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Postmodernism in the Babysitter

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22 ¡¡ 2˘ ¡¡ 2004 ˜Œ6 ´

« › ‰ § ” § –¤ JOURNAL OF TA I UAN INSTITUTE OF ED UCATI Y ON

V o 1. 22 N o. 2 J un. 2004

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¡¡ ¡¡ “ —¡ † ‡˘ ¡ ‡‹ —¡ ¡–£ ˝ `fi ¡⁄ ‚˙ ¸„ (W illiam Ga ss) ¸ ¸ ¡ ¡¶ —¡ º œ » —˜ ¨¸ ˛ ¡• (F ict ion ¸ ¸ —¯ · and the F igu res of L ife ) » ·˛ ˚„ ˆ `¸ ‚ ‚¯ ˜ ¡£“ —¡ » – ‰ł — „˚ ˚´ , » – ‰»œ „˚ ˚´ —˛ ‡ ˜ › ˛fl ”˝ „ ‡ ¡£ „„ ¶` ˇ ¶` • …˘ ·· ¢ ˚˙ ˛ ˆ˙ –ª ¶` ‰`¸ » ‚ „˚ ˚´ ˜ „˚ ˚´ , † ˝ ˚˙ —¡ ˜ —¡ ¡£ ¸ „ ¢ —¡ ˜ —Ø ¸ ¸ ¸ ˚˙ » ‚ ·· ˛ , ˚˙ » ‚ —¡ ¡£ ¸ —¡ †»¶ˇ ¸ Æ— º ˜ – ‡ • , —¡ – ¸ ˜ —Ø ‡ • , „˚ ˚´ ˜ »˜ fi —, ı ` †»ˇ§ „„ ˝¤ „ › ¿“ ¶` „ ‡ , ˆ ¨• ‚ ¸ ¶`

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˚ ‚ ¨ ˘ : 2003207209

»ø‰ˇ ˜¿ : ” ˜ˇ ˚ƒ •¶ · § ˙ ˜Œ¿˘ § »ø‰ˇ ˜¿ ( 221171)

…‰Ø¸ ł • ( 1976- ) , ¯fi , ‰¶«¨ ‡˙ ¨¸ , ” ˜ˇ ˚ƒ •¶ · § ‰†ƒ¡£ : ˚

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…fi » ¡£ ¶ ¸ß · ¸ , ˆ¿ ·˛ ˇº , ˛ ˘ ˙¿ ` •· ˇ , ¶…

„ ˜ ˚´ ¡£ ¿ ‚¥ ˜

˘• •¢ – ‡ · , ¶… ˛˜ § ¯œ˘ ‰

˛“ ¨¸ ˆ˙ ˝¤ ‡£“ »¤” ‡⁄ ˚– …†¯ ˜ ˚˚ ƒ · …¸ø †»˚ ˇ⁄ ˜ ¶«˛ ¡£¸ß

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˚ —˜ »ˆ ı , ——§ ¿ ¢ ˜

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ˆ ‰˚˝ ˜ ˜˙ ø , “ —¡ ˚˙ ˇ ¨¸ ˆ˙ ‚ “ —¡ ¨ ”˛ †œœ –˘ ¸ ¸ • ‰«„ ¨¸ ˆ˙ ˚ Ø fl ˘ · ˜ ¨¸ „⁄ ˚ ‰, »

”˝ ¿ …¡£‡— ¨ˇ ˆ ˘• ¡£

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¸ß ˆ˙ ˆ ¶ ˜ †¢•˙ ˇ ˚ –

- - ¸ß ˆ˙ ˆ ˙ ‰‰˚˙ » ‚

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˛˜ – † ´ ˇ † ¨¡ `¸ ˆ ˚– · ‚˜ » ¿ ¯ „¯ ˛ ˇ• ¡¢

ˇ´ …‚ •‰ : · ˘˘ •¤ æ » » ˛˜ § ›

—˚ „ ‡ —†»¶ˇ † ¨º » —'‡‹ ˇ ˚ , ı ` º ˘ , »˜ fi ˜ ·˛ “ ˇ ¸ ”˝ º » „ª ‚ ·˚ ¨ ; ¨¸ ˛ ¶

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, ¶ł † ¨¡ …˙— ˘· ø ¡¢ ¶ ˘ ¡¢ ˛˜ ¡¢ ‡£ˆ ˜ ·˚ »ª ¡£ —' ª ¡£ « —¡ ˜ –˘ ¸ ‰«

¡£ ˆ „œ˘ ´ …‰´ ˜• ¡⁄ ¿¸ ` ¿¸ ˛‹ ·˜ ‰« ‚† —¡–¨ –ª ‡ `¸ “ —¡ —˚ ˜ ¸ ˜ · » ¡£ ¶ł ˇ ˚ ”‹ ˜ º ˜ ¶

¶ł ˙ † †»˚˙ ˆ¿ » †¿ “ —¡ ¶… –‚ ¸ ‚— » ‚ ‡` ˚˙ ˚´ ˙ ˆ ˘ —˚´ ‡ „ ¸ø ˚ı º œ » ˜

—' ª ¶ —§ß ˙¡ ˙¡ „

—¡ ¸ø —˛ ˜ ¸ ‡ , ˜˙ …·˚˙ ¶ ˇ ˚

‚˙ `¸ » ‚ »ø– ˜ ˚´ ˚ : ¸ ˚˙ » ˇ ·œ˚ ‰†»

‡ · ˜ »ˆ ı ¡£ ¨ „ß ”` ˛ ‰–‚

»ˆ ı – ‡ ˇ ˚ Ł » •‰ •¤

˚¶ —˛ » ˛ ¸ø “ ¡£ ¶ł “ —¡ ‹ ¸ ¡⁄ •º ˜Æ‚æ…¡¢ ”† ¡⁄ ˝ ¸„ ¡¢ ´ †fi •‰ fi » ¡£ •¤ ¶

—¡ …˜ ˙ ø , ¸ ˙¿ —¡ ¸

¨ …”† ¡⁄ ‚£ ¶ł ¸„ ¡¢ ¿

¡⁄ ¿ ‚¥ ¨ , ‡ ˛“ ¸ß ˆ˙ ˆ

¡¡ ¡¡ ¿ ‚¥ ˜ ¡¶ –£˜• ¡• ‰† `¸ » ˛» ` ˚– ·œ¨¸ ¿· „ —¡ ¢ ˜ ¯fi ”¢ ƒ „˝ ˚ ” ¸ ¿¸ … – ˝ – ¿· ¸ß `‰ ”¢ ‚ , ˛“ ¸ ¿¸ • ‚ …–‚ ‚ `¿ ‡ˆ »œ…–£˜• ˜ –ª ¸ ¡£ · ‰Æ ˇ · ¸ , „„ †¿ —¡ ¸

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; ˝‹ ˚– , –£˜• ˜ ˜— ‰¿¸ ”˝ ¸ß ˜ ¯ » ˇ `— ¸Ø˘‹ ˚‰ ¶˛ ´ Ø ‡ , ˜ , ¶ ˜ » —˛ ˚fi ¸Ø˘‹ ˜ ”˝ ‡ ˜ ˙ Æ¡£

–Œ , „† —» ‡ ¡£ ¶ł ˘ •– ˜• ¡• , ˙؉˜

`ª ¸ ‚ ¶˛ ´ ¡£ ˆ¿ ‚ ¶˛ ´ ¶… —» ‰, ‡⁄ ˜ ¿ · …‚ » ˛˜ – –»‚ ` ‡ ‚ ˛˜ …¶ˇ » ˚˙ …´ ˛˜ – –»‚ ` ‡ ¶ `ª ¸ ‚ ¶˛ ´ ˝ ˇ » —`¸ ¶ ¸Ø˘‹ ˜ » ‚ ›

´ º ¶˛ ´ fi …ˆ —˙ ¯ • ¿“¡£ ˆ» —¨˛ ”˛ —”¯ ¡£ ” ‡ ˚˙ ˘ ‰Ł ‚

•‰ ˙؉˝ —¿ ˜ ,

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˚ ˇ ˜ ¡£ –£˜• ¡• ˜ ¡¶

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¿ ˜ —˜ †¢ˆ ¡£ ; ˛· ¡ –£˜• fi ˛“ º ¸

˛“ º ¸ ¿¸ ˇ¨ œ „ » , † …“ ”˝ –¨ ˇ£ ¶• ˘ł ; º ¸ ˆ

˛“ º ‰¿¸ » ´ ¿¸ „ » , »„ —¿ ˜ ˚˙

¿¸ ˇ¨ œ „ » ¿ ˜ –»•¢ ˇ † ¿ ˜ ˛· –»•¢ ˇ , –»•¢ ˇ ˜ ‰Æ —¿ ˜ …´ –»– † —¿ ˜ † ¨» ˛ ƒ ¡£— „ß ˚ ¨¸ ”ˆ ˇæ‡ —˜ ˙ ¡ ˇº ˇ , ˙ ¡ » ˙— ˜ ¡£ “ ¿ •¢ ¢ —˛ „˚ ˚´ ˜ •¢ „ ‡˚ , „ ˜ †»¨• ¶¤—, ¶` ª ¡£ ‰¶¤—؈ º ˇ ˚ »„ » ¡“ 18 ¡“ ˚– ¿ „ ˜ ¨• `¢¡£ —˚ ˜ ˚´ …, ¨ „ß ˚– ¿ ˇ —`“ ˇ , —؈ º ˇ ˚ » ‡ · ¡£ ˚… –»–£‡ ˘• ˜ » ¶¤ ·¸ , ˛ ˆ˙ ¿ ¿· ‰¡¶ –£˜• ¡• ˜ ß ‚ —˚ „ ‡ ‡˚ ˚˙ ˝¤ – ˚¶ – ˘• ¿ ” ˚† ˆ· † ˆ» —•¢ œ , « ˚† ˆ· ¶… —¿ ˜ •¢ œ ¡£ º fi ˝ , –£‡ ˙ ˛œ˜ ¯— `ƒ ¶ˇ

2004 ˜Œ ˝ ¿ ‰ ¶¤ ; •· fi ,



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¿

¸

`ø ·ƒ Æ ‰ ‰¯ ª ( »Æ ˇ ˛˚ •¢

¯¯ `— Ø ‡ » ‚ —´ „˚ ˚´ , ˜˙ ˆ· , ˜ ¨» ‚ ¶˛ ´ fi …† ˝ ˛ ˚– …¸‡ —¶ł `¸ ¡£—¡ —„† — ¸ ˜ ˚– …: ˘ ª ¸˜ ˚fi • ( ¶ ¶˛ ) , ¸ ª ( ¶ ˚fi ¶˛ ) , ¸ ª º ( ¸˜ ˚fi ¶ ¶˛ ) , ¿ ˛ ˚fi ¶ ¶˛ ) , ¯ ª ( `ø ˚fi `ø ¶˛ ) ”˝ ˚fi ª ( » `ª ¨ ¶˛ ) ¡£ · `ø ·ƒ ˚– ……¸ ˆ˙ ¸ø `¸ ‡£„ ˜ „˚ ˚´ ˜ •¢ „ ¡£ « – ¶` ¢ —'¶˛ ´ fi …˜ ˜ ¨ ˚– , –ª ¡£ ˚fi ˘ ¶˛ ( · ‡£˜ ˚– …„ , ƒ ¶ ˚fi ¶˛ ˜ ¸ ª fi ˙ ) , –£˜• ‚ł …“ ( ¸ ª º ) –£˜• ‰— “ ˇ· Ł ¡£ ¸˜ ˚fi ¶ ¶˛ …ˆ ˛ ˚fi ¶ ¶˛ ( ¿ ‰¯ ª ) , –£˜• ‰— ˛¶ ¯ ”¢ ˆ˙ › ˇ· ˝ŒŁ `¸ ¡£ « ¿· ‰, —¡ ¸ ˜ `ø ˚fi ¯ ¶˛ ¡¢ ˇ ˜ ˚– … ” ˜ ˘ ˚fi ˘ ¶˛ , –£˜• †»˜ œ ¶` …“ ˆ ˛ ‚ ˚´ ·¸ ˛ ˆ˙ ¿

‡ ˇ ˜ ¶˛ ´ · ¿· , ¸˘ ”ı æ ˆ ˇ· Ł ¡£ « ”¢

ˆ˙ ¸fl ı , ˜˙ ˆ·

› ‰ł ˚ , ˙¿ ˘¨ ¸ß ˇ· Ł ¡£ ¡ …˜ ˇ¨ ” ·¸ ¸ —» ¡ ˛ ˚– —¡–

…¸ ˆ˙ fi …˜ ´ …› ˇ ¡£¡ ˚– …¡––»—ˆ `¸ , ¶` „ ¨ ‚ ¿ …˘fl ‚¡ †»¶¤¡£ ˚ ¡£ ¶ł ·¸ fi ˙ ˜ `ª ¸˜ ¶˛ , ¶` ˜ ¨

‰„˚ ˚´ —˚– …˜ ˛» ˆ ,

¡£ ¿ …ˇ ˝‹ ø ¨ ·¸ ¡£ –£˜• ¡• · ´ —¨ ‚ ¿ …: ¸ ¿¸ ˇ¨ œ …¡¢ ¡¶ ¸ ˚fi ˛ ¶˛ , ¸ ¿¸ ˇ¨ œ » ‰…—, ¸ ˚fi ¶˛ , ¸ ¿¸ ˇ¨ œ › º –£˜• »Æ , ‚ø ˇ ˚ •¢ œ ˜ ¡£ ¿ …‰Æ …·ˇ „„ ¿˝ ¿· »

»Æ ¨¸ …¡¢ ‰¿¸ ”˝ ´ ¿¸ ˝ ˜ ' Œ¡£ « ¿· …ß £˜• º ‰¿¸ ”˝ ´ ¿¸ ł – „ » ˚– –»¸ß ˘ ¯ ‚ ¯ ¡£«

¨· •¢ ˇ ¸ ¿¸ • ‚ – · ˝ » – „ß ´ …› ˜ ¶` , † †»˜ · ·

– ˆ» —º ¿“¡£ …‚ ¨¸ ˛ ˜ `¢ ª ª ø †»ˆ ¨• ¡£ ¶` ‚ ·¸ , ¡¶ –£˜• ¡• …¨ »˜ · † ˚ ˚– …„ ˇ …·ˇ ˚

˝ ˛ · • – ˜˜ —'˚˙ »ˆ ˇº , ˜˜ —'˚˙

˜ `“ ˇº ´ …› ˜ ¶` , » ˜ · “ —¡ ˜ ‰˙ ¨ · —˝ ¡£ · ¸ ¶ ‚† `¸ ·« ˝‡ —¡ ˜ ˜ †¿ —˛ ”˝ ‰Æ , …´ `¸ ·« ˝‡ —¡ ˜ ‰ ¡£ –£˜• ¡• ¸ ‹ „„ ¸ ¡¶ ‰« ˘ , ¸ ˜ … ˘˘ » ¶` ˇ ˚ ˛“ —Ø „„ †» ˘• , ¸ ‡ `¸ ¶ ˘ —˚´ ˜ „ —… ¸ —˚ `¸ ˚† ˆ· „˚ ˚´ ¶ł ˜ ˜ ¶` ˘ · , ˚˙ ø » ˘ ˘› —˚ ——

¡¡ ¡¡ “ —¡ ¸ †¿ ˛“ –

—˝ “ —¡ ¡£ “ —¡ ˜ ˚ —˚„ fi †»¶ˇ ˜ ¸ ¸ ¡£ ¿ ‚¥ ˚… —¸ ⁄ •¯ ¨

—˜ ˛ „ ‡ ‰´¶ ¡£ ¸ ˙¿

—¡ ˜ —˚ —— ˇ ¡£ ¸ß ˇæ» ‚ æ ˝¤ „ª · ˜ ˜§ ˚ı ˚ƒ , · ¡¶ –£˜• ¡• ¸ ˛“ †»Æ „' » ‚ ¨ —fi ¨» , ¨ˆ ¸ß ˆ˙ ¨¥ ¸… ¡£ ¿… ˇ ˚ ˜ —Ø ”˝ „˚ ˚´ ˜ —Ø „ ˚ ‚ł ¶` … …

…˝ ´ ˇ´ †ª – »ˆ ‡ ˛ ˙ ˛ ¡ ˜ »¤ø , ˙¿ —`ƒ —— „ •¶ ˜ ß ˛“ †˛¿… ˇ : ˛˜
[ 1 ] ‡ ˛ º , ˝ı ˇ ´• . – ·œˆ „œ—¡ ¸ [2] [3] [4] „« . 20 ˚ …˝ „œ˛˜ § …´ ˆ ˛‹ ˘` . ¢ ˆ ˇ ·œ ˛˜ § ‚¯ „ ´

»fl˚ ‰, ¶ł ˚˙

[M ]. ––' : ˝

‰§ º —¿ ‡ , 2000. , 1999. ‰ ‡

, 2001.

[M ]. ˛ † : ˛ † ‰»¤ · § ‡ ˝ [M ]. ˇ ”£: ˇ ”£ ˝

ˆ –ı. ¶ ˚fi ˚ …˝ • ˆ ˛˜ § ˚• [M ]. ––' : ––' · § ‡ ¯

, 1998.

[ 5 ] Ga ss, W illiam H. F iction and F igu res of L ife [M ]. N ew Yo rk: A lfred A. Knop f, 1970. [ 6 ] Sp ires, Robert. B eyond the M etafictiona lM ode [M ]. L ex ington: U P of Ken tuchy, 1984.

Unrea l ity and Rea l ity ¡“¡“ A Br ief Ana lys is of M etaf ictiona l Character istics in Coove’s¡ The B a bys itter¡–
SU N Y in 2di (H enan N o rm a l U n iversity, X inx iang 453002, Ch ina )

Abstract: T h is p ap er, by adap ting the m etafiction theo ry and deta iled tex t study, tries to revea l the m etafictiona l cha racteristics in Coove’s T he B aby sitter, offering a new angle to study a tex t. Key W ords: the babysitter; m etafiction; un rea lity

¡“ 19 ¡“…...

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...inexistent. A thing inexistent may be existent. This shows the beauty in postmodernism because it gives us an endless possibility of expressing ourselves. Indeed, a message may be communicated by the use of signifiers which is essentially the heart of postmodernism. A thing, which may be nothing, may be something when viewed differently. Hence, something that does not exist in a work of art may be seen through the connotation of the thing in some other aspects of our lives. For instance, a sun may signify hope, which may then signify attainment of dreams, which may signify success, and so on – the possibility is infinite. From this single thing in a work of art, we may infer different things in different perspectives. However, we may convey a specific meaning in our work when we present the sun with other different things connected to it, making the items interconnected and forming distinct, closely-related messages. Nevertheless, conveyance of ideas by applying postmodernism doesn’t end in what we see, because, in truth, there are many more ideas that are yet to be seen. What strikes me the most about postmodernism is the disorientation that it incites from people. The deconstruction of what is because it is not and what is not because it is. From this, we are obviously confused for how can a thing be something when it is nothing or be nothing when it is something. Here comes the quality of postmodernism that is usually paradoxical, full of irony. What we want to impart......

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Postmodernism

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