Free Essay

Policy Brief

In: Social Issues

Submitted By mdiep
Words 1586
Pages 7
Policy Brief: Public and Private Partnerships
Executive Summary: Public and Private Partnerships (PPP's) describes the partnership between the Public Sector (Government) and the Private Sector (Business) working together through financing, design, constructions, renovation, management or maintenance of infrastructures to provide public services for citizens. National, state, and local governments worldwide all face tremendous budget gaps and therefore are increasingly adopting Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) models as a means to provide critical infrastructure service delivery. As Public Administration Students it will be important for us to understand the role of PPP's as well as how to use them efficiently, relevant to Public Financial Management. It will also discuss the social, economical, and political factors that play a role in PPPs. Overall PPP's should be used because they provide much-needed capital for projects; they can also serve as models of efficiency and reliability and be champions of high levels of accountability and transparency. In addition, PPPs can be cost-effective and time efficient.
Statement of Issue: How can Governments use PPP's effectively? Improving the delivery of services for "Wicked Problems" is a critical need for many governments. "Wicked Problems" often include emergency policy challenges in transportation, the environment, and health and human services (Battagilo)
Background information: PPPs were initiated in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. (Sadka) Since then they have spread world wide. Over the past two decades more than 1,400 PPP deals were signed in the European Union, representing a capital value of approximately $260 billion dollars. (Blanc). The problem that occurs with PPP is the lack of accountability which leads to negative outcomes in all aspects socially, economically, and politically. When multiple organizations are involved there needs to be transparency so that everyone understand their roles and and know what is expected of them. Ongoing questions remain about how to design, manage, and assess PPPs. [pic]
Approaches and Results: The proponents argue that this model allows the government to focus the scarce public resources on areas not covered by PPP projects, or that the competition and the scrutiny of the capital markets done by the private sector make the use of capital resources more effective. Popular avenues that PPPs have been used are in Public Transportation, Public Water, and Project Development. An example of the approach can be seen in China. There has been a transformation of urban water services in China since the late 1990s focusing on the interaction between the government and private players in the form of public private partnership projects. China used 4 different models of PPP. 1) Cooperative Joint Venture: (CJV) is a business agreement in where the partners jointly incur unlimited liability for the debts of the enterprise with no separate legal person being created

2) The model of the Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprise (WFOE) are limited-liability corporations organized by foreign nationals and capitalized with foreign funds.

3) The Equity Joint Venture (EJV) In the EJV mode, the partners share profits, losses and risk in equal proportion to their respective contributions to the venture's registered capital

4) A joint-stock company is a business entity which is owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns the portion of the company in proportion to his or her ownership of the company's shares (certificates of ownership) (Lee)

Overall it is found that these PPP's have brought progress by competing with water TNCs based on their advantage of access to market information and a good relationship with local governments. Private water companies provided water services to 38% of the total population in China in 2008, and the expansion of PPP projects in urban water services seems to increasingly accelerate. An assessment has been created ton determining the success of PPP projects has been widely addressed. Garvin describe the P3 Equilibrium framework as a means of determining the effectiveness of PPP implementation. They divide the success of a project into four main components: state, society, market, and industry. The success of a project is determined by mapping the four factors. A balanced project, wherein all factors are dominant, is considered to be a successful implementation of PPP projects.
[pic]
The main controversy to consider when using PPP's regarding its accountability and transparency. While PPPs can enhance project funding and completion, they create the possibility of agency loss, that is, public means-tax dollars, public powers, and other resources-being diverted toward private purposes. There are 6 dimensions to closely study and consider before proceeding with PPPs. (Forrer) 1) Risk: The first dimension that is important in assessing PPP accountability involves understanding and allocating risk among the partners.

2) Cost and Benefits: Cost-benefit analysis is critical for determining which projects are appropriate for PPPs (Rendell 2009). While controlling the cost of a PPP is vital and also a major reason for government entering into the partnership, it is also important to weigh the benefits in order to fully appreciate the overall value of the endeavor.

3) Social and Political Impact: The partnership may affect a variety of social and environmental systems, including educational, health-related, legal, and environmental systems.

4) Expertise: Governments are often assumed to seek out private or nonprofit alliances in an effort to access a wider range of resources and expertise (Bryson, Crosby, and Stone 2006; Wood and Gray 1991). The concept of expertise entails involving people with the insights and skills needed, from bodi the private and public sectors, to accomplish the tasks of the partnership.

5) Partnership Collaboration: The strength of the human connections within a PPP affects the overall ability of a government agency to monitor compliance and reward success or punish failure by the private partner.

6) Performance Measurement: Performance measures are critical in PPPs for establishing trust between workers with diverse orientations and backgrounds; helping managers on both sides engage, assess, and continuously improve organizational results; and strengthening accountability in the partnership.

These questions must be answered and evaluated before a PPP project is attempted.
Recommendations and Implications: If properly designed and transparently reported, PPP's will enhance the efficiency of the provision of services that were formerly provided by the government. The following are 8 rules developed through PPP analysis to avoid high transaction cost and PPP's failures: Rule 1: Establish A Jurisdictional P3 Constitution: Adopt, as closely as possible, quasi-constitutional provisions to ensure transparency for all PPPs.

Rule 2: Separate the Analysis, Evaluation, Contracting/Administrating, and Oversight Agencies: These separations may seem like bureaucratization gone mad, but otherwise any huge PPP agency will turn into an agency that sees its main job as boosting PPP's

Rule 3: Ensure That the Bidding Process Is Reasonably Competitive: ideology should be kept in check and public sector entities should be permitted, even encouraged, to bid. Generating high number of bidders should trump inevitable political pressures to favor local bidders or restrict bidding to domestic producers.

Rule 4: Be Wary of Projects That Exhibit High Asset-Specificity, Are Complex or Involve High Uncertainty, and Where In-House Contract Management Effectiveness Is Low: too much risk and uncertainty can end up costing tax payers more then they bargained for

Rule 5: Include Standardized, Fast, Low-Cost Arbitration Procedures in All PPP Contracts: directly reduces transaction costs from lawsuits

Rule 6: Avoid Stand-Alone Private Sector Shells With Limited Equity From the Real Private Sector Principals: ensure that the private sector partner or partners have sufficient equity at risk to give them the proper incentives

Rule 7: Prohibit the Private-Sector Contractor from Selling the Contract too early: if a Contractor thinks that it can sell a contract before all of the bugs are known, they will have an incentive to under invest in the project, especially in the early phases.

Rule 8: Have a Direct Conduit to Debt Holders: If the private sector equity participant declares bankruptcy, there should be a clear, legally enforceable conduit to the debt holders. Without it, governments may face serious delays and difficulties as the trustee in bankruptcy or courts will normally control this negotiation.

Governments should feel comfortable implementing and moving forward with PPP's if all the accountability questions are answered and the government follows the rules listed above. PPP provide a great alternative to provide services efficiently and effectively if managed properly.

References:
Aidan R. Vining and Anthony E. Boardman (2008) Public--Private Partnerships : Eight Rules for Governments. Public Works Management Policy 2008 13: 149 DOI: 10.1177/1087724X08323843
Blanc-Brude, F., H. Goldsmith, and T. Välilä (2007): “Public-Private Partnerships in Europe: An update”, Economic and Financial Report, EFR 2007-03, EIB.
Battaglio, R Paul; Khankarli, Ghassan A. Public Works Management & Policy[pic]13. 2[pic] (Oct 2008): 138-148.
Forrer, J., Kee, J. E., Newcomer, K. E., & Boyer, E. (2010). Public-private partnerships and the public accountability question.Public Administration Review, 70(3), 475-484,347. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/853274318?accountid=13758
Garvin, M. J., & Bosso, D. (2008). Assessing the effectiveness of infrastructure public-private partnership programs and projects. Public Works Management & Policy, 13(2), 162-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087724X08323845
Lee, S. (2010). Development of public private partnership (PPP) projects in the chinese water sector. Water Resources Management, 24(9), 1925-1945. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-009-9531-1

Questions to Discuss:
1) What are the difference between PPP's and contracting out? Do either have a distinct advantage over the other?
2) What are the potential social benefits of using PPP?
3) Why have some types of partnerships succeeded where others have failed?…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Policy Brief on Poverty

...There are many important key issues that affect international development such as ethnic conflicts, democracy, health, etc. However, this policy brief will focus on the issue of poverty in international development. It will define poverty and the causes of poverty such as unemployment, political instability and rapid urbanization. As well as, the impact these causes have on international development. Lastly, this policy brief will offer suggestions to eliminate poverty. Poverty is defined as the condition of having insufficient resources to live and is one of the largest problems in developing countries. In the poorest of developing countries, almost eighty percent of the population lives in absolute poverty; which has a variety of serious consequences on human lives (Handelman, 2011). With the rising rates of poverty, many face problems of famine and lack of lodging. Over half of the population of developing countries, live in urban slums. Urban slums are generally self-made homes of brick and tin close together where there is no access to clean drinking water, sanitation or urban services including health care. Sanitation is poor, if there is any at all, and the water is contaminated because of the sewage running through it. The immediate danger with this type of environment is the risk to the people’s health. This degree of poverty and lack of clean water leads to poor personal hygiene resulting in the proliferation of various harmful bacteria which results......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Policy Brief

...Policy Brief to address the issue of South Korean access to rare-earth minerals Eleonora Nam 201232133 "China controls about 95% of the global supply of rare-earth minerals, which are used in everything from consumer electronics to batteries to defense systems. In recent years the government has reduced its export quotas to secure greater control over prices...China's export restrictions on rare earths have been the focus of the international policy and market pressures in recent months." - Wall Street Journal Issue: China is the "world leader" in the reserves and "production" of rare earth minerals - raw material for the production of metals. It produces 95-97% of all rare earth elements on earth. Moreover, China does not allow the export of rare earth elements as raw materials, only finished products that are made ​​in China. China's monopoly power in the REE market allows to influence "international affairs". As Elliot Brennan pointed out, with the increasing demand, reduced exports of Beijing in recent years is forcing high-tech companies to move to China and governments to invest in their "exploration" and "production." Most importantly, this power allows China to manipulate the prices of the rare earths, for the demand is increasing each year. Nowadays, none of the technology industry can do without the use of the rare earths, which are necessary for the production of products such as smart phones, wind turbines, batteries for electric vehicles, as well......

Words: 3437 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Policy Brief

...they crossed the red line: * One last call for the Syrian President to seize the attacks and a thoroughly accepting the international sanctions and treaties. * Presuming the call will be ignored, organizing a quick military response to the Syrian Government through aerial and maritime militias. * The attack will not target civilians or military personnel, only chemical warfare warehouses or insignificant non-human targets. * It will be a strong but brief attack on the Governments military supplies, military equipment end even free spaces just to induce immediate fear into the officials. The above mentioned efforts aim to induce fear to the target and concretely abolish any other intention of breaching international customs or treaties. Fear has been used as a weapon throughout history and I believe by waking it up inside the belligerents, can have the expected results. The Syrians cannot afford after such an action to keep pushing forward and ignore the world’s response. The policy mentioned can propose some miss laps as well. If we decide to act accordingly, the risk of protracting the issue in the region is also at a large scale. Iran clearly stated for example their trenchant decision of intervening for the Syrian counterparts, in case we use force. Another weakness can be perceived as the danger of injuring/killing innocent civilians. Though our mission in to hit only non-human entities, there is always a slim chance of a......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cso-Policy Brief on Art Bill

...your community would not drop out of school, and only about half would even become literate despite that fact that around 2/3 of Indians are literate. You would have less than 1 in 600 chance of gaining a postgraduate diploma (if you are a women, make that 1 in 1,200). < you have an unemployment rate of 5% compared to 3.5% for others, you are half as likely to have fixed capital assets and four times as likely to become a bonded labourer, joining the estimated 24.4 million other Dalit bonded labourers. < one in every three in your community will be poor while the ‘touchable’ communities will have a 4 in 5 chance of escaping poverty. Disparity still increasing Government policy is supposed to not only reduce Dalit poverty, but also to reduce the staggering gap between Dalits and non-Dalits. This policy is failing. While poverty generally is reducing in India, the main beneficiaries are nonDalits. The Indian Institute of Indian Studies has shown that in both cities and rural areas, the gap between Dalits and non-Dalits has been increasing since at least the early 1990s. The increasing gap between the untouchable castes and the dominant castes is more than just number-crunching: it also represents an increase in the relative power of dominant castes to exploit the Dalits in neighbouring villages. Dalits and slums Caste discrimination is often thought of as a purely rural phenomenon, but official slum data alone show that this is not the case. 79.8% of Dalits live in......

Words: 2356 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Policy Brief on Principal Evaluations

...Policy Brief: Are Principal evaluations a true assessments of their leadership abilities? EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Are principals’ evaluations a true assessment of their leadership abilities? Throughout this policy brief, justifications for principal evaluations are given, and the evaluation model is explained. Furthermore, a case is built to justify why the evaluation model needs to be reexamined to better represent a principal’s ability to positively lead a school. In addition, suggestions are given to adequately reflect principals’ abilities as leaders and to improve the overall effectiveness of the Tennessee evaluation process of administrators. Justifications for Evaluations Just as teachers should be rated by the performance of their students, principals should be rated by the performance of their schools. Quality school leaders can set high expectations for instructional practices and for creating positive learning environments. They can help improve instruction, and they can build a climate where teachers trust and find value in their own evaluations. In contrast, weak school leaders can wear away the overall school quality by not demanding or supporting excellence. “Principals exert indirect influences on student achievement through their effect on school climate”(Leeper, Tonneson & Xu, 2013). Assessing a school principal’s performance is both necessary and challenging. A principal’s impact is extremely significant because the actions a leader take......

Words: 1227 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Health Policy Brief

...Health Policy Brief Statement of the Issue: Becoming sick without health insurance can be physically and financially devastating. The working class people and those who have been recently terminated from their employment unfortunately cannot buy health insurance due to its expensive nature. Self-employed workers and small business owners also lack the resources to buy this provision. In order to help the 41 million uninsured Americans, Congress passed the Health Care Reform Bill called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Supporting Data and Information The issue of health care reform is not a novelty in the United States. One of the earliest health care reform proposals at the federal level was the 1854 Bill for the Benefit of the Indigent Insane, proposed by Dorothea Dix but was eventually vetoed by president Franklin Pierce. The bill was intended to establish asylums for the insane, blind, deaf, and dumb through land grants given by the government to the individual states. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson created Medicare and Medicaid, insurance programs that provided health insurance to people aged 65 and over and that partially funded a program for those with low income respectively. In 2010, President Barack Obama enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Through the PPACA, the government will be able to provide a system of mandated health insurance over four years and eliminate “some of the worst practices of insurance......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Policy Brief Final Assignment

...Policy Brief Final Assignment Sisseritta Demps PP504: Professor Thomason August 11, 2014 Abstract: Marijuana legalization has been a controversial topic requiring a public policy solution in the political realm. There have been various arguments made for and against the legalization of marijuana. There are several states that have legalized marijuana use for medicinal purposes while others have let their guards down completely allowing citizens to use it not only medicinally, but recreationally as well. While the use of marijuana is still illegal at the federal level, there is much discussion by other states regarding policies to support marijuana legalization and many policy makers proactively planning for the possibility of such policies. Such discussion is necessary to ensure the policy implemented supports the intended use of the drug and to reduce illegal use that is not specified in the policy. Currently, there are a total of 21 states that have laws governing the use of marijuana in some form. The state of Florida has a policy in place that is closely monitored as it applies to patients suffering from severe medical conditions such as AIDS, cancer, and other diseases that leave patients in excruciating pain. This paper will discuss the great controversy of legalizing marijuana pointing out policies that are currently in place for the state of Florida and the need for small municipalities to establish policies to ensure proper monitoring of the drug. ...

Words: 2248 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Policy Brief

... which will seriously affect the global markets (Pifer, 2014; Lorber and Gottlieb, 2014). Recommendations 1 Russian invasion does not pose a serious security threat; rather it stands isolated. Indeed, the emergence of new international players limit US’s strategic and political interests, but it is important to note that our strength has always been rooted in our long standing commitment to principles, institutions, and alliances, which Moscow undoubtedly lacks (Nexon, 2014). Therefore, our priority must be to have close relationship with allies and strengthening of institutions such as UN. 2 Targeting close elites to Putin and stopping Western technology has already expressed our strong displeasure (BBC, 2014). However, a long term policy of addressing economic challenges faced by East Asian and energy dependent states will be key in defining our alliances. Therefore, export of LNG from other sources than Russia should be considered (Pifer, 2014). But putting visa ban on Putin’s inner circle must continue until the resumption of diplomatic talks. 3 Finally, it is likely that the crisis in Ukraine will continue, but Russia will want to de-escalate the situation as it has overplayed its hand (Nexon, 2014). An article written by Russian ambassador to the UK gives an indication of that, but it also summarizes the legitimate interests that Russia have in Ukraine (Yakovenko, 2014). Addressing Russian concerns will improve our image, not theirs. Bibliography BBC News......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Briefs

...Briefs: I. 1. Title: International Shoe Co. v. State of Washington (p. 46) Judgment at trial in the Supreme Court of Washington for Washington State; Defendants appeal. 2. Facts: International Shoe Co. a corporation that manufactured footwear only in St. Louis, Missouri, yet it did sell its products nationwide. Including Washington State, where it send its salespeople. Who even though were not authorized to collect payments from the customers still were involved in renting spaces in hotels and businesses, display of sample products and taking orders. So when Washington State sought contributions to the state’s unemployment fund and did not get them, it sued International Shoe who argued that it was not engaged in business in the state. 3. Issue: Did International Shoe have sufficient minimum contacts in Washington State to permit jurisdiction there? 4. Rule: Yes. Minimum contacts with the forum state can enable a court in that state to exert personal jurisdiction over a party consistent with the Due Process clause. 5. Analysis: The activities carried on by International Shoe Co. in Washington were systematic and continuous rather than irregular or casual. The defendant received the benefits and protection of the laws of the state and is subject to jurisdiction there. 6. Conclusion: Judgment affirmed; the state may maintain the present suit to collect the tax. II. 1. Title: Stinton v. Robin’s Wood, Inc. (p. 57) Judgment......

Words: 1509 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Brief

... [pic] Braeside High School BTEC Extended Diploma in Business ( Marketing) Unit 37 Understanding Business Ethics Assignment brief 1: Ethical issues Assessor Mr. Zachaues Omwenga Date issued: 06/05/2015 Date of Submission: 29/05/2015 This assignment brief assesses |P1 explain the ethical issues a business needs to consider in its operational activities | |P2 explain the implications for the business and stakeholders of a business operating ethically | |P3 describe the social implications of business ethics facing a selected business in its different areas of activity | |M1 assess how a selected business could improve the ethics of their operations | |D1 evaluate the impact of a selected business’s ethical behaviour on stakeholders and the business. | Scenario Businesses are limited in what they do. Sometimes by laws and sometimes by the conventions and social codes we live by. Gathered together these are what we refer to as ethics and they can apply to every aspect of business behaviour. Whereas it could be argued that most laws have their origins in ethics, ethical behaviour, by individuals and business go beyond legal requirement and are discretionary, that is to say we can choose to follow them or not. You have been asked to research and draw up...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Brief

...(P46909) Police Officers Association of Michigan 27056 Joy Road Redford, Michigan 48239 Telephone: (313) 937-9000 Direct examination by Ms. Champine 70 TIMOTHY J. LEWIS Direct examination by Ms. Champine 103 Union rests 106 REBUTTAL WITNESSES: EMPLOYER BRUCE PARTRIDGE Direct examination by Mr. Peterson 107 Page 2 Page 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) ALSO PRESENT: EXHIBITS: On behalf of Donald Clack the Employer: James C. Coward, Jr. Michelle Young Bruce Partridge Gregory A. Parolini J-1 IDEN RECD Collective bargaining agreement * * (3-25-2010 - 12-31-2011) J-2 Grievance chain * * J-3 Kent County Sheriff Department policies * * J-4 Kent County Human Resources policies and * * procedures manual E-5 Victim/Witness statement 13 16 On behalf of Jason Evans E-6 4/27/10 memo to Medendorp from Seif 16 17 the Union: Timothy Lewis E-7 Incident report form 18 18 Chris Hanson E-8 Daily patrol log 20 21 Roger Zappa E-9 Record of data terminal queries 26 27 E-10 Cell phone records 29 29 E-11 Transcript (7/30/10 interview of grievant) 32 33 E-12 Internal affairs investigative report 35 -- E-13 9/29/08 memo to Evans from Partridge 46 49 E-14 Transcript (8/24/10 interview of grievant) 51 52 E-15 8/24/10 letter from Partridge to......

Words: 39221 - Pages: 157

Premium Essay

Health Policy Brief

...Running head: PATIENT SELF DERTERMINATION ACT POLICY BRIEF Patient Self Determination Act H.R. 5067 (101st) Patient Self-Determination Act Policy Brief United States Congress passed the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) in 1990 as an amendment to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1990. In effect December 1, 1990 the PSDA legislature required many hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, home healths and other health care organizations to be responsible for giving information about advances health care directives to patients upon their admission to the facility. The objectives of the Patient Self Determination Act were first, to provide education concerning an individual’s rights in state laws to make their own decisions with regards to their healthcare, as well as the right to refuse treatment. Second, to encourage better preparation of advanced directives (ADs) to be used should the person/ patient become incapacitated. Lastly, to decrease end of life cost by avoiding unwanted or unnecessary care (Patient Self Determination Act, 1990). History of the PSDA A noteworthy motivation for the development and eventually the passing of the PSAD was a 1990 Supreme Court decision (Cruzan v Director, 1990). In this case, the parents of Nancy Cruzan, a comatose girl, requested that her nutrition and hydration be terminated but the hospital employees refused. The court acknowledged that there are right to refusal of care, however Nancy......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Policy Brief for Giant Chinese Salamander

...April 3, 2017 Policy Brief on Chinese Giant Salamander An article on the National Geographic website called: 4 Foot Salamander arrives in London as Face of New Conservation effort grabbed my attention and my selection to discuss the threats that face Chinese Giant Salamander. This memo includes information from the article: Development of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus farming industry in Shaanxi Province, China: conservation threats and opportunities. The Chinese Giant Salamander, the largest amphibian, is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN red list (IUCN 2012). Since the 1950s, the species population has dropped significantly. Its main threat is overexploitation for human consumption. The Chinese Giant Salamander farming industry adds increased threat including infectious disease and loss of genetic integrity (Murphy et al. 2000). ​The Chinese Giant Salamander is one of three living species in the family, Cryptobranchidae, which is over 170 million years old. The Chinese Giant Salamander is especially important for conservation because this amphibian has one of the longest family lineages alive today. The Chinese Giant Salamander is considered a delicacy in China. Although the Chinese Giant Salamander farming industry is only about a decade old, it is extremely detrimental to the species. It has an estimated population decline of more than 80% in three generations with a generation time of approximately 15 years (Gang et...

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ai Policy Brief

...Policy Brief: A Need for Future American Indian Commercial Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Programs May 24, 2012 Smoking and the American Indian community Every year, more than 440,000 deaths occur from cigarette smoking, or 1 of every 5 deaths is due to a smoking in the United States1. In adults who have never smoked, secondhand smoke can cause heart disease and/or lung cancer. Smoking rates are highest among the American Indian (AI) population when compared to other racial or ethnic groups which puts them at serious risk for disease and death2. Although California’s smoking rate is lowest among the general population, the disparity largely exists with AI smokers. It’s time to take action and develop prevention and cessation services to curb the high rates of smoking among the AI community. Why are smoking rates so high in the American Indian community? 1. The Tobacco Industry markets to youth using cultural images and symbols so they become long-term smokers, which means more money for the Tobacco Industry. 2. Having family and friends who smoke is more likely to influence smoking for the youth. 3. Exposure to secondhand smoke. 4. Youth start smoking as young as age 10, increase likelihood of smoking in adulthood. 5. Limited prevention programs that are culturally specific to reduce initiation of smoking. 6. Limited cessation programs to reduce smoking rates. 7. Perceived low harm value/ lack of awareness about the harmful......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Briefs

...Three Briefs Helen Mayes Kaplan University PA205: Introduction to Legal Analysis and Writing June 26, 2012 Citation- Mitchell v. Lovington Good Samaritan Center, Inc. 555 P.2d 696 (N.M. 1976) Facts- 1. Plaintiff (Mrs. Mitchell) was terminated from her job at Lovington good Samaritan Center, Inc., due to alleged misconduct. Plaintiff then filed for unemployment compensation benefits. Due to the finding from the deputy of the Unemployment Security Commission Mrs. Mitchell was denied benefits for seven weeks. Plaintiff appealed the decision and was granted her money. The Unemployment center appealed that ruling and the first ruling went back into effect. Mrs. Mitchell appealed that ruling applied for and was granted certiorari from the decision. The Plaintiff’s money was reinstated to her by the District Court. 2. Mrs. Mitchell was terminated from her job on June 4, 1974. On April 2 and April 3, 1974, Plaintiff went to work out of uniform. The first day she was told to go home and change she refused to do so, however, on the second day she did as she was told. Then on May 15, 1974, the plaintiff was singing while working, it was reported as unethical and time- consuming. Another incident happened on May 24, 1974. Mrs. Mitchell was told to change from medications to the floor routine. She was told why she was being switched but she was not co-operative. From that day unit June 4, 1974 Mrs. Mitchell refused to do her job. On June 4, 1974 Mrs. Mitchell went......

Words: 1976 - Pages: 8