Free Essay

Sample

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By venisecruz
Words 2860
Pages 12
INTRODUCTION

Dear Mr. Arbors:

As we agreed two months ago, I have prepared this report for your company, Waterloo Brewing. Waterloo, at present, runs a Local Area Network (LAN), with a server and 4 dumb terminals. Currently, this system is protected with a surge suppression system, in the form of special wall receptacles that trips a breaker if a spike occurs. There is no protection on the phone line. This report offers technical background information on an alternative power protection device designed specifically for businesses that use LANs in their day-to-day operations; that device is called an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). This report compares three of the top name brands in UPSs in a point-by point comparison and offers conclusions and final recommendations for the purchase of a UPS, as well as a glossary to help define terms that are unfamiliar.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND

Background on power supplies

To reduce the risk of losing data to power failure, many companies protect their servers with uninterruptible power supplies. A UPS uses batteries to provide power to a connected computer in the event of a brownout or blackout. "Dirty power" is the industry term for changes, variances, and disturbances that occur during normal usage of utility provided power.
A perfect sine-wave can become system-shocking "dirty power" without notice and can cause extreme damage to data and computers alike. Other equipment nearby can produce "noise on the line" that can wreak havoc with a computing environment. IBM recently reported in a study of power sources that a typical processor encounters around 128 power problems a month. These problems can be caused externally by brownouts or load switches or grid problems at the utility or caused internally by subtle disturbances from sources such as copiers, flourescent lights, faxes or even vending machines. Spikes, surges, sags, gaps, as well as electrostatic and electromagnetic interference attack your delicate electrical environment on a daily basis. UPSs provide reliable continous computer-grade AC power regardless of what happens to primary power sources.

REQUIREMENTS AND CRITERIA

Features required by the UPS

The following sections lists the requirements as you described in our discussions about this project, and specifically requirements related to the hardware now in place at Waterloo Brewing Company. You indicated that the cash outlay must be kept to between $200.00 and $400.00 and that the UPS must support the operating system already on the computer, which is Windows 3.1.
The hardware requires that this device be capable of running the server for 15-20 minutes, so that the manager on duty has time to effect an orderly shutdown of the system, including saving the various open ledgers and reports. To protect the computer and peripherals, the UPS should include voltage regulation, protection ports for the phone line that is connected to the computer modem, protection for the terminal connections, and a low battery indicator. The size of UPS needed is 600 VA. This number is arrived at by adding up the VA ratings of all the devices and peripherals and allowing another 40% for expansion of equipment and for fault tolerance. This allows the computer load to be 60% of the KVA rating of the UPS.

DISCUSSIONS OF THE OPTIONS

Narrowing the Field

After looking at two dozen different brands of UPS, I have been able to narrow the field to the devices that had the features we were looking for, at the price we wanted, with the best reputation. Those companies in the order of their reputation are American Power Conversion Company, Fenton Industries, and Tsi Power Company. We will compare the Smart-UPS from American Power Conversion, the PowerPal 6000 from Fenton Industries, and the UPS-600 from from Tsi Power's Flexible series.

Comparison of the Uninterruptible Power Supplies

The following compares these UPS systems according to (1) price, (2) operating system compatibility, (3) server shutdown time, (4) voltage regulation, (5) phone ports and terminal connections, and (6) batteries and indicator lights.

Prices. All of the models fell within the target budget with:

* APC's Smart-UPS, with a rating of 660 VA, listed at $344.00 on their Web site price list. * Fenton's Powerpal, with a rating of 650 VA, listed at $279.00 on their web site price list. * Tsi Power's UPS-600, with a rating of 600 VA, listed at $295.00 at Circuit City. Tsi does not offer on-line shopping.
Since all the models fell within the target range of your budget and since they all offer the total VA needed for this project, this point of comparison will have little effect on the final recommendation.

Operating system compatibility. The operating systems supported by these UPSs are as follows:

* APC's Smart-UPS are Windows, Windows 95, WinNT and Windows fro Workgroups. They also provide plug-and-play software. * Fenton's Powerpal are Novell's Netware, WinNT, Windows 95, Windows 3.1 and OS\2. Fenton includes automatic shutdown software with their UPS. * Tsi Power's UPS-600 are Novell's Netware, WinNT, Windows 95 and Windows 3.1.
Since all the models fell within the target range for this requirement, this point of comparison will have little effect on the final recommendation.

Server shutdown time. The times for server shutdown are as follows:

* APC's Smart-UPS is 25 minutes. The Smart-UPS also offers automatic shut down software. * Fenton's Powerpal is 30 minutes. Fenton also has smaller battery backups that presumably could be used to keep the terminals up and running in the case of blackouts of short duration. * Tsi Power's UPS-600 is 15 minutes. Tsi allows for expansion of the unit's batteries. The price for battery extension is $64.95 and allows for an addtional 15 minutes of backup time. Tsi also has smaller power packs for the terminals.
Fenton's Powerpal offers the longest time for shutdown. The optional automatic shutdown software offered by APC is of little use on the Squirrel system because of the procedures required to effect an orderly shutdown. The smaller battery packs offered by Fenton and Tsi are not capable of keeping the terminals up for more than 15 minutes. You would have to buy one for each of the terminals to boost the power at that location, and in the case of a complete blackout it would be better to perform the shutdown, and save the equipment from power sags and surges when the power comes back online. Fenton is the obvious choice for this point.

Voltage regulation. The fourth point of comparison involves voltage regulation. The specifications for each UPS are as follows:

* APC's Smart-UPS is full automatic voltage regulation which provides complete protection against extended brownouts or spikes without draining the batteries. * Fenton's Powerpal is built-in voltage regulation for brownout protection -- Powerpal "boosts" low voltages and "bucks" high voltages or spikes, thus extending battery life and reducing stress on the electrical equipment. * Tsi Power's UPS-600 is protection against high and low voltages.
APC and Fenton both have automatic and full-time voltage regulation. Tsi has a standby switch or inverter and only turns on when the power drops to the level of the UPS-600's low impedence switch. In some cases, this may be too late for the data in stream or the process in porgress and could result in a lack of protection in a critical area, such as in the case of lesser sags and gaps. The choices are APC or Fenton for this point.

Phone ports and terminal connections. The UPSs must also compared in terms of the phone ports and terminal connections provided for the protection of the modem and for noise suppression on the terminal lines. The phone and terminal ports offered by:

* APC's Smart-UPS are RJ11 and 10-BaseT network cable ports with surge protection. The model listed offers 4 terminal ports and one phone port. * Fenton's Powerpal are RJ11/RJ45 which includes the phone (RJ11) and the terminals (RJ45). Fenton offers surge protection for the phone lines and noise filters on the terminal lines. * Tsi Power's UPS-600 are RJ11/RJ45. They also offer "line conditioning" which is essentially noise reduction and surge suppression or you may request a low impedence system with transfer for isolation. This system works as a switch, when the threshold set for the low impedence is hit the line is switched off to prevent damage to the equipment being protected by the UPS.
APC's terminal ports would need an additional adapter to make the port accept an RJ45 connection. Fenton offers no surge protection on the terminal lines. It is unlikely that a surge would hit a terminal first, but it's still in the realm of the possible. Tsi Power's system offers the most flexible and comprehensive coverage in this area. Of special interest is the low impedence switch on the terminal lines. This offers the protection needed if the terminal is hit with a surge before the server, the low impedence switch would shut down the terminal affected by the surge, without disrupting the operation of the server or the remaining terminals. Tsi Power is the choice for the fifth point.

Batteries and indicator lights. The options for batteries and indicator lights are as follows:

* APC's Smart-UPS are an LED light to indicate low battery power and hot-swappable batteries. * Fenton's Powerpal offers a LED light to indicate low battery power and hot-swappable batteries. * Tsi Power's UPS-600 offers an LED light indicator for low battery power and hot-swappable as well as battery extensions.
APC's hot-swappable batteries mean you can change the batteries without turning off or disconnecting the UPS. Tsi Power's Battery extensions are a clincher on this point. The battery extensions are useful for systems that are planning for expansion. Remember that expansion can mean upgrading your server or adding peripherals, with this definition almost every system will experience expansion sooner or later. Tsi Power gets this point.

CONCLUSIONS

The following is a summary of the conclusions reached in the comparison section. A summary table is included between the primary and secondary conclusions section for quick reference. 1. All the units came in under the price cap. 2. All units are under the maximum price. 3. All units support Windows 3.1. 4. All units supported Windows 3.1, which is the operating system now in use on Waterloo's LAN. 5. In terms of actual time allowed for shut-down in case of complete power failure, Fenton Industries' Powerpal offers the longest time for shut-down at 30 minutes. 6. APC's Smart-UPS and Fenton's Powerpal both offer full automatic voltage regulation, which protects the computer and peripherals against spikes, sags, gaps and brownouts. 7. In terms of phone lines and terminals, Tsi Power's UPS-600 offered the most comprehensive options. 8. In terms of operation and the status indicators for the batteries, Tsi Power offered the widest range of options in this area as well. 9. APC's unit offers the best VA rating, but also carries the highest price. 10. APC offers good voltage regulation, but needs an adapter to allow for terminal connections to the unit. 11. APC also offers only fair coverage of options offered for batteries. 12. Fenton's Powerpal offers 650VA rating and is comparable in price to the lowest priced unit. 13. Fenton's unit supports Windows 3.1 and allows the longest time for shutdown. The voltage regulation is good and the phone and terminal connections are compatible. 14. Fenton offers only fair coverage of the options offered for batteries. 15. Tsi Power's UPS-600 only offers a 600VA rating for the lowest price, but that price is only lower by $4.00. 16. Tsi Power's UPS-600 actually falls out of the running because of the increased cost of bringing the shutdown time up to the level needed. It does offer some nice options on the phone/ terminal ports and batteries. Finally, APC offers most of what Fenton offers for a higher price and only a 10VA increase for the money. 17. Tsi supports Windows 3.1, but only offers 15 minutes for shutdown, if a battery extension is not purchased. These battery extensions cost $64.95 each and increase the shutdown time by 15 minutes. Tsi does offer some unique options for the terminal lines in the form of a switch on the line that can be triggered by a low impedence barrier, thus isolating the affected line, while allowing the system to continue running. The battery extensions are a plus when it comes to options for the batteries, as it allows for expansion of the system without purchasing additional units. 18. Based on the requirements and conclusions, the Fenton Industries' Powerpal is the best choice: it offers the highest VA rating for the price, while offering the most amount time allowed for the shutdown procedures.

RECOMMENDATION or FINAL OPINION

Based on the conclusions reached in this comparison, Fenton Industries' Powerpal is the best UPS and is the recommended selection for Waterloo Brewing: * It offers a good price and a VA rating of 650, which is 50 over what is needed when we use the formula described earlier. * It supports Windows 3.1. * It offers 30 minutes of shutdown time in the event of a complete blackout. * Its voltage regulation is automatic and covers brownouts, surges, and blackouts. * Its phone and terminal ports are of the type needed for the system that is in place. * Its noise suppression on the terminal line and surge protection on the phone line should cover most occurences encountered by Waterloo in their day-to-day operations. * The Fenton includes a low battery indicator, which was one of the requirements, and enables the user to change batteries while the system is up and running. * The Fenton company has a good reputation and can supply business references upon request through its computer web site.

Glossary of Terms

blackout. Total loss of utility power caused by excessive demand on the power grid, lightning storms, ice on power lines, car accidents, backhoes, earthquakes and other catastrophes. Effects include loss of current work in RAM or cache and possible loss of the hard drive file allocation table (FAT), which results in total loss of data stored on drive.

dumb terminals. A terminal that passively serves for input and/or output but performs no local processing.

KVA. VA times 1000.

noise. More technically referred to as electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI), electrical noise disrupts the smooth sine wave one expects from utility power. Electrical noise is caused by many factors and phenomena, including lightning, load switching, generators, radio transmitters and industrial equipment. It may be intermittent or chronic. Noise introduces glitches and errors into executable programs and data files.

sags. Also known as brownouts, sags are short term decreases in voltage levels. This is the most common power problem, accounting for 87% of all power disturbances according to a study by Bell Labs. Sags are usually caused by the start-up power demands of many electrical devices (including motors, compressors, elevators, shop tools, etc.) Electric companies use sags to cope with extraordinary power demands. In a procedure known as "rolling brownouts," the utility will systematically lower voltage levels in certain areas for hours or days at a time. Hot summer days, when air conditioning requirements are at their peak, will often prompt rolling brownouts. A sag can "starve" a computer of the power it needs to function, and cause frozen keyboards and unexpected system crashes which both result in lost or corrupted data. Sags also reduce the efficiency and life span of electrical equipment, particularly motors.

single-phase VA rating. Volts times Amps = VA per device.

spike. Also referred to as an impulse, a spike is an instantaneous, dramatic increase in voltage. Akin to the force of a tidal wave, a spike can enter electronic equipment through AC, network, serial or phone lines and damage or completely destroy components. Spikes are typically caused by a nearby lightning strike. Spikes can also occur when utility power comes back on line after having been knocked out in a storm or as the result of a car accident. Spikes cause catastrophic damage to hardware and loss of data.

surge. A short term increase in voltage, typically lasting at least 1/120 of a second, resulting from presence of high-powered electrical motors, such as air conditioners, and household appliances in the vicinity. When this equipment is switched off, the extra voltage is dissipated through the power line. Computers and similar sensitive electronic devices are designed to receive power within a certain voltage range; anything outside of expected peak and RMS (considered the "average" voltage) levels will stress delicate components and cause premature failure.

watts-to-VA conversion. Watts times 1.35 = VA per device.

Bibliography

APC. Smart-UPS Model 660. Power Event Definitions and Causes and Effects. www.apcc.com. N.d.
APC. "APC Advertisement". PC Magazine. June 24, 1997, 275.
Fenton Industries. Powerpal Model 650. Powerpal Product link. www.fenton.com. N.d.
Stamper, David. Business Data Communications. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1994.
Tsi Power. UPS-600. About Power link . www. tsipower.com. N.d.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sample

...SAMPLE FORMAT FOR INTERNSHIP COVER LETTERS (Top and bottom margins should be approximately equal) Date Your Street Address City, State, Zip Ms. Sandra Jones, Director Marketing Division American Industrial Corporation 1111 American Avenue America, IL 60006 Dear Ms. Jones: Opening Paragraph: State why you are writing, identify the internship position for which you would like to be considered, and indicate how you heard of the position. Mention any individuals who may have referred you to the position. If you are sending an inquiry letter, simply indicate the type of work or position you are seeking. Be specific. Middle Paragraph(s): Your goal here is to show how you can be useful to this particular organization. Describe what strengths you have to offer this employer. Highlight particular classes, jobs, internships, achievements, and extracurricular activities as they relate to the position in which you are interested. You might want to use one of the following approaches: Identify three reasons for the employer to consider you for the position. Describe your previous accomplishments as they relate to the position. Illustrate the relationship between your skills and experience and the position you are applying for. State why you want to work for their organization. Refer the reader to your enclosed resume for additional information. Closing Paragraph: End your letter by clarifying what will happen next, indicating your desire for an interview, and how they can most easily......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sample

... | |I would like to join your nursing staff. For this reason, I hope to speak with you soon to learn about a | |position at your hospital. | |  | |Sincerely, | | | http://www.letters.org/cover-letter/assistant-director-nursing-cover-letter.html Sample Cover letter for Assistant Director Nursing Good cover letter is all about mentioning your skills in short and simple language which catches the attention of employer. Applying for Assistant Director Nursing needs you to have good project handling tactics and this criterion should be present in your cover letter. (Write your name and address) Karen Byars 1519 Burwell Heights Road Beaumont,TX Zip:77701 Karen.T.Byars@trashymail.com Phone: 409-466-0866 (Write Employer’s name and address) Drew Prince Progress Energy Inc 1357 Dane Street Spokane WA Date: 19-11-2010 Dear Ms.Prince, (In first paragraph, include the information like why you are writing, position you are applying for and source of the job listing) I am......

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sample

... Historical Events Free Essays 1 - 30 - Term Paper Warehouse latishvohra.com/class/Historical-Events/1/0‎ Free Essays on Historical Events for students. Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - 30. FREE A-LEVEL ESSAYS - Tripod members.tripod.com/alevel_essays/‎ Welcome to Free Alevel Essays, we offer free history and english essays for the average, lazy student. If you can't find the essay you are looking for, don't forget ... Free History Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays www.antiessays.com/free-essays/history/‎ Get instant access to free History Essays from Anti Essays. 1 - 30. Free History Essays | Custom writing blog www.effectivepapers.com/blog/tag/free-history-essays‎ Sample Essay on History: The historical development of the world in the 20th century was marked by the paradoxical difference between the declared objectives ... Searches related to free history essays free american history essays free world history essays free civil war essays free history research papers free history essays online free art history essays american history papers good history topics to write about 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next Advanced searchSearch HelpSend feedback Google Home‎Advertising Programs‎Business Solutions‎Privacy & Terms‎ Free American History Essays and Papers www.123helpme.com/search.asp?text=American+History‎ Free American History papers, essays, and research......

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sample

...HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY VOLUME 12 INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONALPSYCHOLOGY Walter C. Borman Daniel R. lIgen Richard J. Klimoski Volume Editors Irving B. Weiner Editor-in-Chief 13 THEORIES AND PRACTICES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT John R. Austin and Jean M. Bartunek 309 ~ John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CHAPTER 13 Theories and Practices of Organizational Development JOHN R. AUSTIN AND JEAN M. BARTUNEK ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT TODAY, NOT YESTERDAY 310 THE CONCEPTUAL 'KNOWLEDGE OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 311 Change Process Theories 312 Samples of Contemporary Interventions in Organizational Development 316 Implementation Theories 319 THE CONNECTION BETWEEN IMPLEMENTATION THEORIES AND CHANGE PROCESS THEORIES 321 THE DIVIDE BETWEEN IMPLEMENTATIONTHEORIES AND CHANGE PROCESS THEORIES 322 Barrier 1: Different Knowledge Validation Meth~ 322 Barrier 2: Different Goals and Audiences 323 Barrier 3: Different Theoretical Antecedents 324 STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER 324 Same-Author Translation 325 Multiple-Author Translation 325 Common Language Translation 326 Translating Implementation Theory to Change Process Theory 326 CONCLUSION 326 REFERENCES 327 From its roots in action research in the 1940s and 1950s (Collier, 1945), and building on Lewin's insight that "there is nothing so practical as a good theory" (Lewin, 1951, p. 169), organizational development has explicitly emphasized both the practice. and the scholarship......

Words: 6321 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Sample

...DISTRIBUTIONS Simple Random Sample A simple random sample X 1 , , X n , taken from a population represented by a random variable X with mean  and standard deviation  , has the following characteristics.  Each X i , i  1,, n , is a random variable that has the same distribution as X, and thus the same mean  and standard deviation  . The X i ’s are independent random variables implying the following identity:  V  X 1    X n   V  X 1     V  X n    2     2  n 2  The sample mean, X where X  X1    X n , is a continuous random variable n with mean  X   and standard deviation  X  of the mean. Sampling Distribution of the Mean  , known as the standard error n Result 1: If X is Normal, then X is Normal and Z  of the sample n. X   n , regardless of the size Result 2: If n is large enough, n  30 , then X is approximately normal and X  Z , regardless of the distribution of the population random variable X.  n Sampling Distribution of the Proportion For a binomial random variable X with parameters n (sample size) and  (probability of X success or population proportion), the sample proportion is given by p  . n The sample proportion p is a continuous random variable with mean  p   and standard deviation  p   1    n . Result 3: If n is large enough, n  5 and n1     5 , then p is approximately p  normal and Z  .  1    n Why? We want to use the sample......

Words: 360 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sample

...* Sample samplesfafdfasdf a fasfdfa fasdfadf asdf sdf Home * Mail * News * Sports * Finance * Weather * Games * Groups * Answers * Screen * Flickr * Mobile * More Yahoo Finance ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form | Search FinanceSearch Web | Bottom of Form Marco Mail ------------------------------------------------- Follow Yahoo Finance *   *   * Tue, Sep 9, 2014, 3:17pm EDT - US Markets close in 43 mins  ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Following                                                                                                                              Bottom of Form % | $ Quotes you view appear here for quick access. | ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form   Bottom of Form * Finance Home * My Portfolio * Market Data * Yahoo Originals * Business & Finance * Personal Finance * CNBC * Contributors Compare Brokers Apple unveils larger iphones, smartwatch, Apple Pay By Yahoo Finance15 minutes agoYahoo Finance * * * * * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- View Comments (54) Share this ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form * * * *......

Words: 2794 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Sample

...business logic is working as per the requirements. Finally, build the application in the form of war file and deploy it in Apache Tomcat Webserver. Launch your web application using appropriate URL as explained below in the last step. UserData.java package com.tutorialspoint.test; import java.io.Serializable; import java.util.LinkedHashMap; import java.util.Map; import javax.faces.bean.ManagedBean; import javax.faces.bean.SessionScoped; import javax.faces.event.ValueChangeEvent; TUTORIALS POINT Simply Easy Learning Page 60 @ManagedBean(name = "userData", eager = true) @SessionScoped public class UserData implements Serializable { private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L; private static Map countryMap; private String data = "sample data"; public String showResult(){ return "result"; } public void updateData(ActionEvent e){ data="Hello World"; } public String getData() { return data; } public void setData(String data) { this.data = data; } } UserActionListener.java package com.tutorialspoint.test; import import import import javax.faces.context.FacesContext; javax.faces.event.AbortProcessingException; javax.faces.event.ActionEvent; javax.faces.event.ActionListener; public class UserActionListener implements ActionListener{ @Override public void processAction(ActionEvent arg0) throws AbortProcessingException { //access userData bean directly UserData userData = (UserData) FacesContext.getCurrentInstance().......

Words: 11815 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Sample

...a handy quick reference. If you or your customers don’t have the time to keep on top of or search the Internet for all of the DMM’s regulations, you may want to rely on someone who works with the mail on a regular basis. The USPS is strict on acceptance requirements, and qualified envelope sales representatives specialize in knowing the fine points of postal regulations, as well as how to get the best rates. Ask your envelope supplier to put you in contact with their EMA Certified Postal Partner who will be very knowledgeable about postal rules and regulations. It is always important to work with your sales representative to review the postal regulations for any mailing before you finalize your order for envelopes. Also, take a mockup or sample of your customer's mail package to your local post office to make sure it qualifies for the class of mail and postage rate you want. This up-front investigation could save you thousands of dollars in unplanned postage costs. Your envelope sales representative works closely with the Postal Service and will be glad to help you. Presorting Mail Many of your customers may choose to presort their mail to take advantage of the postage discounts. Basically, Zip Code groups all of the pieces going to the same destination into the same package or tray. You’ll sort to specific areas, and then work your way up to more general areas. All leftover mailpieces are put together. Your envelope sales representative can help you select a presort......

Words: 21505 - Pages: 87

Premium Essay

Sample

...Sample Assignment Assignment front sheet Qualification Unit number and title Pearson BTEC Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership (QCF) Unit 1 Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Student name Assessor name Date issued Completion date Submitted on Assignment title Strategic Management and Leadership Report (1 of 1) LO Learning Outcome AC In this assessment you will have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to: Task no. Evidence (Page no) 1 Understand the relationship between strategic management and leadership 1.1 Explain the link between strategic management and leadership 1 1.2 Analyse the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions 1 1.3 Evaluate how leadership styles can be adapted to different situations 1 2 Be able to apply management and leadership theory to support organisational direction 2.1 Review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organisational strategy 1 2.2 Create a leadership strategy that supports organisational direction 2 3 Be able to assess leadership requirements 3.1 Use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements 3 3.2 Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership 3 4 Be able to plan the development of leadership skills 4.1 Plan the development of leadership skills for a specific......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sample

...will use information shown on the invoice. For importers, the invoice comes at the end of the chain and reflects the goods you will have received. The invoice must be produced by the exporter and must carry authoritative information. Depending on the goods and destination, certain information must be included on the invoice, e.g. the customer’s VAT details (if the destination is in the EU), or special declarations required by authorities during transit or in the destination country. The invoice must sometimes be certified or legalised by a third party. The invoice also has several functions over and above requesting payment: • it is required to accompany the shipment, even when the goods are being sent free of charge (e.g. as with trial samples) • it is a master document that helps to identify the shipment and its contents • it is the exporter’s declaration of the value of the goods. A pro-forma invoice is sometimes needed in advance of shipment. It acts as a quotation, and enables the customer to apply for an import licence, draw up a Letter of Credit, or get foreign exchange to pay for the goods. It looks essentially the same as a commercial invoice. The pro-forma represents an offer that can be legally binding in most countries: acceptance by your customer makes you party to a valid contract. It is advisable to state it clearly that the offer has a defined expiry date and/or that prices are subject to change without notice. Prices quoted should also be according to agreed......

Words: 15736 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Sample

...it? How is it composed of, or what is included? Expansions? Releases? On what platform? How will it appeal to the market? Analyze everything about the product/project. B. Customer Analysis In this part, you then analyze the customers or the market itself. Who are they? What type of people are we talking about? Remember your survey/interview? A portion of the data gathered from that will help you build your Customer Analysis. C. Competition Analysis You should always know who your competition is. Even for photo books, films and documentaries you have competitions. There are two types of Competition Analysis, in which both you have tackle. “Direct Competition” are those project/products similar to your work and category, a sample would be “Coke” and “Pepsi”. And the other is Indirect Competition. D. SWOT Analysis In this section, you’ll be analyzing your project/product through SWOT Analysis. That means your product’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Upon accomplishing this, you’ll be able to see where your project/product stands in your chosen industry / category. IV. Strategy In every thesis proposal, or let’s put it straight, in every project you have to make sure that your product breaks through the market, getting noticed. Because of you don’t stand out your project/product doesn’t get noticed, more reasons that you didn’t exert effort in creating a solid strategy. Plan your strategy very well, it can be a Unique Selling......

Words: 1036 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sample

...can stay updated with consumer lifestyles and competitor new proposition development. Kraft foods can also conduct primary research by conducting surveys and sample promotions of their products ahead of release in order to test the market and its response. Lastly, they can hire lawyers or legal paralegals that help guide the company legally through key decisions. Law specialists will always be updated with regulations and legislations and help Kraft Foods in the long run. Q.6: What strategies in relation to proposition development and promotion could Kraft Foods adopt to ensure that they maintain their market dominance in the chocolate count line market? One of the key strategies in keeping market dominance in the market would primarily be the 4 Ps of marketing: Price, Product, Promotion & Place. Kraft food can use different pricing strategies like predatory pricing to help attract customers and keep maintaining their market share and even growing it. With each product that they release or have released, it is important to keep refreshing the product image through usage of different packaging, colours, etc. Anything that adds value to the product plays a vital role in selling the product and therefore keeping market dominance strong. Promoting their products by sponsoring events or even giving out free samples can keep Kraft Foods keep their brand image in the customers mind and to associate particular words or ideas with their brand. Lastly, place. Choosing the......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sample

...have improved communication? Lia’s doctors sent a succession of public health nurses to the family’s household in order to evaluate the family’s compliance with the medication regimen. Some of the ways that doctors attempted to improve communication with the Lee family included marking syringes and medicine droppers with the correct dosage, placing pills in plastic boxes with compartments for each day, and using different colored stickers to show the proper times that medications were to be taken (blue for the morning medications, red for the noon medications, and yellow for the night medications). “When she was taking pills, they [nurses] tried posting charts on which they had drawn the appropriate pie-shaped fractions. They tried taping samples of each pill on calendars on which they had drawn suns and sunsets and moons” (Fadiman 1997, 48). According to the notes from the nurses, the Lee family did not properly understand the correct procedures in administering Lia’s medications which led the doctors and other health officials to believe that the parents were being noncompliant. The notes included alarming statements such as, “Several meds in refrigerator outdated,” “Were unaware of appointment at Peds clinic for today,” and “Refuses to give Dilantin as it changes child’s spirit” (Fadiman 1997, 49). The team of doctors and nurses showed more frustration towards the family’s attitudes than willingness to help them understand the reasoning behind each procedure. To more......

Words: 4069 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Sample

...introverts who are open to new experiences. Objectivity: The conclusion drawn through the implementation of the results of data analysis should be objective. That is they should be based on the facts of the finding derived from actual data and not on our own subjective or emotional value. Here the conclusion is derived as there is a clear link between emotional reactivity of investors and trading performance. 3. Do you think that the results of Sam’s study are generalizable to other organizations? Why (not)? This study is lack in generalizability. For the purpose of this study Sam has chosen 50 traders form a training programme. But the question is whether the 50 samples represent the real situation. Therefore, if this research is to be generalized to some other organization or industry then the samples should contain the representatives those of industries. 4. Sam explains to Akrisious that even though he has tried to meet all the hallmarks of scientific investigation, he has not included all the variables that influence the financial performance of traders. Using vocabulary Akrisious has never heard of (such as omitted variable bias and biased and inconsistent parameter estimates) Sam argues that his study may lack rigor and that therefore his study is probably not 100% scientific. a. What is rigor? Means carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude in research investigation. A good theoretical base and around methodological design......

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Sample

...quality of particular interest. It is the basis of payment in most coal supply contracts. In the United States, the heating value of coal is measured in British thermal units per pound (BTU/lb), by using a national standard test procedure (ASTM D-2015). ASTM standards also indicate that repeated measurements should give values within 100 BTU/lb. Normally, the only way to determine heating value is to send a carefully prepared sample off to a laboratory and wait for the results. This can lead to disputes, if the customer and the supplier don’t agree on which lab to use or if the results from different laboratories give drastically different results. In an effort to determine the extent of any intra- or inter-laboratory variation in heating value measurements, one coal company prepared 50 samples of coal from a common area (so that results were expected to be very close). They shipped the samples in two batches to five reputable laboratories. Each batch consisted of five samples sent to each lab; the two batches were sent at different times. The samples were drawn randomly, packed in water (to minimize oxidation effects) and sent in sealed plastic containers. The labs were not aware that an experiment was being run, and the coal company hoped that the results would thus reflect the labs’ normal operating procedures. DATA SET The labs made several measurements, but only those for heating value are given below. What do you think the coal company should conclude about the......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2