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Porter Strategy Spanish

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Vicens
Words 1097
Pages 5
Vicens Paneque Fernández
A00996371
Estrategias de Operaciones
Dr. Eric Porras Musalem

Revisión Crítica
What is Strategy?

Michael E. Porter (1996) en su artículo What is Strategy? define a la estrategia competitiva de una compañía como ser diferente, esto es deliberadamente escoger un conjunto de diferentes actividades para ofrecer una mezcla de valor única. Para realizar lo anterior, el autor también introduce el concepto de posicionamiento estratégico que se entiende como las decisiones que una empresa toma en relación al tipo de valor que creará y como ese valor será creado de distinta manera que sus competidores y para esto menciona que puede ser logrado de tres maneras, con una estrategia basada en variedad (atacando un conjunto de necesidades), en necesidades (atacando un segmento de clientes), o por acceso (segmentando a los clientes por el acceso que tienen). Justamente de estas tres estrategias se desprenden también las principales críticas a su artículo y serán explicadas con mayor detalle a continuación.

Dentro de los ejemplos que Porter nos da, incluye el caso de las Southwest Airlines Company, una aerolínea norteamericana que ha logrado tener éxito ofreciendo vuelos de corta distancia, con bajos costos, precios estandarizados y únicamente ofreciendo rutas domésticas entre aeropuertos de ciudades de mediano tamaño y aeropuertos secundarios de grandes ciudades. En contraste, una aerolínea tradicional de servicio completo ofrece un gran número de rutas, distintos precios, más y mejores servicios, pero también tiene costos más elevados. Southwest Airlines Company tiene un modelo de negocio enfocado a clientes que prefieren la puntualidad en sus vuelos y costos bajos y ha decidido enfocarse a este nicho de mercado, dejando de atender a aquellos clientes que tienen necesidad de tener más rutas, mayor confort en sus viajes, tener más servicios adicionales y quienes están dispuestos pagar un mayor precio por los servicios anteriores y también a quienes generaran un mayor margen de ganancias. Esta consiente renuncia de Southwest Airlines Company a los clientes mencionados, es definida por Michael E. Porter como un “trade-off”, algo que según el autor es esencial para la estrategia y que crea la necesidad de elección y a propósito limita lo que una compañía ofrece.

En el artículo, se indica que las empresas únicamente deben de usar una manera de posicionamiento estratégico y de no hacerlo así no tendrían ninguna ventaja competitiva. También, se ejemplifica que si una empresa decide usar más de una estrategia de posicionamiento perdería enfoque y tampoco lograría en el largo plazo establecerse dentro de la mente del consumidor como una opción. Retomando el ejemplo anterior, Continental Airlines, al ver éxito de Southwest Airlines Company trató de replicar su modelo de negocios creando la aerolínea Continental Lite, sin embargo esta cerró tiempo después con fuertes pérdidas pues no pudo competir en precio ya que no logró reducir sus costos al nivel de Southwest. Continental decidió competir en dos frentes y al no hacer “trade-offs” ofreciendo en las mismas rutas las dos opciones resultó en un enorme fracaso.

Para Porter, el caso de Continental Airlines sucedió por el fundamento de que la diferenciación y la inclusión de una nueva opción de servicio incurrieron en costos para la empresa, que claramente es contradictorio con la estrategia de tener una aerolínea de bajo costo y mantener su oferta de servicios estándares con una base de clientes aceptable. En otras palabras, para Porter, las estrategias de posicionamiento que se pueden establecer son excluyentes entre sí. Esto no necesariamente es cierto.

En la actualidad, muchas empresas han entrado a mercado como un jugador de nicho y se han expandido utilizando una estrategia “hibrida” o con la combinación de algunas de ellas o incluso todas. Tal es el caso de Grupo Martí en México, una empresa dedicada a la compra venta de artículos deportivos y a la construcción y operación de centros deportivos o gimnasios. Grupo Martí es dueño de los gimnasios Sport City, un centro de acondicionamiento físico de altos costos y también altos precios con una diversidad de servicios que combina un club deportivo y un gimnasio. Asimismo, Grupo Martí junto con la empresa brasileña BioRitmo introdujeron en México los gimnasios de servicios básicos de bajo costo Smart Fit. Ambas marcas tienen estrategias de posicionamiento diferentes, sin embargo las dos han sido exitosas logrando su cuota de mercado sin resultar excluyentes para Grupo Martí.

Son varios los estudiosos que han refutado a Porter en el punto de que las estrategias de posicionamiento son excluyentes entre sí, declarando que las empresas que utilizan una combinación de estrategias terminan teniendo un mejor desempeño que las que adoptan solamente una y que en el largo plazo crean una ventaja competitiva sustentable. También resulta importante destacar que el artículo fue escrito en 1996 con muchos de los hallazgos de Porter en la década de los ochentas, y en ese entonces el ambiente de negocios era más estable y no había necesidad de que los negocios tuvieran una estrategia flexible, sin embargo, mantenerse en el mercado en un ambiente con mucha incertidumbre y con muy rápidos cambios en el comportamiento del consumidor y también en nuevas tecnologías hacen imperativo que las empresas tengan un plan de contingencia y puedan adaptar sus estrategias de posicionamiento a lo que el mercado les dicta.

De acuerdo a la lectura, para poder ser el líder de mercado, es necesario dentro de la estrategia de posicionamiento encontrar un diferenciador de mercado, sin embargo esto no siempre es posible, sin embargo se puede mejorar la eficiencia operacional en sus distintas dimensiones y de esta manera tener éxito en el mundo empresarial. Una crítica más al artículo viene del hecho de que este menciona que una vez obtenida la diferenciación en estrategia automáticamente se es líder de mercado, pero esto no es absoluto pues la diferencia que se puede tener en estrategia puede ser rápidamente obsoleta por lo que tiene también tiene que estar en constante innovación; situación que Michael E. Porter nunca menciona.

Los conceptos que Michael E. Porter nos introduce en este artículo definitivamente no tienen la influencia que seguramente tuvieron en la década de los ochentas y noventas. Han surgido nuevas leyes económicas y también otros catalizadores como la digitalización, globalización y en algunas industrias la desregularización y en otras una sobrerregulación que definitivamente han transformado a los mercados. Aun así, esto no significa que las teorías de Porter sean inválidas sino que se tienen que aplicar sabiendo que tienen sus limitaciones y utilizándolas también como parte de la construcción de una estrategia con mayores alcances, es decir solo una herramienta más para la administración de la estrategia de una empresa.…...

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