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San Pedro Sula

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San Pedro Sula (Spanish pronunciation: [sam ˈpeðɾo sula]) is a city in Honduras. The city is located in the northwest corner of the country, in the Valle de Sula (Sula Valley), about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of Puerto Cortés on the Caribbean Sea. With an estimated population of 873,824 people in the main municipality, and 1,245,598 in its metro area (2010), it is the second largest city, after the capital Tegucigalpa. It is the capital of the Cortés Department. As of 2013 San Pedro Sula has the highest murder rate on Earth.

San Pedro Sula was founded on 27 June 1536, by Pedro de Alvarado under the name Villa de San Pedro de Puerto Caballos, close to the town of Choloma. There were around 18 towns populated by indigenous people in the Sula valley at the time. Early descriptions of the landscape indicate abundant swampland and dense tropical forests, with little land good for agriculture or cattle raising. The city's name became San Pedro Sula in the 18th century, after several changes. The "Sula" part of its name comes from the Minas de Sula, gold mines located to the west of the village of Naco.

Panoramic view of Downtown San Pedro Sula
For the first few years of its history, San Pedro was the colonial mint, where gold, found to the west in the Naco, Sula, and Quimistán valleys, had to be brought to smelt, and where the Spanish Crown collected a fifth of the value of the gold. The mint was moved toGracias, and ultimately to Comayagua in the 1550s.
French, English, and Dutch pirates raided and sacked the city, prompting the Spaniards to move the city to its current location along the Chamelecón River. San Pedro languished to a neglected backwater, with few Spanish settlers. New settlers were not attracted to the city, preferring the higher, drier valleys inland with more farmland and gold mines. At the same time, lax Spanish control spurred illicit trade in alcohol from the Caribbean islands, such as Cuba.[citation needed]

Municipal Palace
The city grew slowly from about 800 residents in 1590, to almost 10,000 by the 1890s, but most of this population growth took place in the 19th century. It benefited initially from the growth of bananas for export in the 1870s and 1880s and formed a close relationship with U.S. based shipper and railroad entrepreneur Samuel Zemurray's Cuyamel Fruit Company, and the construction of the Interoceanic Railroad between 1869 and 1874 which connected the city to the coast at Puerto Cortés. Zemurray worked closely with local elites who invested in subsidiary enterprises and thus shaped the way politically for Cuyamel to establish itself and, along the way to pay very few taxes.[3]
San Pedro Sula was officially recognized as a city by the Congress of Honduras on 8 October 1902. In the mid-1920s, it grew from 10,000 to 100,000 people, following a boom in banana plantations in the region.
In 2013, fifteen years after the effects of Hurricane Mitch, Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America; around San Pedro Sula, banana production has not fully recovered, and "manufacturing has all but dried up."[4] The problems are exacerbated by organized crime, whose rules prevent residents from safely leaving gang-controlled neighborhoods such as Chamelecón for jobs in other parts of town.[4]
In 2000, then-Mayor Roberto Larios Silva said "San Pedro Sula is where the economic development of the country is concentrated via the city’s industrial, commercial and financial development." The then-manager of Hotel Copantl attributed its growth in business-related tourism ...[to] the maquila (apparel manufacturing) industry.[5]
As of 2011, San Pedro Sula generates two-thirds of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).[6]
In 2011, the city had 159 homicides per 100,000 residents.[7] This surpassed Ciudad Juarez, Mexico's rate of 148 killings per 100,000; Ciudad Juarez had previously topped the list for three consecutive years.[7] Both cities are major operational and strategic distribution points in the illegal drug trade, particularly to the United States, and have significant gang activity.[7][8][9] Meanwhile arms trafficking has flooded the country with just under 70% illegal firearms; 83% of homicides in the city are by firearm compared.[10]
The city's growing role as a hub for cocaine trafficking has led to a surge in homicides [11] in recent years. For the second year in a row, San Pedro Sula had the highest murder rate in the world,[12][13] surpassing Mexico's Ciudad Juárez. San Pedro Sula topped the list of violent cities a second time with a rate of 169 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants, setting an average of more than three homicides a day.[14] Authorities have launched Operation Lightning, saturating violence hotspots with police and soldiers.[14]
In 2013, various sources label San Pedro Sula the "murder capital of the world."[4][8][10][14][15]
According to the Los Angeles Times, "the homicide rate is stoked by the rivalry of the brutal street gangs, mostly descendants of gangs formed in Los Angeles and deported to Central America in the 1990s. Mara Salvatrucha — MS. The 18th Street gang. Their ranks are fed by the economic disaster that is Honduras and emboldened more recently by alliances with Mexican drug traffickers moving cocaine through the country."[4]
San Pedro Sula features a tropical savanna climate (Koppen Aw), with year-round relatively high temperatures and plentiful rainfall year round. San Pedro Sula has experienced hurricanes and tropical storms and is prone to them during the hurricane season usually when the storms form in the southern part of the Caribbean or Western Africa.
[hide]Climate data for San Pedro Sula, Honduras (1991–2009)
Administrative divisions[edit]

San Pedro Sula's Old Train Station.
Main article: List of neighborhoods in San Pedro Sula
San Pedro Sula, as most cities built under the Spanish colonial period, is divided in quadrants. Avenues in the city run from North to South and Streets run from East to West. First Street and First Avenue mark the "center of the city" and effectively divide it into four major quadrants NW, NE, SW and SE. The technical center of the city is located where both First Street and Avenue meet, but the Central Park on First Street and Third Avenue is considered the true center. Like most other Latin American cities, the Cathedral and City Hall are located in front of the Central Park.
Even though most of the population is located in the Eastern part of the city, or "abajo de la linea" as it is commonly referred to, most of the business and commercial areas, as well as the modern structures, are located on the West side. A lot of the wealth is located in the West part of the city. Many areas on the East side have been growing very rapidly in the past decades. The road to La Lima has become a major commercial area.
San Pedro Sula is divided into neighborhoods such as Chamelecón. Some are named by residential developments or subdivisions. There is a recent trend in San Pedro Sula of enclosing neighborhoods into gated communities.[citation needed]
Educational institutions[edit]
Colleges and universities[edit]
San Pedro Sula is home to many colleges and universities. It is the home of the first private university in the country, the Universidad de San Pedro Sula (USAP).
Due to its influence in the industrial and commercial sectors of Honduras, San Pedro Sula has many higher education institutions that attract students from all over the country. Many people have migrated to the city to take advantage of the educational opportunities present in the city.
The following Universities are located in San Pedro Sula:
• Universidad de San Pedro Sula (USAP)
• Universidad Tecnologica Centroamericana (UNITEC)
• Universidad Tecnológica de Honduras
• Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras del Valle de Sula (UNAH VS)
• Universidad Cristiana de Honduras
• Universidad Católica de Honduras (UNICAH)
• Universidad Pedagógica Francisco Morazán
Primary and secondary schools[edit] This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. (December 2013)
There are many public and private schools in the city. The number of schools offering bilingual education has been in constant increase over the past few decades.
San Pedro Sula is the city with the most bilingual schools in Central America.[citation needed] For a full list of school go to List of Primary and Secondary schools in San Pedro Sula.
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. (December 2013)
San Pedro Sula is home to many sporting teams and events. In 1997 it became the first, and only to date, non-capital city to host the Central American Games. The games, though full of scandal,[citation needed] left the city with a modern sporting infrastructure. The Villa Olímpica is a multi-sporting complex that has facilities for most Olympic style games including soccer, boxing, swimming, baseball, cycling and multipurpose gymnasiums.
San Pedro Sula is the only city in the country to be home to two soccer stadiums. The Estadio Olímpico Metropolitano is located in the Villa Olímpica and is the largest in the country with a capacity of 42,000. The Estadio Francisco Morazán is located in the center of the city and holds 23,000 people. The stadiums are home to San Pedro Sula's most popular professional soccer teams Marathon and Real CD España. Because of the stadiums, training facilities, and an almost religious supporting fan base, San Pedro Sula has become the home for the Honduras national football team.[18]
The city has hosted many international tennis tournaments and serves as the home of the Honduran tennis team. The Club Arabe Hondureño provides great facilities for the sport.
San Pedro Sula is also home to the Liga Georgina de Villegas basketball league. The League is divided in two divisions with a promotion and relegation system. The league has a female counterpart as well that carries the same name. Many teams from neighboring cities also take part in the league as it is the highest form of competitive basketball in the area.
There are city softball (Óscar Saybe Softball League) and a baseball leagues that host seasonal competitions annually, and serve as qualifiers for the national tournaments in their respective sports. These leagues are far less popular and attract fewer fans than the city soccer teams.[citation needed] Though less supported than their soccer counterparts, the city teams enjoy much success on the national level. Azulejos, the city's baseball champion, has won the national tournament the past two years.
The Delfines Sampedranos, a local swimming club, is the most successful club in the country and the Central American region. It has dominated Central American competitions for the past several years.[citation needed]
Also it is the only city in Honduras where there is a highly developed Taekwondo center, where the only World Gold medalist in Honduras, Andrea Erazo, well known in the world of Taekwondo, trains. Some Centers are:
• Kumgang
• Honduras Idols Taekwondo
This sport is one of the only sports in Honduras that gives really good results not only in regionals or in nationals but also at international events.[citation needed]
An annual marathon sponsored by Diario La Prensa is hosted in the city.
Motorcross is also practiced in the city. The Olimpic complex has hosted motorbike and ATV racing. Endurance drives up the Merendón mountains are usually organized.
C.D. Marathón[edit]
Club Deportivo Marathón, as it is officially known, is more commonly known as just Marathón. It was founded on 25 November 1925 in San Pedro Sula by Eloy Montes and a group of his friends. The team's colors are red, white and green. It is the oldest team in the city. The team was a founding member of the Liga Nacional (Honduras's top soccer league). It plays its home games in the Estadio Yankel Rosenthal.
Real CD España[edit]
Real CD España was founded on 14 July 1929 at Escuela Ramón Rosa in San Pedro Sula. España's colors are black and yellow, a fact reflected in the club's nickname: "The Aurinegros" (a compound word meaning gold and black). It has won the national championship eleven times. It was also a founding member of the Liga Nacional. It plays its home games in Estadio Francisco Morazán.[19]
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. (December 2013)
Air travel[edit]
The city is served by Ramón Villeda Morales International Airport. It is conveniently located about 15 minutes from the city's center and serves North-Western Honduras through several domestic and international air companies, such as:United, American, Delta, COPA, Spirit Airlines, Aeroméxico, Maya Island Air, And Avianca which link the city with San Salvador, Mexico City, San José, Belize City, Managua, Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, Newark, Miami, andNew York City.
Ramón Villeda Morales Airport is the major and busiest airport in Honduras, handling about 600,000 passengers in 2007. Travelers using this airport are charged a departure tax of $38.71 to help with expansion of the airport.
Ground transportation[edit]
San Pedro Sula has a central bus station that is used by most bus companies. The bus station, called the Gran Central Metropolitana de Autobuses de San Pedro Sula, is located a few kilometers south of the downtown area It is not only the largest bus station in Central America, it also serves as a shopping center, food court, and many other services.[20]

A rapidito minibus in San Pedro Sula.
San Pedro Sula's public transportation features buses and minivans ("Rapiditos") whose smaller size permits faster service, Taxis (painted white) are easy to find. A "colectivo" is a taxi that serves a specific route that allows multiple passengers to share the cost of the trip.
San Pedro Sula is the home of CampusTv, the country's first high definition television station.[citation needed] Inaugurated in 2008 as channels 59.1 and 59.2, it is located on the Universidad de San Pedro Sula campus.
More than 80% of the population are Roman Catholics.[citation needed]
Sights include the Copán Ruins which are a three-hour drive away, Lake Yojoa and Pulhapanzak Waterfalls; Cusuco Cloud Forest; Tela and Garifuna village; and Omoa Fortress, an 18th-century outpost.
• Museo de Antropología e Historia (The Museum of Anthropology and History)
• Museo de la Naturaleza (The Museum of Nature)
• Planetario Infantil (The Child Planetarium)
The Museo de Antropología e Historia is licensed by the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History to house archaeological and historical collections, which by law belong to the people of Honduras. The ground floor of the museum is devoted to the history of Honduras, and San Pedro Sula in particular. The upper floor exhibits are about the prehistory of the valley in which San Pedro is located. The Museum has a research library with information relating to the history of Honduras. The museum director is Teresa de Pastor.

San Pedro Sula's municipal palace.
The second museum has to do with the flora and fauna surrounding the city. This museum houses several insect species, as well as books about the nature and the animals found in the Merendon mountains. This museum is directed by Gladys Fasquelle de Pastor.
The planetarium is an astronomy museum. It shows the night sky as seen from San Pedro Sula, while also providing information about the solar system, constellations, and a small space exhibit.
Central Park[edit]
Although the downtown area officially begins at First Avenue, the commercial hub begins at Third. Central Park is located between these, and it contains a small gazebo in the center, marking the spot where the city was founded. This gazebo is the only piece of architecture that remains standing to this day from the date when it was built in 1901 by then governor Luis Alonso Barahona. This gazebo served as a provisional church at the turn of the 20th century while the cathedral was being built. Currently, cultural and musical events are held on weekends. The statue in the center depicts two women doing laundry on a river bank.
Zona de Armenta[edit]
The Zona de Armenta is a cold-water river that comes from the Merendón mountain range. The park is located in the Northeastern part of the city and serves as a recreational area for many people in the city. The river has several areas that are open for swimming as well as places to purchase food.
Mercado Guamilito[edit]
Vendors sell crafts, pottery, souvenirs, flowers and local Honduran food.
• The Francisco Saybe Theatre
• Centro Cultural Sampedrano
• Torre Universitaria Jorge Emilio Jaar
Avenida Circunvalación[edit]
Avenida Circunvalación is a popular zone to visit at night. There are many restaurants and it is home to events like the Feria Juniana that is celebrated in June. This part of the city also contains hotels, malls, banks, auto dealers and fast-food chains.…...

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... Question 4 a) Describe your recommendation for Pedro to get ready for his meeting with the venture capitalist Before Pedro meet with his potential venture capitalist, there is some preparation need to be done in order to increase his chance of success. Firstly, Pedro needs to ready a comprehensive business plan which covers essential points such as executive summary, market analysis, marketing and sales strategies, management structure, marketing and sales strategies, product details, funding request, company financial situation and appendices. In order to help venture capitalist to understand his business, it will be helpful for Pedro to include an investment highlight page at the beginning of the business plan which clearly describes the business nature, market, and other success indicators. The next thing is Pedro can look for someone that had rich experience in capital rising to be his mentor. It will be helpful for him to have a venture-capitalist mentor who had experienced in capital rising or has advise on venture capital transactions negotiation. The mentor can help Pedro to be focus on the important issues so that Pedro won’t waste time go around the bush when he meet the venture capitalist. Beside this, mentor also can comfort him during the difficult time he had and teach him to be optimistic, patient and be tough about the risk and challenges he faced. Besides that, Pedro will need to prepare a specific presentation that not too......

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...Sula is a novel about self-creation, about women, about men, and about a culture. The girls, Sula and Nel, realize early on that the world does not easily accommodate people such as them: “Because each had discovered years before that they were neither white nor male, and that all freedom and triumph was forbidden to them, they set about creating something else to be.” They would be black women. That means something different to each of them. For Nel, it means becoming a wife and mother, sustaining the values of the community. For Sula, it means living an “experimental life,” rejecting commonly held values. Nel tells Sula, “You can’t do it all. You a woman and a colored woman at that. You can’t act like a man. You can’t be walking around all independent-like, doing whatever you like, taking what you want, leaving what you don’t.” Sula will not accept such limitations. When Nel demands to know what Sula has gained from her choices—having no husband and no children; her grandmother put away in a nursing home; her mother, father, and uncle dead; residents of the Bottom all despising her—Sula responds, “Girl, I got my mind. And what goes on in it. Which is to say, I got me.” Nel, on the other hand, has loneliness, an empty space that Jude used to fill, and another one Sula formerly occupied. Sula’s self-knowledge and Nel’s connection to other people are both essential to human existence. Each woman, even if only momentarily, comes to understand that. Fire and water are......

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...Shalise Edwards November 30, 2014 Dr. J. Jones ENG 348 Analysis of Sula by Toni Morrison Sula by Toni Morrison was a very interesting and enlightening literary work. Morrison has relayed a message of good versus evil in the novel involving the main characters, Sula and Nel. Nel was portrayed as the good character, while Sula was depicted as the evil character. In the life of Sula, there was good in her situation because she seemed to shed some light on the readers. She was instructive to the readers because of the destruction that took place in her life. Personally speaking, a reader would side with Nel because of all the good she seems to portray, but she was not always perfect. Nel found herself in mirrors looking at her nose in disgust because her mother, who was so upright and orderly, did not like her nose. Her nose reminded her mother, Helene, of the broadened nose her husband genetically passed down to his daughter. In her childhood, she convinced herself that she liked herself just as she was. For example, Nel stated “I’m me,” several times until she drifted off to sleep. She made this statement to help herself realize at an early age that she can be no one but herself. Throughout the novel, Nel convinces herself she is fine, or good just as she is; no one had the ability to tell her otherwise. When Nel and Sula became best friends, they were “one.” Secretly, Nel desired to be a part of Sula’s household because of the disorder and numerous families that lived......

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Sula Vineyard Case Study

...prospects of growth for wine in India are high as the expanding domestic wine market is projected to grow 25 – 30 percent per year. In anticipation of this market growth, Sula Vineyard should improve its operational cash flows by efficient management of working capital to help increase net profit (retained earnings). Additional equity funding through external source of capital such as preferred stock can provide quick access to funds and reduce the risk of financing through long term and short term loans. The issuance of preferred stock also preserves the ownership of the company since it does not give the holder voting rights. Between year 2004 to 2007, Sula Vineyards has not been generating positive cash flow from operations (Exhibit 1). Cash shortage means the company is not operating profitably so it needs to secure new funds for the expansion of winery capacity and inventories. However, Sula Vineyards has not been able to generate sufficient operating income to cover interest expense so there is little room for taking extra debt (Exhibit 2). Upon close examination of the working capitals, Sula Vineyards’ negative cash flow is caused by unfavorable cash flows from inventories (Exhibit 3). The inventory turnover days have been increasing over the years as a result of change in product mix. On average, Sula Vineyards takes 475 days to sell its inventories. Hampered by the slow inventory turnover, the company cannot rely solely on internal source of capital generated......

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