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Shakespeare Macbeth

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Según la Encyclopædia Britannica, «Shakespeare es generalmente reconocido como el más grande escritor de todos los tiempos, figura única en la historia de la literatura.

MACBETH
Esta es una de las obras de teatro más conocidas de Shakespeare y es su tragedia más corta, posiblemente escrita entre 1603 y 1606. La obra habla sobre los peligros del ansia por el poder y la traición entre amigos.
Hay muchas supersticiones alrededor de la obra que dicen que ésta está maldita y muchos actores no mencionan el nombre de la obra en voz alta, en vez de eso se refieren a ella como "la obra escocesa.
Está inspirada en un personaje real: Macbeth, rey de Escocia entre1040 y 1057.
Habla sobre la arrogancia de algunos líderes que se creen infalibles a todo tipo de crisis económicas

Temas y motivos recurrentes
Ambición y traición. Temas estrechamente relacionados. Macbeth puede verse como una advertencia acerca de los peligros que entraña la ambición. La ambición es el rasgo principal del carácter de Macbeth y de Lady Macbeth, y la causa de su ruina. Aparece por primera vez cuando, a comienzos del acto II, Macbeth asesina a su rey, al que debe lealtad y que acaba además de recompensarle con un título; y se reitera cuando ordena matar a su amigo Banquo, en el acto III. Antes de eso, el tema de la traición había aparecido ya tras la profecía, en el acto III.

Visiones y el sentimiento de culpa. A lo largo de la obra, Macbeth y su esposa sufren varias visiones. En la escena primera del segundo acto, poco antes de asesinar a Duncan, Macbeth cree ver un puñal ensangrentado flotando ante sí. Más adelante, en la escena primera del quinto acto, Lady Macbeth, sonámbula, ve en sus manos manchas de sangre que no consigue lavar, imagen con la que se muestran sus remordimientos por su responsabilidad en el asesinato de Duncan. Una tercera visión —aunque no está claro si se trata de una alucinación de Macbeth, atormentado por su conciencia culpable, o de la aparición sobrenatural de un fantasma— es el espectro de Banquo que se presenta en el banquete (acto III, escena IV

Macbeth, describe el proceso de un hombre esencialmente bueno que, influido por otros y debido también a un defecto de su propia naturaleza, sucumbe a la ambición y llega hasta el asesinato. A lo largo de la obra, Macbeth, por obtener y, más tarde, retener el trono de Escocia, va perdiendo su humanidad hasta llegar al punto de cometer todo tipo de imperdonables actos. Personajes Macbeth: es un general del ejército de Escocia que es fiel a su rey y buena persona. Gana la guerra contra el rey de Noruega y es condecorado.
Se puede apreciar claramente un cambio profundo en su carácter: pasa de ser un hombre bueno y fiel a ser un tirano cruel y despiadado al que todos odian y traicionan. Pero el cambio no es brusco, sino gradual. Todo empieza cuando su mujer le incita a matar al rey para ser nombrado él. Al principio duda, pero luego hace caso a su mujer y lo mata. Esto le causa fuertes remordimientos, pero está ya decidido a llegar hasta el final. Mata también a uno de sus mejores amigos, Bancuo, compañero de guerra y general también, porque las mismas brujas que predijeron el ascenso de Macbeth predijeron también que la descendencia de Bancuo reinaría en Escocia. Después de matarle vuelven los remordimientos (el fantasma), pero cada vez que comete un acto terrible como éste se endurece después más y más volviendo a matar a la familia de Macduff y perdiendo toda sensibilidad al final de la obra. Junto con dicha sensibilidad pierde también el sentido de su vida y ya no le importa morir o vivir, sólo acabar con lo empezado. Es duro con sus subordinados, por lo que estos le odian y le traicionan a la hora de la verdad.

Lady Macbeth: es la mujer de Macbeth. Es fría, calculadora y perversa. Es la que incita a Macbeth a cometer el regicidio y es la que inspira toda la historia, pero también sufre una transformación gradual a lo largo de la obra hasta llegar al suicidio. Empieza siendo la que critica a Macbeth por sus remordimientos, pero poco a poco se va ablandando con el peso de su culpa hasta intentar frenar a su esposo y suicidarse.
Pero es algo más que un personaje perverso. Se siente culpable y ahí se ve a la persona sufre también con el mal. En ella existe una relación entre fatalidad, voluntad personal y culpabilidad que inquieta al lector. Bancuo: es el contrapunto de Macbeth en la historia. Es también un general pero que sigue fiel a su verdadero rey y presenta por su fidelidad una grave amenaza para Macbeth, por eso lo mata. Las brujas le profetizan que será padre de una estirpe de reyes. Macduff: después de la muerte de Bancuo es el que lleva las riendas. Tiene un gran carácter y lidera el ejército inglés junto con Siward y Malcolm. Es la mayor amenaza de Macbeth, así lo profetizan las brujas, y se cumple, pues es él el <<hombre no nacido de mujer>> del que hablan y por eso es el único capaz de matarle. Malcolm: es hijo de Duncan. Huye a Inglaterra temiendo por su vida y se le toma como culpable del regicidio. Pero al ver que Macbeth tiraniza a su pueblo, forma un ejército en Inglaterra que, junto con los nobles escoceses, vence a Macbeth. Es un rey justo, bueno, fiel, sincero.... perfecto. Duncan: es el rey al que Macbeth mata. Confiaba plenamente en él y eso es lo que carcome a Macbeth durante toda la obra. Era también, como lo sería después su hijo, un buen rey. Tres brujas: son las que mueven toda la historia. Macbeth mata al rey porque ellas le han dicho que será rey. Luego siguen prediciendo los acontecimientos del reinado de Macbeth hasta su final.

El personaje de Macbeth tiene muy presente en él el sentimiento de la Avaricia, pero cabe señalar, que la siente hasta que las brujas le muestran sus profecías, en las cual le dicen que llegará a ser Rey de Escocia, y por su afán de tener ese poder, sin importarle la buena amistad que tenía con el Rey, lo mata sin ningún remordimiento, y también al oír de las profecías de las brujas, acerca de que los hijos de Bancuo llegarían a ser reyes, también mata a Bancuo, pero no puede deshacerse de su hijo. Uno de las cosas más chocantes en Macbeth es la continua contraposición entre el ánimo de Macbeth y el de Lady Macbeth. Mientras él primero empieza siendo bueno y fiel y es corrompido por su mujer hasta el punto de desaparecer los remordimientos del principio, la segunda empieza totalmente fría y perversa pero va decayendo en el transcurso de la obra hasta convertirse en un saco de remordimientos volviéndose loca de forma que se ve las manos continuamente manchadas de sangre y suicidándose.
Macbeth muere en combate intentando terminar su acción mientras que su mujer, al principio fuerte, se suicida. Sólo cómo muere cada uno comparado con su ánimo inicial ya es suficiente para ver el intercambio de roles: el débil acaba siendo el fuerte y viceversa.
Un punto muy llamativo en la obra es la continua aparición de los remordimientos en los protagonistas. Como dice Lady Macbeth sus actos han destruido su felicidad y el mal que han hecho les hace sufrir.

LA AMBICIÓN El tema central de la obra es la ambición de Macbeth y su esposa. La inclinación a desear aquello que no les pertenece (la corona) se convierte en una pasión y se impone sobre su voluntad, hasta el punto de arrastrarlos a su propia destrucción

La ambición es un rasgo importante para cualquier líder. Sin ambición, es casi imposible guiar a una organización hacia el éxito. ¿Cuáles son las posibilidades de un entrenador (de un equipo deportivo profesional) que lleva ese equipo al campeonato si el propio entrenador no tiene la ambición de ganar el campeonato? La ambición puede ser un motor que ayuda a las personas luchan a través de obstáculos diarios con el fin de cumplir sus objetivos. En general, la ambición es algo bueno poseer.

La ambición también puede ser un defecto que daña gravemente la organización. Si el líder de la organización tiene una ambición egoísta, que se trata de él o ella sola para lograr el éxito, entonces puede ser perjudicial.

Los líderes con una ambición egoísta harán lo que sea necesario para ellos como individuos para tener éxito. Ellos doblan las reglas, manipulan datos y queman puentes. Debido a que este tipo de ambición tiene poco respeto por la organización en su conjunto, los empleados y compañeros de trabajo son vistos como peones para ser utilizado por el líder como un medio para llegar a su (o ella) meta personal y egoísta.

Un líder con una ambición egoísta normalmente se rodea a sí mismo con hombres que cuentan al líder lo que él o ella quiere oír.

Macbeth se considera actualmente como un tirano. Su reino está en desorden y muchos de sus jefes de equipo se unen a un movimiento para eliminarlo del trono. Marginado y solo, Macbeth es asesinado en última instancia por los que él abusó a fin de lograr su ambición egoísta.

Macbeth en la fuerza laboral de hoy

Macbeth bien puede ser la metáfora perfecta de lo que sucede cuando los líderes de las organizaciones de hoy en día tienen la ambición egoísta. Macbeth tuvo una visión ambición para sí mismo, pero no uno para el reino de Escocia. Esta ambición estrecha y egoísta se manifiesta en el comportamiento que se benefició Macbeth, pero dañó la organización. (Esto es análogo a un jugador estrella en un equipo deportivo sin importarle si el equipo gana, siempre y cuando se puede anotar la mayor cantidad de puntos.)

Aunque las brujas de Macbeth dijeron la verdad, eligió sólo escuchar las profecías que se alineaban con sus ambiciones. ¿Con qué frecuencia los líderes no escuchan todos los hechos debido a que algunos de ellos contradicen una decisión que él o ella ya ha hecho?

En la fuerza laboral de hoy en día normalmente no se oye hablar a alguien de matar al jefe para que puedan tomar su puesto de trabajo. No obstante, podemos encontrar subordinados que figurativamente matan a sus jefes con calumnias e insinuaciones porque sienten que deben tener el trabajo. No es raro que las personas que socavan sus colegas para que ellos mismos se ven mejor y están mejor posicionados para una promoción.
No hay duda de que para ser un líder hay que tener ambición. Los grandes líderes son vigilantes en la comprensión de que esta ambición debe aplicarse para el bien de la organización. Si no lo hace, en última instancia se traduce en una erosión de la credibilidad del líder. Esta necesidad es especialmente evidente en organizaciones de aprendizaje, donde el personaje del líder se proyecta no sólo a los empleados del equipo de aprendizaje, sino para todo el ecosistema que el equipo apoya

El efecto Macbeth
La necesidad de purificarse y más si has cometido un acto reprobable e inmoral, se conoce como el efecto Macbeth, este hace que la mente asocie de manera automática la limpieza física con la posibilidad de borrar las malas acciones.
En la obra, lady Macbeth, sufre tanto de culpa que después del crimen, aún a pesar de lavar la sangre de sus manos, seguía viéndolas ensangrentadas. Se cree que los actos físicos tienen el poder de reducir o mitigar nuestros remordimientos y sentimientos de culpa y disgusto, haciéndonos sentir un poco más limpios. No deja de resultar curioso que tanto el malestar físico como el moral activan las mismas regiones cerebrales, provocando reacciones faciales idénticas.

Acto I
La obra comienza con tres brujas, las tres "Hermanas Fatídicas" hacen un hechizo en el que se ponen de acuerdo acerca de su próximo encuentro con Macbeth. En la escena siguiente, Duncan, rey de Escocia, comenta con sus oficiales el aplastamiento de la invasión de Escocia por noruegos e irlandeses, acaudillados por el rebelde Macdonwald, en la cual Macbeth, thane (barón) de Glamis y primo del rey, ha tenido un importante papel. Duncan se propone darle en recompensa el título de thane de Cawdor.

Cuando Macbeth y su compañero Banquo cabalgan hacia Forres desde el campo de batalla, se encuentran con las brujas, quienes saludan a Macbeth, primero como thane de Glamis, luego como thanede Cawdor, y por último anunciándole que un día será rey. A Banquo le dicen que sus descendientes serán reyes. Cuando Macbeth pide a las brujas que le aclaren el sentido de las profecías, ellas desaparecen. Se presenta un enviado del rey (Ross), quien notifica a Macbeth la concesión real del título de thane de Cawdor.

Viendo cumplida la profecía de las brujas, Macbeth comienza a ambicionar conseguir el trono. Macbeth escribe una carta a su esposa, en Inverness, explicando las profecías de las brujas. Lady Macbeth, al leer la carta, concibe el propósito de asesinar a Duncan para lograr que su marido llegue a ser rey. De improviso se presenta Macbeth en el castillo, así como la noticia de que Duncan va a pasar allí esa noche. Lady Macbeth le expone sus planes. Macbeth duda, pero su esposa le inculca cizañas, estimulando su ambición.

Acto II
Al llegar la noche, Macbeth, instigado por su esposa, da muerte al rey cuando duerme en su aposento. Antes de su muerte ve visiones de una espada con sangre y siente fuertes remordimientos, que Lady Macbeth se esfuerza por acallar, y ve lo débil que es su esposo y decide ella incriminar a los criados tiñéndolos de sangre. A la mañana siguiente se descubre el crimen. Macbeth culpa a los sirvientes de Duncan, a los que previamente ha asesinado, supuestamente en un arrebato de furia para vengar la muerte del rey. Los hijos de Duncan, Malcolm y Donalbain, que se encuentran también en el castillo, no creen la versión de Macbeth, pero disimulan para evitar ser también asesinados. Malcolm huye a Inglaterra y Donalbain, a Irlanda. Gracias a su parentesco con el rey fallecido y a la huida de los hijos de éste, Macbeth consigue ser proclamado rey de Escocia, cumpliéndose así la segunda profecía de las brujas.

Acto III
A pesar del éxito de sus propósitos, Macbeth continúa intranquilo a causa de la profecía que las brujas hicieron a Banquo, según la cual éste sería padre de reyes. Encarga a unos asesinos que acaben con su vida, y la de su hijo, Fleance, cuando lleguen al castillo para participar en un banquete al que Macbeth les ha invitado. Los asesinos matan a Banquo, pero Fleance consigue huir. En el banquete, poco después de que Macbeth sepa por los asesinos lo ocurrido, se aparece el espectro de Banquo y se sienta en el sitio de Macbeth. Sólo Macbeth puede ver al fantasma, con el que dialoga, y en sus palabras se hace evidente su crimen.

Acto IV
.
Macbeth regresa al lugar de su encuentro con las brujas. Inquieto, les pregunta por su futuro. Ellas conjuran a tres espíritus. El primero advierte a Macbeth que tenga cuidado con Macduff. El segundo dice que "ningún hombre nacido de mujer" podrá vencer a Macbeth, y el tercero hace una curiosa profecía:
Macbeth seguirá invicto y con ventura si el gran bosque de Birnam no se mueve y, subiendo, a luchar con él se atreve en Dunsinane, allá en la misma altura.
Estas profecías tranquilizan a Macbeth, pero no se queda satisfecho. Quiere saber también si los descendientes de Banquo llegarán a reinar, como las brujas profetizaron. En respuesta a su demanda, se aparecen los fantasmas de ocho reyes y el de Banquo, con un espejo en la mano, indicando así que ocho descendientes de Banquo serían reyes de Escocia. Un vasallo de Macbeth le notifica que Macduff ha desertado. En represalia, Macbeth decide atacar su castillo y acabar con la vida de toda su familia. La acción se traslada a Inglaterra, donde Macduff, ignorante todavía de la suerte que ha corrido su familia, se entrevista con Malcolm, hijo de Duncan, al que intenta convencer para que reclame el trono. Recibe la noticia de la muerte de su familia.

Acto V
Lady Macbeth empieza a sufrir remordimientos: sonámbula, intenta lavar manchas de sangre imaginarias de sus manos.

Malcolm y Macduff, con la ayuda de Inglaterra, invaden Escocia. Macduff, Malcolm y el inglés Siward, conde de Northumberland, atacan el castillo de Dunsinane, con un ejército camuflado con ramas del bosque de Birnam, con lo que se cumple una de las profecías de las brujas: el bosque de Birnam se mueve y ataca Dunsinane. Macbeth recibe la noticia de que el bosque se mueve y de la muerte de su esposa por suicidio. Tras pronunciar un monólogo nihilista, toma la determinación de combatir hasta el final. Tras matar al hijo de Siward, se enfrenta con Macduff. Se siente todavía seguro, a causa de la profecía de la bruja. Demasiado tarde, Macduff le comenta que su madre había muerto una hora antes de que él naciera, y que los médicos habían realizado una cesárea para mantener a Macduff vivo, y así se cumple la profecía de que «no podría ser muerto por ningún hombre nacido de mujer» y Macbeth comprende que las profecías de las brujas han sido engañosas. Macduff mata a Macbeth. En la escena final, Malcolm es coronado rey de Escocia. La profecía referente al destino real de los hijos de Banquo era familiar a los contemporáneos de Shakespeare, pues el rey Jacobo I de Inglaterra era considerado descendiente de Banquo.…...

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...From the beginning of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is viewed as very controlling, strong, and certain; saying that Macbeth ‘Shalt be what thou art promised’. This illustrates Lady Macbeth’s position in the relationship, she is ordering Macbeth to become what the witches have foreseen. We see just how powerful Lady Macbeth is, if she can command her husband to murder the king of Scotland. Her power is also shown in the way she taunts Macbeth, saying he is ‘too full of the milk of human kindness’. This shows how cold Lady Macbeth is, as milk is the food of new born children, she is implying Macbeth is too much like a kind child to murder anyone, which is another method used to spur Macbeth on into killing Duncan. Her coldness and control is again shown when she begins to plot Duncan’s murder with Macbeth, she says he should ‘look like the innocent flower but be the serpent under it’, more advice for the killing of his king, and ‘leave the rest to me’ shows her cool control over the matter. Lady Macbeth also shows a more helpful side, offering help. ‘I may pour my spirits in thine ear’, which although apparently providing a contrast to her cold hearted plotting earlier, is in fact another way in which she is convincing Macbeth to kill Duncan. Her words propose sweetness, but are in fact rooted in evil, and this perhaps shows an ‘innocent flower’ side to Lady Macbeth.  Macbeth, however, is on the other end of the scale in their relationship, and this is seen once he......

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Compare How the Female Characters Lady Macbeth and Curley's Wife Are Presented in Shakespeares ' Macbeth' and Steinbecks ' of Mice and Men'

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