Free Essay

Processing Thoery

In: People

Submitted By jen0739
Words 1486
Pages 6
Information Processing Theory

Jennifer Hall
November 12, 2013
AED/202
Jacobs

1
Information Processing Theory

The information processing theory is a group of ideas put together describing how human beings transfer information, remember information, and modify information. The information processing theory also looks at how these processes change over the course of a persons life. This theory came out in the nineteen fifties and nineteen sixties, and has continually changed and been modified over the years. The information processing theory is a combination of three components; sensory register (memory), working memory, and long-term memory. The combination of these three components enables us as human beings to receive, think about, and process information. There is also one more component that is essential in the learning and memory process, this is called the central executive component. The central executive component is what you could refer to as the cognitive “supervisor”. Without this component a person's decision making skills and planning skills could be interfered with. Sensory register and working memory help in the beginning stages of memory, while long-term memory is just that. Long-term memory is used when storing information for long periods of time. During the study of the information processing theory is has been compared to a computer, seeing as how we “store” information and “retrieve” it from the memory. It could be said that sensory register (memory) and working memory are used to determine which pieces of information are needed to be stored in the long-term memory, and also where that information is to be stored.

Sensory register (memory) is the component that holds incoming information for only two to three seconds. This is a combination of sensation and perception which is brought upon a person through the five senses; sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. The sensory register takes these sensations and remembers them for only a few seconds before deciding which can be pushed into the next stage of

Running Head: Information Processing Theory 2

memory, the working memory stage. It has been said that the sensory register does not have enough time to pick and choose which thoughts are kept and which are thrown away, this stage of the memory is more involuntary then the others. The working memory is the component of memory that allows people to actually think about something and process a small amount of that information actively. Once in the sensory register, the brain determined whether or not to forward the information onto the working memory or to erase, or delete the information from the brain, once again using references to computers. As we get older, we are capable of thinking about more than one idea at a time and being able to process all the information that comes with it. While being able to think about more things at one time, the speed at which we do it is also increased. After awhile certain tasks become automatized, in other words things that need to be done are done almost without even thinking about doing them. Once this happens, these tasks take up much less room in the working memory, freeing more room for new and sometimes more complex tasks. The long-term memory is the component that is responsible for holding information and skills for a long period of time. Due to certain studies it has been shown that we are able to store information, long-term, very early on in life. As we get older our long-term memory grows and grows, compare it to a home library. One would start off with just a few books but eventually over time and purchasing more books the home library would grow. We can use the same idea to describe how our memory works, the more we learn the more our memory is able to store.

Each step in the memory process plays an important role in the overall act of remembering things. The central executive, “the regulator”, has to move information into and then out of the working memory because there is only so much space for information to be stored there. By determining which information is needed and which is not it frees up the space by either removing it or moving it to the long-term memory. The brain determines which information is to be pushed forward and which is to be
Running Head: Information Processing Theory 3

“thrown away” by two main factors, our ability to focus and pay attention to the material. As children get older their ability to move information into and out of the working memory becomes much easier, the awareness of one's surroundings becomes more acute and the speed in which it is done gets quicker. The processing speed getting faster is just the ability to move around information and store it where it needs to be stored, or not store it in some cases. The long-term memory is said to have a large, if not infinite capacity. Once information is stored in the long-term memory it is still able to be moved around, information can even be removed from this area if needed. The brain has been compared to a computer and I feel this is a great analogy, information is moved from place to place in the brain as files are moved around in a computer from file to file.

Children are born with some ability to learn, as they get older their visual acuity and attention span increases. During each stage of development children learn and accumulate different skills in remembering things and how to do certain tasks. Between the ages of two and six children have a short attention span and are easily distracted by their surroundings, their knowledge is limited because of our lack of experience in the world. As children move into middle childhood, between age six and ten, they are more able to ignore surrounding activity and have more knowledge of the world so they are more easily able to remember things using their life experiences. Once children reach the early adolescent stage they have learned basic skills in math, reading, and spelling. The brain has learned to push aside thoughts that are of no use, or irrelevant. During this stage children also start to find certain techniques that help them learn and remember things best. Assuming a child does not have a learning disability, by this stage they should be able to concentrate on something for a longer period of time. In the last stage of development, late adolescence, children should be able to focus on something for a longer time period and also have much more knowledge about the world around them.(McDevitt & Ormrod 2004 p
Running Head: Information Processing Theory 4

207) “Young children tend to be overly optimistic about how much they can remember.” During a study done, children were asked how many objects they could remember out of ten objects they were shown. As children got older they became more accurate, but were still a little overly optimistic. Preschool age children thought they would be able to remember about seven objects, when they could actually only remember about three. Kindergarteners thought they could remember eight, and it was actually only about four. When they tested second and fourth graders the children thought they would be able to remember about six of the objects and could actually only remember between four and five. Many times we see children take on tasks that they believe they can do but in the end may be too difficult for them to succeed in doing, this is often for that exact reason. Children have higher standards for themselves that are just not practical for their age.

Originally I had felt that the majority of how we process information was based on our environment, after learning a little bit more about the information processing theory I feel that it has to do with heredity first and then the environment can play off of one's heredity. They go hand in hand, for example if someone's mother has ADD there is a chance that they may have it as well. The approach to learning and information processing that is taken after finding out that one has ADD can be crucial to making sure all the information needed is being retained. Making sure to be aware of the material that is being studied and which information is important can help in the sensory register, allowing certain information to move into the working memory and then even further into the long-term memory. Understanding how the brain works and how it goes about remembering things can also be helpful. Not everyone is able to concentrate and pay attention to things as well as another person, in these cases the person, or child may have a learning disability and need to be evaluated to determine what can be done to help them.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Video Processing

...( X, t ) = ∫ C ( X, t , λ )ac (λ )dλ – Projection from 3-D to 2-D X→x P ψ ( P( X), t ) = ψ ( X, t ) or ψ (x, t ) = ψ ( P −1 (x), t ) • The projection operator is non-linear – Perspective projection – Othographic projection © Yao Wang, 2004 Video Basics 19 Perspective Projection Model Y X Y 3-D point Z X X Z C y F x Camera center x=F x Y X ,y=F Z Z y x Image plane © Yao Wang, 2004 The image of an object is reversed from its 3-D position. The object appears smaller when it is farther away. 2-D image Video Basics 20 How to Capture Color • Need three types of sensors • Complicated digital processing is incorporated in advanced cameras 2 fs,1/ fs,2 Rate conv. Matrix & encoder 2fs,1 Nonlinear processing Color corrector B Image enhancer Interpolation G fs,1 Pre-process R Analog process Lens A/D fs,1 ( fs,1) CCDs Digital CN output 2fs,1 13.5 MHz D/A Analog CN & CS output D/A Viewfinder output Figure 1.2 Schematic block diagram of a professional color video camera. Reprinted from Y. Hashimoto, M. Yamamoto, and T. Asaida, Cameras and display systems, IEEE (July 1995), 83(7):1032–43. Copyright 1995 IEEE. © Yao Wang, 2004 Video Basics 21 Video Display • CRT vs LCD • Need three light sources projecting red, green, blue components respectively © Yao Wang, 2004 Video Basics 22 Analog......

Words: 4501 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Payroll Processing

...Date: Tue, 12 FEB 2008 07:01:02 +0000 From: "Karina Ramirez" Subject: Payroll Info Here is the information you requested on our payroll processing: 1. All hourly employees (clerical and warehouse personnel) are paid biweekly (every 10 workdays) based on hours recorded on time cards maintained by a time clock machine. The time cards are approved by the supervisors. The supervisors take the approved time cards to the payroll department. Salaried employees also are paid biweekly based on a salary schedule approved by the finance committee of the board of directors. 2. The personnel department must approve all new hires, terminations, and hourly rate changes. Forms for each of these actions also are approved by appropriate supervisors and are kept in the personnel office. The personnel clerks notify payroll of the changes by a “payroll change” document. 3. The payroll department maintains the individual employees’ payroll records and the forms signed by employees for all pay deductions. 4. Every two weeks, Martha, a clerk in the payroll department, prepares the payroll register (multicopy) from the time cards and the information of the individual payroll records. Martha uses a “write-it-once” system that also prepares a form indicating gross pay, each deduction, net pay, and year-to-date totals. Martha calls this form the “take-home sheet.” Willie, a second clerk, checks Martha’s work and recalculates the gross pay and all deductions. 5. Two copies of the payroll......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Image Processing

...INTRODUCTION The term image refer to two dimensional light intensity function f(x, y), where x and y denote spatial coordinates and the value of at any point (x, y) is proportional to the brightness (or gray level) of the image at that point. A digital image is an image f(x, y) that has been discretized both in spatial coordinate and brightness. A digital image can be considered a matrix whose row and column indices identify a point in the image and the corresponding matrix element value identifies the gray level at that point. The elements of such a digital array are called image elements, picture elements. The term digital image processing refers to processing of a two dimensional picture by a digital computer. An image given in the form of a transparency, slide, photograph or chart is first digitized and stored as matrix of binary digits in computer memory. This digitized image can be processed and/or displayed on a high resolution monitor. Segmentation subdivides an image into its constituent regions or objects .The level to which the segmentation is carried depends on the problem being solved. Segmentation is carried until we are able to distinguish the object from its backgrounds. Image segmentation is based on one of the two basic properties of intensity values: discontinuity and similarity. Thresholding is a similarity approach of segmenting an image. The simplest thresholding technique is to partition the......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Language Processing

...Language processing 1.Explain what is lexical access. Lexical access (word recognition) The process by which the basic sound-meaning connections of language, i.e., lexical entries, areactivated. 2.How many techniques are used in studies of lexical access and explain them briefly? Experimental techniques used: lexical decision task (word vs. non-word, word frequency); semantic priming (doctor-nurse); naming task (regular-irregular-invented words). Listeners retrieve all meanings of a word, even in biased contexts. 3.Explain the syntactic processing. Syntactic processes (parsing)=the listener must figure out the syntactic and semantic relations among words and phrases in a sentence. 4.Explain briefly the techniques used in syntactic processing. Experimental techniques used: syntactic category ambiguity (The warehouse fires...1. were set by an arsonist., 2. employees over sixty; garden path sentences (The horse raced past the barn fell); shadowing task (i.e. quick repetitions, listeners correct speech and grammatical errors unconsciously). 5. What is a voiceprint? And how do we call it otherwise? Spectogram (voiceprints)= a pattern-like image produced of the sound signal in a computer program that decomposes the speech signal into its frequency components, a great deal can be learnt about the basic acoustic components that reflect the articulatory features of speech sounds. Spoken words rarely have boundaries, yet words are units of perception. 6.......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Milk Processing

...are “Lipases (fat-splitting enzymes), oxidases, proteases (protein-splitting enzymes), and amylases (starch-splitting enzymes) are among the more important enzymes that occur naturally in milk. (Britannica 1)”In addition to “the proteolytic enzyme (i.e., protease) rennin, produced in calves’ stomachs to coagulate milk protein and aid in nutrient absorption, is used to coagulate milk for manufacturing cheese.( Britannica 1)” The coagulation of milk is important Encyclopedia Britannica explains: The coagulation of milk is an irreversible change of its protein from a soluble or dispersed state to an agglomerated or precipitated condition. Its appearance may be associated with spoilage, but coagulation is a necessary step in many processing procedures. Milk may be coagulated by rennin or other enzymes, usually in conjunction with heat. Left unrefrigerated, milk may naturally sour or coagulate by the action of lactic acid, which is produced by lactose-fermenting bacteria. This principle is utilized in the manufacture of cottage cheese. When milk is pasteurized and continuously refrigerated for two or three weeks, it may eventually coagulate or spoil owing to the action of psychrophilic or proteolytic organisms that are normally present or result from post pasteurization contamination. Milk fat is also chemically found in milk. Milk fat is found in the water stage of milk. Fine clumps of fat when left to sit when refrigerated will rise to the......

Words: 1434 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Call Processing

...Call Processing , SMS and VMS In this we discuss the call processing aspect and look into specifics case of a mobile originated (MO) call and a mobile terminated (MT) call. We also look into short message (SMS) and voice mail service (VMS) as implemented IMPCS pilot project. RF channel overview: - RF channel play important role in call processing case. These are basically three types of RF control channel. 1. Broadcast control channel : The broadcast channels are points to multi-point channel, which are defined only for down-link direction (BTS to mobile station). They are divided into: BCCH (Broad cast control channel:- BCCH acts as a beacon. It informs the mobile about system configuration parameters (e.g. LAI, CELLIDENTY, NEIGHBOURING all identify). Using this information MS choose the best cell to attach to. BCCH is always transmitted on full power and it is never frequency hopped. FCCHC frequency correction channel. MS must tune to FCCH to listen to BCCH. FCCH transmits a constant frequency shift of the radio carrier that is used by the MS for frequency correction. SCH (synchronization channel). . SCH is used to synchronize the MS in time .SCH carries TDMA frame number and BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) 2. Common control channels : Common control channels are specified as point to multi-point, which operate only in one direction either in up-link or down-link direction. PCH (Paging Channel): - PCH is used in down-link direction for...

Words: 2942 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Processing a Defendant

...Processing a Defendant in the U.S Court System CRJS101-1303A-12 Andrew Aguilar 08/19/2013 AIU Online Abstract Processing the important view on properly processing a defendant in a federal investigation will ensure the defendant prosecution, and due process. The best way to present the federal criminal pretrial process, which includes jury selection, evidence and jury instructions, will ensure that justice, also to present the processing requirements and the mandated pretrial measures required by law. * Serving the warrant * Investigate the crime thoroughly and correctly * Arrest the defendant * Take the defendant in front of a federal Magistrate to set pre trail * Having the Miranda rights read to the defendant and the right for a legal counsel * The right to plead not guilty * The right to jury trail * Sentencing the defendant * The right of the defendant to have an appeal process * The rehabilitation of the defendant Outline According to (westmichiganfender.org) the united states can constitution requires that most federal criminal charges be reviewed by a grand jury”. If the majority of the grand jury votes that there was a probable cause. The grand jury will issue written charges against the individual, and what is called indictment. The federal prosecutor is accusing the individual of the crime. The initial appearance role is to advise the defendant of their charges, and the maximum penalty......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Database Processing

...four statements have been run the table structure is exactly the same as it was before you ran them. 7.17 Write INSERT statements to add the data shown in Figure 2-32 to the ASSIGNMENT table. Run these statements to populate the ASSIGNMENT table. (Hint: Write and test an SQL script, and then run the script. Save the script as DBP-e12-WPC-Insert-ASSIGNMENTData. sql for future use.) 7.26 Write one DELETE statement that will delete all data for project ‘2011 Q3 Product Plan’ and all of its rows in ASSIGNMENT. Do not run this statement. 7.30 What is an SQL view? What purposes do views serve? Why is this useful? 7.39 Explain how views can be used to improve data security. Chapter 7 SQL for Database Construction and Application Processing 303 7.40 Explain how views can be used to provide additional trigger functionality. 7.48 What is a trigger? 7.53 Assume that the View Ridge Gallery will allow a row to be deleted from WORK if the work has never been sold. Explain, in general terms, how to use a trigger to accomplish such a deletion. 7.55 What is a stored procedure? How do they differ from triggers? 7.57 Summarize the key advantages of stored procedures. These Project Questions extend the Wedgewood Pacific Corporation database you created and used in the Review Questions with two new tables named COMPUTER and COMPUTER_ASSIGNMENT....

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Signal Processing

...Ali Rizwan - Calvez Fabien 4.1 - Localization of the source during the time 4.2 - Estimation of the instantaneous speeds 5- Signal Processing Project Signal Processing Project 2D location tracking radar by using sound waves Fourth step: Real-time monitoring of a sound wave 5.1 - Acquisition of a real sound signal 5.2 - Merging of information with another group 6 - Conclusion Ali Rizwan and Calvez Fabien Table of contents: 12Introduction First step: Estimation of arrival direction of sound waves 2.1 - Limits of the detection 2.2 - First method Annex: 7 - Figures 2.3 - Second method 82.4 - Conclusion about the two methods 3Second step: Localization of wave sources in a plane Matlab programming 3.1 - Localization of a sound wave 3.2 - Estimation of the performances 4Third step: Tracking of a sound wave ENSEIRB-MATMECA 1/16 2009-2010 Ali Rizwan - Calvez Fabien 1Introduction Signal Processing Project 2 - First step: Estimation of arrival direction of sound waves The most widespread localization system used by common people is the Global Positioning System (GPS). Yet we cannot use it inside buildings, because of the low reception level of the signals. Instead Wi-Fi waves can be used or even sound waves. This is the second method that is introduced in this project. The goal of this project is to localize a sound source in a simple but realist example the implied issues linked to the design of this system. In this project an......

Words: 3046 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Image Processing

...unlikely events * video indexing * automatic annotation and retrieval of the videos in multimedia databases * human-computer interaction * gesture recognition, eye gaze tracking for data input to computers, etc. * traffic monitoring * real-time gathering of traffic statistics to direct traffic flow * vehicle navigation * video-based path planning and obstacle avoidance capabilities. Challenges : * loss of information caused by projection of the 3D world on a 2D image * noise in images * complex object motion * nonrigid or articulated nature of objects * partial and full object occlusions * complex object shapes * scene illumination changes * real-time processing requirements Simplifing the tracking : * imposing constraints on the motion and/or appearance of objects * almost all tracking algorithms assume that the object motion is smooth with no abrupt changes * constrain the object motion * to be of constant velocity or * constant acceleration * Prior knowledge about * the number and the size of objects, * the object appearance and shape SEGMANTATION : -Segmentation based trackinh methods are a powerful tracking methods that are highly successful in tracking objects. -Its a newly developed method for the purpose. - The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Jute and Its Processing

... | | |Low |6 to 7 | [pic] Jute Carding: The process by which long reeds of jute while passing through high speed pinned roller and broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in the form of ribbon uniform weight per unit length called jute carding. Objectives of jute carding 1. To breakdown and split up of the fiber. 2. To make the sliver uniform weight per unit length. 3. To remove dirt/dust. 4. To individualize and parallelize the fiber. 5. To produce spinner able fiber. 6. To mix different quality of jute. Types of Carding Machine: 1. According to processing a. Mono Carding Machine b. Dual Carding Machine c. Tandem Carding Machine 2. According to Cylinder a. Half Cylinder (Breaker) b. Full Cylinder (Finisher) 3. According to the use of strikes a. Up Striker b. Down Striker Breaker Carding Machine: In this carding machine, the primary function of jute carding is done by the action of worker and cylinder and the cleaning action is done between worker and stripper. Main parts of breaker carding machine are: 1. A big cylinder 2. Feed sheet 3. Pin feed roller 4. Sheel 5. A pair of stripper 6. A pair of worker 7. A pair of tiny cylinder 8. Doffer 9. Delivery roller 10. Brash roller 11. Roll framer [pic] In......

Words: 2041 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Food Processing

...Food Processing and Preservation Homework Institution Affiliation History of pulsed electric field Pulsed electric field is process that is non-thermal that uses short and high voltage pulses to process and preserve foods. The history of this process dates back to the culmination of the 19th century. It was during this time that the technique of treating and processing foods through the use of electrical current was first applied. Since that time of the century, in the 1960’s in specific, first cases of pulsed electric fields have been in use. German engineer Heinz Doevenspeck was behind the pioneering of the process. His pioneer ship was followed by Sale’s and Hamilton’s research work to determine what was required to create an effective process. Later, in 1980’s the first two processes were developed by Krupp Maschinentechnik. The processes were referred to as Elcrack and Elsteril and were based on the work on Doevenspeck. However, this processes did not work as expected and this led to their failure and the processes were dismantled at that time. As years progressed, the technique was researched on again by universities and research labs. The research was mainly based on the main requirements that were essential in creating process that would last. The research was promising and was seen to be effective in liquid foods microbial decontamination, pre-treatment of vegetables and fruit tissues before extraction and waste water processing treatment. Several trials to......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Payment Processing

...Plc + Optimal Payments Transaction closed 1 February 2011 NEOVIA renamed O ti d Optimal P l Payments Pl on 1 March 2011 t Plc M h Focused on providing payment solutions to online merchants and consumers through our “twin pillars” Straight Through Processing Stored Value Processing of transactions, either gateway or bureau (assumes some credit risk) for online merchants Products that allow the consumer to hold monetary value via an eWallet and/or card (e.g. prepaid card) which can be used to pay for transactions at merchants A truly international scale player in online payments - proven, trusted, innovative Listed on London’s AIM market (OPAY.L) – market cap US$120m (£75m) 5 © Optimal Payments Plc. www.optimalpayments.com 2010 achievements 6 6 © Optimal Payments Plc. www.optimalpayments.com www.optimalpayments.com © Optimal Payments Plc. Operational achievements Progress on simplification (Business Transformation programme) Headcount reduced to 309 from 447 Regulatory simplification of member b i R l t i lifi ti f b business - N t ll UK Ltd (FSA regulated) Neteller l t d) Asia restructuring completed Continued development of business li C ti dd l t fb i lines Stored Value Straight Through Processing i 460,000 new members and 200 new merchants signed for eWallet 2 significant new countries and 5 deposit options introduced Growing gateway volume (+165%) from landmark clients (SDG, MoreThan) Bureau service launched with AIBMS Traction for......

Words: 3108 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Processing a Defendant

...Unit 4 Corrections and Prisons August 12, 2012 Abstract Today we will be discussing how a defendant is processed through a federal case. This is exceptionally important because your actions or absence of actions as law enforcement during the detaining of these suspects can result in the difference between their prosecution or release under federal statue. This presentation will also act as a checklist as well as provide additional information that you may need while in the field or throughout the proceedings of this case. Understand that your participation in this case may not be limited to just arresting or the processing of evidence; you may be utilized as a witness, under oath, in front of a federal court of law. Federal Investigation Outline Format for Presentation Process 1.0 Investigation 1.1 Evidence: - It is evidence that leads the prosecutor to believe he has a "Strong case", meaning there is strong evidence that the person or persons have committed the crime. Direct evidence would include a witness who saw the crime happen, video/audio tape of the crime, and statements done by witnesses, of the crime. Circumstantial evidence may come from someone who did not see the crime first-hand; it includes someone's feelings on multiple indicators in the theory of the crime, even though that person did not see the crime take place. 1.2 Decision to Charge: Prosecutors study all information provided by the investigators, and......

Words: 4401 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Food Processing

...Galore Industry Overview Global Processed Food Industry Indian Processed Food Industry Processed Food Industry - A Sunrise sector Where the opportunity lies- areas for investment Industry Analysis Driving Forces Major Challenges Indian Food Processing Industry by sectors Diary Fruits and Vegetable Grains Meat and Poultry Fish Packaged/Convenience Food Aerated Soft Drinks, Packaged drinking water Exports FDI in Food Processing Government Regulation and support Regulatory framework Outlook Initiating Coverage Lakshmi Energy & Foods Ruchi Soya Analyst - Nisha Harchekar nishaharchekar@way2wealth.com Sectors - FMCG, Pharma, Entertainment WAY2WEALTH Securities Pvt. Ltd., 15/A Chander Mukhi, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400 021. Tel: +91 22 4019 2900 email: research@way2wealth.com website: www.way2wealth.com Indian Processed Food Industry Sector Coverage Opportunities Galore Executive Summary The size of global processed food industry is estimated to be valued around US $3.6 trillion and accounts for three-fourth of the global food sales. Despite its large size, only 6% of processed foods are traded across borders compared to 16% of major bulk agricultural commodities. Indian food-processing industry is miniscule in comparison and is estimated to be US $40 billion and is likely to grow at over 10%, on the basis of an expected GDP growth rate of 8-8.5% p.a. R uchi Soya FY09(E) CMP (Rs) Marketcap (Rs crores) PE......

Words: 12382 - Pages: 50