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Since It Introduces the Theory of Collective Bargaining Origin

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중국 단체 협상제도에 대해 잘 이해 하고 싶으면 일단 중국의 노동 관계의 개설을 알아야 한다. 중국 기업의 노동 관계는 주로 기업 소유자, 경영 관리자, 일반 직원 및 공회 조직간의 기업 생산 경영 활동 중에서 형성된 각종 권리, 책임, 이익 관계를 말합니다. 주요하게 소유자와 전체 직원의 관계, 경영 관리자와 일반 직원의 관계, 경영 관리자와 공인 조직의 관계 및 공회와 직공의 관계를 포함하고 있습니다. 노동 관계의 내용은 주체 쌍방의 법에 따라 향우하는 권리와 책임지는 의무를 말합니다. 중국<농동법>에 따라서 규정에 의하면 노동자가 법에 의거하여 향유하는 주요 권리에는 노동권, 민주관리권, 휴식권, 노동부수권, 노동보호권, 직업훈련권, 사회 보험, 노동분쟁처리요청권 등이 포함됩니다. 그런데 지금 중국의 형황을 봐서 사실 대부분 노동자의 권리에 침해를 당하고 있습니다. 개인적으로 경영 관리자와 일반 노동자간에 관계가 제일 어렵습니다.
그리고 노동자가 책임져야 할 주요 의무로는 4가지로 나눴습니다. 첫 번째는 질량을 보상하는 전제에서 생산 임무 및 업무를 완성해야 합니다. 두 번째로는 정치, 문화, 과학 및 업무 지식을 배워야 한다. 현재 중국의 노동자들에서 대부분은 농촌에서 도시로 온 농민공들이다. 그런데 농민공들은 정치는 마저 대부분이 자기의 업무 직식도 모릅니다. 그래서 여러 가지 지식을 배워야 합니다. 그 다음에 노동규율 및 규장 제도를 준수해야 합니다. 마지막으로 국가와 기업의 기밀을 보수해야 합니다.
그다음에 중국 시장 경제 조건하에서 노동관계의 새로운 변화를 간단하게 소개하겠습니다. 노동관계의 갈수록 다양화, 실질의 단일화에서 다양화로 발전하고 있습니다. 그리고 계약화로 되고 있습니다. 노동자 채용이 정부 결정에서 기업과 노동자 간의 합동, 계약 관계로 전환도 됩니다. 그런데 노동관계가 갈 수록 불 안정성이 됩니다. 노동자가 국가에 의지하여 직장을 찾던 것으로부터 직업 자유 선택에로 전환이 됩니다. 현재 중국 노동관곙에 존재하는 문제점도 많습니다. 예로 노동관계 중 이익 모순 마찰이 갈수록 증가가 되고 있습니다. 또한 노동관계 구조가 완전하지 못하여 노동 분쟁 사건이 상승세를 보이고 있습니다
이런 문제를 해결 하기위해서 노동 관계 조정의 대책을 세워야 한다. 노동 감찰과 노동 분쟁 중재 작업에 힘을 더 을이고 노동 위법 행위와 노동 분쟁 사건을 신속히 조사 처리해야 한다. 몇년 전에 중국 대만에서 일어진 애플 회사의 직원이 자살하는 사건이 노동관계의 문제점을 볼 수 있습니다. 이런 사건의 재발생을 예방 하기 위해서 노동 감찰과 노동 분쟁 중재 작업에 힘을 더 들이고 노동 위법 행위와 노동 분쟁 사건을 신속히 조사 처리해야 합니다. 그리고 비 공유제 기업의 집단 협상, 집단 합동 제도의 보급을 다그쳐 노동 관계 주체의 자주 협상 체제의 건립과 완전함을 촉진 시켜야 합니다. 또한 노동 합동 제도를 전면 건립 및 완성화 해야하고 입법 발걸음을 다그치고 홍보를 강화 해야 합니다.
단체 협상의 이론 연원부터 소개하겠습니다. 단체 협상 이론은 서방 산업 관계 이론에서 기ㅣ원되어 왔고 산업 관계학은 2차 세계대전 이후 서방 국가에서 신속히 성장하고 발전해온 한가지 신 학과인데 공업 관계학이라고 합니다. 연구의 중점은 노동자 문제, 노자 문제, 3자 체제 등이다. 단체 협상이란 노자 쌍방이 노동 조건 및 기타 노동 문제와 상관되는 협상 과정 혹은 방식을 말합니다.
중국과 한국은 1992년 정식 수교를 체결한 이후 여러 방면에서 활발한 교류가 이루어지기 시작하였고, 특히 최근 중한 양국의 법학분야에 대한 관심이 더욱 증대되고 있습니다. 양국의 학자들은 더 많은 교류의 기회와 상호 법체제에 대한 이해와 연구에 주목하고 있습니다. 1949년 중국정부가 정식으로 수립된 이래, 중국대륙의 노동법제는 비교적 낙후된 편이었으며, 노동법학에 대한 연구도 오랜 시간 동안 많은 관심을 받지 못하였습니다. 게다가 외국의 노동법제 및 노동법학 연구의 정황에 대한 이해도 부족하였고, 다른 국가들의 중국의 장기적인 계획경제 체제의 노동관리 상황에 대한 이해의 필요성도 부족하였다. 현재 중국 내 많은 한국투자기업들이 자리잡고 있으며, 많은 한국기업들은 중국노동법을 전반적으로 이해하는 데 집중하고 있습니다.
단체 협상의 특징을 살펴보겠습니다. 단체 협상의 특징은 주체의 쌍무성, 내용의 한계성, 그리고 결과의 구속성으로 나눌 수 있습니다. 주체의 쌍무성이란 기업 단체 협상이 쌍방의 주체와만 연관되는데, 즉 공회와 기업 관리자 혹은 관리자 조직입니다. 쌍방 주체의 의견이 일치하지 않거나 분쟁이 커서 쌍방의 자체의 노력으로 해결을 못할 경우 정부가 일정한 중재 작용을 합니다. 기업 단체 협상을 규법화하고 기업 노동관계의 질서 잡힌 발전을 촉진하는데 머물고 있습니다. 두번째로 내용의 한계성은 기업 단체 협상의 내용에 일정한 한계 혹은 규정이 있습니다. 일반적으로 기업 단체 협상은 주로 노동 조건의 개선 및 노동 관계의 처리 원칙을 중점으로 하여 진행 됩니다. 구치적으로 급여 등 채용 조건 및 이와 상관되는 쌍방 주체 지간의 권리의무 관계 등 내용 들입니다. 마지막 결과의 구속성은 기업 가체 협상의 결과를 보면 보통 기업 단체 계약을 체결 하는 것인데 기업 단체 계약은 쌍방 주체를 놓고 볼 때 모두 상응한 구속성을 지니고 있습니다. 다시 말하면 기업 단체 협상과 기업 단체 계약은 한가지 일의 두 개 단계인 것입니다. 또한 한 개 문제의 두 개 면이 있습니다. 기업 단체 협상은 기업 단체 계약의 전제와 준비이고 기업 단체 계약은 기업 단체 협상의 결과이고 결론인 것입니다.
여기 중국에서 임금집단 협상제도라는 제도 하나가 있습니다. 사실은 중국 노동자들의 제일 불만점은 바로 임금 문제입니다. 이는 노동자의 임금 및 상여금 등 대우에 대해 임금 집단협상제도를 추진하는 규정을 정했습니다. 이 제도에서 천진시는 이미 작년 9월1일 부터 단체협상제도를 실시 중에 있으나 최근 자체조사에서 단체협상 실시가 부진하자 서청개발구의 경우 공회 미 설립 기업을 대상으로 연내에 공회를 설립하도록 총공회뿐만 아니라 노동국까지 나서서 공회설립을 독려하고 있습니다. 이와 관련하여 몇 가지 제언을 있습니다. 회사 내 의견함을 설치하고 직원들의 불만을 실시간으로 확인할 필요가 있고 식당의 식단도 수시로 책크하여 사소한 일로 직원들의 불만이 쌓이지 않도록 해야 할 것입니다. 또는 일부 중국법인들은 직원들의 급여인상 요구에 효과적으로 대처하기 위하여 수습기간 종료 후 개인별로 매 6개월마다 개인별 절대평가를 실시하여 근무 평가 정도에 따라 급여를 인상 조정하고 있기 때문에 임금인상에 대한 직원들의 스트레스가 크지 않다고 볼 수 있습니다. 이 방법이 비록 귀찮고 번잡하기는 하지만 임금인상에 대한 스트레스를 줄일 수 있는 방법이 될 수 있습니다. 또는 제 개인 의견으로 직원들에게 허락한 사회활동들 많이 참석하게 만들어야 한다고 생각합니다. 이므로 근무에 관한 스트레스를 줄릴 수 있습니다. 현재 북경시 총공회는 최근, 2012년 말까지 기업의 공회 결성율을 90%이상, 공회 회원율을 92%이상으로 끌어 올리는 목표를 설정했다고 발표를 했습니다. 또한 임금집단 협상제도를 실시하고, 규모, 소유형태, 경영항솽이 각각 다른 기업에 있어 다양한 임금집단협상의 형태 및 협상방법의 채용을 추진할 계획임을 밝혔다. 또한, 북경시는 업계의 모델 기업들을 대상으로 노동시간, 근무시간, 휴식휴가, 보험복리후생 등 노동자가 관심을 갖는 문제에 대해, 임금 집단 협상제도를 실시하고 있으며, 각 모델 기업에서 얻은 성공사례를 활용하여, 여타 기업에 응용, 보급을 추진할 예정이 있습니다.…...

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...support the question in hand. The question that I will explore is listed as followed: What are the advantages of collective bargaining for both employers and employees and is there a future collective bargaining in the new employment and professional climate? Sources Used for Literature Review: 1. Employment Relation 3rd Edition, Ed Rose. 2. Dubin, R. (1954) ‘Contruction aspects of industrial conflict’ in Kornhauser, A., Dubin, R. and Ross, A.M. (eds)Industrail Conflict. New York, McGrew-Hill 3. industrialrelations.naukrihub.(2013). Importance Of Collective Bargaining. Available: http://industrialrelations.naukrihub.com/importance-of-collective-bargaining.html. Last accessed 20/11/2013. 4. Rita Donaghy (2005). The Changing Landscape of Employment Relations in Britain [online]. Available from:http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/research/irru/wpir/warwick_paper_2005_lowry.pdf. [Accessed 20/11/2013]. Main Discussion: Importance of Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining involves employers and trade unions negotiating terms on behalf of employee, however collective barging does not only include negotiations but also includes the process of resolving labour-management conflicts. Therefore, some could state that collective bargaining is a recognised way of creating a system of industrial theory of law. Collective bargaining could be seen as a method of introducing civil rights in the industry, meaning management should be conducted by......

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Collective Bargaining

...news stories. Collective bargaining is a responsibility of the labor unions in which the writer of this post is the most familiar. This topic was chosen as a result of academic curiosity and an interest in developing a better understanding of the role of labor unions and collective bargaining in other countries. Explanation of Collective Bargaining In the United States the idea of collective bargaining has changed as labor relations between employees and employers have evolved and improved. In the past the idea of collective bargaining was not widely understood and there were opposing opinions on how to define collective bargaining. Chamberlain (1944) identifies two of these definitions: 1) “the process of arriving at an agreement as to terms and conditions of employment between a single workman and his employer, where the workman is represented by a labor union of which he is a member.” 2) “the arbitral decisions in which no negotiation may be involved”. In the first definition opponents may argue that the process was not collective. However, if the second definition is applied it could be argued that no bargaining occurs. Today, the definition has evolved to a more widely accepted definition as defined by Ball, Geringer, Mcnett, and Minor (2013) as “the process in which a union represents the interests of workers bargaining in negotiations with management” (p. 430). The remaining sections of this paper will explore if and how collective bargaining exists in......

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Collective Bargaining

...Collective Bargaining My Name here February 24, 2013 The University Collective Bargaining It is common to define collective bargaining as a negotiation between an employer and trade union. Collective bargaining, however simple that short definition may be, is a complex labor process defined by several discussion topics; collective bargaining is governed by strict definitions and rules, extensive long-standing laws that support it, and specific methods and people to administer agreements reached in the collective bargaining process. The best way to discuss collective bargaining is to approach each of these topics in order to round out the full spectrum of knowledge required to full understand and define collective bargaining with ease. In this paper, you will approach each of these complex topics with the intent of learning more about collective bargaining. The best approach is to begin by defining collective bargaining. Defining Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining is the process by which employers and a group of employees negotiate and agree upon the scope of employment relationships (wages, hours, working conditions, benefits, other employment terms). The employees are typically represented by a labor union in collective bargaining. In the US labor system, when collective bargaining leads to mutual agreement of the sides, the agreement terms become the basis of a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) or union contract that is a legally......

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Collective Bargaining

...Collective bargaining One of the aims of a trade union is to negotiate with employers about matters affecting their members and other employees. Once a trade union is recognized in a workplace, the negotiations they have with the employer are called collective bargaining; these negotiations will be regarding terms and conditions of employment. Trade unions and employers will agree on how the process will operate, for example: * who will represent the workers, or group of workers (bargaining unit) in negotiations * which workers are included in the bargaining unit * how often meetings will take place * which issues, including which terms and conditions will be discussed * how failures to agree will be resolved * how discussions will work if more than one trade union is recognised For trade unions and employers who face problems at work which result in a dispute Acas can help. Collective conciliation can move parties towards a resolution of a dispute through the expertise of an impartial and independent third party - for example through the use of Acas services. Bargaining is conducted by trade unions and employers. The union side may be made up of full-time officials, workplace representatives or a mix of both. Local union representatives are now much more likely to be involved in collective bargaining. The employers' side can be the individual employer or, if at industry level, the employers' association. There will often be several unions......

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Collective Bargaining

...Collective Bargaining: CB is one of the major tool of promoting industrial relationship between owners/stakeholders/management and employees/labor. Before stating a healthy discussion on collective bargaining, its functions, process and agreement, first we have an on his historical background. The first time in history Miss Beatrice Webb, used the term “collective bargaining” in 1891. She was the one of the founder of industrial relations field (Wilkinson 2014). CB was a sort of group or no of group’s collective negotiations and agreements that was existed since we found industrial revolution in G. Britrain, during the formations of trade unions. Later many governments provided it legal protection through passing executive orders. For example, in 1935 the National labor relations Act was made it illegal for all the employers of USA that they can’t deny union rights or an employee. Although until 1950s, it was more controversial that unionizing government employees in a public owned sector trade union. At last in 1962 USA president gave rights to unionize in public sector organizations by passing an executive order. Collective bargaining is the procedure that makes or changes the aggregate understanding. It is basically the procedure of progressing proposition, talking about them, accepting counter-recommendations and determining contrasts. The essential objective of collective bargaining is the accomplishment of an aggregate haggling assertion between the union and......

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Collective Bargaining

...term “collective bargaining” and list and describe four issues that are mandatory components of a collective bargaining agreement. Efficiency, equity, and voice are the fundamental goal of labor relations and collective bargaining is a critical tool in maintaining and achieving this goal (Budd, 2013, p. 5). Collective bargaining are negotiations between employee and employer representatives concerning terms and conditions of employment that applies to the employees (Cornell University Law School, n.d.). The collective bargaining process results in a legally binding agreement between upper management and union members. The agreement through collective bargaining cover many areas, to include: compensations (wages, benefits, holidays/vacations, shift premiums and profit sharing), personnel policies and procedures (layoff, promotion, transfer policies, overtime and vacation rules), employee rights and responsibilities (seniority rights, job standards and workplace rules), employer rights and responsibilities (management rights, just cause discipline and discharge, subcontracting and safety standards), union rights and responsibilities (recognition as bargaining agent, bulletin board, union security, dues checkoff, shop stewards and no strike clauses) and dispute resolution and ongoing decision making (grievance procedures, committees, consultation and renegotiation procedures) (Budd, 2013, pp. 11-12). Despite the above list of issues for potential address in collective......

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Collective Bargaining

...Clougherty 12/12/14 Collective Bargaining Essay Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements to regulate specific working conditions. The collective agreements reached by these negotiations usually set out a variety of different things. These include wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety, and overtime. Collective bargaining is a bilateral process involving employers and employees. The two parties have different opinions/ ideas about different topics within the work place that are subject to change. The objective they are trying to reach is an agreement to settle the dispute. The collective aspect of the process is how the parties are grouped. They are grouped by their position within the respected workplace. These groups are called bargaining units. Collective bargaining has very many benefits to it. A major benefit is that it can strengthen the moral relationship between employees and management. This in result, Can lead to a better workplace. During the collective bargaining process, employees and managers respectively, and professionally dispute over certain areas in the workplace that can change. During the process they engage in problem solving, and attempt to remain equal while addressing situations. I feel as if this is the most important process, as well as the most beneficial because no matter the outcome of the bargaining, the managers......

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Collective Bargaining

...Define and discuss the term “collective bargaining” Collective bargaining is the process of negotiations involving the representatives of the employer and employee for terms and conditions of employment that will apply to the employee. In the United States the negotiations that happen between concerning parties are written into legally binding contracts and usually last from one to five years (Budd). On the Huffington Post website, a writer by the name of Amanda Terkel writes about the labor conflicts that happened in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Indiana states. Governor Scott Walker from the state of Wisconsin tried to deprive the state’s public-employee unions for having collective bargaining rights. He stated that this will make it possible to shore up the states estimated 3 billion loss. The legislative action that has caused major protest in Madison, Wisconsin, with gatherings around 25,000 protestors while Wisconsin’s Democratic senators have fled the state to stop the bill from being voted on. Thousands of opponents of Ohio’s Senate proposed collective bargaining overhaul surrounded the statehouse with chants of kill the ill prior to the hearing of Ohio’s Senate Bill 5. The bill is written to do away with collective bargaining rights to state employees and cut back the rights of local level government employees. While the state of Indiana’s legislature is considering a bill that will strip Indiana teachers of their collective bargaining rights between local......

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