managed to make love his club. The excitement in the Parisian region is unprecedented for a sport that it was not so long ago was unknown to the general public. This is particularly due to the fairly substantial investments made in a first time thanks to the personal fortunes of the president. But subsequently, the club has multiplied the sponsorship contracts and was able to generate significant funds. Has such a point that the president admitted today that do almost more investing of his personal fortune in the club. The first bet, the one to love his club being very largely succeeded, we will now see that the club will seek to capitalize on this popularity. A whole marketing policy will be put in place, a commercial offer will be clearly defined in order to prosper the brand Stage French.
2. The company Stage French 35 As we have seen previously, the French stage has succeeded, thanks to a policy of effective communication including, to be loved the francilien public and more widely of the French public. The whole issue of leaders will therefore be to use this popularity in order to be able to continue to grow the club both economically that sportingly. It is for this reason that little by little, a marketing strategy will be developed by the leadership of the club. It will thus be able to build on the "capital sympathy" which he has among the public at large to market all sorts of derivative products on a large scale. More than a club, the French stage will thus become a true mark with a commercial force significant enough.
2.1 The marketing strategy of the French Stage
2.1.1 . Why can we talk of strategy? We can in this case speak of a real "strategy" marketing in the direction or the decisions that will be taken will affect lasting the life of the club. These decisions will have a direct impact and real on the development of the brand Stage French and more broadly on the club. The fact to reposition itself on a target different from that referred to that point will not be the same strategic implications that the launch of a simple display campaign. So we are talking of strategic decisions in the meaning or the latter will have heavy implications on the life of the club. If the strategic directions are proving to be profitable and successful, the club will be able to continue to grow and develop. Conversely, if the guidelines are misguided, this will also have an impact, this time this negative, in the measure or the strategic decisions involve the implementation of means more or less important. A mistaken direction led to the failure of a project, and therefore to the loss of the capital invested. 36 It is for this reason that the strategic choices of the club must be clearly defined after a prior survey of the market. And it is mainly through the definition of specific strategic objectives.
2.1.2 . The definition of strategic objectives 2.1.2.1 . The objectives of a sports association A club as the French stage may also be considered a fully fledged enterprise given the importance of its commercial activities. But however, there remains no less a sports association and this will have an impact on the definition of its objectives. The some of the main objectives will be of course to economically develop the club. This will require different types of actions. It will for example have to seduce the media and sponsors as we have seen previously. This objective appears today as a necessity in the lives of professional sporting associations, given the reduction of departmental grants initiated by the state for a decade. It will then act to develop the practice of sport as such. The clubs will seek to increase the number of their members laid off. As well, they can expect increase the "radiation" of their practice, and this can also contribute to fill the prime goal discussed previously. The objectives will thus prove to be also complementary than contradictory. In effect, for a sport practice is regarded as attractive, for that the media are interested, it is necessary to see the emergence of a elite of competitors capable of offering the spectacle. But for that this elite of competitors emerged, it is also necessary that the clubs are investing in training, they are given a maximum of licensees, in order to have at their disposal a "pool of potential talent". The objectives of an increase in the number of licensees and of economic development therefore seem to go together. But very often, the clubs have only a budget fairly limited and must operate the trade-offs between these 2 main objectives: the economic development of the club is well often preferred to investment in training, infrastructure. This is particularly because of this conflict of objectives that the departmental grants tend to 37
Lower. In effect, this reduction of subsidies appears as a form of repression at the willingness of clubs you want to invest more in their economic development as in the training and development of a practice of high level. The special feature of the French stage is to have su reverse this process. The leaders have indeed managed to increase the number of licensees through the radiation that knows the club by its economic development.
Now we will see how the leaders have succeeded in fulfilling their first objective, i.e. give an economic dimension to the club.
2.1.2.2 . The choice of a strategy
Businesses must often arbitrate between 2 major types of strategies: the specialization or diversification. While the specialization allows to do figure of specialist in a sector of activity, the diversification will enable a company to broaden its portfolio of activities, to be more present on different markets. Given the willingness of the French stage to develop economically and quickly, the leaders have opted for a strategy of diversification of activities. The trademark French stage will thus be declined in a wide range of products as we will see later. This diversification strategy will thus provide several advantages. The brand Stage French will cover various markets fairly different (mobile telephony, textiles, sports articles etc. ) which will be synonymous with high turnover for the club. In addition, it allows a better management of the portfolio of activities. This will allow to achieve a certain balance of the portfolio from the point of view of product life cycles and their profitability.
But this diversification strategy conducted by the club assumes different conditions of success. First of all there must be synergies of image between the different products of the different ranges available on the market. In this case, the French stage is based on an image of modernity, mode, of mastery of the new technologies, which will serve as a "base of image", a common basis to these different products. For example, between the mobile phone launched in partnership with Sony Ericsson and a bikini line of rugby, the synergy of image does not seem to go without saying. But the 2 products use yet joint representations: the mode, the side "fashion" thanks to the presence of the pink flowers on the swimsuits and the phone (which symbolize today fairly well the image of the Stage French) ; the mastery of 38
Technologies, on the one hand because a phone is today a real concentration of technologies and other hand by the use of new materials in the manufacture of swimsuits. This also assumes that the company has of organizational capabilities allowing him to best manage a portfolio of activities very wide. However within the club, it is the marketing department that bears the heavy responsibility of coordinating and put in place all the actions for development and promotion of new products put on the market. This simplified management of operations can be positive in organizational terms, thus avoiding conflicts intra services. Finally, the choice of diversification will involve financial efforts important enough to cover different markets simultaneously. It is therefore necessary to have a financial structure strong enough and balanced to be able to make investments which can sometimes prove to be fairly heavy. It is for that reason that, as we have seen previously, the French Stage is surrounded by many sponsors and partners in order to have a budget therefore enough. 2.1.2.3 . The market analysis
To be able to take strategic decisions incorporating a margin of error as low as possible, it is necessary to carry out an analysis of the market. It is going to be for the club to do better than the competitors in the presence, to position themselves differently or more effectively so that the consumer mark the specificities of the mark and become a potential buyer. It is necessary first to locate in what market situation it is located. It is in generally distinguished 3 different: • expanding market, or the objective will be to maintain or increase its market shares in order to ensure the turnover • stagnant market, or it is going to be to develop its market shares at the expense of direct competitors" market in regression, or 2 possibilities are conceivable: withdraw or impose face to the competitors.
In our case, this is obviously a growing market under a double pulse: the increase in sales of articles of sport and the growing popularity of rugby with the French public. Therefore it is going to for the French Stage develop a 39
Strategy which is aimed at the development of its market shares vis-to-vis its direct competitors. The main competitors of the French stage will be the other sports associations which have a certain notoriety on the national scene. The football clubs the most known (the Olympic Marseille, Paris Saint Germain or still the Olympique Lyonnais) as well as the rugby clubs such as the Stade Toulousain or the Olympic Biarritz in a lesser extent. To analyze the competition faced the French stage, we will use the basic model of Ansoff which is more commonly called SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats). This model will consist of a duplicate analysis of the direct environment of the club with one hand the opportunities and threats and on the other hand the strengths and weaknesses.
2.1.2.4 The model SWOT analysis applied to sports clubs
The model of Ansoff SWOT or applies in general to the traditional businesses. In the case here of a sports association, we will have to take this factor into account in the analysis. That is why we will use the model of Ansoff applied to sports clubs.
External Diagnostic of the environment
It goes in a prime time be to analyze the external environment of the club in order to detect what may be the opportunities or conversely the threats which will weigh on the club. The opportunities here are fairly numerous. In effect, the sporting news is more than favorable. The rugby is a booming sport since a few years (thanks in particular to the impetus of the French Stage), the number of licensees increased, sports results of the French stage are strong enough and the clubs of French rugby font regularly enough good figure in international competitions. Finally the team of France of rugby gets it also of the good results that it either at European or world level (in particular, it accesses the final half of the last 2 rugby World Cup). The rugby therefore appears as a sport more popular and clubs can expect to benefit from this popularity. 40
For more rugby is today one of the sports the most publicized, just behind the one who always remains the "sport king", that is to say, the football. But the good hearings conducted by the matches in the top 14 on the private channel Canal + portends a bright future for rugby in term of television broadcasts. This substantial media coverage therefore represents a real opportunity for the clubs who now have a better visibility and which can thus make themselves known more easily from the general public. Of by the media coverage available to it, the growing popularity of the practice and sports results evidence of French clubs, rugby therefore appears as a sector of activity full of future with prospects successful enough for the different clubs including the French stage.
But some threats will also weigh on the competitive environment of the rugby club Francilien. First of all, with the increasing professionalization of the sport, it may be feared to see appear the same scourges that in some other sports. The high competition, the sequence of matches during the season can bring the players to succumb to the temptation of doping to be able to stay successful throughout the year. In addition, the professionalization of a sport produces many cases often cheats, of corruption (it will take for example the case "Apito Dourado "25 in Portugal or the Calciopoli in Italy26). This kind of phenomena could thus seriously affect the image of a sport regarded today as healthy and festive. But the biggest threat comes from without doubt of other clubs, as well as rugby football. In effect, some rugby clubs, feeling the potential exceptional enough of this market, have also begun to put in place marketing actions to come compete with the French stage. We will take for example the Stade Toulousain which has completely redesigned its Internet site, and who has recommercialise a pink shirt, which he had had the idea well before that the club francilien do marketed his own. In effect, the 2000 the club of the "pink city" had already imagined and put up for sale a swimsuit with the colors of the city, but this had not been a success, so the idea was abandoned the following year. 25 Case of corruption that took place in Portugal between 2004 and 2006 involving 3 clubs in the first division and a thirty arbitrators. 26 Case of corruption that took place in Italy during the 2005-2006 season involving several clubs in the first division and several arbitrators, having led to the demotion of the winner of the championship, the Juventus of Turin . 41
The most serious threat comes from the clubs of French football. The Paris Saint Germain especially, by its geographical proximity seems to be a competitor strong enough. The club also has a wide range of products stamped PSG and marketing actions are regularly put in place. For example, during the season 2006/2007, the club had entrusted to Louis Vuitton the designing of the bikini line that the team would be during these matches to the outside. This article had been a resounding success in the shops of French sport. THE Olympique de Marseille although more distant can also appear as a competitor's serious because this club remains today the sports association of preferred French and this despite the different cases which obscure the club is found intermingled and the absence of sports results. Finally, the Olympique Lyonnais can also appear as a competitor. This club has a good number of similarities with the French stage as we shall see a bit more loin27.
Internal Diagnostic of the club
In a second time, the model of Ansoff SWOT or going to consist in an internal diagnostic of the business in order to assess what are the strengths but also the weaknesses of it. Firstly at the level of the weaknesses, the rugby is still a sport too amateur. Although this is in terms of image fairly beneficial to the views on derivatives that are familiar with the professional sports of our days (violence, hooliganism etc. ), this can also interfere with the practice. The fact that only 3 or 4 four clubs of the TOP 14 are actually equipped with modern structure, are in the process of professionalization can lead to a certain weariness of the public. In effect, they are always the same clubs who are unable to earn the titles, and this lack of competition may be detrimental to the public interest in the sport and, therefore, more particularly to the French stage. We will take for example the hegemony of Olympique Lyonnais on the French football (7 consecutive titles of champion of France) which has led to a loss of interest for a championship whose outcome seems known in advance. Then, at the club level even, the French stage could in the near future suffer from its lack of results on the European scene. Although the results on the national scene has been satisfactory in recent years, the stadium French does not succeed in 27 C. f. : "2.2.3: Stage French VS Olympique Lyonnais". 42
Impose in European Cup. A term, the spectators and therefore also the consumers can turn to a French club most prestigious of by his palmares as the Stade Toulousain for example, who were victorious on the European scene 2 times these last 5 years (2003 and 2005). The future success of the marketing actions of the French stage will therefore be strongly linked to the course in European Cup in the years to come. Finally, the antiquated stage Jean Bouin can also appear as a weakness for a club who wants to give a modern image. The enclosure, in addition to not to shine by its aesthetics, does allows you to host only a reduced number of spectators. Actions have been undertaken in this direction and a new stadium could see the light of day in the next 5 years.
The club francilien has all of the same of many forces at the internal level. It is first a club very well structured. The internal organization is also one of the key elements of the stability of the club. At its head is a chairman ambitious which is one of the keys to the success of the club. The role played by the marketing department is also quite important in the life and development of the French stage. The club francilien benefited in addition a positive image in the public opinion since it appears as one of the clubs headlights of a discipline booming. The values conveyed by the rugby are also an important force. Has the time or sports like football or cycling is shown more by their affairs of violence, corruption or doping, the values "healthy" transmitted by the rugby (festivity, tradition, fair-play) are a real breath of fresh air to the world of sport in general.
In conclusion, although the French Stage benefited from a favorable environment, that this be on the external plan (with the growth and popularity that knows the rugby today) or internal (in its organization and the image that the club vehicle), certain factors of the environment must be considered seriously. This sport regarded as healthy needs to avoid falling into the derivatives of the professional sport under penalty of tarnish its image (hitherto quite immaculate). In addition the club francilien must keep a watchful eye on its direct competitors, whether they come from the middle rugbystique or football. But it is allowed to think that the market opportunities promise to rugby in general and the French Stage in particular, the prospects more than flourishing on the markets or the club is engaged. 43
2.1.3 . The positioning on the market
Any company wishing to position themselves on a market is going to have to first perform a segmentation of the latter and then locate the targets which appear to him to be most attractive to finally develop a strategy to entice several at a time, or one in particular.
2.1.3.1 The market segmentation
This step is to cut the market into homogeneous groups of consumers. It is necessary to determine the criteria for segmentation in order to know what will be the characteristics which will be used to differentiate between groups of consumers. In the case of the French stage, we saw earlier that the geographical factor is quite important. The supply of base being in effect a sporting spectacle, it is critical that it is directed to a public near the place where the event occurs. The sex of the person to whom it is directed will also have its importance. In fact, we know that men and women are not equal in the consumption of services and sporting products ". The men have a propensity much higher to consume this type of benefits that women. Other demographic factors will also to be taken into account, including the influence of the occupational category. For example, it is known that the intermediary professions and higher as well as the skilled workers have a greater tendency to attend shows sportifs28. Finally the age also appears as an essential criterion. In fact, we know that the more young people are attending more the sporting performances that the other. In 2002, 40% of 15-19 had attended a sporting event against 24% of application No 40/59 shall be borne years29
These segmentation criteria will thus allow to distinguish several groups of consumers who will react in different ways to the offer proposed by the French stage. The men, the young as well as the CSP+ will have a greater propensity to 28 C. f. Annex 1. 29 C. f. Annex 2. 44
Consume this type of performances that the other. Now remains to be seen whether the club will seek to target one or more of the identified groups.
2.1.3.2 The targeting
The targeting is to choose one or several targets for which a marketing mix (product, price, place, promotion) will be developed subsequently. Several strategies are possible as well. We can choose to talk only to a single target (marketing concentrated) allowing you to benefit from a reputation as a specialist to the public, to better satisfy the latter. But in return there is an important risk linked to the future of the chosen segment. The company can also opt for a differentiated marketing, i.e. it will develop a mix for each segment identified. But while this makes a better coverage of the market and, therefore, potentially a better turnover, operating costs incurred are often prohibitive. Finally, the company may choose to address all the public in the same way, that is what is called the global marketing, which will make it possible to reach a large part of the population at a lower cost.
All the originality of targeting the French stage will consist in the mixture between these different strategies. The marketing is going to want to to the time global, in a perspective of attraction of the greater number and at the same time fairly differentiated when this may prove appropriate. For example, during the first game done in the Park of Princes, the club to develop a marketing mix which was addressed to all and a marketing mix which was directed him more particularly to a specific fringe of the population: women. Signs of "you are our invited" their were distributed in Paris, and they enjoyed a tariff policy different, since the entry to the stage was offered to them. But the guideline seems to be oriented toward a marketing more global while pursuing objectives of differentiation in relation to the competition, which goes hand in hand with the desire of the leaders of the French stage of "democratizing" the rugby, to make it accessible to the greatest number. Because then the offer of the club will not limit itself to the sporting spectacle. The brand Stage French is going to decline in a multitude of derivatives that will each be addresses to a public, to a group of consumers different. 45
The phone created in partnership with Sony Ericsson will rather be intended for young people, who are much more sensitive to this kind of product which will interfere 2 important aspects vectors of signs, symbols in which a lot of young people will recognize: the sport and technology. Conversely, the commercialization of the calendar of gods of the stadium is going to earmark for a population mainly female, but also to the homosexual population. To attract the public homosexual, this calendar will constitute an undeniable asset since it will play on the codes, the trends of the moment, including that of the " metrosexuels ". This calendar tends to show a different image of rugbymen, more glamour. This is before any of the athletes, and as such, they take care of their body as the font the "metrosexuels ". In addition, the creation of the line of cosmetics" stage French" seems to go in this direction. This attempt to seduce the public gay may be directly correlated with the creation of the Paris foot gay, "the soccer club, which defends the right to difference". It is a sports association created in 2003 in partnership with the PSG, to combat homophobia advocated by certain groups of fans Parisians. The PSG hoped and rejuvenate his image a little bit by enrolling in a project to combat discrimination. As well, the French stage which surely was not losing this potential public has to its any initiated a policy of seduction of this population The pink shirt to the effigy of the club is going him rather be a product which will be directed to all targets, it will become the symbol of membership in the club of "stadium French". 2.1.3.3 The positioning This will be to give a place to the product, to the tender of the enterprise in the mind of the consumer. The whole issue of this step lies in the differentiation compared to the offerings of competitors.
The Diamond of the positioning
This diamond is going to define the 4 major questions that must ask themselves a business that wants to position itself in the mind of the consumer: 46
"Why? : In other words what are the benefits for the consumer. In our case, the consumer who will come to attend a sporting event is going to be able to benefit from a warm atmosphere, a spectacle of quality that it does not find itself in another stage of Ile de France" against who? : The competitors are those that we have already identified earlier, namely the other rugby clubs or football enjoying a strong side of popularity in France. The largest competitor is the closest geographically, the Paris Saint Germain • When? : Who is going to define the situation of use of the act of consumption" Who? : It seeks to know what is the target. The targets may also be varied as we have seen previously.
But create a positioning that is before any create an association between the product offered and a symbolic envelope, i.e. a reference which may be stored by the consumer. To do this, different solutions could be envisaged. Can be used as well for a logo that certain colors or even of the dissemination of a system
Why?
Who?
When?
Against who? 47
Of values to which consumers will be able to identify. What are these 3 axs which have been followed by the French stage in its search for positioning.
The logo, whose leaders have judges that it idiom a aging image, has first been changed. The club boasts to present a new logo, more modern, or the little now see "lightning" of the French stage. This logo symbolizes the renewal of the club, which he incorporates all the strong elements of the marketing policy. It sees therefore the famous lightning, drawn in pink. These 2 elements, the drawing and the color pink are today in the minds of consumers which represents the French stage. The change of logo will therefore be the culmination of the renewal of the club. It marks the definitive entry in the new era of the French stage.
As we have just seen, the color pink is one of the levers used by the leadership of the club to create a positioning in the minds of consumers The French Stage is today directly associated with the pink color of her shirt. This are 2 inseparable elements
The massive use of the color pink, that this is in the logo or in the derivative products is once more not benign. This corresponds to a clearly demonstrated willingness to seduce a female population. In the same way, the use of floral patterns can be likened to an attempt to seduce women.
Finally, to create a positioning operation, the club has also put a lot on the dissemination of values some of which are specific to the rugby and others will be specific to the French stage. The rugby is in effect in the minds of consumers vector of combativeness, tradition, respect for one's opponent. As many values as the club francilien seeks to transmit and disseminate but by adding an "added value" , that of the festivity, of the atmosphere. This aspect of the positioning of the club is all the more important that the rival and neighbor of the club, the Paris Saint Germain has seen its image is dull for several years. Indeed, at the end of the 1990s, the Paris Saint Germain was the most popular club in France. This place of honor was previously occupied by the Olympic Marseille, but following the relegation for legal cause of the club phoceen, it is the club of the capital city which drew on him the sympathy of a majority of football fans. But the image 48
The club tends to tarnish for several years. Of the cases of violence30 having enamel good number of meetings leading sometimes to dramas. The latest case dating back to the month of May in the final of the French Cup or banners to racist character had been deployed by the supporters of the club. The image of the Paris Saint Germain is today very often associated with the racism vehicle by groups of pseudo fans (as the Boulogne Boys for example) or to the violence in the stadiums. We can therefore speak for the French stage of the implementation of a true marketing policy. This passes by the decision-making, the setting of strategic objectives. In addition, the establishment of this marketing strategy is effected through a prior analysis of the market, the competitive environment. And then, the leaders have identified the different groups of consumers to whom it was possible to apply for finally retain only some. Finally, the last step has been the creation of a sustainable positioning in the minds of consumers through various distinctive elements such as the logo. Now we are going to see that the stadium French is not that a simple rugby club, but a real commercial enterprise with a policy of merchandising very developed. The name of the club francilien is today a registered trademark, innovative, which offers consumers a range of products very extended.
2.2 . The management of the company Stage French
2.2.1 . The brand Stage French
2.2.1.1 . Why can we talk about brand?
A trademark may be regarded as "a sign or a symbol, a drawing or all combinations of these elements used to identify products or services of one undertaking and to differentiate them from these competitors31 ". It is in some way a set of tangible signs and concrete which are supposed to represent a business or a club for example. 30 Death of a bear of the PSG the November 24, 2006 following the confrontations of the fans after a game. 31 Marketing management- Kotler, Dubois, Monceau (2006). 49
A brand will therefore be incorporated of signs constituting identity, whether it is visual, olfactory or still audible. In the case of the French stage, the identity will be both visual and audible. The visual identity will be symbolized by the logo of the club, recently changed as well as by a color: pink. One of the emblematic products of the brand is also a swimsuit pink hit the logo of the club. In addition, the trademark Stage French also has a true identity sound. In fact, several years in a row, the club has released a single as "anthem of the year" including one, "I will survive", is since then remains in the briefs. We can therefore speak well of trademark for this club to the extent it meets all the symbolic attributes, characterized by the creation of this system of signs, to be considered as such.
2.2.1.2 The importance of the brand for a company The fact arise as a brand will be predominant for a company for various reasons. It is first of all on a purely legal level that this will prove interesting. The fact of being a brand goes in effect make a real protection for the enterprise. This will avoid the inconvenience such as the copy of these products. And if that proved to be the case, it would have a legal recourse in the courts and could ask for compensation to any company that uses the image of the French stage without requesting authorization or without having paid to license or franchise. It is then a tool of differentiation in relation to the competition. The brand, which is characterized by a set of signs, symbols will thus contribute to create a positioning in the mind of the consumer. The purpose of the mark is to become a "top of mind" (mark the most cited when we mention the sphere of activity in which it is located). The brand Stage French thus contributes to the success of the club to the extent where it contributes to its popularity, to the dissemination of its image. The brand is also an asset that can be exploited. This can be interesting in the hypothesis (unlikely now in the case of the French Stage) or the president wants to resell the club. The assets are highly valued on the market, it will sell at a price substantially above the purchase price. 50 Finally, the mark is also a marketing lever to full part. It will enable the company to create what is called a "mass effect" which will be used to cushion the marketing spending. 2.2.1.3 The mark as a vector of identity The brand will in effect be a reflection of the identity that a business wants to give. This relationship between the brand and identity has been theoretical terms by Kapferer in its "prism brand identity". This tool will be used to describe what is "wanted" by the enterprise in terms of image. The identity of a mark, or at least the one that she wants to give can thus be studied through these 6 characteristics: • The personality: what are the character traits associated with the brand. For the French stage, the personality can be summed up in the sport and to the modernity. It is in effect before any a sports association which will be distinguished by its approach quite avant garde of the world of rugby. "Culture: can be defined as the system of values associated with the brand. In our case, the vehicle brand values which are those of the rugby and the French stage more particularly: the festivity, the tradition ally to modernity.
Personality
Culture
Mentalizing
Reflection
Relationship
Physical 51
"Mentalizing: which corresponds to the objective that the consumer seeks to achieve by buying the brand. Here, in buying products Stage French, the consumer will seek to show his membership of the club, either by real passion of rugby, or just because of the effect of mode. "The reflection: image that the mark given to its target. The French stage wants to give its consumers a dynamic image, sporting and "fashion". "The relationship: who is characterized as the form of exchange implied that the brand wants to make. The club francilien seeks to integrate consumers into what might be called the tribe Stage French. The latter will, through their deed of purchase, feel integrated within a group, they will strengthen their sense of belonging to this group. "The physical: what are the signs, the tangible elements of the mark. As we have seen previously, this may also well be characterized by the logo that by the pink color for example.
It is important to note that in the case of the French stage, the desired identity is quite close to the actual identity, as it is perceived by the population. This shows once again the effectiveness of the marketing and communication strategy of the club. In effect, the club displayed today a modern image, popular. The French Stage appears as a sports association able to federate the various fringes of the population which will identify the club for diverse reasons (passion for rugby, festive atmosphere, effect of mode). Finally, the physical elements of the brand identity seem to have been well assimilated by the general public because 68% of the French associate the color pink to Stage Francais.32
After having seen what the term of mark is applicable to the French stage and what are the benefits for the club, we will look at the range of products offered. 32 Survey conducted by www.team.fr, 02/22/2007, the question asked was: "What sports organization you associate the color pink? ". 52
2.2.2 . The range of products Stage French
2.2.2.1 . The supply of base: a service delivery
Initially, the product offered by the Stage French was a provision of service. The club sells of placed to be able to attend a sporting spectacle. To analyze this service delivery, we will use the theories of "marketing of services", including the "Basic Service Package" of Gronroos and Lovelock33. We will thus be able to distinguish between within the same delivery different types of services. First there was the court of service, the reason for which a firm is present on a market. It is therefore here the sporting spectacle that will be proportionate by the 30 players present on the ground. And then it should be distinguished from 2 other types of service: 1. The services enablers: in other words the additional services but which will be necessary to clients so that they can use the basic service. These services enablers will for example be related to information (conditions of sales of tickets, timetables, prices), but also to the order-taking (possibility to take a subscription to the year, ordered by Internet tickets via the on-line store of the club) or even the payment (secure site for the regulation by bank card).
2. Support services: who without be fundamentally necessary for the smooth running of the service, will increase the value and create the difference vis-vis competitors. On the other hand, the absence of this type of service can lead to a weakening of the interest that the customer would bring to the offers. It is precisely in this area that the stadium French will differentiate themselves by offering a multitude of support services which will make the club offer a unique offer in its kind.
The strategy of the company will be decisive in the choice of support services, because these choices must be directly correlated to the research of marketing positioning of the company. However, the stadium French seeks clearly to differentiate themselves from the competition. The 33 Gronroos and Lovelock, Marketing of services, Strategy, tools, management, Publi-Union , 1999. 53
Club will create real events around the game of rugby, to make unique performances. Karaoke giants have thus been organized at the mid time of some matches, shows of moto cross took place in opening. And these are only a few examples of what the French Stage is capable of achieving to satisfy its consumers.
But the offer of the Stage French is no longer limited to the simple provision of service. The club has today developed a range of derivative products which are marketed in the traditional shops or via its on-line store.
2.2.2.2 . The products of the trademark Stage French
The club continues in effect a diversification strategy which will be translated into facts by several extensions of brand. This process is to introduce under the name of a trademark already existing products of varying natures and different functions of the initial products of the brand. An extension of trademark may respond to economic objectives (valuation of an asset to achieve best performance) or strategic (increase its visibility to strengthen its reputation). For this to work, it must be that the new products launched have a degree of consistency with the values of the brand. They must also have a certain legitimacy on the market and finally that the new products provide a real added value to the brand. Therefore, we will see if the club francilien has been able to meet these conditions and implement an effective strategy of diversification. The French stage is in effect as we have just seen a provider of services. The club marketed quite naturally, as do all the other clubs, the equipment of rugby that the players, in partnership with Adidas, one of the sponsors of the club. It will therefore be based on this know-how to market clothes stamped of the trademark "Stage". It is as well as the club began to design and distributes clothing lines for men, women and children. The club shop will thus propose more than 200 products clothing (t-shirt, shorts, sweaters, shorts etc. ). This extension may seem relevant in the measure or the clothing of the brand stage are marketed at prices well below those of the Adidas mark (35 euros the t-shirt of the mark Stage against EUR 75 for a tshirt Adidas). This will allow the club to reach a wider part of the 54
Consumers wishing to show their belonging to the French stage but which would be scrapped by the exorbitant prices for the swimsuits of the German brand. The club has also launched a range of cosmetic products which retain a "spirit rugby". In effect this range shall be composed of fifteen different flavors each with a name evoking the universe of this sport ( "return to the locker room", "red card" or even "under the melee " ). Once more this extension appears as relevant enough because she has just strengthen the image pretty "glamour" that the leaders are trying to give the rugby. This range of cosmetics is inscribed in the right lineage of another flagship product of club: the calendar of the French stage. The calendar of "gods of the stadium" is indeed another great commercial success of the club. Has such a point that the operation, which was to be in the single origin, has since been repeated every year. This product derived from the Stage French is also very relevant since it contributes to change the image that consumers may make the rugby, this "glamourisation" tends to make the sport more accessible to the general public and especially more attractive to the female audience. The club has even recently launched, in partnership with Sony Ericsson, a range of mobile phones with a design incorporating the colors of the Stage Francais34. This may seem intelligent in the measure or the club wants to give a modern image. However, the mobile phone is today one of the objects that best symbolizes the technological aspect given the increased functionality that it offers (phone, camera, camera, Internet browser etc. ) Finally, the shops Stage French also offer various accessories for the definite fans of the club francilien as hats, neckties, bathrobes, in-room or even of jewelry bedding. All products marketed can of course be purchased via the Internet. The club has relied heavily on the trade online in dedicating any part of its site to these activities. The on-line store therefore allows to easily retrieve the different products in the range and to pay securely by credit card or by Paypal.
The French stage therefore offers a wide assortment of products which all have a certain relevance vis-to-screw the strategy developed by the club. These derivative products will serve the interests of the club, first of all on the economic plan, thanks to the financial windfall 34 C. f. Annex 3. 55
That represent sales of these items. But beyond the economic aspect, the brand stage allows you to popularize the club, to make it more visible in the eyes of the general public thanks to products of all kinds. In addition, some items sold are helping to change the image that the general public has of the rugby and will therefore allow to reach different audiences, thus attracting new customers. As well, it is happening to a logical or consumers of derivative products were already consumers of the base offering (the delivery of service) to another logic, or the derivative products are used in some sort of "products of calls" for drained in new flows of consumers for the supply of base. Therefore, we have now to see how the strategy of diversification by the extension of brand has allowed the French Stage to create a virtuous circle which allows him to seduce constantly for new consumers. We are now going to look at one of the reasons that made this brand is such a success.
2.2.2.3 . A mark of innovation
" The logic marketing rests on the constant desire of the offer to carry out the massification of the markets by raising methodically all the obstacles "35. It is for this reason that we must seek to extend the market to other categories of consumers. The service provider will therefore identify a target from the different socio-demographic criteria in order to draw up a profile type of the consumer. Previously, we saw that the typical profile of a consumer of the brand Stage French was rather young, male, derived from families of higher professions or skilled workers. He will then take action to define a policy of innovation oriented toward a target, which is not the one defined a priori. It is for this reason that the club to develop a whole series of derived products for women. The calendar of "gods of the stadium" is only the most blatant example of this. Furthermore the line of cosmetics created by the club will come to address a male population substantially older than the original target. All the innovations of products are therefore predominantly intended to seduce audiences who at first seem somewhat distant from the profile of the consumer type. 35 Tribou, " The economic rationalization of a sports club ", revue STAPS, 34 2002. 56
The French stage is therefore at the present time a club very popular and who put on this popularity to commercialize derivatives which will which is more help to make the club even more known. However, it is interesting to pay attention to the factors that have made the club francilien a model of athletic success and economic, while becoming one of the favorite clubs of French
2.2.3 Stage French VS Olympique Lyonnais
To understand the reasons behind the success and especially of the popularity of the French stage, it may be interesting to compare to a different model of economic success and sports, but this time in the world of football: Olympique Lyonnais. These 2 clubs are in effect a certain numbers of similarities. They all have 2 been taken over by men passionate affairs. THE Olympique Lyonnais was ransomed by the chairman of the group Pathe, Jean Michel Aulas accorded in 1992. A year later, the chairman of the group NRJ, Max Guazzini decided to take in hand the rugby club Francilien. All 2 have also chosen at the time of coaches less experienced (Bernard Laporte for the a, Raymond Domenech for the other) which subsequently have become breeders of the team of France in their respective sports. But the similarities do not stop there. In effect, on the sport plan, the 2 clubs know of trajectories fairly similar. They all date back 2 in first division quickly enough before to access the title of Champion of France. The Stage French won during these past 10 years 4 titles of national champion while his counterpart lyonnais reigns on the first division of French football with 7 consecutive titles since the season 2000-2001. But the clubs are confronted with the same problem: the absence of title at the European level. Although all 2 are very shiny on the national scene, the lyonnais have never exceeded the ¼finals of a European competition and the club francilien is never reached has won a continental title despite a final lost in 2001. On the economic level, the 2 clubs are also the common points. They all have 2 su rely on their athletic success to establish in real business with financial results consistent. THE Olympique Lyonnais today has the largest budget of the entire League 1 Orange36, the latter exceeding EUR 200 million for 2007-2008 and is quoted on the stock exchange since more than a year. The economic success of 2 36 Name given to the first division of French football. 57
Past clubs also by the launch of the range of derivative products. But it is at this level that the difference seems to be between the Olympique Lyonnais and the French stage. While the rugby club has seen its sales increase thanks to the attraction of new consumers, the offer of the football club does seems seduce that fans of the club rhodanien. In fact, despite the hegemony of the club in the championship, it does not seem to succeed to win the favor of the public (which he still prefers the Paris Saint Germain or the Olympic Marseille), unlike the French stage.
The importance of communication
The communication seems to be the main explanatory factor of this difference in popularity between the 2 clubs. Sports results are insufficient in effect not, it must be able to dream about the spectators, to be able to attract new ones. The whole strength of the French stage lies in the fact of having su move to the stage of people who might not be interested previously in rugby. The leaders have su thanks to their policy of communication and their slogans37 genderise the public from attending the meetings and therefore likely to consume the products of the brand. Conversely, the leaders lyonnais, which did not need to communicate to attract spectators in stadiums , given the popularity of football in France, have never undertaken to large-scale communication activities aimed at attracting a wider audience. The stage the French has done at the basis of necessity, in some way, to drain a greater assistance to matches of the club. And this proved surcharge on the long-term because the rugby club francilien has managed to retain different targets identified. This communication policy is of more proven pay to the extent where it has been used to fill a vacuum. Indeed, the French stage is the only important club of the north of France. There is therefore already had a potential audience. This communication policy undertaken by the club has therefore been used to create a request with the public and to which only the offer of the French stage was likely to respond.
Therefore, we have now to see how 2 clubs, which have known trajectories of similar enough for about ten years, who manage to obtain the latest sports results conclusive evidence and of the financial results even better can be found in situations 37 " You are our invited", relating to a meeting of the Stage or French women have seen offer the entry to the stage. 58
Quite different. The Stage French enjoys a popularity high whereas the Olympique Lyonnais remains an eternal evil likes of French football. That is where we see the preponderance of a communication policy well studied, which coupled with a favorable context may be synonymous with success and popularity. Because it is important to remember that even if the environment of the Olympique Lyonnais is much less favorable because of the historic roots of the PSG and THE OM in the French championship on one hand and the derivatives of the professional sport and the high competition on the other hand, the president of the Olympique Lyonnais is not a also end communicating that Mr. Guazzini. It is surely for this that the sides of repeat of these 2 clubs are so far apart, although they have a good number of points in common.
In conclusion, we can therefore say that the stage has French su effectively leverage on capital sympathy which he has with the public. It is today a popular club and more than a club, the French stage is to present a real business. The strategic objectives are thus fixed by the direction of the club, marketing actions are undertaken regularly, coupled with the communication strategy conducted by the leaders. The club francilien has at the present time many points of sales, of an on-line store, which allow him to market more than 200 derivative products. We can therefore say that the diversification of activities seems rather successful. This success is primarily due to the willingness of leaders to differentiate themselves from the competition, to make a new image rugby, more popular, but also more glamour in order to seduce other audiences. 59
Conclusion
At its resumed by Mr. Guazzini at the beginning of 1990, the French stage did not have then that of a trophy room stocked by "Slices dusty ", unique remnants of a glorious past, but which seemed already well distant. It was in effect go back 5 decades back to retrieve the name of the club inscribed in a palmares. And therefore, it is Mr. Guazzini, this ambitious businessman who is going to attempt the bet to restore a second life to the rugby club Francilien. It did not seem a priori not a thin case. Several would be obstacles before this project which appeared in the eyes of many a little crazy.
The first obstacle was of course of economic order. How to succeed to develop a club that offers financial capacity low enough? When we know that the annual budgets of the clubs of the TOP 14 average close to the 500,000 euros in 200838, you soon realize that in 1993, for a club of 4th division, the financing capacity are quite starving. It is for this reason that the arrival of president Guazzini will be fundamental. It has at the time of a personal fortune important, fruit of its past activities. It will as well make significant financial efforts in order to recruit players and straddle to the height of its ambitions. Subsequently, with the growing success of the French stage on the sport plan, the leaders will succeed in attracting more and more sponsors. This policy of sponsorship has proved very prolific since we know today that nearly a third of the budget of the club comes from this type of activites39. As well, over the years, as the sponsors had been thronging there to bind their image in the French stage, the financial aspect has become less and less problematic. The club succeeded today to release the capital needed for its survival and for its development, so that at the present time, the president is not investing its own resources in the club as was the case at the very beginning. In addition, the marketing strategy put in place by the leaders of the club will contribute to increase the revenue realized. In effect, a true effect of mode appears to be seized" phenomenon Stage French". In order to take advantage of them, a wide range of derivative products in any kind will be launched and marketed to the general public. Several of them will know a success fairly rapid, as the calendar of "gods of the stadium "for example, 38 F. Calange, " The rugby business", in the Team, January 11, 2008. 39 Daniel Rovira, The French stage it is also a business, in the enterprises no.260 (October 2077), p 64. 60
And their sale to large scale will come bail out the coffers of the French stage. During the season 2006-2007, nearly 15% of the budget of the club came from these activites.40 but these flagship products, more than the financial windfall that they represent, will particularly ensure the club francilien some visibility on the media plan, which will help to make a club more popular, liked the public.
Because the 2nd obstacle which stood on the route of the leaders of the club was before any of the cultural order. Indeed it appears difficult to seduce the Francilienne population which is rather oriented toward the world of football. It is for this reason that a communication policy has been put in place. The latter has proved quite effective if it is considered that today a third of the budget of the club comes from the revenues of the ticketing. By way of comparison, in during the season 1993-1994, the largest influx measured at the stage Jean Bouin does exceeded 250 spectators. However, today, the French Stage is able to fill a stadium with a capacity of 80,000 people by paying the luxury of view complete several weeks before the match. In addition, it is the ability of the club to communicate, to "create event" which will make if popular. Several communication actions have thus marked the life of the club and contribute to develop its notoriety. The first was the launch of the single "I will survive" which was to be the official anthem of the club pure the season 1997-1998, and which became that of the team of France football champion of the world. This single is thus sold to more than 500,000 copies during the summer 199841. It is from this precise moment that the general public will begin to hear about the French stage and to take an interest. To capitalize on the growing reputation of the club, gained thanks to the single "I will survive", the leaders will decide in the wake of putting in place a 2nd large communication action. In September 1998, the French stage will indeed achieve its first game outside of his usual stage. MR. Guazzini has for the occasion decided to see the big picture, and it is the Parc des Princes who will host the meeting opposing the club francilien to the team of Castres. The francilien public entire will be targeted by this communication policy, although a target will for the occasion be privileged: women. That, indeed, is one of the aspects of the strategy of the club: touch of populations who do not seem to priori seduced by the rugby. It is in this sense that the communication policy will prove decisive, because it will help to change the image of the sport, to make it more 40 Daniel Rovira, The French stage it is also a business, in the enterprises no.260 (October 2077), p 64. 41 According to the FIFG. 61
Attractive to new segments of potential viewers. It is as well that will operate a kind of " glamourisation of rugby", with the massive use of the color pink (that this is in the design of the swimsuits, in the logo etc. ), the marketing of the famous calendar of "gods of the stadium", which will contribute to seduce a population more women, as well as the homosexual population. Therefore, it is the great strength of the communication policy conducted by the leaders that have su seduce new audiences, to attract each time more than spectators at the stage (especially during the events organized at the Parc des Princes or at the stage of France) ., by giving a different picture of rugby, more modern, more innovative. But at the same time, the club was able to capture and keep a public "connoisseurs", respecting the traditional values of this sport.
The marketing policy and the communication strategy conducted by the leaders of the French stage therefore have well served the interests of the club. This has allowed him to benefit from greater media visibility, therefore a greater notoriety to the public and to attract good number of sponsors. It is thus that the club was able to developed both economically that sportingly and be one of the sports associations the more known in France. An original communication is also quite often the some of the key elements in the success of a project, that this is in the field of sports or in other areas completely different. If we consider for example the worlds of music, we find that the fact of conducting original actions may cause some success. The British band Radiohead seems to be the perfect illustration. In effect, for the launch of the last album of the group entitled "In rainbows", a site has been specially created: Inrainbows.com. It was decided not to commercialize immediately the album in the traditional format (the CD). The only way to procure this opus was of the download on the Internet. The price to pay was also left to the discretion of the surfer. To accompany the launch of this album, the group has multiplied the concerts, the apparitions on the plates of televisions, in order to create a genuine event around the launch of this project original enough. In the end, this operation of communication was a great success in the measure or not less than 1.2 million Internet users have purchased the album on the site42. When one knows the poor health 42 According to www.comscore.com, site audience measurement on the Internet. 62
The industry's current of the disk, the group may not only be welcomed the number of sales. Only downside, although more than a million has bought this opus, the price paid averages 3.2 dollars43. Although at the level of the communication the operation proved to be quite effective given the buzz that has been created around this event, the success on the economic plan is a somewhat relative given the price paid by the internet users and the low sales recorded in the marketing of the CD at the beginning of 2008. An original communication may therefore contributed to the success of a project but the case of the French stage we demonstrated that this is not enough.
But a very important factor must be noted in the club's success: the importance of its president Mr. Guazzini. The personality of the leader, his visionary nature may well often be paramount in the success of a project. When he resumed the club, it clearly displays its ambitions, which may seem pretentious well taking account of the situation of the club in 1992. How can he claim to succeed to escalate among the elite a club which is located in the depths of the classification of the 4th national division? Few people believed in this project, but the president himself believed it and has managed to carry out its mission. It is first of all thanks to his business experience acquired within the group NRJ that he was able developed this daring project. These qualities of communicating have also been an undeniable asset in the success of the French club. But it is also, and perhaps mainly his visionary nature which seems to have been predominant. It has su detect in this club a potential it had itself operated. The importance of the president, a strong man at the head of a firm is a constant that can be found in other examples. Proportionately, the case of the site www.amazon.com seems to be a good example. This is a company that is so to say party nothing, but which had at its head a president ambitious, visionary, which has su detect untapped potential. Jeff Bezos had understood in 1995 that the Internet tool offered opportunities rather exceptional in term of trade. He then decided to create a site dedicated to the marketing of books. He began only in 1995 and 12 years later" the largest library in the world" (nickname given has Amazon) employed over 12,000 people. It is therefore as for the case of the French stage the visionary nature of a person who has allowed the development of a business. 43 According to www.comscore.com, site audience measurement on the Internet. 63
By analogy with areas other than that of sport, in realizes that the recipes for success are often the same and that they may apply regardless of the field of activity in which it is located. Here, 2 aspects of the model of success Stage French seem particularly important. The first is the development of an effective communication policy, if possible original in order to seduce a wide section of the public. This may as we have seen prove interesting in other sectors such as the musical universe. When the market is "saturated", which is the case in the music industry and in the market of the sport, the best way to succeed is to differentiate themselves. For the public to be informed of the differences that the offer of an undertaking proposed by report to another, it must communicate the more possible on these factors how is. Then, it is important to note that a business strategy, also good either it cannot be crowned effective if it is not implemented and oriented by the leaders, visionaries. The character of the head of the undertaking, its ability to do accede to a project has sometimes proved equally preponderant that the strategy itself. It is not certain that if someone else had taken over the French stage in developing a similar project would have succeeded in the same way. The same goes for the pure case of Olympique Lyonnais that we already mentioned. But this is also true in other areas. If one considers the electronic commerce or informatics Jeff Bezos and Bill Gates are only 2 examples among many others of heads of visionary companies having managed to build up an empire by being party to nothing.
Although the example of the French stage can be presented in many respects as a model of success, however, it might be asked whether the fact to democratize, to try to give a different picture of rugby cannot in the long term harm to this sport? Many criticize in effect the strategy that led Mr. Guazzini in the management of its club. The purists accuse him particularly to distort the rugby, to make it more attractive vis-to-bolt of a mainly urban audience. "The values of the terroir" advocated by the traditional rugby is not in line with those of the public francilien, the leaders have had to play with the codes of rugby to make it more popular. A lot of players, including the former captain of the Stage French Vincent Moscato is outraged especially against the publication of the latest editions of the calendar of gods of the stadium, or the players 64
Appear more and more stripped from year to year. The image given by this schedule is according to him in "total contradiction with the image of rugby as it should be "44 of the more entrepreneurial management of the club is one more step toward the professionalization excessive to a sport that wants to be in the amateur basis. This professionalization may in the long term harm to the world of rugby. First, we observed that since the semi professionalization of the first 2 national divisions, a gap tends to widen between the amateur rugby football and rugby professional. This professionalization should be at the base a "excrescence of the good health of the amateur rugby '45. But the reality has proved any other. The demands of the professional world, that this is in term of financial structures, infrastructure, make that today it is much more complicated for an amateur club to gain access to the elite. If the rules of the game as they are asked at the present time by the French Federation of Rugby had been the same at the time or Stage French was in 4th division, its accession to the elite would surely have been much more problematic. This trend to the professionalization is also consistent with a global trend, which could well to term harm the rugby. This is in part what denounced G. Lecocq in a study entitled "When the rugby professional tries to globalize, rugby terroir will he disappear? " Published in a book of P. Bouchet and C. Sobry46. There are referred to the derivatives of a professionalization in the extreme, under the impact of the phenomenon of globalization of trade. While at the base of the rugby teams were made up of players from the province of club, rugby tends to lose this aspect terroir, traditional. The players are today regarded as mere commodities, subject to the laws of the market as other conventional goods. It is therefore the richest clubs who are able to attract the best players and to glean the titles. This contributes therefore once more to distort the rugby. In addition, do not risk t-on not to see with this professionalization consumerism appear the same scourges that in other sports, such as the violence in the stadiums, doping, corruption? 44 Comments collected in interview for the journal The Team of June 11, 2007. 45 G. Lecocq, Marketing and management of sport: the local to the global, Paris, university presses of the North, 2004. 46 P. Bouchet and C. Sobry, Marketing and management of sport: from the local to the global, Paris, university presses of the North, 2004. 65
It can therefore be legitimately ask whether it would not be necessary to this sport to introduce more control bodies in order to establish genuine guards crazy and avoid the derivatives of the professionalization? Because otherwise, the aspects that were of the rugby a sport if singular and if particular likely to disappear, and the public could no longer recognize themselves in the values vehicles by this rugby "too professionalised" and therefore is in diverting to a new practice. 66
ANNEXS
Annex 1 67 68
Annex 2 Annex 3
The attendance of sporting performances according to the professions
CSP of the head of the family are gone over the last 12 months to a sporting spectacle surcharge (in %) Farmers 24 Artisans, traders, entrepreneurs 25 Frameworks and higher professions 32 intermediate Professions 36 Employees 28 skilled workers 31 non-skilled workers 26 retired 12 Other inactive 18 together 25 Source: Overlooking, Ministry of Culture and Communication, 2002 69
Annex 4
Attendance of sporting performances according to the age (in %) Age rate of attendance of sporting performances 15-19 years 40 20-24 years 33 25-39 years 26 application No 40/59 shall be borne years 24 60 years and more than 13 whole 25 Source: Overlooking, Ministry of Culture and Communication, 2002
Annex 5
The portable phones Stage French 70
Bibliography
Books:
• Michel Desbordes, Fabien Ohl and Gary Tribou, sport Marketing, Paris, Editions Economica, 2001, 513p • Jean Marc Decaudin, Marketing communication, Paris, Editions Economica, 2003, 371p • Patrick Bouchet and Claude Sobry, Management and marketing of the sport: the local to the global, to editions University presses of the North, 2005, 341p • Gary Tribou, sports sponsorship, Paris, Editions Economica, 2004 • Patrick Bouchet and Charles Pigeassou, Management of the sport: news, developments and research directions, Montpellier, to editions Afraps, 2000 • Gary Tribou and Bernard Trough, Management of sport: marketing and management of sports clubs, Paris, to editions Dunod, 2003 • P. Bouchet and C. Sobry, Marketing and management of sport: The local to the global, Paris, university presses of the North, 2004 • P. Chantelat, the professionalization of sports organizations. New challenges, new debates, Paris, The Harmattan, 2001 • Source: Alain Ferrand, Luigino Torrigiani, Andreu Camps i Povill, Sport and sponsorship, Paris, publications, INSEP 2006 • P. Mingnot and P. Truchot, sporting practices of French, Paris,, Insep, 2002 • F. Ohl, Sociology of sport, international perspectives and globalization, Paris, PUF, 2006 • B. Halba, Economy of sport, Paris, Economica, 1997 • MR. Desbordes, Strategy of enterprises in the sport, Paris, Economica, 2004 • A. Loret, design the sport for a new century, Grenoble, PUS, 2004 71
Articles:
"Laurence Girard, thanks to its marketing offensive and innovative, Max Guazzini redraws the territory of rugby, the World, 15 October 2003, p23 "Eric Collier, The French Stage -CASG offers of the big show, the World, 9 September 1998, p22 "Daniel Rovira, The French stage, it is also a business, the Business, October 2007, p64-66 • Thierry Lardinoit, Gary Tribou, Frederic Palonimo, Jean Paul-Louis Minquet, Franck Pons, Andrã© Richelieu, Gregory Katz-Benichou , Jean Noel Kapferer, Folder: the management of the sport, the French magazine of management, May/June 2004, p126201 • Debenedetti S. , the experience of visiting places of recreation: the central role of the companions, Research Applications in Marketing, 2003, 18, 4, 71-87…...

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