Free Essay

Read the People - the Period of Antiquity Understood Through Literature

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Sequinta
Words 1496
Pages 6
Read the People: Understanding the Period of Antiquity through Literature

The Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient Sumarian text, along with two ancient Chinese poems: To be A Woman, written by Fu Xuan and Substance, Shadow, and Spirit written by T’ao Ch’ien, are all pieces of literature from the period of antiquity (the time prior to the Middle Ages). Reading each of them not simply for pleasure, but rather for the message injected into all parts of these works, allows a reader to learn a great many things other than the plot of the story they have written.

The Epic of Gilgamesh takes us through the life of the King of Uruk, Gilgamesh, as he quests for the meaning of living life and for the comfort needed to accept his mortality. To Be a Woman presents to the reader the perspective of a young woman about the way that her society relates to women with an attitude even less than one of indifference. T’ao Ch’ien, author of “Substance, Shadow, and Spirit,” introduces us to the reality of the commoners of another society during that period who were without the power to control their circumstances. All of these pieces of literature delve into the painful realities of life and the embracing of death; however, they are from the perspectives of those who occupy very different stations in life, and thus have very different problems and experiences which gives the reader vastly different understandings of life during this period of time. The attributes of the characters in The Epic of Gilgamesh and those of the speakers in To Be a Woman and Substance, Shadow, and Spirit, respectively, work together to help the reader understand much about the period of antiquity. The feelings of the people regarding tyrants like Gilgamesh, the grand priority of instant satisfaction, the seeming submission of commoners to life below the nobles, and the value or lack thereof placed upon women during this time stood out the most to during my reading.

Although Gilgamesh was considered very wise, he was also extremely cruel and his behavior was oppressive and demeaning to the people of his kingdom. Because it was said that Gilgamesh was part-god, he was thought to be held above all others and was not subject to the rules and morals of the people, including adultery (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” 29). Gilgamesh had the right to take whatever he desired without consequence or need for remorse. His followers became so angry and frustrated with the abuse of his power that they made a plea to the Gods to provide them with relief.

Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement; his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the king should be a shepherd to his people. His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior's daughter nor the wife of the noble; yet this is the shepherd of the city, wise, comely, and resolute…A goddess made him, strong as a savage bull, none can withstand his arms (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” 4)

Gilgamesh’s cruelty made degradation, poverty, and extreme hardships typical for most people in this period in history. Life was anything but peaceful and prosperous them to those less than nobility.

Ishtar, called the Queen of Heaven and Goddess of Love, was dangerously spiteful when she did not get her way. In fact, she was said to have yielded her power out of spite often. Ishtar tells Gilgamesh she wants to be his wife and have his children, she wants him to be her King. Gilgamesh declines. Gilgamesh said to her, with regard to another lover she once desired, “…but when you heard his answer you struck him. He was changed into a blind mole deep in the earth (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” 12).” In retaliation Ishtar begs her father for the Bull of Heaven so that she can punish him. After hearing the story, her father agrees that he should be punished and allows her to send the Bull of Heaven down to punish him which caused many earthquakes and long term damage to the crops (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” 12). One could certainly interpret the desire for instant satisfaction as a major societal priority during the period of antiquity. Personal gratification was more important than the fair treatment of any one individual in those times.

Females during the period of Antiquity often received the most unjust treatment of all—even their potential contributions were discounted and valued less. In Fu Xuan’s poem To Be a Woman, we learn how bad it was for some women then, how lowly they were valued, and how they compared to the males. “How sad it is to be a woman/Nothing on earth is held so cheap/ Boys stand leaning at the door/ like Gods Fallen out of Heaven (Xuan 4)” The woman expressing this perspective is angry and not at all satisfied with the treatment females receive. Unlike the treatment from a tyrannous king, this treatment did not only come from above. The attitude toward women was ingrained into every part of their society. “No one is glad when a girl is born: by her the family sets no store (Xuan 7-8).” From this excerpt we can see that the family of a female child does not value her life any more than society values her, or any more than she comes to values herself. “When she grows up, she hides in her room/Afraid to look at a man in the face (Xuan 9-10).” In short, by understanding the attitude of this speaker, a reader begins to understand how dismal and discouraging life was for some people during the period of antiquity.

In contrast, the sentiment in T’ao Ch’ien’s “Substance, Shadow, and Spirit”suggests that the allure of instant satisfaction and gratification isn’t a bad thing. He implies that it may actually be the saving grace of an oppressed people. Ch’ien conveys through this poem the wisdom of a man that has gained peace of mind from the acceptance of your fate and from the enjoyment of the present. In this excerpt he calls attention to the natural order of things, to the resignation to the inevitable. Not with a defeatist attitude, but rather one of acceptance and faith in the process that governs all life.

Plants observe a constant rhythm/ Withered by frost, by dew restored./ But man, most sentient being of all,/In this is not their equal./He is present here in the world today,/ Then leaves abruptly, to return no more./…I hope you will take my advice:/ When wine if offered, don’t refuse (Ch’ien 3-7, 15-16)

Even in the midst of chaos and despair, there were those that still lived satisfied lives because of their faith in the predictability of life and did not allow their spirits and personal freedoms to be dissolved by their unchangeable circumstances. This shows that during the period of antiquity people were faithful and strong in spite of the conditions that may result in the depression of the spirit.

The power hungry Gilgamesh ruled his people as he wished, subjecting them to all sorts of violations of their humanity, Ishtar was spiteful and vindictive, women in ancient China were devalued, and an acceptance of ones conditions was crucial to the individual’s happiness. It’s known that kings like Astyages ruled Media for 35 years; he punished one of his subjects by killing his son and served him to him at a banquet (History of Media and Persia). Knowing the impact of rulers similar to Gilgamesh and Ishtar leads a reader to believe that life must have been much less than ideal for their subjects.

The anger and frustration of the speaker in To Be a Woman supports that theory by expressing the unfairness and disregard with which women were treated then, and although the speaker in Substance, Shadow, and Spirit does offer another perspective where your station in life may be inevitable, but your condition is only as dismal as you make it, he still shows that there was indeed a need to adopt that type of philosophy about life in order to sustain mental and emotional health. There is a host of inferred information one can gather by analyzing a poem or story, and a skilled writer is able to show u

..................Page Break..................

Works Cited

History of Media and Persia. 1997. Internet. 6 June 2012.

Ch’ien’s, T’ao. “Substance, Shadow, and Spirit.” Michigan Tech University, Michigan., 5 June 2012. http://composing.org/hu2505/substance-shadow-and-spirit/

The Epic of Gilgamesh. Trans. Andrew George. London, England: Penguin Books, 2003. Print.

Xuan, Fu. “To Be a Woman.” Ancient Chinese Stories, Tales, and Chinese Poetry. Ancient Chinese Stories. 06 June 2012. < http://ancientchinesestories.com/2009/04/19/ancient-chinese-poetry-the-sad-ancient-story-of-chinese-women-a-sad-tale-indeed/

…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Literature Through Time

...Literature Through Time Literature depicts the morals of time it shift and morphs into less power in the divine and more faith in man. Stories began being written by monks and the clergy which in time turned into regular men with stores that focused on more secular matters. English literature fills up the gap between wars, between societal change, you can see time progressing, you can see our values and morals changing, you can see history passing by. In the beginning there was Bede, a philosopher, speaker of many languages, a man who looked around him and saw a world in peril that only God could save, a man full of faith. Time passes and we see Shakespeare, a genius, a man with a queen, a man who rallied against the common, Shakespeare was a man with deep loves and a strong voice. “The Story of Caedmon”, was written during a time when Christian religious dogma was primarily hagiography, “the telling of the life of virtuous men and women that represents what it means to be a good Christian.” These stories are used as a form of reflections on one’s life as to make it better in the future. Religious dogma needed to be made more accessible to the congregation which was widely illiterate, so the stories were written with easy points and then acted out so that the congregation would not only be awake and attentive, but so that these stories of morality and faith would really sink in. “Caedmon” is probably the earliest extant of Old English poetry, Bede tells about Caedmon,......

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Literature of the Old English and the Old Irish Periods (600-1100 A.D.)

...LITERATURE OF THE OLD ENGLISH AND THE OLD IRISH PERIODS (600-1100 A.D.) 1- OLD ENGLISH HISTORY AND LANGUAGE Initial literatures are spoken and that oral literature have been many amplifications, later appear the texts. Beowulf was oral first and then became written. There are lots of fragments written literally. Some texts were lost and now we only have fragments. These texts are writing in manuscripts, there weren’t books in that period. In particular there are four manuscripts that contain most of English literature: Cotton Vitelius, Exeter Book, Junius Manuscript and Vercelli Manuscript; they are from 10th century. However the poetry and the texts contain the literature from 9th century, but they originated in 7th century orally (all of them originated orally before they appear written). That manuscripts tell some things about the society of this period of time, so we know details of this century. This period is the Anglo-Saxon period, before them there were the Britons who were invaded by some different people. They spoke different dialects of old English, the stronger kingdom was Wessex, which dialect was the most important and it called “west saxon”. Beowulf was writing in this dialect. In 597 appeared the Christianization. This means that the English became Christian, it became familiar with the church language: Latin. Latin is the culture language. The entry of Christianity is the entry of the culture in Britain. 2- WRITTEN RECORDS OF THE ANGLOSAXON......

Words: 2629 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

From the Middle Age Through Renaissance Period

...From the Middle Ages through the Renaissance Brandi Morris American Intercontinental University Introduction Renaissance Art emerged as a cultural transformation which took place with the beginning of 14th Century. It was originated in France and brought historical art changes which subsequently marked a fine line between Middle Ages and Modern Age. Renaissance art was later identified as the return of Roman and Greek Art culture since it had focused over the humanism and reformation (Woods, 2007). This paper aims to compare two different art works of renaissance in order to identify their differences and similarities. The Portrait of Durer’s Father at 70 by Albrecht Durer, 1497. Material: oil on paint Size: 51×40cm Form It has two dimensions which have used different materials the most prominent ones are the oil on panel. The oil and lime painting process has been utilized in order to make this distinguishing piece of art (Examples of Renaissance works of art by artists born after 1469, 2010). There is a striking combination of black, brown, font, pink and red. Overall painting is made with the help of thin lines, for instance, the reflection of 70 years old man is clearly visible through the thin lines of his hairs and wrinkles on the face. The straight rectangular shape of the portrait has given it a more realistic and admirable look. Durer has used engraving texture techniques so as to give the portrait a more pragmatic appearance. Thin lines of Durer’s......

Words: 896 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Notes on Greek Literature and Drama

... | |2 |Greek god of wine and revelry |master of Greek comedy |god of war |capital city of Greece |what Greek actors wore during | | |- Dionysus |-Aristophanes |Ares |Athens |a performance in a play - | | | | | | |masks | |3 |lyric poet notable for his |religion of the 98% of Greek |The GLORY |dwelling place of the deities |prince of Troy who gave his | | |drinking songs and hymns - |people |that was |Mt. Olympus |life for his people - Hector | | |Anacreon |Greek Orthodox |GREECE | | | |4 |Father of Tragedy who wrote |what Prometheus stole from the|where the most famous oracle |greatest elegiac poet of |greatest epic poet | | |Prometheus |gods that angered them - fire |is found |Greece |Homer | | |Aeschylus | |Delphi |Simonides | | |5 |mythical creature who gives...

Words: 1771 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Retelling Nineteenth-Century Latin America Through Literature

...HIST 439 September 17, 2011 Critique: Poverty of Progress Retelling nineteenth-century Latin America through literature The time period is the nineteenth-century, the setting: a geographic and cultural space once known as the New World. It’s not your typical account of heroes and villains, the rich against the poor, good versus evil, or princesses, castles and glass slippers. Although all of these actors play a fundamental role in the tale that is about to unfold (with perhaps, the exception of the glass slippers), the real story traces its roots to a time period plagued by significant socioeconomic changes in the way of life of an entire civilization. By no means was it a homogeneous collection of peoples, but rather a mosaic of diverse indigenous folk, African descendants, Europeans, and peoples of every possible mixed ethnic makeup. This is the story of modernization imposed by the Eurocentric elites, forever leaving its mark on the social and cultural construct of Latin America. Historian, Bradford Burns, in his work the Poverty of Progress concludes it was modernization that led to the destruction of the quality of life in the aftermath of independence movements across Latin America. The overarching themes of his book revolve around the wealthy and educated minority imposing modernization on the less educated majority: the indigenous folk, Africans and those of mixed ethnicity. As can be expected, historical accounts during the nineteenth-century also reflect......

Words: 922 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Motivating Young Readers Through Adolescent Literature

...Motivating Young Readers through Adolescent Literature Mary Ann Clemente Grand Canyon University: SED 435 Dec. 9, 2012 Motivating Young Readers through Adolescent Literature The challenge that faces educators today is presenting adolescent readers with books that students can relate to and will keep them motivated to read. Adolescents connect to stories that have a theme that tell a story about things like friendship, discovering themselves and their values. Books that show teen characters positively, as compared to how society usually sees them will keep students motivating and will hold their interest (Herz & Gallo, 1996). One such book is Rifles for Watie, a historical fiction novel and Newbery Medal winner. It was written by Harold Keith in 1957. This book can be used to connect the history of the Civil War with a students everyday life. The story is about a sixteen year old boy named Jefferson (Jeff) Davis Bussey. He joins the Union side of the Civil War and while serving gets noticed by for his intelligence, skill, and calm disposition. He becomes a spy, pretending to be part of the Rebel side, gaining information for the Union. Students will be able to relate to this young man. He struggles with many of the same things as students do today. The older men see him as young and inexperienced and not as valuable. Jeff also misses his family and struggles with the realization that even though the Rebels are his enemy, they are real people who face the same......

Words: 1886 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Intertestamental Period

...UNIVERSITY ACCOUNT OF THE INTERTESTAMENTAL PERIOD IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE NBST 525 LIBERTY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BY LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA August CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 INTRODUCTION The “Intertestamental period”, or the “Second Temple Period” represent a period within history, which upholds an interpretation for both Christianity and Judaism. According to Judaism, this era acknowledges the “Second Temple Period”, which exemplifies the Jewish Diaspora. First, “diaspora” simply means “dispersion” or “scattering.” This dispersion or scattering began through the efforts of the Assyrians when they defeated Israel in 722 B.C. In effect, the Jewish nation dispersed all over the Middle East, Egypt, and Babylon. These individuals literally disappeared from antiquity due to the results of the Jewish Diaspora. However, Nebuchadnezzar endured the Jewish populaces to inaugurate a cohesive group within Babylon around 597 B.C. Nevertheless, the subject of this essay will focus on the Christian assessment of the “Intertestamental Period.” For centuries, Christian intellectuals describe the era from the final quarter of the fifth century B.C. to the first century A.D. as the “Intertestamental Period.” This era arises with the reconstructing of the Jewish temple in the late sixth century, and terminating with its annihilation in A.D. 70. The “Intertestamental Period” represents a significant account of the......

Words: 2999 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

English Literature Romanticism Period

...into what is considered the gothic genre, many critics consider Radcliffe the founder of the gothic novel. The Mysteries of Udolpho includes all of the classic gothic elements, including a haunted castle, a troubled heroine, a mysterious and menacing male figure, and hidden secrets of the past. Extremely popular when it was first published in four volumes in 1794, the work made Radcliffe famous throughout Europe. Biographical Information Born July 9, 1764, Ann Ward was the daughter of William and Ann Oates Ward. Her father held a modest occupation as a haberdasher, but her extended family included well-known scholars and physicians. Growing up a very shy and reticent young woman in Bath, she led a sheltered life but had a great love for literature and nature. She gradually developed a heightened romantic sensibility and an interest for the supernatural. On January 15, 1787, she married William Radcliffe, a student at Oxford, and the couple moved to London, where, according to all accounts, they lived happily. Finding herself among literary circles in London, Radcliffe was stimulated enough to try her hand at writing, and she quickly established herself as an author with extraordinary powers of description. By the time she had published The Romance of the Forest in 1791, her reputation was established. Despite being acknowledged as an adept writer, the 500 pounds she received for The Mysteries of Udolpho surprised the literary world, it would have been a handsome sum for a......

Words: 2101 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Medialogic, Tracking Tv Viewership Through People Meter

...|Case Study | |MEDIALOGIC | |Tracking TV viewership through People Meter | | | |Submitted by: Ali Khalid | |1/29/2011 | | | Identify the Problems Analysis of gathered data Medialogic Pakistan Ltd. is currently not analyzing the gathered data. Although at the current stage gathering first hand information is very useful for companies, but a lot further analysis can give more valuable insight for the channel operators. User profiles may be inaccurate For identification of different viewers is determined by different buttons. In many cases the operator of the remote is not watching......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How to Read Literature Like a Professor

...How to Read Literature Like a Professor by Thomas C. Foster Chapter Reflections Introduction: How’d He Do That? * How do memory, symbol, and pattern affect the reading of literature? How does the recognition of patterns make it easier to read complicated literature? Discuss a time when your appreciation of a literary work was enhanced by understanding symbol or pattern. * When reading literature: memory, symbol, and pattern help you understand the text better. If you don’t comprehend literature, then you won’t know the real meaning behind that passage. But that’s why memory, symbol, and pattern come in to help. I think the recognition of patterns make it easier to read complicated literature because then we can analyze what exactly it is that we are reading. It gets readers to look more in depth of the literature itself. I think memory helps the readers connect emotionally and/or physically to that literature. Also, symbols analyze a deeper thought to something. When I read something, I picture it in my head and I would create a scene in my mind. Then by using memory, symbol, and pattern, I’ll try to sort everything out to make it clearer for my understanding. Chapter 1 – Every Trip is a Quest (Except When It’s Not) * List the five aspects of the QUEST and then apply them to something you have read (or viewed) in the form used on pages 3-5. * The quest has five aspects, which includes: (a) a quester, (b) a place to go, (c) a stated reason to go there,......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Literature Read and Response

...Romanticism period. I prefer the lyrics of John Keats. Poets of the Romantic era focused more on difficult and maybe abstract topics. In Keats’ poems there is the allusion of the Hellenistic period but he still follows it with beauty in all of its forms and also shows his love for nature which falls right in line with the Romanticism characteristics. John Keats poems are appreciated with great vitality because of his adoration for beauty whom he calls beauty is truth and truth beauty. • In the selection from Thoreau's Walden, what is the author's attitude toward nature? Why do you think such an attitude might emerge during this period? What type of effect do you think Thoreau's writings have had on our world today? In the piece, Walden by Henry David Thoreau, the topic of nature is discusses a lot. The author's attitude reflects that he is a fan of nature and the benefits nature has had on his life. It is said in his piece that many times famous works of literature are concerned with nature and we agree with this statement, just in being a scholar of literature and reading multiple pieces with detailed literature details. Thoreau was said to have lived in nature while exploring how and what to write about, and I believe this is common with today's writes. Often times, nature can be a sense of inspiration and creativity. We believe the use of nature is inspiring and therefore used in literature today. It is also clear as to why it was used in this time period. In the......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Help People Work Through Problems

...WHEN…THEN….HOW TO HELP PEOPLE WORK THROUGH PROBLEMS Deal with people’s concerns in a supportive way. You can support the person Even if you don’t agree with the idea. You can help the most if you 1. Are predictably present and accessible. 2. Give the other person two-thirds of the available time to talk while you listen. 3. Put everything but the other person “on hold” for that period of time. 4. Listen with the intent to summarize the factual and the feeling content of the employee’s message. 5. Actually feed back the factual and the feeling content of the person’s message, “Sounds like you feel...because....” 6. Allow some time for what the person said to sink in before you make a decision or give advice. The stronger the person’s feelings, the more time you should allow. It may even be appropriate to save the decision or the advice for a later, planned meeting. (But go ahead and set the time for that meeting now--you don’t want to be seen as causing an unnecessary delay.) Avoid emotional triggers. When people are under a lot of stress, they may automatically react defensively to certain emotional triggers. For many people the word “you” is one of those triggers. So avoid the temptation to say, ”You should have....” or “Why didn’t you...?” And for many people, any direct question can have the same effect. You may just be going through a problem-solving protocol when you ask, “What did you say to him right before he lost it?” But a stressed out......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sartre's What Is Literature?

...No. - . This bookihould be returned on or before the date last marked below. WHAT IS LITERATURE? JEAN-PAUL SARTRE Translated from the French by BERNARD FRECHTMAN PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY NEW YORK Copyright, 1949, by Philosophical Library, Inc. 15 EAST 40th Street, New York, N.Y. Printed in the United States of America TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword I II What Why is Writing? Write? Whom Does One Write? 7 38 III For IV Situation of the Writer in 1947 161 Index 299 67 FOREWORD want to engage yourself," writes a young imbecile, "what are you waiting for? Join the Communist Party." A great writer who engaged himself often and disengaged himself still more often, but who has forgotten, said to me, "The worst artists are the most engaged. Look "If you at the Soviet painters" "You want tres is to murder An old critic gently complained, literature. spread out insolently all Contempt for belles-let- through your review." A petty mind calls me pigheaded, which for him is evidently the highest insult. An author who barely crawled from name sometimes awakens men accuses me of not being one war to the other and whose languishing memories in old concerned with immortality; he knows, thank God, any number of people whose chief hope it is. In the eyes of an American hack-journalist the trouble with me is that I have not read Bergson or Freud; as for Flaubert, who did not engage himself, it seems that he haunts me like remorse.......

Words: 94432 - Pages: 378

Free Essay

Technology and How It Helps People Read Better

...Cedar Behnke Lisa Martin (please give me a A+) English 111-(green) 21 April 2016 Technology and How It Helps People Read Better Most people use or have used technology, and even many of them using tech daily, hourly, or more often. Even with the large amount of people who use technology, they don’t commonly think about if or how technology is affecting us, but recently, the effects of technology on reading have come up and been debated if they are either mostly positive or negative. A comprehensive view of what technology does to our reading retention, access to information, speed of reading, new and struggling readers, perception of good work, lateral reading, and a person’s relationship with reading is important to come up with a solid conclusion. Why does knowing the effects matter? They are important for humanity, if they are negative people need to know how to prevent them; and if positive, then how to use them more for humanity’s benefit. While National Endowment for the Arts argues that people are reading full works less in their free time, and Nicholas Carr argues that the internet is making people lose the ability to read long articles, the effects of technology on reading are mostly positive because the ease of reading laterally is more accessible, helps struggling readers to learn, and promotes people to read more on the internet. To begin, Mathew Kirschenbaum argues “that reading is being both reimagined and re-engineered” (para 2). In his article “Reading......

Words: 2432 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Mobile Banking Through Rural People in Bangladesh

...report on A CRITICAL STUDY ON POSSIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE BANKING SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH THROUGH RURAL PEOPLE A study on Mobile banking and Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited For the partial fulfillment of the course ‘Research Methodology’. Code: MGT-411 Under supervision of: Md. Shahidul Islam Fakir Assistant Professor Department of Management Studies Jagannath University, Dhaka Prepared by: Md. Rajiul Alam ID: 06671740 BBA 4th year, 2nd semester Department of Management Studies Jagannath University, Dhaka Publisher: Department of Management Studies. Jagannath University, Dhaka Date of publication: 12/07/2012 Executive summary Banking can simply be expressed as the business of keeping, lending, exchanging and issuing money. The Mobile phone has started a new dimension for transaction and banking system. We call this system as Mobile Banking System. Mobile Banking System ensures the use of the cell phone in several types of banking transactions. I want to understand the current situation of mobile banking system in Bangladesh and also want to share this knowledge with others. This report will help its reader to understand the mobile banking system and its future in Bangladesh specially through the rural people, and to understand how to overcome the problems of mobile banking system through rural people in Bangladesh. Objectives of the study: ......

Words: 3904 - Pages: 16