Premium Essay

Science Lab

In: Science

Submitted By dscmommy
Words 4071
Pages 17
Environmental Science

Table of Contents

Lab 2
Water Quality and Contamination

21

Water Quality and Contamination
Concepts to Explore


Usable water



Ground water contaminates



Ground water



Water treatment



Surface water



Drinking water quality

Figure 1: At any given moment, 97% of the planet’s water is in the oceans. Only a small fraction of the remaining freshwater is usable by humans, underscoring the importance of treating our water supplies with care.

Introduction
It is no secret that water is one of the most valuable resources on planet Earth. Every plant and animal requires water to survive, not only for drinking, but also for food production, shelter creation and many other necessities. Water has also played a major role in transforming the earth’s surface into the varied topography we see today.

While more than 70% of our planet is covered in water, only a small percent of this water is usable freshwater.
The other 99% of the water is composed primarily of salt water, with a small percentage being composed of

23

Water Quality and Contamination glaciers. Due to the high costs involved in transforming salt water into freshwater, the Earth’s population survives off the less than 1% of freshwater available. Humans obtain freshwater from either surface water or groundwater. Surface water is the water that collects on the ground as a result of precipitation. The water that does not evaporate back into the atmosphere or infiltrate into the ground is typically collected in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other bodies of water and is easily accessible.

Precipitation
Precipitation

Precipitation

Transpiration
Cloud formation
Evaporation
Evaporation

Groundwater

Figure 2: Water is a renewable source, purified and delivered across the planet by the hydrological cycle.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Science Lab Tech

...CHEM 321 Experiment 1 Basics Review and Calibration of Volumetric Glassware There are three types of containers used in lab to contain or deliver liquids: volumetric, ordinary, and disposable glassware. Volumetric glassware are containers that have been calibrated at a specific temperature to deliver or contain VERY PRECISE amounts of liquid. Examples of volumetric glassware that we will use include burets, pipets, and volumetric flasks. Ordinary glassware has less precise volume calibrations and are used whenever the volumes do not have to be measured as accurately. Examples include beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, and graduated cylinders. Disposable glassware (or plastic ware) is used to transfer or hold liquids temporarily and may not contain any volume markings. Examples include medicine droppers and disposable pipets. In this experiment you will be exposed to a variety of important concepts related to quantitative experimentation, including the proper use of glassware, analytical balances, and statistics. You will calibrate a volumetric pipet or flask, that is, you will experimentally determine what volume a pipet or flask really delivers. You will also calibrate a beaker or Erlenmeyer flask and a 50 mL buret. You will use these calibrated values throughout the remainder of the quarter. Construct a table at the front of your laboratory notebook to record calibration values or tape in the calibration tables from Chapter 2 of Harris’ 7th edition. How to read the level of......

Words: 3567 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Lab Research Report 1: Procedures in the Physical Sciences

...Lab Research Report 1: Procedures in the Physical Sciences Rhoda H. Jefferson Professor Cassie Prisco Introduction to Physical Science November 2, 2013 The specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science are measuring global warming and climate changes, measuring how the earth rotates on its axis, and measuring the distance from the earth to the stars. Scientist have had these issues for a number of years but overcome using indirect forms to measure these challenges. For global warming, scientist used a 350-year record of precipitation in California determined by using 52 tree ring chronologies as proxies for precipitation. (www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/11/12/pdf/i1052-5173-11-12-41.pdf) This method was used to determine average annual precipitation, which showed extended dry periods. These methods were not 100% because there were no baselines to compare. In this day and time to obtain a temperature that represents a large area, it requires measurements of multiple locations. Measurements are taken by thermometers, and averaged together, this can aide in determining regional trends. (http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/taking-the-earths-temperature) Another challenge that scientist come up against is measuring how the earth rotates on its axis. When the earth rotates on its axis, it fluctuates in relation to space. This is caused by the gravity from the sun and the......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health Science Unit 1 Lab Questions

...does the health care system in the US differ from the system in other developed countries? The health care system differs from the system in the U.S. is that they make everyone all citizens buy insurance and the poor are subsidzed. 8. What are some of the challenges in reforming the health insurance system? Some of the challenges in reforming the health insurance system is asking yourself will this work or will it cost more in the long run? Also everyone from the Congress, Doctors, and Insurance people have to agree on the same health system for it to pass. Because if you think about it everyone has to work together for things to get better. 9. As a future health science professional, how would you reform the health insurance/care system in the United States As a future health science professional i would reform the health insurance care system in the United States first by not rejecting people just because they have a health problem. I think everyone at least needs to have some kind of insurance plan. The second thing I would to fix the health plan in the United States is to make the insurance not so crazy high so nobody can pay for it and also lower the premium for what you had to pay every month and lower the deductible so if they had to have a life or death surgery and it cost 50,000 U.S. American Dollars they would have to pay little to nothing at all....

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Science Lab

... Cindy Rodriguez Professor. Mascarano Biology Lab Fall 2014 Determining the properties of an enzyme Abstract: To determine the properties of an enzyme, a peroxidase, turnip extract is used in this experiment Enzymes are large proteins that are responsible for the speed at which chemical reactions they are involved in taking place. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, the amount of energy necessary to trigger a reaction .Using Peroxidase ,Turnip extract which is expermitnatal easy to prepare and examime that is This experiment determines the effects that concentration temperature, ph, boiling have on an enzymes ability to perform its work. It is hypothesized that none of these variables will have any effect on the activity of the enzyme. Introduction : This expermient with present various temperates and ph levels to be teste in order to determine the properties of an enzyme. An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst, that changes the rate of a reaction with no help of energy. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction the amount of energy necessary to trigger a reaction. Most enzymes are proteins that have a unique shapes which are determined by their amino acid sequences.The shape of the enzyme called the active site determines its catalytic effects. The active site of each type of a unique shape that allows the enzyme to bind with only certain kinds of enzymes......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Science Conservation of Mass Lab

...SNC 2D Conservation of Mass Lab Activity Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to investigate whether mass is conserved during chemical reactions. Hypothesis: Write a hypothesis predicting whether or not the mass will be conserved during a chemical reaction. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Materials: Safety Goggles 250mL Erlenmeyer flask plus rubber stopper One micro test tube Electronic scale Solutions: Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Sodium bicarbonate potassium thiocyanate solution Dilute hydrochloric acid iron (III) chloride solution Procedure: Reaction 1 1. Add some sodium bicarbonate powder to the Erlenmeyer flask. 2. HALF-fill the micro test tube with hydrochloric acid. 3. Carefully place the micro test tube into the Erlenmeyer flask. 4. Place the rubber stopper on the flask. 5. Observe each of the two reactants and record their appearance in the table below. 6. Use the electronic balance at the front of the class to determine the total mass of the materials and record it in the table below. 7. With your hand over the rubber stopper, turn the flask upside down. When the reaction is over, turn the flask back over and record the appearance of the products. 8. Use the electronic scale once more to determine the mass of the products and......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Clinical Lab Science

...Clinical Laboratory Science 1. What is the scope of practice for the designated health profession? If there are assistants or technicians within the profession, please include their scope of practice as well. * Medical Laboratory professionals, as members of the healthcare team, contribute to the prevention of disease, and the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of pathophysiological conditions in humans. Medical laboratory personnel are responsible for assuring reliable and accurate laboratory test results. 2. In what settings might this professional work? * Clinical laboratory technicians can work in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, for-profit laboratories, clinical, nursing homes, public health facilities, private laboratories, doctors' offices, research, sales and commercial laboratories. 3. If there are areas of specialization for this profession, please list and describe at least 3. Do these specializations require further education or credentialing? Education depends on area of specialization. Clinical Laboratory Scientist programs can range from certificate level to doctoral level. For positions as Blood Bank Technologists, Medical Technologists, Cytotechnologist and Histotechnologists, a bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement. Some of the areas of specialization in this field include: * Blood Bank Technology Specialist: A Blood Bank Technology Specialist is responsible for performing and supervising routine and......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ultraviolet Light Science Lab Report

...Ultraviolet Light Science Lab Report Purpose: To see what and how we are protected from Ultraviolet Lights. Introduction: I am trying to test the effect of ultraviolet rays from the Sun on the skin. The ultraviolet rays from the Sun cannot be seen with the eye, but can still hurt you. The Sun releases radiation, which is electromagnetic waves of infrared (IR) to ultraviolet rays (UV). The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from longer wavelengths (IR) to shorter wavelengths (UV). Ultraviolet rays are closer to the shorter wavelengths, and can go through layers of skin and harm our bodies. The two types of ultraviolet rays are UVA and UVB. UVA are long wavelengths that go through the many layers of the skin, and may cause cancer. UVB are shorter wavelengths, and do not go through the multiple layers of the skin, but can also cause skin cancer. Sunscreen helps protect the skin from these harmful rays. The higher SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of the sunscreen, the better protected your skin will be. The prediction is one of the beads with the sunscreen will work better than the other because of the SPF number. The higher the SPF sunscreen, the better it will work. It will block the ultraviolet rays from the Sun from going through multiple layers of your skin. Sunscreen only protects us from UVB rays The independent variable is the Ultraviolet Light and the dependent variable is the different sunscreen. The control is the beads without sunscreen. The......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Physical Science Lab 2

...UMUC NSCI 101/103 Lab 2: Types of Forces INSTRUCTIONS: On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 2 Answer Form electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed on your Course Schedule (under Syllabus). To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual that is available in the classroom. Laboratory exercises on your CD may not be updated. Save your Lab 2 Answer Form in the following format: LastName_Lab2 (e.g., Smith_Lab2). You should submit your document in a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) for best compatibility. Experiment 1: Friction Table 1: Applied Force Required to Slide Cup |Cup Material |Force Applied F1 |Force Applied F2 |F1 / FN1 |F2 / FN2 | | |m1 = 300 g water |m2 = 150 g water | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Plastic | | | | | | ...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Lab 1 Intro to Science

...TYPE YOUR FULL NAME: Clarence Loveless TYPE YOUR FULL NAME: Clarence Loveless UMUC Physical Science 101/103 Lab 1: Introduction to Science INSTRUCTIONS: * On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 1 Answer Form and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed on your Course Schedule (under Syllabus). * To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual that is available in the classroom. Laboratory exercises on your CD may not be updated. * Save your Lab 1 Answer Form in the following format: LastName_Lab1 (e.g., Smith_Lab1). * Submit your document in a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) for best compatibility. Exercise 1: Data Interpretation Table 1: Water Quality vs. Fish Population Dissolved Oxygen | 0 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 | 12 | 14 | 16 | 18 | Number of Fish Observed | 0 | 1 | 3 | 10 | 12 | 13 | 15 | 10 | 12 | 13 | 1. What patterns do you observe based on the information in Table 1? One pattern I observe was in the number of increments. ie….0,1,1,4,4,3,3,4,4,5. The increments would stay the same between for two observation periods with the exception of the 1st and last observation period. 2. Develop a hypothesis relating to the amount of dissolved oxygen measured in the water sample and the number of fish observed in the body of water. If the amount of dissolved oxygen increases in water then the amount of fish will also increase. 3. What would your experimental......

Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Lab 24 Science

...# Lab Title 1 Performing Reconnaissance and Probing using Common Tools 2 Performing a Vulnerability Assessment 3 Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls 4 Using Group Policy Objects and Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer for Change Control 5 Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis 6 Implementing a Business Continuity Plan 7 Using Encryption to Enhance Confidentiality and Integrity 8 Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities 9 Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach 10 Impementing an Information Systems Security Policy# Lab Title 1 Performing Reconnaissance and Probing using Common Tools 2 Performing a Vulnerability Assessment 3 Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls 4 Using Group Policy Objects and Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer for Change Control 5 Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis 6 Implementing a Business Continuity Plan 7 Using Encryption to Enhance Confidentiality and Integrity 8 Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities 9 Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach 10 Impementing an Information Systems Security Policy# Lab Title 1 Performing Reconnaissance and Probing using Common Tools 2 Performing a Vulnerability Assessment 3 Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls 4 Using Group Policy Objects and Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer for Change......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Science Labs

...Chemical and Mechanical Weathering of Rock Lab Lauren Templeton, Heather Mullen, Katherine Welmaker, Becca Gojda 2 October 2015 Abstract This lab explores several different forms of weathering and the specific effects they have on rocks. Mechanical Weathering was found to reduce the weight of different types of rocks more efficiently than others. Geological Changes were found to make small physical changes to the exterior of the rock. Glacial Changes were found to affect the ground through the the sand the “glacier” moved around. Chemical Weathering was found to quickly dissolve the marble but not the granite. Oxidation was found to dissolve the pyrite very quickly and continue to dissolve it over the next 2-3 days. Organic Processes were found to have a major physical effect on the paste as it broke it apart. Materials Bean Seeds, 10 Magnifying glass Calcium sulfate, CaSO4, 2 spoonfuls Marker Granite chips, 20 g Paper towels Halite chips, 15 g Pipets, Beral, graduated Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 1 M, 15 mL Plastic cups, small, 3 Ice cube Sample......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Science

...Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding1. It is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural processes under controlled conditions. (There are, of course, more definitions of science.) Consider some examples. An ecologist observing the territorial behaviors of bluebirds and a geologist examining the distribution of fossils in an outcrop are both scientists making observations in order to find patterns in natural phenomena. They just do it outdoors and thus entertain the general public with their behavior. An astrophysicist photographing distant galaxies and a climatologist sifting data from weather balloons similarly are also scientists making observations, but in more discrete settings. The examples above are observational science, but there is also experimental science. A chemist observing the rates of one chemical reaction at a variety of temperatures and a nuclear physicist recording the results of bombardment of a particular kind of matter with neutrons are both scientists performing experiments to see what consistent patterns emerge. A biologist observing the reaction of a particular tissue to various stimulants is likewise experimenting to find patterns of behavior. These folks usually do their work in labs and wear......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sci 207 Week 1 Lab 1 Introduction to Science

...Introduction to Science Name SCI 207 Date Lab 1 - Exercise 1: Data Interpretation Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since many living organism requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams, lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in units of parts per million (ppm). Examine the data in Table 4 showing the amount of dissolved oxygen present and the number of fish observed in the body of water the sample was taken from; finally, answer the questions below. Questions 1. What patterns do you observe based on the information in Table 4? The fewer amounts of fish, the more oxygen there is in the water. They oxygen is measured in 2’s and the less fish there is the more oxygen there is. 2. Develop a hypothesis relating to the amount of dissolved oxygen measured in the water sample and the number of fish observed in the body of water? The more fish there is, the less amount of oxygen there is in the water. According to author’s Mckinsey& Chapman, “for fishes, dissolved oxygen is an abiotic factor that can limit habitat quality and affect survival, growth, and reproduction” (Mckinsey, D. & Chapman, L. 1998, pg. 211, para. 1). 3. What would your experimental approach be to test this hypothesis? I would add fish to the water and test the oxygen, and then remove fish and test......

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sustainability Environmental Science W/Lab

...iLab 7: Sustainability Environmental Science w/Lab (exercises 1-4) Melissa Rodriguez Exercise 1: There are quite a few landfills in the state of Illinois. I found that depending on where you are in the state – county wise – that will depend on where the trash will be taken to. I am interested in finding more information on the following two landfills – Advanced Disposal Services Zion Landfill, in Zion, which takes about 28% of the trash in the state, and River Bend Prairie Landfill, in Dolton, which takes about 1.5% of trash for the city of Chicago. For the state of Illinois, there have been 33 landfills that have been found abandoned. The problems with the landfills not being properly sealed and closed: they look and smell bad, they have exposed garbage, and have the potential of contamination to both groundwater & surface water. Both the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois has received monies from the Environmental Protection Agencies in order to conduct inspections, investigate complaints & train landfill inspectors under the state’s certification requirements. Exercise 2: Of course we can go on for days about the concerns associated with plastic bags, but the two that I picked – one of the top 10 pieces of trash collected on beaches and the major cause of death of many marine animals, are the ones that I am very concerned about. When plastic bags are found on the beaches by the marine animals, it is a sad instance to see when an animal eats it......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Science Lab

...Exercise 1. Part 1) How does a class being conducted online instead of on campus increase or decrease the classes' contribution to the carbon cycle during the term? Consider the differences between the two in terms of methods of travel, and use of facilities, energy, and other resources. Remember to focus on the impact to the carbon cycle. Part 2) Complete the ecological footprint quiz at the following link: http://myfootprint.org/en/visitor_information and report your results. What did you learn about you and your family's impact on the environment? • Part 1) We decrease the distribution to the carbon cycle by being in online classes, because the burning of fossil fuels increase the amount of CO2 being distributed into the air. Being in online classes keeps one indoors to do their classwork and participate. • Part 2) My carbon footprint is 59.47, My food footprint is 76.46, My housing footprint is 34.17, My goods and services footprint is 21.15. If everyone in the planet lived my lifestyle, we would need 4.95 earths. After doing this quiz, it showed me that I need to start recycling a little more and buying products that would be better for me and the environment specially when it comes to the foods I eat, I need to eat more healthier and spend less on fast food items which is something me and my family frequent every weekend. I did not know just the little things I do could effect the environment so much. Exercise 2. Using ONE ecosystem from the list below, explain the......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2