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Population Distribution of Nepal

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Submitted By sauravlas
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Assess the factors which affect the distribution of population in your country.

Population distribution means the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populated contain few people. Places which are densely populated contain many people. Sparsely populated places tend to be difficult places to live. These are usually places with hostile environments e.g. Antarctica. Places which are densely populated are habitable environments e.g. Europe.

If we look at the population distribution of Nepal, we find that the population is not equally distributed in all parts of the country. The distribution of the population is unequal due to the diversity in land structure, climate, soil and available natural resources and means. More population is concentrated in the places where the facilities such as transportation, employment, education, health services, communication, etc. are available. The places where these facilities are not available have less population pressure. For example, the Terai region of Nepal has many facilities such as employment, transportation, communication, etc and because these, more population is concerned in this region. But the mountainous region of Nepal is pretty cold with difficult land topography. The facilities of transportation communication, employment etc. is also not available there. Therefore, the population is sparsely distributed in the mountainous region of Nepal. The value for Population density (people per sq. km of land area) in Nepal was 208.99 as of 2010. As the graph below shows, over the past 49 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 208.99 in 2010 and a minimum value of 69.35 in 1961.

The population census 2011 (2068) has shown the geographical distribution of population of Nepal as follows.

|Region |Population |Percentage |
|Himalayan |17,95,354 |6.7% |
|Hilly |1,14,75,001 |43.1% |
|Terai |1,33,50,450 |50.2% |
|Total |2,66,20,809 |100% |

Manpower is an important and compulsory resource to lead a better life by developing economic, social and political areas of the country. Efficient man power is the base of economic development. Man has to do the overall development and this attmept if for him/herself. The natural resources like forest, mineral, water and the like are not effectively used for people's welfare unless they get capable manpower to hold them. The use of natural resources thus, depends upon the growth, distribution and effeciency of people.
The population of Nepal is increasing to a greater extent over time. Nepal has a long history of census. The first population census of Nepal began in 1911 AD. After that, census was taken in Nepal every 10 years. The 1952/54 census of Nepal is said to be more scientific than the previous ones though it had lacked some scientific techniques. For example, it was taken in two phases one in 1952 and the next in 1954. As shown in table below, the population of Nepal was in decreasing trend up to 1930. The causes behind this were nothing more than unscientific enumeration, worldwide epidemics and influenza and the First World War for which a lot of juveniles had been recruited in the Gorkha Sainik.
Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian, and various indigenous language isolates. According to the 2001 national census, 92 different living languages are spoken in Nepal (a 93rd category was "unidentified"). The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as mother tongue) are Nepali (80%)(2011 est.), Tharu (3%), Tamang (2%), Gurung (1.5%), Maithili (2%), Bhojpuri (2%) Newari/Nepal Bhasa (1%), Magar (1%), Awadhi (1%), Rai (1%), Limbu (1%) and Bajjika (1%). The remaining 81 languages are each spoken as mother tongue by less than one percent of the population.
Derived from Khas bhasa, Nepali is considered to be a member of Indo-European language and is written in Devanagari script. Nepali was the language of the country's unifiers in the late 18th century and became the official, national language that serves as the lingua franca among Nepalese of different ethnolinguistic groups. Hindi—along with regional dialects Awadhi, Bhojpuri and Maithili—is spoken in the southern Terai Region. Other than those, most of the Nepali can also understand and speak Neighbouring country's language . Many Nepali in government and business uses English as well.
Other languages, particularly in the Inner Terai, hill and mountain regions are remnants of the country's pre-unification history of dozens of political entities isolated by mountains and gorges. These languages typically are limited to an area spanning about one day's walk. Beyond that distance dialects and languages lose mutual intelligibility.
Hinduism 80.2%, Buddhism 10.7%, Islam 4.2%, Yuma Samyo or Yumaism 3.6% other 1.2% (2006). Religion is important in Nepal; the Kathmandu Valley alone has more than 2,700 religious shrines. The constitution of Nepal describes the country as a "Hindu kingdom", although it does not establish Hinduism as the state religion. Nepal's constitution continues long-standing legal provisions prohibiting discrimination against other religions (but also proselytization). The king was deified as the earthly manifestation of the Hindu god Vishnu. Then on May 19, 2006, the government facing a constitutional crisis, the House of Representatives which had been just reformed, having been previously dissolved, declared Nepal a "secular state".
The 2001 census identified 80.6% of the population as Hindu and 10.7% as Buddhist (although many people labeled Hindu or Buddhist often practice a syncretic blend of Hinduism, Buddhism, or animist traditions). 4.2% of the population is Muslim and 3.6% of the population follows the indigenous Kirant Mundhum religion. Christianity is practiced by less than 0.5% of the population.
Buddhist and Hindu shrines and festivals are respected and celebrated by most Nepalese. Certain animist practices of old indigenous religions survive.
Pahari Hill Hindus of the Khas tribe (Bahun and Chhetri castes) and the Newar ethnicity dominated the civil service, the judiciary and upper ranks of the army throughout the Shah regime (1768–2008). Nepali was the national language and Sanskrit became a required school subject. Children who spoke Nepali natively and who were exposed to Sanskrit had much better chances of passing the national examinations at the end of high school, which meant they had better employment prospects and could continue into higher education. Children who natively spoke local languages of the Terai and Hills, or Tibetan dialects prevailing in the high mountains were at a considerable disadvantage. This history of exclusion coupled with poor prospects for improvement created grievances that encouraged many in ethnic communities such as Madhesi and Tharu in the Terai and Kham Magar in the mid-western hills to support the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and various other armed Maoist opposition groups such as the JTMM during and after the Nepalese Civil War. The negotiated end to this war forced King Gyanendra to abdicate in 2008. Issues of ethnic and regional equity have tended to dominate the agenda of the new republican government and continue to be divisive.
Hence by looking at all of the above facts we can know that the population distribution in Nepal is very uneven. So, in the near future further steps are a must for the effective management of population in the country.…...

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