Premium Essay

Rumination and Unipolar Depression: How Do We Change Such Negative Thoughts?

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By didiadhom
Words 2338
Pages 10
Rumination and Unipolar Depression: How Do We Change Such Negative Thoughts?
PY3103: Psychopathology
Syed Mohammad Alwi Aidid
James Cook University (Singapore)
Tutorial C

Ruminative thinking has been found to be one of the most common symptoms in patients suffering from unipolar depression due to their tendency to reflect upon themselves negatively. In this essay, the manner in which this thinking pattern has been found to worsen patients’ depressed condition is further investigated. Subsequently, a large part of it will explore research on two forms of treatment that have been tested for its work with depressive rumination, specifically, metacognitive therapy, which seeks to removing patients’ Cognitive Attentional Syndrome and alter their metacognitive beliefs, and rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy, that aims to help reduce maladaptive ruminative styles and helping patients adopt a more concrete, process-driven and specific style of thinking instead. Finally, a potential avenue for treating depressed patients’ ruminative thinking patterns, imagery is investigated further.
Key words: rumination, unipolar depression, metacognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, imagery restructuring, treatment.

Depression is a highly common illness, with the World Health Organization (WHO) estimating that, as of 2012, 350 million people are afflicted by it worldwide (World Health Organization, 2012). There are many different subtypes of this illness, one of which is unipolar depression. Also known as major depressive disorder, unipolar depression is one of the more easily recognised mood disorders where, for most cases, individuals suffer a recurrence of a major depressive episode after at least two months without facing any depression (Barlow & Durand, 2012, p. 212). Depressed individuals often have a tendency to reflect upon…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Depression: Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

...Depression: Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders Almost everyone experiences mood changes in their lives. They feel happy or elated when things are going their way. Maybe Dave got a raise at work or Gary caught a glimpse of the pretty girl he has a crush on. They feel sad or upset when things are not going their way. Perhaps Becky’s television went shot or Marilyn just found out her favorite uncle has cancer. These feelings are normal and usually do not last very long. When feelings of intense sadness or feelings or extreme elation last for a long time and they interfere with normal functioning they are considered to be mood disorders such as depression or mania (Comer, 2011, p. 193). Depression is a sad, low state where life seems dark and overwhelming (Comer, 2011, p. 193). Mania is a state of frenzied energy or breathless euphoria where a person may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking (Comer, 2011, p. 193). Mania and depression are the two key emotions in mood disorders and most people who have one usually only suffer from depression, which is called unipolar depression (Comer, 2011, p. 193). These people have no history of mania and may return to a normal or a near normal mood when their depression lifts where other people may have periods of mania that alternate with their periods of depression, which is called bipolar disorder (Comer, 2011, p. 193). Unipolar depression and bipolar disorder are similar in some aspects but very different in......

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Do We Need Change

...Ever since world has come into existence it’s been changing to suite the need of existing species. MARKETING DESIGN AND INNOVATION was very relevant in that respect as it puts the Customer/consumer on focus and provides the inside of a consumer mind and how to Overcome the challenges .It provides you the Knowledge of meeting those wants and needs (Kotler (2009)) defines needs as a “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”. Needs are common for all the human beings and mainly include food clothing and shelter. While wants are defined as different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. Through fulfilling their expectation and in Some cases exceeding them by providing the goods and services in such a way that Business itself can be differentiated or have edge on competitors. Module also guide us how and which market to target and takes you on the journey of Creating a Brand which meets both buyer and seller expectation and is less likely to fail And how to increase its value at the same time legally protecting it so the product can Keep its edge and consumer can easily differentiate .i.e. Apple has been good at not only Promoting their products to their target markets, but also doing so at the right time. During the introduction, Growth, Maturity and decline of each iPhone.(appendix 8) World is changing and the boundaries between the countries are fading and its making the market more competitive for the...

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

This Is How We Do It

...instruments used in Colombia are the Merry Drums, the Maracas, Calling Drums, and the Bass Drums. Flag & what the colors mean The Yellow represents the richness of Colombia. The blue represents the Country’s water wealth. And the red represents the blood of the heroes who died for the country. Must see! Location: Medellin Historical things to see: The History of Colombia has been characterized by the interaction of rival civilian elites Entertainment: Drink, music, dance, film, museums are some of the entertainment in Colombia Transportation: Pretty much the same as the U.S. Cars Weather it is really hot Must see! Location: Cartagena Historical: Entertainment: They dance at any kind of little get to gather and they don’t do anything against each other Transportation: They use the same kind of transportation as the cars In the U.S.A Weather: it is 72˚- 90˚f kind of weather. THE COUNTRY OF COLOMBIA Nombre:Terrance Richardson Fecha y año 10/10/12...

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Do We Understand the Serial Killer?

...How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand the Serial Killer? How do We Understand...

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Do We All Learn

...Learning effectively through methods There are many process that we all go through in order to learn. Everyone one is different, everyone has a unique way of learning or multiple ways of learning. It is very common for someone to have multiple ways of learning. I’m going to describe how as a student, I go about learning. One of my many ways of learning would be repetition. I am a visual learner who benefits from seeing things repeatedly; namely, I learn successfully from being able to have a visual representation to which I can refer to. However, my ideal ways of learning would have to be repetition, visualizing, and kinesthetic learning style. For me repetition is very useful when trying to retain information. Repetition emphasizes many aspects. For example; if I need to remember a very difficult word, I would repeat the word three times or more to be able to retain the word in my head. Sometimes when I’m trying to retain too many words all at once, I forget some of the words in the process. Also repeating sentences works as well too. By the way, this method may not work for everyone, it all depends on the person. Repetition is a very common technique known to everyone and may be used by anyone who chooses to. On the other hand, everyone has use repetition once or multiple time in their life whether they know it or not. For example, when I was young I would keep trying to learn how to ride a bike. No matter how many times I fail down I kept trying until I succeed, this......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Do We Identify and Understand Markets?

...–How do we identify and understand markets? As a student of marketing, you have already learned that the main purpose of modern marketing is to serve customers. If the organization really believes in this philosophy, that is, “the Customer Rules,” it only remains for the organization to focus on researching and understanding its customers and then delivering products and services to the customer that will not only meet the customer’s needs, but satisfy the customer in a way that will keep the customer coming back to our organization to do business with us. Therefore, often the first assignment for the marketing function is to gather and analyze information about customers. Today, that usually means first attempting to understand the structure of the marketplace. Understanding the Marketplace and Different Customer Segments The main goal of market segmentation (dividing the market into different portions based on differences in customers) is to better understand the needs of our customers thus we need a structured approach to attain this goal. A simple seven-step approach follows: Step One: Identify the type of market with which you will be dealing Step Two: Analyze the areas of satisfaction you are attempting to provide to this market, that is, what wants or needs do you intend to satisfy? Step Three: Select dimensions with which to segment the market Step Four: Based on the selected dimensions, identify the segments in ...

Words: 3085 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Changing How We Change

...Changing how we Change Change is necessary and important for any organization because without change, businesses would lose their competitive edge and fail to meet the needs of loyal customers. With advances in technology, cultural alterations, policy modifications and the price of care, hospitals have changed to more patient-centered approach organizations that address inconsistencies in quality and efficiency. To succeed in healthcare today, hospitals have to change their organizations to ones that operate more like businesses than traditional hospitals. Leaders and managers must deal with internal and external environments which in turn promote organizational change. To compound the matter of changing an organization, these external and internal factors affect organizations but more importantly affect people differently. Organization Description In Florida there are over 300 hospitals in the state (Florida Hospital Association, 2014) with many of these hospitals being associated with large healthcare systems located within the state. Broward County is located in Southeast Florida, and is the second most populous county in Florida; it is 1200 square miles with 16 acute care hospitals that offer similar services (United States Census Bureau, 2014). The county’s smallest acute care hospital is associated with a world renowned healthcare system from Ohio which is both advantageous and unfavorable in the realm of managing organizational change. The Ohio health system was......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Do Facebook Users React to Negative Posts? (Experimental)

...CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background: Whenever we log in to our Facebook accounts, we see their slogan on their homepage which is “Facebook helps you connect and share with the people in your life.” But nowadays, far from what Mark Zuckerberg’s aim is in creating Facebook, it has turned more into a source of entertainment rather than it means for communication. As this social networking site continues to add and upgrade its features, the means of sharing happenings in someone’s life to the public have widened. Posting videos became available because sometimes pictures are not enough. Hashtags that were only seen in Twitter before have also become available in Facebook so that we can easily filter topics and would be able to keep up with “what’s in”. The additional features improved the quality of service Facebook provides and made it easier to keep up with the latest happenings not only within our circle of friends, but also to our whole community. These advancements have helped some Facebook users to bridge the gap between them and their loved ones . But somehow, others ended up abusing it. The video of the “amalayer” girl in 2012 became viral in Facebook. It had been shared from one’s profile to another and received various reactions from different people may it be positive or negative. People also found social issues entertaining by means of making memes. Instead of taking these seriously and participating in sensible debates, some just tend to shrug these off.......

Words: 5245 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Depression: Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder

...Depression Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders By Laura 04/24/2011   Unipolar and bipolar are as different as their clinical names, uni, meaning one and bi, meaning two. Unipolar is considered a clinical depression that does not go away after a period of just feeling unhappy, or experiencing a sad event. This type of depression can be life altering if untreated, rendering the person that is suffering from it unable to cope with the activities of daily living. Unipolar differs from bipolar as it does not have any history of mania involved. People with unipolar basically suffer depression from mild to severe in nature. On the other hand, people that have bipolar disorder that ignites the feeling of euphoria, the person may have grandiose ideas, believing that idea will be the next billion dollar deal, and nothing can sway that exaggerated thought. People who suffer from bipolar can spend days at a time without sleeping as their mind races with one exaggerated thought after another. This can last for days, weeks, even months, followed by the crash of depression. This can be just as severe and last as long as the manic. There are several symptoms that can occur in unipolar disorder such as fatigue, feeling hopeless, worthless, and having no desire to do anything. In more severe cases even thoughts of suicide can arise. There are different theories to the underlying causes of unipolar disorder, some say it is biologically, environmentally, or psychologically......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Computers Change the Way We Think

...How Computers Change the Way We Think By SHERRY TURKLE The tools we use to think change the ways in which we think. The invention of written language brought about a radical shift in how we process, organize, store, and transmit representations of the world. Although writing remains our primary information technology, today when we think about the impact of technology on our habits of mind, we think primarily of the computer. My first encounters with how computers change the way we think came soon after I joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the late 1970s, at the end of the era of the slide rule and the beginning of the era of the personal computer. At a lunch for new faculty members, several senior professors in engineering complained that the transition from slide rules to calculators had affected their students' ability to deal with issues of scale. When students used slide rules, they had to insert decimal points themselves. The professors insisted that that required students to maintain a mental sense of scale, whereas those who relied on calculators made frequent errors in orders of magnitude. Additionally, the students with calculators had lost their ability to do "back of the envelope" calculations, and with that, an intuitive feel for the material. That same semester, I taught a course in the history of psychology. There, I experienced the impact of computational objects on students' ideas about their emotional lives. My class...

Words: 2653 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

How Do We Know?

...Intro to Philosophy 11 January 2016 How Do We Know? ”How do we know? This is a very intriguing question once you really think about it. How do we acquire knowledge? How do we know something to be true? Is it through experience or does it come from another realm in which we previously inhabited? Is everything we know and will learn in the future already mapped out for us? Throughout history man has sought out to answer these deeper questions and through philosophy they have begun to open their eyes to the universe in which we live. Answering question after question each philosopher perfecting the former theory and all of it leading up to the ultimate question the purpose of life. Epistemology is a form of philosophy that comes from the greek word for knowledge “episteme” and “logos” meaning explanation (chaffee 229) this encompasses the nature of knowledge and justification. It is through epistemology and metaphysics that philosophers attempt to othe answer questions like: can we ever really know anything? what is the difference between belief and knowledge? Can there be different “truths” for different people. or is “truth” the same for all? Pre-socratic philosophers used these ideas to lay the foundation for philosophy as we know it today. Plato, a student of Socrates, and as an ancient Greek philosopher he not only preserved Socrates teachings for future generations but also contributed original ideas on a wide range of issues such as morality, politics, metaphysics......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Depression Paper

...Depression Paper Nuewana Fultz 8/15/2015 PSY/270 Debbi Kutner University of Phoenix Unipolar and Bipolar There is often a confusion between Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Disorder Depression due to the fact they share the same symptoms of sadness, hopelessness, pessimism; anxiety and sleep problems; although Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Depression take very different directions. It is important that we are able to tell them apart and understand the differences in diagnosing and treating these disorders. Making an inaccurate diagnosis can result in making the disorder worse. There are two types of mood disorders: Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Disorder. It is believed both are genetic disorders and they share many of the same symptoms. These disorders differ in treatments, and some of the symptoms are also different. Both can be very severe and carry a risk of suicide.  Unipolar Depression Unipolar depression is a mood disorder that is categorized by depression without mania. Depression and mania are the opposite of each other; depression is a state of sadness that one is overcome by all of life’s challenges, whereas mania is when one is on a state of elation and has extravagant beliefs that the world is theirs. Unipolar can be brought on by many different types of circumstances one experiences chemically or in......

Words: 2075 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Do We Perceive Motion?

...Chapter 3: How do we perceive motion? King George High School Physics Author: Alexis Rixner Teacher: Mr.Priser Date: September 21, 2011 In our daily lives, we have come to recognize motion in regards to ourselves and other stationary objects around ourselves. We concluded that of an object that maintains it position with respect to the immobile objects, is at rest. We also determined that all objects moving, along with the earth without changing its positions on earth surface is considered stationary objects in the earth’s frame of reference. So theoretically, “all bodies not changing position with respect to a specific observer is stationary in the frame of reference attached with the observer.”(Singhil) Hermann von Helmholtz stated, “A moving body whose motion was not retarded by any resisting force would continue to move to all eternity.”(Brainy) Helmholtz means that every single thing on earth is always constantly moving. What is motion; it is a state which indicates change of position. Motion of a body refers to the time given in a frame of reference. A frame of a reference is a method to describe space from the perception of an observer. In other words, it is a system of measurement for locating positions of the bodies in space with reverence to a viewer. These terms “reference” and “observer” are used to explain and describe motion. A frame of reference is a mathematical construct that specifies the location of a point of an object in......

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Do We Defining a Winner in Negotiation?

...winner side should not do anything plus get the compensation money. In this case the ones should be angry with the winner and there is no chance to keep relationship. Secondly, win through conciliation than means both of sided reach the agreement which is not incriminating each other. For instance, the ones on car accident case should not stay in prison and only pay a half of its compensation. In this case there is a possibility in keeping a good relationship between them. In those two general conditions, second’s seems better socially but it’s quite uncertain individually. A winner in negotiation is one who understands what their objectives are takes the time to achieve what is possible through the bargaining process. In addition, a winner strives to leave the other party as satisfied as possible with the outcome. Winner in negotiation do this by the way they conduct themselves in negotiation and jointly search for a better deal for both sides. It means, it’s not necessarily the winner in negotiation always achieve all their objectives or get the best of every deal. Somehow it also affected by “what is the motivation behind”, so that more or less the objective goal set based on it. Since the negotiation takes two aggress, it is definitely rare the other parties grant a total victory winning in negotiation. As a better result in achieving goal we should categorizing primary, secondary and tertiary interest. For instance, in previous car accident we put primary goal is;......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Do We Change Health Related Behaviour?Critically Evaluate Using Relevant Examples, What Makes a Successful Intervention?

...Keywords: Health related behaviour, brief intervention, alcohol, stages of change, intervention mapping. ABSTRACT The health of people depends widely on their behaviour. Targeting unhealthy behaviours depends upon a number of factors since the health practitioner needs to take into account the beliefs, the intensity of the unhealthy behaviour, an individual’s readiness to change in order to design an appropriate intervention to help the individuals understand the risks of that particular behaviour thereby inducing change. Using alcohol consumption as a health related behavior, brief interventions for this behaviour have been explained, this is mainly due to the large success of brief interventions. Thus this essay critically discusses examples of brief interventions in order determine what contributes to a successful intervention. INTRODUCTION Every human’s health and well being is affected by health related behaviour often regarded as the foremost important element or factor. With the rapid advancement in science, diseases that were incurable, today can be treated and prevented easily. It is a well understood phenomenon that individuals are unique and are characterized by multidimensional behaviours. So in order to achieve positive outcomes in improving one’s health, appropriate behaviour needs to be promoted. There are variations in health-related behaviours in terms of duration, frequency and manner of impact on one’s health. Health-related behaviours can be single...

Words: 4926 - Pages: 20