Free Essay

Social Interation of Student's with Autism (Rol)

In: Social Issues

Submitted By bkllgreen
Words 989
Pages 4
Social Integration of Student’s with Autism 2 The purpose of this paper is to review a research article examining the social integration of autistic students in inclusive elementary school classes. The article is: Boutot, E. A. & Bryant, D. P. (2005). Social integration of students with autism in inclusive settings. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40(1), 14-23. The article by Boutot and Bryant (2005) begins with a fairly comprehensive review of the related literature that is used to establish a reason to believe that the social integration of student’s with autism in elementary schools may be difficult and hard to attain. The literature indicates that student’s with autism may, in fact, have difficulties gaining social status and establishing friends. The article also defines autism, explains the various deficits common to elementary students who are autistic, and discusses the components that comprise the concept of social integration. The discussion of social integration as a concept is extensive. Each component is separately discussed in terms of what the literature typically shows as to how autistic children function relative to the component, especially when they are in inclusive settings. The components include measures of social status and establishing friendship. Specifically, they are: social preference, social impact, and social network affiliations. The study ended with the formulation of two research purposes. These were: 1.) To examine for differences in the three major components of social integration (social preference, social impact, and social network affiliations) between students with autism and their non- disabled peers. 2.) To determine whether social integration measures were different among students with autism as a function of differences in certain autistic characteristics. Social Integration of Student’s with Autism 3 The methods section of the article describes and discusses all of the methods that were used to collect data. The sample is described as consisting of: (1) 141 non-disabled grade school students; (2) 26 non-autistic grade school students with other disabilities; and (3) ten autistic grade school students in inclusive elementary school settings. The section also discussed all of the instruments that were used to collect data. The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) was used to assess severity of autism. The Behavior Rating Profile Scale was used to measure social preference and social impact. Social network affiliation was assessed using a relatively complex matrix related to students' responses as to who they wished to hang out with often. The methods section ended with a specification of the contingency table to be used in analyzing the collected data. It should be noted that all data were treated as nominal in nature and statistical considerations were made for the fact that the Chi Square analysis couldn't be used to analyze the nominal data due to failure of the data to satisfy the assumptions underlying the analysis. The primary findings of the study were that autistic and non-disabled students showed no differences on any of the social integration measures. Further, none of the social integration measures was observed to differ as a function of differences in autistic characteristics. Comparisons between autistic and other disabled students were also conducted. Overall, the findings of the study were said to indicate that: students with autism in inclusive settings are as accepted, as visible, and members of peer groups, as well as both their peers without disabilities and those with other disabilities. (p. 14) Social Integration of Student’s with Autism 4 In this section of the article, findings are discussed in relation to the general purposes of the research. They are also discussed in relation to the existing research on each of the three social integration components. In addition to the above, this section of the article discusses certain informal observational findings. These informal findings are related to the primary findings of the study. The point is made that these observations supported the general conclusion that autistic and non-disabled peers were at equal levels in their degree of social integration. In conclusion, the article presented recommendations for future research. There was also a discussion of factors limiting the findings of the study. The limitations of the research are said to be: (1) the use of a small sample; (2) limited variability in the autistic characteristics of the autism group; and (3) failure to include females in the autistic sample. The significant limitations, because there were quite a few and because they are fairly serious, could be the actual cause of the findings of no significant differences between student groups. In other words, no differences were found between student groups because there were not enough students in one or more of the groups to make comparisons valid and/or females were not included. Or possibly the statistics used to make comparisons were too low-powered to discern small but significant differences between groups, and/or the measurements of social integration may have lacked reliability or validity. The above possibilities make it extremely difficult to put strong confidence in Boutot and Bryant's (2005) final conclusion of the study. The conclusion is the idea that autistic children Social Integration of Student’s with Autism 5 cannot successfully integrate socially into inclusive classroom is a myth. However, the research did not begin to establish the validity of this claim. Due to failings and limitations of the study, the claim that successful social integration of autistic children is a myth is, at best, a wild guess. Boutot and Bryant (2005) make several recommendations for future research. Each of these recommendations is reasonable. However, it also seems reasonable to state that before more expanded or altered versions of this research are performed in the future, there is a need to replicate this research making sure to correct for its failures in methods.

Social Integration of Student’s with Autism 6

Reference
Boutot, E. A. & Bryant, D. P. (2005). Social integration of students with autism in inclusive settings. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40(1), 14-23.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Autism

...Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. This is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain. Autism is four more times prevalent in boys than girls. Autism shows no racial, ethnic or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's occurrence. Autism and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many and one in 500 individuals. In this essay, I will discuss the signs and symptoms of autism, types of autism, the diagnosis of autism and studies done on autism. Autism affects the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Children and adults with autism have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions and leisure or play activities. This disorder makes it hard for them to relate to the outside world. It is hard for them to communicate with others. Aggressive and/or self-injurious behavior may be present in some cases. They may exhibit repeated body movement, such as hand flapping or rocking, unusual responses to people or attachments to objects and resistance to changes in routines. They possibly will experience sensitivities in the five senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Children will be within the pervasive development until the ages of 24-30 months, when parents may notice delays in lang... .........

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Autism

...Running head: COMPLETING THE PUZZLE Completing the Puzzle of Autism Spectrum Disorder Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as Autism is a neurological disorder that affects the normal brain function. It is a disorder characterized by deficits in three major areas of behavior-social, communicative and the display of repetitive or restricted behaviors. This research paper will provide a review of people with autism spectrum disorders, including the symptoms, diagnosis criteria, and possible causes. In addition, it will describe with how it has impacted the society, families and themselves. Completing the Puzzle of Autism Spectrum Disorder Can you imagine trying to understand what your parents or peers are saying but you don’t really know what the words mean? Sometimes this can make a child very upset and frustrated just because they can’t come up with the right words to express his or her feelings or thoughts. These kids with special needs try to live their lives by learning to handle stuff that are challenging and annoying for them. People with autism can make a significant contribution to society, as well as to their families. However, having autism is generally difficult for the person themselves and their family, it also involves great financial sacrifice. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as “Autism” is a neurological disorder that has an effect on......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism Autism is one of the fastest growing disabilities in the United States and affects the lives of 1 in 88 children 1 in 54 affecting boys. It usually appears within the first three years of a child’s life and can affect the social and communication skills of the child’s brain. Autism cost a family on average $60,000 a year and males are five times more likely to have autism than females. Even though there is no medical cure for autism parents can educate themselves on the symptoms, treatment, and diagnosis of autism and how it affects the lives of families every day. Autism is a disorder that affects a child’s social and communication skills within the first three years of life. It is a physical condition that has been linked to abnormalities such as biology and chemistry in the brain. There is extensive research being done to discover the exact abnormalities but they continue to remain unknown. Chromosome abnormalities and genetic factors have also been linked to autism. For Ex: identical twins are more like to both have autism than fraternal twins. The diagnosis of autism is a difficult process and requires the child to undergo a series of test and observations. If a parent suspects that their child may have autism their health care provider will give the child a hearing, blood lead, and screening test. The child may also have to go through a complete physical as well as a complete nervous system (neurological) examination. There are several risk factors that......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Autism

...disorder of Autism, a sever disorder that affects the function of the brain. It causes problems in such areas as social contact, intelligence, language and speech impediments, along with ritualistic or compulsive behaviors, as well as different responses to the environment that an autistic individual may have different than individuals not having autism would exhibit. I will be talking generally about the history and description of autism, the cause, affected age group, signs and symptoms that mark a autistic individual, the people who an autistic individual may go to for medical help and treatment, the actual treatment that a autistic person may receive, risk factors that a autistic person may encounter, how you would asses someone with autism, activities that a individual who has autism may take part in, and also the long term affects and treatment goals for someone who has autism should be trying to accomplish. I feel that by doing all of this that I will gain a greater sense of understanding for individuals with autism so as to better help them if I should ever have the privilege to work with an autistic person. I will be giving this information to you by going through each topic that I have outlined in the introduction and explaining what each means and how they affect an individual with autism. Definition of Autism Before anything else, I feel that I should give a scientific definition of Autism. Autism is a sever disorder of brain function marked by problems with......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Autism

...LECTURER: SUBMISSION DATE: Introduction It is right to say that autism is a disability and wrong to say that it is a mental disorder. However much people may think that autism appears to be a mental disorder, it is not. Autism occurs when there is a problem in the central nervous system. Autism is only a mental deficiency. Some autism victims clearly communicate and interact with the rest of the community while others need a lifetime of specialist support. It is a spectrum condition which means that while all people with autism share certain difficulties, their condition affect them in different ways. Autism victims experience over- or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colors. People with autism are more likely than the general population to have accompanying problems such as dyslexia (difficulty with reading, spelling and/or writing), dyspraxia (severe difficulty with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as drawing or writing) and digestive problems. They are also vulnerable to developing mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Causes of Autism Autism can be caused by a variety of physical factors all of which affect brain development. The abnormal blood vessels functioning in the body causes ineffectual oxidation throughout the nervous system and this causes autism. Genetics is another cause for autism. Evidence suggests that genetic factors generate some form of autism. Combination of genetics from previous generations has......

Words: 2696 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism spectrum Disorder The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) defines autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a disorder that interferes with an individual’s ability to understand what is seen, heard, and/or touched. This can cause tremendous problems in personal behavior and in the ability to relate and communicate with others. A person with autism has to be taught to communicate normally and how to have relationships with people, objects and events in their lives. However, not all individuals suffer to the same degree of impairment. There is a whole area of different symptoms that individuals can suffer from, which can range from mild symptoms to severe. “Autism occurs in as many as one or two per 1,000 children (Sternberg 2003). It affects all ages, and approximately one child in 160 or so may develop autism. It is four times more common in males than females” (NINDS). Parents with Autistic kids ought to know that some kids can grow up live on their own, do their own things and have a normal life. Children with autism generally have problems in three essential areas of development. These are social interaction, language and behavior. But because autism symptoms and severity vary greatly, two children with the same diagnosis may act quite differently and have strikingly different skills. (Kalderimis 6). Children with severe autism have marked impairments or a complete inability to communicate or interact with other people in some cases...

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism Autism is the most common condition in a list of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). People with autism may display impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonberbal communication, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests ("What is autism," 2011). As of today there is no official cure for autism but through education and training of parents most can have some sort of productive life. The word “autism” has been used for about 100 years comes from the Greek word “autos” meaning “self” (Nickolson, 2008). The term describes conditions in which a person is removed from social interaction or other words an “isolated self”. In 1911, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, was the first person to use the term autism. Austic children at one time thought or classified as schizophrenic as it was thought to be a behavioral issue. There are many key dates in the history of autism since 1911 and some more important than others. Here is a list of some of the important dates in the history of autism: * 1944 - Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger publishes his work on autistic symptoms, Autistic Psychopathy in Childhood. * 1964 - American psychologist Bernard Rimland writes in Infantile Autism: The Syndrom and Its Implications For a Neural Theory of Behavior that autism is a biological disorder. * 1967 - Bernard Rimland founds the Autism Research Institute ARI in San Diego. Bruno Bettelheim...

Words: 1850 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism Spectrum Disorders Cristina Sanchez Introduction to Psychology Professor Hall April 23, 2011 Life is movement, flows spontaneously but requires ducts, follows the principle of inhibitory modification. Trunk stability is allowing us to sit and use hands. Is the control of hand movements which allows us to use each of our fingers voluntarily. Is the inhibitory tuning, which gradually sculpt the baby awkwardly finely controlled actions. The formation of character, like the movement involves voluntary choices based on self-control that gives us the discipline. The most important tools that we can give our children is the self-control, the ability to strive for their goals. When the child grows up with a disability, this tool becomes indispensable. His life, develop their abilities, fulfill their dreams, the construction of a daily life where you feel full, we require a double effort. Therefore, it’s essential not only learn to work hard but learn to enjoy this effort, the way of high performance athletes. The word “authority” comes etymologically from the Latin verb boom, which means among other things, to grow. We can not educate if we give up our authority as parents. The contradiction of all training is to learn to send ourselves in obedience to others. As ivy, children need to grow, a wall that gives, at once, support and resistance. So, to be truly nurturing, the authority has to go left, slowly, a space to another. Take over is a strong word, it......

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism  Autism or PPD (pervasive developmental disorder) is defined by the Columbia encyclopedia as a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in a realistic manner. The onset of the disorder is in infancy or early childhood, generally before the age of thirty months, and males are affected four times as often as females. Symptoms include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in daily routine (Anthes, 1997).  Characteristics of Autism  Diagnosing Autism is based on four characteristics: difficulty with language, abnormal responses to sensory stimuli, resistance to change and difficulty with social interaction. ?Other characteristics of autism may include: making the same repetitive motion for hours, repeating a sound or phrase, inability to hold a conversation, practicing unusual play patterns, and extreme sensitivity to sound and touch? (Riccio, 1999). Autistics can exhibit any combination of these characteristics in any degree. That is why autism is referred to as a ?spectrum? disorder, because at one end of the disorder a child may be inflicted with some symptoms, while at the opposite end a child may be inflicted with multiple symptoms with many areas in between. Children who display few symptoms may be characterized as ?mildly autistic?.  Early signs of Autism may appear in the first months of life. Autistic......

Words: 2736 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Autism

...Student’s name Teacher’s name Course name Date The impact of immunization on the development of autism In recent years, a worldwide concern over immunization and its schedule has increased dramatically. The vaccine-autism hypothesis belongs to the most extensively debated theories related to the origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Critics of dangerous ingredients contained in vaccines designate that such preservatives may contribute to, or cause, a range of cognitive disorders in children. When administered at early age, immunization may seriously affect neurological and not completely developed immune systems. In contrast, both biological and epidemiological studies tend to contradict the vaccine-autism theory. Given this fact, it is of vital importance to thoroughly examine both sides of the coin and come to a reasonable conclusion. PECULIARITIES OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER Autism, or, more broadly, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), includes a number of complex cognitive and communicational disorders. According to Richard Lathe, the molecular biologist, autism is difficult to define (20). However, there exists a range of distinctive peculiarities, by which one can recognize ASD. Repetitive patterns of behavior, a withdrawal from social relatedness and interaction, and specific movement patterns characterize autism. The symptoms occur from early childhood, usually at age of 2-3 years, and affect daily functioning (Lathe 32). The diagnosis of ASD incorporates the......

Words: 2115 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Autism

...Autism Autism The term “autism” comes from the Greek word “autos” meaning “self” and describes a person who is removed from social interaction (WebMD, 2010).The term autism was first used around 1911 by a Swiss physiatrist named Eugen Bleuler referring to symptoms of schizophrenia. The term autism was not used in the United States until the 1940s. Leo Kanner identified the key feature of “autistic aloneness” among his patients, describing their apparent reluctance to engage in social interaction with other people (Autism, Psychology of, 2005). Autism was thought to be the result of unloving mothers. Not until the 1960s and 1970s, a separate understanding of autism emerged. Dr. Bernard Rimland, father of an autistic son and founder of the Autism Research Institute, helped the medical community understand autism as a biological disorder (Autism Speaks, 2010). Early treatment during the 1960s and 1970s has included medications such as Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), electric shock, and behavior change techniques (pain and punishment). Behavior therapy and highly controlled learning environments became the primary treatments during the 1980s and 1990s. During the 1990s a concern arose that the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine contributed to the development of Autism, but a study published in 1998 that theorized there could be a link has been retracted because there is little evidence to support that theory (Mayo Clinic, 2010). Other common myths include autistic...

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Autism

...Two to six children out of every thousand will end up with Autism. Autism is one of the fastest growing disorders with a great amount of studies being put behind it. With its vast amount of different signs and symptoms, different forms, how its treated, and arguments about how exactly the disorder came to be , Austin can very well be one of the most confusing, and researched disorders, for its a disorder that stirs up tons of questions but yet gets hardly any answers. Autism is usually developed between ages of one and three, it effects communication and how the child interacts with others. It is defined by behaviors of the child and “ spectrum disorders” that re different with each person. (About Autism, 2008, para 1). Symptoms of autism can very in many different ways, and even different categories. Take the category of social interaction and relationships symptoms include : non verbal communication development problems such as , eye - to - eye gazing, body language, and facial expressions, failure to make friends with people their own age, lack of interest, and lack of empathy. The category for verbal and non verbal symptoms include : Delay or lack when learning to talk, about forty person of people with autism never speak, problems with starting, and keeping conversations, repetitive use of language, and difficulty understanding what someone is saying. Finally the category of interests and play include : unusual focus on pieces, preoccupation on certain topics, a need for...

Words: 1739 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Autism

...1 Potential Etiologies of Autism Autism spectrum disorder, also called autism, is a severe physical disorder of the brain, characterized by impaired cognition, limited language, repetitive patterns of behavior, difficulty with social interactions, and a lack of responsiveness to other people (Schreibman). Other conditions within the autism spectrum include Asperger syndrome, Child Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), and Rett’s Disorder (58-63). Scientists consider these disorders to be similar because they share common characteristics (58). Asperger syndrome occurs when children have difficulty with social interactions, but do not exhibit delays in language. CDD develops within two years and autism is evident within the first year of life (59). PDD-NOS occurs when children have difficulty with social interactions and either communication problems or restricted interest (63). Rett’s Disorder is diagnosed definitively in females and autism is diagnosed primarily in males (58). The term autism was first used in 1943 by child psychiatrist Leo Kanner, who wrote a paper “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact” (Koegel 2). In his paper, Kanner described his observation of eleven children between the ages of two and eight who displayed a tendency to want to be alone and lacked the ability to interact with others. The children also displayed a delay in speech, a lack of imaginative play, unusual interest, and......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Autism

...Autism and children Contents Autism Defined Qualitative Impairments in Social Interaction Qualitative Impairments in Communication Restricted Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors, Interests, and Activities The Diagnosis of Autism Causes of Autism Treatment for Autism What research is being done? References Autism Defined Autism is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests. Other ASDs include Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association (2000, pp. 70-71), children with autism demonstrate the three core symptoms: qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, and activities. The symptoms vary according to the severity of the disorder. Qualitative Impairments in Social Interaction Social interaction is characterized as having problems with interacting with other people. Among the symptoms with infants is they do not exhibit any eye contact, and this is......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Social Networking- a Menace to Student's English Language Profeciency

...everything and the most evident thing is this so- called “alternative literacy” that has taken place. Generations are now typing, texting and tweeting their own unique language. This word abbreviated Morse Code like grammar sweeps from computer to phone on social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter. “Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat and other forms of electronic communication have generated a “new language” of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation.” (Varnhagen et al., 2009, p. 1) According to media sources participating on social networking sites and instant messaging is having a negative impact on the use of the English language. Most at risk according to these sources are our younger generations. It threatens youth literacy because it creates and compounds undesirable reading and writing habits and because it’s particular lowbrow vernacular damages students’ abilities to employ regular formal literary skills.” (Craig, 2003, p. 118) This study aimed at determining whether networking sites has a positive or negative impact on young people’s English Language Literacy. I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM With even more technological advances and the growth of Social Networking sites, people are communicating more by Internet using different sites, and also via their mobile phones, which also have Internet access. With people now being able to do banking online, it could be said that letters will cease......

Words: 4071 - Pages: 17