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Psy/345 Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography
PSY/ 345

Annotated Bibliography

Cavanagh, P. (1992). Attention-based motion perception. Science, 1563-1565. Retrieved August 09, 2015, from http://www.jstor.org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/stable/2879947?pq-origsite=summon&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Attention often plays a crucial role in motion perception. For example, when a stimulus contains two components moving in opposite directions, attentive tracking of either one can reveal its motion independently of the other. Many neurons in primary visual cortex are sensitive to the direction of motion and attention might act by selecting one or the other of these low-level motion responses. Experiments have demonstrated that the perception of motion during attentive tracking can arise independently of low-level motion responses and may be derived from the internal signals that move the focus of attention. What the studies found in this experiment is tracking of spatial features depends on identifying form boundaries, and it appears that the form signal from luminance is especially susceptible to masking by color. This might be expected because any object traveling through a shadowed environment will have many luminance boundaries drifting across it that are unrelated to the object and need to be discounted, whereas color boundaries are more reliably tied to object borders

Cues for depth perception. (1998). British Journal of Ophthalmology, 82(6), 599. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196469781?accountid=4508
Although our view of the world is three dimensional, the retinal image is flat. Information processing must occur between the retina and the brain in order to convert the two dimensional image to three dimensions. The neural basis for this "structure from motion" effect is unknown but is apparently encoded by neurons in the cortical GMT area, a region involved in motion perception. A study showed the two dimensional projection of transparent rotating three dimensional cylinders was perceived as three dimensions but there was spontaneous reversal of the surface because this was not specified by the stimulus. In these primate experiments there was undetectable neuronal activity which coincided with the perception of image reversal even though the stimulus remained unchanged.
Essentially the study that this article is referring to found that there is an area in our brain, which has yet to be detected that processes our three-dimensional imaging. The study also showed unless the object we are trying to process moves we do not necessarily process it as a three dimensional image. The researchers found that neurons with large receptive fields capable of spatially integrating direction and depth selective motion cues. However, this does nto provide a full explanation for where the activity happens.

Li, Y., &Pizlo, Z. (2011). Depth cues versus the simplicity principle in 3D shape perception. Topics in Cognitive Science, 3(4), 667-685. doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01155.x
This article examinees the perception of 3D shapes with both monocular and binocular disparity, the difference between using one or both eyes. Evidence in this study demonstrated the perspectives of monocular cues, finding that they are secondary to the depths seen on the edges of 3D objects. Further research illustrated that binocular disparity (varying position of the same object on the retina) and edges are fundamental to perceive depth and size.

Niimi, R., & Watanabe, K. (2013, December). Contextual Effects of Scene on the Visual Perception of Object Orientation in Depth. PLoS One, 8(12), e84371.

This article talked about the effects of background scenes and how they influenced the human visual perception of depth of three-dimensional objects (Niimi & Watanabe, 2013). According to Niimi and Watanabe (2013), "Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects (p. e84371). The objects in the study were surrounded by scenes (Niimi & Watanabe, 2013). The study demonstrated that the global reference frame may influence a person's depth perception of an object when its orientation is similar to the object or the gaze-line (Niimi & Watanabe, 2013).

Martin, A., Chambeuad, J.G., & Baraza, J.F. (2015, April). The effect of object familiarity on the perception of motion.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(2), 283-288.Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/25665088 This article discusses the idea that speed constancy is the ability of picking up the invariance of an object's physical speed, regardless of the distance from which it is seen. Several methods that were tested such as the velocity distance hypothesis and the transverse hypothesis determined that there can be bias regarding speed based individual observers. Objects and stimuli used in these studies were various sports balls shown moving in the fronto- parallel plane, over a black background across one or two screens. Results from this experiment demonstrated both a presence of bias and that object familiarity played a significant role in contributing to the perception of speed constancy.
Ono, M. E., Rivest, J., & Ono, H. (1986). Depth perception as a function of motion parallax and absolute-distance information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12(3), 331-337.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/ similar; jsessionid=36F862B71A934062FAA9FC42F970E938?doi=10.1.1.211.5124& type=ab

The experiments discussed in this article showed that the visual system uses information gathered from perceived distance joins motion parallax according to the absolute distance when processing depth. Three experiments were conducted using various depth ranges of viewing distances ranging from 40cm to 320 cm, using varying binocular disparity motion parallax as well. Depth was also replaced with perception of movement during some of the experiments and findings were able to demonstrate the difference between disparity and motion parallax. Findings illustrated that perception of depth was relative to viewing distance and that viewing perception was most accurate at close ranges.
Retina International. Loss of Depth Perception and Contrast. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.retina-international.org/eye-conditions/symptoms-understanding/loss-of-depth-perception-contrast/ Retina International provides a link as a source for information regarding symptoms and understands of retina degenerative conditions resulting in loss of depth perception and contrast. The link explains that “the loss of contrast refers to an inability to distinguish shades and hues which are close together in colour” (2015), and when perception of contrast is lost, the individual cannot determine perception of depth, which can effect mobility. Good visual examples of a stairway in different contracts are show to support how loss of visual contrast affects our perception of depth supporting the inability to perceive via the Gestalt principle of figure-ground.
DISORDERS OF MOTION PERCEPTION (AKINETOPSIA). (Unknown). Retrieved from http://content.lib.utah.edu/utils/getfile/collection/EHSL-NOVEL/id/1044/filename/image Disorders of Motion Perception explains the history of akinetopsia and that it is a disorder in which an individual loses ability to perceive movement due to a cerebral lesion. The article compares two patients found with the disorder and compares their neurological processes that are responsible for perceiving motion via the Gestalt principles of continuation and figure-ground. The article includes neurological imaging, and is found to be a good source for understanding the disease, symptoms, its biological factors, and research.…...

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