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懷疑論者

懷疑論者認為我們沒有好的證據相信感官是可靠或是不可靠。
因此難以證明外在世界是存在或不存在。
懷疑論者第一論證: 1. 我們可以直接感知的都是現象

2. 如果我們可以直接感知的都是現象, 則我們不能知道心靈以外的事物

3. 因此我們不能知道心靈以外的事物。

前提1 用了康德對物自身及物現象的分法, “現象”也可為 SENSE DATA (感官資訊)。
我們所感知的不是物體, 只是心靈中的SENSE DATA。
支持前提一的論證 < 一 >: 1. 我們所能直接感知的會隨著觀察角度不同而改變。 2. 物體並不會因觀察角度不同而改變。 3. 因此我們所見的並不是物體。 4. 如果我們直接感知的不是物體, 則我們所感知的只是SENSE DATA。 5. 因此我們所感知的只是SENSE DATA

支持前提一的論證< 二 >:

1. 我們所直接感知的東西可以具有不一致的特性。 2. 物體不可能具有不一致的特性。 3. 因此我們直接感知的並不是物體。 4. 如果我們直接感知的並不是物體, 則我們所感知的只是SENSE DATA。 5. 因此我們所感知的只是SENSE DATA。

支持前提二的論證

1. 我們直接感知的都只是現象, 即是物體呈現於感官的方法。(假設) 2. 我們不能透過物體呈現於感官的方法而知道物體實際上是如何的。 3. 我們對於外在世界的了解只是基於我們所感官。 4. 因此我們不能知道心靈以外之物是如何的。 5. 如果我們可以直接感知的都是現象, 則我們不能知道心靈以外的事物。

支持以前提2的論證:

1. 我們看見有一部電腦出現於桌子上。 2. 因此的確有有一部電腦於桌子上。
以上推論不是演繹上正確, 因為有可能前提真而結論是假 (例如發夢)
所以我們不能透過物體呈現於感官的方法而知道物體實際上是如何的

以上推論也不是歸納上正確, 但如果修改正以下推論則會正確。 1. 我們看見有一部電腦出現於桌子上。 2. 物體呈現通常物體本身是如何的可據指示。 3. 因此的確有有一部電腦於桌子上。
但前提2是可被質疑的。
如何知道前提2 是真?有沒有證據?

問題: 1. ) 如果我們要知道物體本身是如何的, 則只可以透過感官。 但我們沒有辦法比較物體所呈現的及物體本身。因此我們不能知道前提 2的真 確性。
2.) 要先假設我們的感官可靠才能證明前提, 於是會 begging the question

因此 前提”我們不能透過物體呈現於感官的方法而知道物體實際上是如何的”是真的。
前提 “我們對於外在世界的了解只是基於我們所感官”也是真的
懷疑論證前提二也是真, 而懷疑論證是演繹上正確的。

筒中之腦論證 1. 如果我們不知道自己是否筒中之腦, 則不會知道我們的感觀是否可靠。 2. 我們不知道自己是否筒中之腦。 3. 因此知道我們的感觀是否可靠。

同樣地, 筒中之腦論證也是演繹上正確的。

DEACARTE對懷疑論者的回應: 1. 認同我們所見的只是SENSE DATA 2. 不同意我們不可能知道MIND以外的任何事情 (外在世界)

DEACARTE要解決的問題
如何為人類知識提供良好及堅實的基礎?

對人類知識的基本假設: 1. 我們的感官基本上是可靠的。 2. 歸納邏輯可以有效地令我們知道自然法則。 3. 對於以住的事情, 記憶的呈現是可靠。 4. 我們可以透過其他人的外顯行為而知道他們的精神狀態。

以懷疑為基礎, 直到某個東西去到一個不可懷疑的地步, 就可以相信
(以此方法建立人類知識)
因此DEACARTE指出兩個懷疑論ARGUMENT去懷疑所有事情, 看是否有一些事情是超然這兩個懷疑論證。

夢的論證: 1. 我們不能知道自己是否在做夢 2. 如果我們不能知道自己是否在做夢, 則我們沒法知道所感知的是否真實。 3. 如果我們沒法知道所感知的是否真實, 則我們不能靠感官獲知有關外在世界的知識。 4. 我們不能靠感官獲知有關外在世界的知識。

魔鬼論證: 1. 我們不能知道自己是否在被魔鬼玩弄。 2. 如果我們不能知道自己是否在被魔鬼玩弄, 則我們沒法知道所感知的是否真實。 3. 如果我們沒法知道所感知的是否真實, 則我們不能靠感官獲知有關外在世界的知識。 4. 我們不能靠感官獲知有關外在世界的知識。

因此單靠感官而證明自己可以獲得外在世界的知識是可被懷疑

“我思固我在”論證: 1. 我思 2. 所以我存在

這個論證是不能懷疑的, 因而是真確。
基於“我思固我在”論證的真確性, 可以推出其他真理。

存在論證 : 1. 邏輯上有可能我可以沒有身體而存在。 2. 邏輯上沒有可能我存在而沒有心靈。 3. 因此有身體並非存在的本貿, 而有心靈為存在本質。 4. 身體並非存在本質。

即使證明自己是存在的, 但也不能推出外在世界存在。
因此DEACARTE由自我論證推出神存在論證。

神存在論證: 1. 神擁有所有完美。 For all x,( if x is god, then x is perfections.) 2. 存在是完美的一種。(existence is a perfection) 3. 因此神存在。 For all x, ( if x is god, then x possesses existence)

神存在論證 1. 我有神的概念。 2. 形成一個概念的原因的完美性不比概念本身低。 3. 神的概念表現出神為最高的完美。 4. 神的概念是有原因的。 5. 基於神的概念的原因是神, 所以神是存在。

DEACARTE認為前提 2是先驗的

感官可據論證: 1. 神是最高的完美 2. 因此如果神存在, 神不會玩弄我們。 3. 神存在 4. 因此神不會玩弄我們 5. 如果我們被感官有系統地玩弄, 則神在玩弄我們。 6. 因此我們的感官基本上是可信的。

因此DEACARTE認為, 基於神存在, 我們可以透過正確的方法運用我們的感官功能而獲得真理。而我們之所以會犯錯是因為意志的問題, 例如不小心, 懶於思考。
而因為我們的感官是基本上是可靠的, 它們可令人獲得有關外在世界的知識。

DEACARTE的知識原則:
知識的先驗基礎: 先驗真確為知識提供第一個基礎。
知識的經驗基礎: 為知識提供另一個基礎。
對於外在世界的推理: 我們所知的皆是由以上兩個基礎推理出來的。

對DEACARTE論證的質疑:

1. 邏輯上有可能我可以沒有身體而存在。 2. 邏輯上沒有可能我存在而沒有心靈。 3. 因此有身體並非等於我存在, 而有心靈為我存在本質。 4. 我的存在不是等於有身體。

邏輯結構為: 1. 邏輯上有可能X可以沒有Y而存在。 2. 邏輯上沒有可能X存在而沒有Z。 3. 因此有Y並非X等於存在, 而有Z為X存在本質。 4. X不是等於Y。

反例 5. 邏輯上有可能TRACTATUS的作者可以不是維根斯坦而存在。 6. 邏輯上沒有可能TRACTATUS的作者存在而沒有任何性質。 7. 因此有維根斯坦並非TRACTATUS的作者等於存在, 而有性質為TRACTATU作者存在本質。 8. TRACTATUS的作者不是等於維根斯坦。

因此DEACARTE的論證是可被質疑的。(基於邏輯上有問題)

質疑2.) 神存在論證 6. 我有神的概念。 7. 形成一個概念的原因的完美性不比概念本身低。 8. 神的概念表現出神為最高的完美。 9. 神的概念是有原因的。
10. 基於神的概念的原因是神, 所以神是存在。

前提”形成一個概念的原因的完美性不比概念本身低”是可疑的。
因為若果超人存在, 其完美必然比形成超人概念的原因高。(形成超人概念的原因為電影等等)

邏輯實證論者的回應 (洛克及羅素)

邏輯實證論的主張
1.) sense data是出於物體。
2.) 最少有一些sense data是如實反映物體。

洛克同意懷疑論證的前提一, 我們所感知的只是sense data
只能透過邏輯證明外在世界存在。
洛克反對的為懷疑論證前提二, 他認為我們可以透過感觀經驗而知道
外在世界是如何的。

洛克對主張一的論證: 1. 一個沒有某種感官的人永遠不會有關於該感官的sense data 2. 我們所接受的sense data是不能控制的。 3. Sense data可分為兩類 1. 不能控制(有規律, 真實的。 2. 可以控制(混亂, 不實在 (例如合上眼睛) 4.) 由不同感官所接收的sense data是可以互補的

洛克的論證: 1. 以上四個命題的最佳解釋是sense data是出於物體的假設。 2. Sense data是出於物體的假設為真。 3. 因此物體是存在的。

支持前提一的回應: 1. 我們的感官經驗一定是有原因的。 2. 人不會感官經驗的原因, 因為我們不能控制sense data。 (我不能控制”我看見一個男人站在我面前”這個經驗。) 3. 因此最佳的原因為確實有一個男人站在我面前。 4. 因此感官經驗的最佳的原因為物體確實存在及我們與世界的互動。

洛克對主張二的論證: 1. 有一些性質可以由多於一個感官所觀察。 2. 這些性質的特點不會因我們的觀察角度改變而改變。 3. 因此這些性質是物體本身的性質。 4. 這些性質與我們的sense data是類似的。 5. 因此最少有一些sense data能反映物體的性質。

洛克提出物體有兩種屬性:
第一屬性: 物體本身的性質 例如重量,長度。
而第一屬性是sense data的原因
第二屬性: 於我們腦中反映的影像 例如顏色, 聲音等等
並不存在於物體中

洛克論證的問題:

1. 為什麼要相信 ”以上四個命題的最佳解釋是sense data是出於物體的假設” 2. 最佳解釋的條件是什麼? 3. 即使以上假設的確是最佳解釋 為什麼就會該假設為真?
若果不能明確地證明物體的存在 則同樣也沒辦法相信物體的”第一屬性”

羅素提出兩個有關外在世界存在的假設:

最佳解釋論證 1. 我們沒有理由相信懷疑主義的可能為真。 2. 沒有證據指出關於外在世界的假設是錯的。 3. 外在世界存在的假設具有高度的解釋能力。 4. 外在世界存在的假設為最簡單解釋。(遇到的難題較少) 5. 外在世界存在的假設有高度的預測能力。 6. 因此外在世界存在的假設為我們感官經驗的最佳解釋。 7. 外在世界存在的假設為真。

本能信念論證

1. 相信外在世界存在為基本本能信念。 2. 本能信念是連貫一致的。 3. 沒有證據指出本能信念為假 4. 知識皆建立於本能信念。 5. 因此關於外在世界的本能信念為真
質疑:
本能信念邏輯上並不正確
因為有可能有兩種信念是互相衝突的而皆是具有一致性
因此1-4推不出 5 (例如牛津物理學以及相對論)
羅素假設這樣的情況為真 Q:即一個理論如果是最佳解釋, 則該理論為真的機會會很高
但為何Q會因此而為真呢?
而外在世界存在的假是否真的比其他解釋有力?
唯心論 柏克萊

柏克萊接受懷疑論的前提一
但不同意前提二 他認為世上存在的只有心靈及心靈內容。
柏克萊認為我們是可以知道外在世界是不存在 因此懷疑論是錯的。

對於柏克萊的論證有兩種解釋: 1. 主張 ”There is a physical world” 這句是沒有意思的。 2. ”There is a physical world” 是有意思的但自相矛盾。

解釋一的主張 1. 言語的意義是由經驗給予的 要解釋清楚一個字只需透過以往經驗。 2. 言語是描述生活事物。 3. 如果一個字並非經驗世界中的東西 則其沒有意思。 4. “物體”等字並非經驗世界中的東西。 5. 因此“物體”等字是沒有意思。
所謂”There is a physical world”中的”physical world”一字是沒有意思的。
例如當我對於”電腦”一字沒有任何感覺經驗 則我不會知道”電腦” 的意思。
“現象”指的是人心中的感官內容, 因此存在的只有現象界 而我們所能觀察的只是 sense data。
Sense data只存在於心中 當觀察就會存在 而不觀察就不存在
因此”存在只是被觀察”

解釋二的主張

1. 想像中的東西都是心靈之內出現。 2. 因此不在心靈之內的東西不能設想。 3. 邏輯上不可能設想不能設想的。 4. 因此邏輯上不可能設想不在心靈之內的東西。 5. 因此不在心靈之內東西是不能設想的。 6. 不能設想的東西是不存在。 7. 因此不在心靈之內的東西是不存在。 8. 物體(外在世界)是不存在於心靈中。 9. 物體是不存在的。
由於物體不存在 因此存在的只有心靈 觀念以及sense data

對柏克萊論證的批評: 1. 如果唯心論為真 則難以區分真實及幻象 2. 引起唯我論 3. 與科學理論有衝突 4. 混淆了 concept及object 例如concept是”Vincent”這個名字 而object是Vincent本人。 “Vincent”這個concept是存於心中 不等於本人也在心靈中出現。 5. “不在心靈之內的東西不能設想。 邏輯上不可能設想不能設想的。 因此邏輯上不可能設想不在心靈之內的東西。”

以上論證具有這個形式 1. X是y 2. 不能設想y 3. 不能設想x 反例: 1. 昨晚所談及的是自相矛盾的東西 2. 不能設想自相矛盾的東西 3. 不能設想昨晚所談及的 因此柏克萊解釋二中的推論是有問題的。 6. 解釋一先假設經驗內容不是緣於外物而是sense data

維根斯坦的語理分析方法:

要解釋一個字的意思可用以下兩個方法 1. 定義—以文字明確描述一個字的意思 (例如王老五即未婚的成年漢) 2. 例子—提出該字的一些典型例子及非典型例子

Meaning as use
一個字的意思在於一個字的日常用法 而懂得如何使用一個字即掌握其意思
因此解釋一個字的意思為描述其用法。

維根斯坦認為哲學問題是偽問題
不能以經驗科學及推理而解決問題
哲學問題只是言語的誤用 要重新說明一些字的用法。
在說明就會發現這些問題是沒有意思的及被消解
“So philosophical problems are not solved; They can only be dissolved.”

對懷疑論的批評:

1. 前提一指我們可見的只是sense data—但這個前提是有問題的 要先分析”物體”及”sense data”的意思。

日常用法下的”物體” a. 物體是指一些佔空間的東西 例如有長, 寬等等。 b. 物體的典型例子有桌子, 筆等等。 c. 物體的非典型例子有快樂 ,夢等等。 日常用法下的”筆” a. 用來書寫 有其獨有形象 不會說”看到筆的現象” b. 不會說椅子等是筆 日常用法下”心靈以外”及”心靈以外” a. 我們可以直接看到身體,物體存在於心靈以外 b. 所謂於”心靈以內”的東西為感覺,腦中的影像等。

根據懷疑論的說法,我們手中所持的只是一組sense data,而不是”筆” 這個說法是什麼意思? 懷疑論者只是用了一些新用法,例如我們所稱”筆”,他們稱”筆的sense data” 我們稱”心靈以外”為”心靈以內”, 因此只是和我們用了不同但有相同意思的語言。 懷疑論者只是引用一些與日常用法相同意思的字詞,因此不足以證明日常用法為 錯,難以指出”我們可以直接觀察世界”是錯。
懷疑論回應:
日常語言/常識是錯的,根本不能直接觀察物體。
回答:
如果我們觀察到的只是一堆sense data,而不是筆,椅等等。
則什麼才算是筆? 因此是有問題的。

懷疑論指我們可以直接觀察物體只是腦中的圖像。
腦中的圖像指例如當我合上眼在腦中想到朋友的影像
”錯覺”一字的日常用法是指只有我看見一些東西,而所有人皆看不到。
而”錯覺”往往是腦中的圖像。
但所謂筆等等是物體,但以腦中的圖像來指這些物體是錯的。
因此根據日常語言,可以說我們能夠直接觀察物體。

懷疑論指出不跟從日常語言的用法而用新用法
在其新用法下我們所知道的只是sense data
回答:
要指出一些給予了什麼的新用法,但似乎懷疑論者沒有指出,因此其意思不明。
如果意思不明,則無法指出與common sense有什麼衝突以及如何證明懷疑論者的宣稱是真的。

如果懷疑論者不跟從日常語言而又不能解釋其給予的新意思,則其宣稱是沒有意思而且不能威脅common sense。
因此如果懷疑論者跟從日常語言, 則其宣稱是語言上的誤用。
如果不是跟從日常語言,則意思不明。

對維根斯坦方法的可能批評:

1. 如果我們所感知的是物體,則即使我們不觀察其也會存在。 2. 我們不能知道當我們不觀察時物體是否存在。 3. 我們不能知道觀察的是否物體。

我們如何知道日常語言是正確? 答: 語言並非命題,不會有真假,而只是一套規則系統。 用錯的意思為,即不能跟隨慣常用法。例如說一個男人是女人 而日常語言就是一個標準去量度有冇”用錯”。 所以說一個量度準則是錯的似乎有問題。

對懷疑論的反駁 first argument from illusion 1. 我們所能直接感知的會隨著觀察角度不同而改變。 2. 物體並不會因觀察角度不同而改變。 3. 因此我們所見的並不是物體。

前提一是有問題的,改變是有可能的,但性質上的改變,而且這些改變之間是沒有矛盾。
J. L. Austin’s example
“If [a] church were cunningly camouflaged so that it looked like a barn, how could any serious question be raised about what we see when we look at it? We see, of course, a church that now looks like a barn. We do not see an immaterial barn, an immaterial church, or an immaterial anything else.”

如果我們見到的確實是一個教堂,即使其很像馬槽,它還是教堂而不是馬槽
因此物體不會因我們觀察而改變,即使物體似乎因不同觀察角度而改變,物體也不會真的因為觀察角度不同而改變。(例如一支筆在不同角度下有不同色, 但不會因觀察角度不同而令筆的本質改變。)

對first argument from illusion的可能辯護: 1. 我們所見的物體不停出現變化,是基於觀察角度的不同。 2. 物體,如果有的話並不會因觀察角度的不同而不停變化。 3. 因此我們所見的並非物體。
前提一是正確的,但邏輯上有問題,有可能前提真而結論假。

The second argument from illusion 1. 我們所直接感知的東西可以具有不一致的特性。 2. 物體不可能具有不一致的特性。 3. 因此我們直接感知的並不是物體。
前提一是假的, 由不同角度觀察可以有不同的色彩, 但由同一角度看不會出現不同的色彩,因此物體不具有不一致的特性。

first skeptical argument 1. 我們可以直接感知的都是現象

2. 如果我們可以直接感知的都是現象, 則我們不能知道心靈以外的事物

3. 因此我們不能知道心靈以外的事物。

前提一是可疑的,由兩個argument from illusion皆失敗,無法支持前提一

second skeptical argument 1. 如果我們不知道自己是否筒中之腦, 則不會知道我們的感觀是否可靠。 2. 我們不知道自己是否筒中之腦。 3. 因此知道我們的感觀是否可靠。

前提二是假的,因為我們知道自己不是筒中之腦。…...

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