Free Essay

Rust Prevention

In: Science

Submitted By ashclouded
Words 2400
Pages 10
Year Eleven Chemistry

Rust prevention in coating.

Introduction/Abstract.
The context of ships rusting at sea.
Steel has many properties that make it a useful and essential building material in boats. Its strength and durability make it a great choice for structures exposed to high amounts of stress, such as weather, heat, large amounts of applied force and constant usage and is also a viable option for the sea although it can still be bettered. Steel is better protected by; galvanisation, waterproof paint or a sacrificial anode to better the corrosion protection for boats in the water compared to just bare steel framework (Corrosion methods, Corrosion-doctors.com;) these methods in theory protect the steel from the chlorides and salts to further the durability and life of the framework of a boat and hence allow them to endure more, and with corrosion costing $2.7 billion to just ships alone it’s easy to see why corrosion must be prevented.
(The cost to the world because of corrosion with ships at $2.7 billion.)
The chemistry of rust.
Rust is caused by a few factors; moisture is the leading cause of rust along with water and salt, all making boats the most common victims of rust. (4 Fe+ 3O2 + 6 H2O= 4 Fe(OH)3,) Both water and oxygen must be present for rust to start and with water and oxygen on its own enough for rust to start destroying the structure of a boat, but along with salt to the water, it’ll become evident quickly that rust can be a big problem for many boat owners but also industries that revolve around boats. Not only can water do damage, but the moisture in the sea air can wreak havoc on boats and also its components. Rust is also a problem with iron components and can make parts break. Steel has the same problem, but there are some of those elements that are added during the steel production that can help stabilise and prevent rust. For example, stainless-steel is designed so that it will not rust, but it is more expensive that other types of steel this is because it has been made an alloy.
Protection methods
There are many ship treatments designed to prevent rusting usually intended for steel based ships, methods varying from paint to basic principle coatings with the intent of creating alloys that resist or prevent rust (Alloys are a mixture of metals, for example stainless steel forms a passivation layer of chromium(III) oxide, and zinc can protect steel by catholically onto it because it’s more electrochemically active, zinc being -1.1 and mild steel being -0.5.) While these methods all have widespread industrial applications--and are tested and refined in large research facilities, the basic principles behind them can be demonstrated in a simple and single high school chemistry class. With some simple equipment and some nails to experiment on, students can quickly observe the effectiveness of various methods of rust prevention.
How it helps.
Testing the various methods against each other in equal environments to show the better protectant against salt and chlorides to help further the life of future boats to show evidently which one should be used because it’s not just the better protectant, but also cost effective, for example coating steel with zinc to galvanize it requires a lot more manpower and also suitable electronic equipment to sustain its electrical conductivity of about 1.4 million Siemens per meter to galvanize it, compared to the needed equipment used to simply paint a boat, although the now alloyed steel might be a titan of a protector against the salt and chlorides. This all goes to show the hypothesis of how steel can be better protected to prevent or slow down the creation of rust.

Experiment Procedure: Testing Corrosion on Steel

Materials list: * 3 x pieces of steel 35mm x 5mm x 150mm * 70 grams of Salt (NaCl) * 50 grams of Zinc Sulphate * 2 litres of Distilled water * 4 x 500 ml beaker * 1 x Power Pack * 2 x Alligator clips * 1 x 10 cm Zinc strip * 1 x Can of Spray on metal paint * Scales (0.001grams) * 1 x beaker holder
Procedure
Method 1: Galvanising steel

1. The materials Zinc strip, 1 steel piece, 1 power pack, 50 grams of zinc sulphate, 500 ml of distilled water and 2 alligator clips. 2. 50 grams of Zinc sulphate was added to 500 ml of distilled water. 3. Solution was then stirred until all the zinc sulphate was dissolved into the solution. 4. One piece of steel was attached to the positive terminal using an alligator clip. 5. The Zinc strip was attached to the negative terminal using an alligator clip. 6. The two pieces of metals were added to the solution and the voltage was put on 8 volts. 7. It was then left for 1 day then taken out and dried.
Method 2: Painting steel 1. One piece of steel, a can of spray paint for metal and paper towel was gathered. 2. All materials were taken outside and the steel was placed on the paper towl. 3. One side of the steel was painted and dried. 4. The steel was then flipped and dried again.

Method 3: Testing Corrosion 1. An identical scratch was made on each piece of steel 3cm long in the centre of the metal 1cm from the bottom. 2. The mass each piece of metal was measured using electronic scales and recorded. 3. 70 grams of Salt (NaCl) was measured with scales and added to 2 litres of distilled water and stirred until all salt was dissolved. 4. 3 x 500ml beakers were filled with the solution of salt water. 5. Each piece of metal was placed in a different beaker. 6. The galvanised steel was pegged into a beaker holder and suspended above the line of galvanisation. 7. The three metals were left in the beakers for 7 days with any observations recorded and photographed. 8. Each piece of metal was then taken out of the beaker and dried. 9. Each metal had the rust removed with a steel wool and paper towel.. 10. The end amount of metal was weighed and the percentage of mass difference was calculated and recorded. 11. Any visible changes were also recorded and photographed.

Safety(measures taken, any risk?)
Attached

Results (Table One) | Steel | Painted Steel | Galvanised steel | Day One | Turned yellow.Orange colloids throughout beaker. | Turned pale yellow.Colloids throughout beaker. | No colloids noted.White substance | Day Seven | Solution turned orange with colloids suspended in the water. Black coating seen on surrounding metal. Rust seen on scratch | Solution turned dark orange with orange colloids suspended in the water. Rust seen evident on the scratch. Paint peeling. | Solution turned cloudy with white precipitate taking place. | | | | |
(Table Two below) | Painted Steel | Galvanised Steel | Plain Steel | Weight before (g) | 103.342 | 101.284 | 101.273 | Weight day 7 (g) | 103.281 | 101.737 | 101.192 | Weight difference (g) | 0.61 | 0.453 | 0.081 | Difference % | 0.06% | 0.45% | 0.08% |

Discussion
The corrosion testing was carried out over a seven day elapse of which in that time a few factors indicated that chemical reaction had taken place. By examining the tables above it can be seen that corrosion took place in both the beakers where painted steel and bare steel were placed, thus making them lose electrons and oxidising. However in the third beaker that was holding the galvanised steel it is seen that it gained weight of the elapse from 101.284 to 101.737 (See table two,) making it reducing agent. Following the rules of rust in which rust causes oxidisation it is evident that both the painted steel and plain steel rusted whereas the galvanised steel reducing agent, this is because zinc (The anode,) plated the steel (The cathode,) and caused it to gain it’s electrons and the zinc then protects the scratch that was made, forming a layer over it to prevent rust, making it an effective rust prevention method. These results are seen in just the room temperature and with 75 gram salt added to all beakers to speed up the reaction for the seven day period. These results support the hypothesis that corrosion can be better managed via various corrosion prevention methods and halt or slow down the rate of corrosion. The reason for the galvanization of the steel from the zinc is due to the chemical properties of zinc and steel. Zinc is lower than steel on the electrochemical series and therefore has a greater tendency to corrode in the presence of water and oxygen.
Looking at the galvanized metal it is evident that Zinc protects the steel in two ways; the first is it’s high resistant to rust and also iron which is a major component of steel, reacts exponentially with oxygen and moisture and will eventually at a rapid rate disintegrate. The layer of zinc on the surface prevents those elements from reaching the steel so quickly. It also develops a patina which is a layer of zinc oxides, salts, and other compounds. This offers further protection to further the prevention of rust and keeping the steel in good condition. Zinc is also extremely durable and scratch resistant. The outer layer protects the steel by acting as a sacrificial layer (In a similar sense to a sacrificial anode.) if rust does start to happen upon the surface of galvanized steel, the zinc will get corroded first hence the sacrificial in its term. Even in areas where the surface is scratched or damaged, the surrounding zinc will still corrode before the steel does, tis was evident in the test where the galvanized steel didn’t rust at all and a white layer was formed around the scratch.
When Zn catholically protects steel, the electrons generated in the anodic reaction: Zn→Zn2++2e−
Reversing the initial step of the corrosion reaction of iron, Fe→Fe2++2e−
The iron being poised now at the potential of the zinc anode, where it could, instead, be plated:
Fe2++2e−→Fe.
The necessary electrochemical half-cell reaction: Zn→Zn2++2e− Because oxygen reacts with the zinc, it reduces the utilization efficiency of the zinc that cathodically protects the steel in galvanized steel.
Also Metal, being a malleable substance, due to its atomic structure (seen in diagram one), is susceptible to scratching and abrasion. It is likely that the increased thickness of the zinc is delaying the rusting of the steel by providing more zinc to sacrificially oxidize and producing more of the protective zinc hydroxide.

(Diagram One, Cschaller Univeristy, 2004.)

Conclusion/recommendations.
With it being evident that steel can be better protected via various methods such as painting steel, galvanizing the steel, compared to just bare steel framework it should be considered that although painted steel is better than bare steel, painted steel showed that the paint peeled after just seven days, making it ineffective for boats as it would be just bare steel in just a week because the chlorides and salts rub away the paint rapidly. However galvanized steel requires more effort than that of just bare steel it is shown that it’s an extremely effective corrosion method as no rust was shown after the seven days. However there is another way of preventing rust, cathodic protection, this is used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making a more electronegative metal connect to the protected metal making it a more easily corroded sacrificial metal to which it will act as an anode.

Bibliography

What is the loss and gain of electrons to form ions. 2013. What is the loss and gain of electrons to form ions. [ONLINE] Available at: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_loss_and_gain_of_electrons_to_form_ions#slide3. [Accessed 16 November 2013].
Corrosion cost. 2013. Corrosion cost. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Principles/Cost.htm. [Accessed 16 November 2013].

Corrosion of Iron | Tutorvista.com. 2013. Corrosion of Iron | Tutorvista.com. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.tutorvista.com/content/chemistry/chemistry-ii/metals/iron-corrosion.php. [Accessed 17 November 2013].
Reduction of the loss of zinc by its reaction with oxygen in galvanized steel and batteries - Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System. 2013. Reduction of the loss of zinc by its reaction with oxygen in galvanized steel and batteries - Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2007/0125644.html. [Accessed 17 November 2013].

Definitions:

Rusting
The corrosion of iron and readily occurs in the alloy steel. The formation of a reddish brown flake which adheres to iron is called rust.
Steel
An alloy made of iron and carbon. The carbon atoms in steel greatly increase the strength of the metal. They prevent the iron atoms in the crystal lattice from slipping over one another.

Anode.
In an electrochemical cell, the anode is the site where electrons are produced through the chemical activity of the metal. The anode is the area where metal loss occurs, the reaction is called oxidation. The metal loses electrons and migrates from the metal surface through the environment. The electrons remain in the metal but are free to move about in response to voltage

Electrolyte.
Electrolytes are solutions that can conduct electrical currents through the movement of charged chemical constituents called ions. Positive and negative ions are present in equal amounts. Positive ions tend to migrate away from anodic areas and toward cathodic areas. Negative ions tend to migrate away from cathodic areas and towards anodic areas.

Components.
In order for electrochemical reactions to occur, four components must be present and active. These components are the anode, cathode, electron path, and electrolyte. gradients. Cathode.
The cathode in an electrochemical cell is the site where electrons are consumed. For each electron that is produced at an anodic site, an electron must be consumed at a cathodic site. No metal loss occurs at sites that are totally cathodic.

Anodic Reactions.
Metal loss at anodic sites in an electrochemical cell occurs when the metal atoms give up one or more electrons and move into the electrolyte as positively charged ions.

Typical Reactions.
The generic chemical formula for this metal loss at an anodic site is:

M ---> M+ + e-

M = uncharged metal atom at the metal surface
M+ = positively charged metal ion in the electrolyte e- = electron that remains in the metal…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Burnout Prevention

...Personal growth and social support as an effective prevention method to overcome burnout problems on employees Burnout is nowadays a common crisis among workers, and an effective program to reduce its level is needed (Aro, Naatanen & Nurmi, 2004). According to Dierendonck, Garssen & Visser (2005) burnout can be defined as an unrelenting, job-related state of mind in ‘normal’ persons that is mainly characterized by tiredness, which is accompanied by exhaustion, a sense of reduced efficiency, decreased enthusiasm, and the development of dysfunctional behaviors at work. The unhappiness and detachment burnout can threaten people toward their job, their interpersonal relationships, and risking their own health (Dierendonck, Schaufeli & Buunk, 1998). However, problem related to burnout can be solved (Dierendonck, Garssen & Visser, 2005). Simply by recognize the cues and signs of burnout in its early stage; several burn out management strategies may be adequate to prevent the problem (Guglielmi &Tatrow, 1998). In the later stages of burnout, psychological improvement may takes more time and effort, but people can still recover their balance by reassessing their priorities, making time for themselves, and seeking for social support (Dierendonck, Schaufeli & Buunk, 1998). Furthermore, there are two main prevention management program that help people cope with burnout. The first one called personal growth program, which is a program based on people’ cognitive and behavior factors,...

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Fall Prevention

...the magnitude of the problem: o Falling accounts for 80-95% of hip fractures in older adults. o The rate of fatal falls increases dramatically with age. o Falls are the leading cause of injury deaths for older adults. o Among adults 75 and older, those who fall are four to five times more likely to be admitted to a long-term care facility for a year or longer. (Mission Hospital Data, Risk Management, 2012) For decades, hospitals and other health care organizations have integrated to understand the contributing causes of falls, to minimize their occurrence and resulting injuries or deaths. Today, organizations have begun reaching out to each other for collaboration on the best ways to prevent falls. Based on Centers for Disease and Prevention (2012) data, each year one in three older Americans (65 and older) falls and about 30% of those falls require medical treatment. Falls are not only the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries but also the most common cause of hospital admission for trauma. More than $19 billion annually is spent on treating the elderly for the adverse effects of falls: $12 billion for hospitalization, $4 billion for emergency department visits, and $3 billion for outpatient care. Most of these expenses are paid for by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services through Medicare. It is projected that direct treatment costs from elder falls will escalate to $43.8 billion annually by 2020. (www.cdc.gov ). Because unanticipated falls by nature......

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Crime Prevention

...Finding the Root Causes of Crime Crime prevention is not a new idea. In fact, most police forces have been actively engaged in crime prevention activities for a number of years, and their efforts are increasingly being supplemented by volunteer based neighborhood and community initiatives. What is new is the emerging tendency to shift away from an exclusive focus on police based approaches in favor of a broader conception of how to prevent crime. The result is a number of new possibilities for delivering on the promise of crime prevention, and the emergence of a number of new participants in the area of prevention activities. One example of this new development is the direct participation of municipal governments in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. The involvement of municipal governments in the area of crime prevention has been spurred by the popularity of municipal crime prevention councils in Europe (especially in France), and by the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone. Moreover, there is a growing awareness that crime prevention is an inherently political domain: citizens are increasingly vocal about where and how scarce municipal resources are allocated in the “war” on crime, and politicians are increasingly being held accountable for......

Words: 2123 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Rust

...Rust Prevention Many people don’t notice how easy it is for cars to get rusted when they live near the ocean or they just don’t take care of their car very well. One way to prevent car paint damage is by prepping the vehicle correctly. An easy way to prevent rust from happening to the car is by using corrosion protection. There are four different types of corrosion that can occur if not well taken care of. These are crevice, pitting, galvanic, and cosmetic. According to “A Guide To Corrosion Protection”, crevice corrosion is often associated with small volumes of stagnant solution or electrolyte trapped in crevices of joints or in surface deposits and poultices. Pitting corrosion is a localized attack, usually caused by chlorides as pits form, resulting in a roughened surface. Crevice and pitting corrosion can lead to steel perforation and premature functional failures. Galvanic corrosion occurs when dissimilar metals are in contact with one another. Corrosion that initiates on a visible surface of a vehicle, usually at nicks or scratches in a post-coating, is called cosmetic corrosion. In most instances, cosmetic corrosion is an appearance issue; however, it can lead to damage including perforation. To prevent rust on the underbody structural components people will usually coat it to provide a first line of defense against corrosion. The most commonly used coatings are conversion, hot melt wax, electro coat, metallic, organic, auto deposition, and powder.......

Words: 400 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fall Prevention

...Fall Prevention Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries for persons over 65 years old. Falls can be linked to several factors such as several medical, cognitive and functional factors. There are several factors as well as situations that can increase fall risk such as unsteady gait, vision and cognitive impairment, incontinence and environment (Huey-Ming, 2011). In 2005, a sum of 15,802 individual over 65 years of age reportedly were injured from falling and died. In 2006, 1.8 million estimated individuals over 65 years old incurred some kind recent injury related to falls (CDC, 2006). However, the number of uninjured older adults that fell or had minor to moderate injury is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of falls on the geriatric unit that I am employed and the changes necessary to decrease the numbers of falls on this unit. Problem Identification The geriatric unit in the hospital where I work has an average census of 36. On this unit patient falls are the most prominent problem. According to the hospital data in the past six months, there has been an average of two falls a day and twenty injuries related to falls. The number of patient falls has increased by 35 percent in the past six months. The goal of the fall prevention program is to reduce falls percentage by 30 percent (three falls a week) for the next three months and maintain it at a maximum of one fall a month thereafter. Falls affects the safety of the patients...

Words: 2636 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Fall Prevention

...for Disease Control and Prevention. This is a problem even in U.S. hospitals, which employ various means of making sure at-risk patients stay safe. Still, falls happen, and they come with a cost. • 2.3 million: Number of nonfatal fall injuries among older adults that were treated in ER. • 662,000: Number of those ER patients that were hospitalized as a result of falls. • 25 percent: Percentage of hospital falls that result in injuries. • 2 percent: Percentage of hospital falls that result in medical complications. • $4,000: Average dollar amount added to medical bills as a result of inpatient falls. (Sources: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the University of Florida Academic Health Center) The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “requires that a healthcare facility be a safe environment and setting for care. Facilities that don’t meet this requirement can be cited for immediate jeopardy and lose their eligibility to provide services”. CMS also requires that the safety of patients at risk be assessed regularly and corrected if found to be deficient. A facility that fails to correct deficiencies is violating conditions of participation and could lose its Medicare or Medicaid funding. (www.cms.gov) Palos Community Hospital follows the Joint Commission (2012) standards procedures on best practice for fall reductions; they are also incorporating new bed alarms for every room, and training for their new employees on fall prevention. The new alarms......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Prevention

...Prevention Bonita L. Starr-Yoho HSM/210 October13, 2013 Ilisher Ford Prevention The preventive measure that would be best suited for the population that I picked in Week 2, the mentally ill, would be the tertiary preventive measure. This measure deals with a small group of people or an individual. It is helps rehabilitates individuals back into society. This preventive measure restores an individual to better health (Ch.8, p.310). The government regulations for this population to get the help that they many need is pretty rigid. They must go to a doctor, psychiatrist or to a hospital so many times, before they may even considered having a mental illness. Many times, the mentally ill do not go to a doctor, because they do not know what is required of them, they have no one to help them to get here or to help them understand what it is that is being asked of them. An obstacle that can be averted with the mentally ill getting the help that they may need, is to have an advocate go with that person to the doctor’s appointment and speak to that doctor, on their behalf and help them with the paper work that may be involved. Having the advocate there would lessen the strain on the individual needing help. Another obstacle that needs addressed is the cutting of funds to the clinics that help the mentally ill. The purpose of clinics is to help these people live a fulfilling life and to live in the communities and to live a productive life. If the clinics are not there to......

Words: 461 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Prevention

...Substance Abuse Prevention Programs Julie Valpuesta Grand Canyon University April 9, 2014 Substance Abuse Prevention Programs There are many substance abuse prevention programs in America. The Army Substance Abuse Prevention, Partnership for a Drug-Free NC and SAMHSA are three of them listed in this paper. They all have goals, funding, marketing, government policies and standards to which they have to adhere to. They all have components that work, problems and a certain level of effectiveness. The follow is an overview of these three agencies and how they work. Goals and Method of Operation First, we have Army Substance Abuse Prevention. The Army strives to ensure that its soldiers are properly treated when it comes to substance abuse. Their goals consist of “Increase individual fitness and overall unit readiness. Provide services which are proactive and responsive to the needs of the Army´s workforce and emphasize alcohol and other drug abuse deterrence, prevention, education, and rehabilitation. Implement alcohol and other drug risk reduction and prevention strategies that respond to potential problems before they jeopardize readiness, productivity, and careers. Restore to duty those substance-impaired Soldiers who have the potential for continued military Service. Provide effective alcohol and other drug abuse prevention and education at all levels of command, and encourage commanders to provide alcohol and drug-free leisure activities. Ensure all personnel......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Prevention

...Assignment: Prevention In the ideal world substance abuse would not exist as many other debilitating diseases. However, we know we do not live in an ideal world of nonexistence. Substance abuse is just that a debilitating disease that is not just an individual disease but also a family disease. In prevention the key factors are identifying the risk factors and promoting protective factors and with that the critical age to target is youth. By substance abuse being a learned behavior, the best prevention method is to provide the tools and techniques for the youth not to look at the risk around them that can drive them to using, but to ensure nonuse. In protecting the youth from the possibility of substance use and turning into abuse, the primary level of prevention is to be utilized. In primary prevention as stated “the human services is designed to prevent a disorder, disability, or dysfunction from occurring in the first place.” (Burger, 2011) As stated above, part of the primary prevention level would be to educate on how to protect oneself from the possible risk factors that exist around the individual. This could be self esteem, emotional, friendships, peer pressure, decision making, and so on that can live youth the environment of negativity and poor learned behavior. In an act of providing the primary level of prevention with substance abuse it’s to learn how to build the self esteem, the differences between emotions, what to look for in friends, the......

Words: 848 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Suicide Prevention

...On Wednesday April 23, 2014 a Suicide Prevention Coordinator from Mental Health America of Central Virginia presented an intense 3 day workshop on suicide. The first day consisted of strong statistical evidence about the deaths caused by suicide. Most importantly, the prevention coordinator explained that suicide is the most preventable kind of death. Also, the coordinator said that there are almost, always warning signs, and asking someone about suicide reduces the risk. She pointed out that suicide is the leading cause of deaths in America more than homicide, AIDS, and war. For example, the coordinator said that 35,000 deaths from suicides occur every year in American, where as deaths from homicide equals to approximately 16, 259 times a year. Moreover, the coordinator mentioned that 960 suicides occur annually in the state of Virginia. Also, the coordinator pointed out that the highest rates of suicides spikes after the holiday seasons and in the months of May and April. White males above the age of 65 have the highest rates of suicides among any other age group and ethnicity. White males above the age of 65 commit suicide every 1hour and 1/2. Furthermore, from ages 15-24, statistical evidence showed that 4,600 suicides occur every two hours in this particular age group. The coordinator also pointed out that men commit suicide 4/1 times more than women. Men normally commit suicide by fire arm, while women commit suicide by taking pills. The second day consisted of facts...

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Diabetes Prevention

...Diabetes Prevention as the Best Intervention Lorri Johnson Grand Canyon University Diabetes Prevention as the Best Intervention With diabetes having become an epidemic that is still growing, we as a society and healthcare community are seeing its effects on the economy. The exorbitant costs associated with diabetes and complications of diabetes have hit an all-time high. “The total cost of diabetes and its complications, along with gestational diabetes and prediabetes, was estimated to be $218 billion in 2007.” (Anderson, Riley & Everette 2012) Healthcare professionals and diabetes advocates alike have begun pushing policymakers to recognize and take action with regard to focusing on the prevention of type 2 diabetes to slow down these costly trends. Clinical Trial The Diabetes Prevention Program (DDP) is a landmark National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases clinical trial which provided the best evidence indicating individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of the disease. The DDP was a major randomized trial that had the one simple goal, “to determine whether modest weight loss and physical activity could prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in individuals with prediabetes.” (Anderson, Riley & Everette 2012) The subjects were categorized randomly into the Metformin group and the Lifestyle group. It was the Lifestyle group that showed the greatest success. Results1 The......

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Prevention of Juvenile

...the effectiveness of several delinquency prevention programs. Public and private providers have implemented proven programs, which have been closely evaluated to measure their effectiveness. In this paper, we will analyze and compare three articles on juvenile delinquency and prevention. The paper will compare the effectiveness of various prevention programs analyzed by various author and show the similarities in their outcomes. Analyzing the articles Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders Over the past years, various studies have identified different intervention strategies and program models that can reduce delinquency as well as promote social development. According to Peter Greenwood, preventing delinquency not only saves the youth lives from being wasted, but also avoids the onset of adult criminal. As a result, it reduces the burden of crime on its victims, society and the nation at large. It costs the country billions of dollars to arrest, treat, prosecute, and incarcerate the juvenile offenders every year (Greenwood, 2008). For this reason, investing in successful delinquency prevention program would save then nation approximately seven dollars for every dollar invested, mainly due to reduced spending in the prisons. Greenwood emphasizes that various researchers have identified a number of effective delinquency programs. In addition, more programs are still being tested. In his article, Prevention and Intervention Programs for......

Words: 2898 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Prevention

...Prevention Grand Canyon University NRS 430V Professional Dynamics 22 October 2010 Prevention As a nurse, we have to be accountable to meet standards with our clients. We meet some of these standards on a daily basis without even thinking about them. Between patients, we automatically wash our hands without giving it a second thought. We don on a pair of gloves when we do IV therapy or IM shots. “Accountability for professional nursing revolves around interventions, outcomes, and costs.” (Hood, 2010) Prevention is the key to interventions, outcomes, and cost. People associate pressure ulcers with long term care. They can occur during a long surgery. As nurses we need to be sure that we are doing our part to prevent them no matter what the setting. If the patient has poor nutrion status or certain other qualifiers their chances for receiving a pressure ulcer increase significantly. With keeping this in mind we need to ensure that we do what we can to prevent pressure ulcers. Even in acute care pressure ulcers occur. They can happen in as little as an eight hour shift. With different health conditions making it easier for someone to acquire a pressure ulcer. The risk of acquiring one in acute care is a stagering “2.7 percent to 29.5 percent” (AHCPR Supported Clinical Practice Guidelines). As a nurse we have a responsibility to our patients to give them the best care available. With that we have to prevent harm from our clients. As nurses we need to be...

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Prevention of Crime

...Prevention of crime; There are 3 measures to prevent crime. Target Hardening. 1. Direct prevention- something like burglary, adding alarms to potential targets. 2. Alteration of the environment- in dark areas adding flood lights, CCTV etc. 3. Increased Efforts and risks- make it harder for people to commit crime. This works on the rational choice theory, people weigh up the costs and benefits to committing crime, a higher risk coupled with a high cost with little benefits people are less likely to commit the crime. However a lot of crime is not spur of the moment and is a rational choice for people, violent crime is a good example of this as target hardening can’t prevent these crimes as they are normally opportunistic. Displacement states that even if preventative measures are taken, it just displaces crime elsewhere, Chalken gave the example of a crackdown of robberies in subways simply moved the crimes above ground in broad day light. There are several types of Displacement; 1. Spatial- geographical area 2. Temporal- different time 3. Tactical- different method 4. Functional- different crime all together. Situational crime prevention works on certain crimes but for the most part just displaces them. Ignores the more costly state and corporate crimes and instead focuses on petty street crime. Assumes all criminals are rational, some are not as it may be spur of the moment or fuelled by drugs and violent crimes aren’t......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Primary Prevention

...Primary Prevention University of Phoenix Axia September 19, 2010 Applying the strategy of primary prevention would be ideal with the issue of child welfare. However, there is no way of educating and predicting the problems that will arise from abuse and neglect in every household. To some extent there is a potential way of identifying those who are at a higher risk of becoming abusers, but when it’s never been reported in their cases, that could also pose a problem. To the best of the knowledge and abilities those in the human services organizations are equipped with, this can be an effective way to resolve or prevent these unfortunate situations from happening in the first place. Some policies or regulations that could be enforced to alleviate some of the tension brought about with child abuse and neglect, is to engage the parents in as much education as possible when they are expecting, or already have children. Some individuals, who are in stressful situations like poverty or chemical dependency, should be a top priority to serve with the resources and tools to assist them with any struggles. Those that are higher at risk of becoming abusers should take top priority with being given the opportunity to take mandated parenting classes. As this may be a difficult process to follow through with, the idea of being reprimanded with fines and community service may be just enough to lead those with these issues in the right direction. Creating government programs for those...

Words: 763 - Pages: 4