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Rincon Musical

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ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO, ¿O QUÉ LE PASO A NUESTRA VENTAJA?

Caso de estudio preparado por Ing. Diana Gutiérrez 19 de Octubre de 2008.

RINCON MUSICAL, ¿RENOVARSE O MORIR?

A finales del segundo trimestre del año en curso, después de una reunión en la que la gerencia analizaba las sombrías cifras pronosticadas para el cierre de año, el Sr. Enrique Calderón, Presidente de la compañía, veía con desesperación como las ventas iban en picada drástica. Habiendo revisando los números de los últimos tres años, quedaba muy claro como la venta de máquinas había disminuido en alarmante proporción. Como resultado del análisis de los estados financieros, tenía como conjetura que los distribuidores (principales compradores de la marca) se veían en circunstancias similares, ya que además notó un atraso en la cartera de cobranza. ¿Qué es lo que estaba sucediendo, cuáles eran las causas del declive de las ventas? Y aunado a esto, ¿por qué los clientes se estaban retrasando tanto en sus pagos, cómo se estaba administrando el departamento de cobranza de la compañía? La Reseña de los daños. Rincón musical es una empresa mexicana fundada en 1950, cuyo giro principal es comercialización de sinfonolas. Pero fue en 1984, cuando el Sr. Enrique Calderón adquirió y comenzó su expansión por todo el país, extendiéndose además Guatemala, El Salvador y Brasil. Desde entonces, es el distribuidor exclusivo de empresa Rowe International para México, Centro y América del Sur. la la a la

La empresa se encuentra ubicada en la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, y es 100% familiar, al frente de la misma esta el Sr. Calderón como presidente de la compañía y en los puestos clave, cinco de sus hijos.

A través de los años, la industria de la sinfonola se ha ido transformando paulatinamente; antes del año 2000, las máquinas eran de disco compacto, de las cuales aún existen operando en el mercado alrededor de unas 30 mil. A partir de este nuevo siglo, tomando fuerza en 2004 la tecnología ha ido evolucionando, dando paso a la era digital, sinfonolas controladas por un CPU que contiene archivos con miles de canciones en su memoria y pantallas de tacto. Durante la década de los noventas y aun a principios de ésta, Rincón era el líder indiscutible en ventas a nivel nacional, teniendo un 85% del mercado en sus manos, y tomó un nuevo impulso con la entrada de las sinfonolas digitales que fueron un boom por el novedoso concepto. Pero también a raíz de esta evolución tecnológica, “nuevos entrantes” al mercado, inclusive algunos distribuidores que le tenían lealtad a la marca, comenzaron a ver en este nuevo segmento una oportunidad de hacer negocio de una manera “muy” fácil. Se dieron a la tarea de fabricar máquinas hechizas que consistían en simples cajones de madera a los cuales les instalaban un monitor y un CPU con extenso surtido de música y la ofrecían al público en general en un precio hasta en un 70% más bajo al costo de una sinfonola original. Otro aspecto de mucha relevancia en la industria es el pago a la Sociedad Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas, Videogramas y Multimedia, S.G.C., (Somexfon), de la tarifa anual por derechos de uso y explotación de los contenidos musicales ejecutados en las sinfonolas. Al no realizar este pago, se considera ilegal, el uso de la música en el equipo, lo cual constituye un delito federal. Las sinfonolas fabricadas (caseras) no realizan esos pagos, porque además es requisito para obtener el permiso que la sinfonola cuente con NOM-001 (Norma Oficial Mexicana). La compañía tiene sus distribuciones en todo el país mismo que divide por regiones. Desde el inicio, se reclutaron a los primeros distribuidores con base en la confianza e inclusive en la amistad de muchos años con la familia. Se les vendían grandes cantidades de sinfonolas para que ellos hicieran la labor de venta al menudeo, sin que mediara de por medio documentos como pagarés que avalaran la entrega de mercancía y el adeudo contraído. El día de hoy, la mayor parte de la cartera vencida de la empresa está concentrada en unos 20 distribuidores, de los cuales, aproximadamente el 85% no tiene documentos firmados por los montos adquiridos. El resto de la cartera total (alrededor de entre un 10% y 20% corresponde a ventas al menudeo).

Situación actual y Problemática El Sr. Calderón convoca a sus hijos y con el apoyo de la gerente administrativa, les explica con estados financieros comparativos, la realidad por la que está atravesando la compañía, como consecuencia de la proliferación de máquinas hechizas y los precios a los que se venden, y analizan como es que Rincón Musical mostrando una tendencia a la baja en sus ventas, ha mantenido sus gastos en los mismos niveles que se tenían cuando no existía la competencia desleal. Ver Anexos 1 y 3. La situación financiera de la empresa muestra un panorama desalentador, el Sr. Calderón observa las cifras y pregunta a sus hijos y gerente cuál consideran que es la mejor opción para solucionar en primera instancia el problema de liquidez al que se enfrenta la empresa.

Se dieron a la tarea de estudiar estrategias alternativas de venta, encontrando que en base a los números de máquinas de disco compacto que actualmente operan, contaban con un excelente mercado para ofrecer “kits de conversión” que actualizaran dichas máquinas a formato digital, de esta manera, el cliente puede renovar su máquina con una importante reducción en sus costos y además garantizar que cuenta con un producto original y de calidad. ¿Sería conveniente apostar con todo a este concepto, además de parar por el momento la importación de sinfonolas de la planta de Estados Unidos? Por otra parte, se planteó darle también importancia a la promoción de los otros productos que se manejan, los cuales son accionados por monedas como mesas de billar, mesas de aire, máquinas expendedoras de botana, alimentos y de refrescos, futbolitos y videojuegos. Aunado a la situación que se ha venido dando, los clientes han dejado de pagar oportunamente sus cuentas y Rincón Musical ha tenido que diferir los pagos a proveedores y hasta la nómina. De continuar con esta tendencia, caen en la cuenta de que la empresa llegará a un punto en que no tendrá el efectivo necesario para operar y al extremo de cerrar sus operaciones. El ciclo de conversión de efectivo de la empresa muestra 548 días integrado por 259 días de cartera, 508 días de inventarios y 219 días de días de cuentas por pagar. La política de la empresa es cobro y pago a 60 días. Estos indicadores han ido empeorando a partir de 2005, por lo que el Sr Calderón se cuestiona las alternativas que podría tener Rincón Musical para corregir el rumbo. Ver Anexo 4 El flujo de dinero que representa cada eslabón del ciclo es vital, por ejemplo en el caso de las cuentas por cobrar se tienen 19 millones por cobrar al cierre de septiembre y unas ventas registradas en los nueve meses del ejercicio de 20 millones. Por otra parte el estado de resultados muestra una pérdida de 4.7 millones de pesos al cierre de Septiembre 2008, ocasionada por continuar con la misma tendencia de gastos, excepto el costo de sinfonolas, aún y cuando los ingresos han disminuido considerablemente. Ante este panorama, la compañía se encuentra en una situación donde tiene que enfrentar importantes retos que afectan su entorno, éstos incluyen factores internos como la administración financiera que actualmente maneja y factores externos como la piratería en el mercado de las sinfonolas. Ambos factores son clave importante para que Rincón Musical pueda seguir adelante y siga siendo líder en este mercado. ¿Rincón Musical está en condiciones de enfrentar esta problemática?, ¿Tiene la suficiente capacidad financiera-operativa para tomar las decisiones correctas y mejorar la situación que actualmente vive? Dado lo anterior, el Sr. Calderón le solicita a su gerente administrativa el realizar un análisis de la situación financiera actual y la propuesta de acciones concretas para solucionar el problema de liquidez.

ANEXO 1 Estado de Resultados de los Ejercicios con cierre el 31 de diciembre de 2004 a 2007 y del tercer semestre de 2008 (en pesos). Rincón Musical, S.A. de C.V.
Estado de Resultados. 31 de Diciembre, excepto 2008 ( Pesos )

2004 Ventas Descuentos y bonificaciones s/vtas Ventas netas Costo de Ventas Utilidad Bruta Gastos de Operación Gastos de Ventas Gastos de investigación Gastos de sinfonolas Gastos de administración Gastos sucursales Otros gastos Total gastos de Operación Utilidad de Operación Productos financieros Gastos financieros Otros gastos (productos) Utilidad antes de Impuestos ISR Utilidad (pérdida) neta

2005

2006

2007

Sep‐30 2008 25,405,690 ‐ 5,608,453 19,797,237 9,583,536 10,213,701

127,447,961 101,623,416 86,395,682 59,606,911 ‐ 1,741,302 ‐ 3,456,125 ‐ 6,473,445 ‐ 19,329,536 125,706,659 98,167,291 79,922,237 40,277,375 93,369,690 56,442,946 46,360,920 18,236,900 32,336,969 41,724,345 33,561,317 22,040,475

9,790,824 631,433 14,203,034 6,366,872 1,253,028 70,062 32,315,253 21,716

11,445,236 99,750 9,763,126 7,287,969 1,266,853 ‐ 29,862,934 11,861,411

13,639,239 10,649,304 ‐ ‐ 10,491,352 9,762,059 7,473,829 7,210,105 1,337,919 1,713,789 ‐ ‐ 32,942,339 29,335,257 618,978 ‐ 7,294,782

8,381,481 ‐ 1,202,158 4,823,219 1,393,371 ‐ 15,800,229 ‐ 5,586,528

‐ 1,122,556 ‐ 386,671 ‐ 590,558 ‐ 85,681 ‐ 23,135 1,499,148 831,751 1,039,350 408,062 232,212 ‐ 1,097,185 ‐ 777,776 ‐ 2,346,232 ‐ 1,621,357 ‐ 1,026,874 742,309 1,169,891 ‐ 427,582 12,194,107 1,618,019 10,576,088 2,516,418 ‐ 5,995,806 ‐ 4,768,731 1,394,051 1,596,384

1,122,367 ‐ 7,592,190 ‐ 4,768,731

ANEXO 2 Balances al 31 de diciembre de 2004 a 2007 y del tercer semestre de 2008 (en pesos).

Rincón Musical, S.A. de C.V.
Estado de Posición Financiera al 31 de Diciembre, excepto 2008 ( Pesos )

2004 Efectivo Cuentas por cobrar Otras cuentas por cobrar Inventarios Total activo circulante Inversión en activo fijo Depreciación acumulada Activo fijo, neto Otros activos Total activo Prestámos bancarios Cuentas por pagar Anticipos de clientes Otros pasivos circulantes Total pasivo circulante ISR diferido Total pasivo Capital social Aportaciones para futuros aumentos Superavit por revaluación Utilidades acumuladas Total capital contable Total pasivo y capital

2005

2006

2007

Sep‐30 2008 ‐ 721,640 19,015,047 8,281,660 18,024,158 44,599,225 5,183,598 ‐ 4,190,550 993,048 2,375,882 47,968,155 ‐ 7,786,121 951,334 10,323,540 19,060,995 ‐ 19,060,995 1,300,050 102,275 1,091,539 26,413,296 28,907,160

5,949,469 5,045,934 2,862,364 1,295,223 21,680,417 31,625,448 44,937,529 28,340,645 4,992,161 1,920,100 3,760,017 2,442,183 15,392,661 11,771,750 12,206,949 16,584,981 48,014,708 50,363,232 63,766,859 48,663,033 8,005,044 8,008,872 7,353,191 6,713,059 ‐ 5,136,025 ‐ 5,641,643 ‐ 5,691,089 ‐ 5,679,068 2,869,019 2,367,229 1,662,102 1,033,991 2,242,113 2,347,049 2,267,619 2,372,029 53,125,840 55,077,510 67,696,580 52,069,053 ‐ 11,851,753 9,049,026 2,067,108 22,967,887 588,328 23,556,215 1,300,050 102,275 1,091,539 27,075,761 29,569,625 53,125,840 3,000,000 10,035,515 ‐ 1,307,954 14,343,469 588,328 14,931,797 1,300,050 102,275 1,091,539 37,651,849 40,145,713 55,077,510 3,100,000 21,078,170 ‐ 1,662,002 25,840,172 588,328 26,428,500 1,300,050 102,275 1,091,539 38,774,216 41,268,080 742,368 9,533,235 951,334 6,577,897 17,804,834 588,328 18,393,162 1,300,050 102,275 1,091,539 31,182,026 33,675,891

67,696,580 52,069,053 47,968,155

ANEXO 3 Comparativo de sinfonolas vendidas al 31 de Diciembre de 2004 a 2007 y 3er. Trimestre de 2008 (en unidades).
2004 2005 2006 2007 3er Trim 2008 671 300

Sinfonolas

1,419

1,268

948

ANEXO 4 Ciclo de conversión de efectivo

Rincón Musical, S.A. de C.V.
Ciclo de conversión de efectivo Días

2004 DSO DHI DPO Total ciclo 63 60 46 77

2005 118 76 65 129

2006 205 96 166 135

2007 257 332 191 398

Sep‐30 2008 259 508 219 548…...

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