Free Essay


In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By kojmansa
Words 1724
Pages 7
Pleasure resides in the activity which is perfected by that pleasure. A pleasure which is proper to an activity makes the activity more accurate, more enduring, and better, while an alien pleasure impairs the activity. The pleasure proper to a good activity is good, while the pleasure proper to a bad activity is evil.

Just as each animal is thought to have a proper function, it also has a proper pleasure which corresponds to the activity of that function. The pleasures proper to human beings are those which correspond to the activity of a perfect and blessed man.

Section 6:

Let us review what has already been said about happiness. Happiness is an activity of some sort which is chosen for its own sake and is self-sufficient. Actions according to virtue are chosen for their own sake. Happiness is not found in amusement, for it would be absurd to argue that the goal of a person's life and work is amusement. Rather, amusement is chosen for the purpose of relaxation, which is necessary to enable a person to engage in serious work. Everything is thought to be chosen for the sake of something else except for happiness. A happy life is a life according to virtue.

Section 7:

Since it has already been established [in Book One] that happiness is an activity according to virtue, it is reasonable to posit that it is an activity according to the highest virtue, which would be an activity corresponding to the best part of man. The activity of the intellect is the best human activity, since it corresponds to the highest part of man, is concerned with the best objects, is the most continuous activity, is self-sufficient, and is loved for its own sake. Everything attributed to a blessed man seems to exist in the activity of the intellect, which is contemplation. A life of contemplation, then, would be the perfect happiness for man. Such a life is above man, for it is possible only insofar as man has something divine in him, since the intellect is a sort of divine element in man. Man should thus strive to live according to the best of his soul and thus to partake of immortality. Since the contemplative life is most proper to man, it is also the best and most pleasant, and thus the happiest.

Section 8:

Life according to moral virtue is happy in a secondary way, since it is concerned with human affairs. The virtue of the intellect, however, is separate from the passions, and requires much fewer external resources than ethical virtue. Another argument which demonstrates that perfect happiness is contemplative activity is that the gods are most blessed and happy, and their action is contemplative. The human activity closest to the activity of the gods is the happiest, and thus contemplation is the most blessed human activity.

Section 9:

However, being human, a person will still need external things such as food for the nourishment of his body. Yet a happy man does not need many external things. As Solon stated, happy men are moderately supplied with external means and perform the noblest actions. He whose activities are in accord with is intellect is the best disposed and the most dear to the gods, since activity of the intellect is closest to the gods' own activity.

Section 10:

It seems that merely to theorize about virtues is not enough, but that the end of such speculation is action. However, for most men arguments are not enough to exhort them to noble deeds, since such men are guided most by fear rather than a love of what is noble. They abstain from what is bad because of the penalties they would receive rather than because of the disgracefulness of such actions. Further, it is extremely difficult by mere argument to change long-standing habits ingrained in a person's character. In order to make a person docile to instruction in virtue, it is necessary to habituate the person to enjoy what is good and hate what is disgraceful. For passion seems to yield not to argument but to force. As a result, it is necessary that the pursuits of the young should be regulated by law such that they will be habituated to take pleasure in what is good. Paternal command alone does not have enough power for this task. Yet if the state is negligent in its duty to form virtuous citizens, each citizen on his own should take care to help his children and friends to be virtuous. The person who cares to help his children and friend toward virtue would do best by becoming a lawgiver. For a person to be a good lawgiver, experience is necessary along with intelligence. Laws are like works of political art. [This discussion of laws is continued in The Politics.]


The first two topics dealt with in Book Ten‹pleasure and contemplation‹will be analyzed individually. For an analysis of Aristotle's closing comments on the necessity of proper laws to help citizens lead virtuous lives, see the analysis of Book Two, which addresses this topic in depth.


As already discussed in the analysis of Book Seven, Aristotle has highly nuanced view of pleasure and its role in human life. He recognizes that attraction to pleasure and repulsion from pain are natural and instinctive to human beings, and that as such they often act as the motivating force behind a person's actions. While disagreeing with the philosophers who consider pleasure to be an evil on the count that such a view is not in accord with the experience of human nature, Aristotle is also careful to qualify the ways in which pleasure is a good and the reason for its goodness. Pleasure is not the ultimate good, because one of the characteristics of the ultimate good is that it admits of no improvement and needs nothing to supplement it. Pleasure, on the other hand, is not sufficient on its own for a good life. For the pursuit of pleasure without regard to reason or virtue would lead to a slavish and bestial life. Pleasure, then, is a part of the good life, but is not its aim or definition. Rather, good actions, because they are good and in accord with judgments of the highest part of the soul, are naturally accompanied by pleasure, though not necessarily physical or sensible pleasure. This pleasure is perhaps best described as an inner pleasure produced by the harmony within the soul of a virtuous person. Good pleasures accompany good actions, while bad pleasures accompany bad actions. Pleasure in itself is neutral, but its goodness is determined by the goodness of the action, by whether or not the action is in accord with human nature.


Aristotle waits until Book Ten to complete the logic set forth in Book One with regard to determining the ultimate good for man by examining a human being's highest capacities. As already mentioned in the analysis of Book One, Aristotle holds that the happiness of man can be defined by determining the function proper to man. This function cannot be one which plants and animals also perform, because it must be particular to human beings. Therefore, man's function must be a part of the practical life of the rational part of man, the term practical implying purposeful conduct, which is possible only for rational beings. It follows, then, that happiness consists in the action of the rational part of man, the soul. The ultimate good of man should naturally flow from performing his function well; therefore, as Aristotle theorizes, "the Good of man [and, by extension, the definition of happiness] is the active exercise of his soul's faculties in conformity with excellence or virtue, or if there be several human excellences or virtues, in conformity with the best and most perfect among them" (Book One, Section 7). To constitute true happiness this action must persist with continuity throughout a lifetime. While ethical virtue is action in accord with reason, intellectual virtue is superior because it employs reason‹the highest part of man‹in contemplation of the best objects which man has the ability to know. Since it is the most continuous activity, the most pleasant virtuous activity, the most self-sufficient activity, and the only activity which is loved for its own sake, contemplation is the sole operation which meets all of the qualifications of happiness. Aristotle thereby provides the final revision of his definition: "Happiness is a bringing of the soul to the act according to the habit of the best and most perfect virtue, that is, the virtue of the speculative intellect, borne out by easy surroundings and enduring to the length of days" (Book One, Section 7).

Man, however, lives in a real world where he cannot spend his entire life in continuous contemplation. Realizing this problem, Aristotle concedes, "But such a life would be too high for man; for it is not in so far as he is man that he will live so, but in so far as something divine is present in him" (Book Ten, Section 7). For the times when, out of the necessities of human life, man must forego his contemplation, living in accordance with the moral virtues provides a secondary, less divine, happiness. In addition, the Aristotelian theory posits that, in order to be happy, it necessary to have sufficient external prosperity, such as health, good birth, satisfactory children, food, shelter, and freedom from suffering, although even in the most dire circumstances the virtuous man can maintain some semblance of happiness by bearing his trials nobly and with fortitude.
Next Section Related Links Previous Section Book Nine Summary and Analysis
Buy Study Guide Cite this page

GradeSaver will pay $25 for your literature essays
GradeSaver will pay $40 for your college application essays
GradeSaver will pay $50 for your graduate school essays – Law, Business, or Medical
GradeSaver will pay $10 for your Community Note contributions

Study Guide Navigation About Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Summary Character List Summary And Analysis Book One Book Two Book Three Book Four Book Five Book Six Book Seven Book Eight Book Nine Book Ten Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q & A E-Text Mini-Store Aristotle Biography…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Aesthetic Pleasure of Art

...The Aesthetic Pleasure of Art: The Elements of Art 1. Line- Can be endless, diagonal, horizontal, thick, thin, way or straight. A line is made using a writing tool such as a marker, crayon or pencil. 2. Space- The distance around, above, below, between and inside of things. 3. Value- The lightness or darkness of an object or color. 4. Texture- How the object (art) looks or feels. 5. Shape- Natural or geometric. Can also be the length or height of an object. 6. Form- The depth, width and length of an object. 7. Color- Random, complimentary and/or primary. Colors are shown based on how natural light reflects off of a particular object. The Principles of Art 1. Unity- Unity is accomplished by making the work feel complete. 2. Balance- Elements are put into place so that one part doesn’t overshadow the other parts. 3. Variety- Different shapes, colors and lines makes the artwork interesting. 4. Harmony- Makes the artwork interesting and enjoyable when all of the shapes, patters, colors and textures are in harmony. 5. Proportion- Art based objects should be scaled and have sized relations to fit the art properly. 6. Rhythm- The repetition of colors, lines, and shapes that makes or creates the feeling of movement. 7. Emphasis- Guides the viewer’s eyes to the most important part of the artwork. Methods for Teaching Art Appreciation One method for teaching art appreciation is to integrate art into mathematics. One way to do this...

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Physio-Pleasure Dibalik Kesuksesan Smartphone Touchscreen

...Physio-Pleasure dibalik keunggulan Navigasi Virtual Smartphone Touch screen Andria Kusuma Wahyudi, Dosen Pembimbing: Insap Santosa 1,2 Jurusan Teknik Elektro FT UGM Jln. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281 INDONESIA 1,2 Magister Teknologi Informasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Abstrak — Physio-Pleasure merupakan faktor utama dalam interaksi manusia dengan smartphone terutama yang menggunakan touchscreen sehingga interaksinya menjadi lebih nyata. Navigasi virtual terasa seakan akan seperti sedang menggunakan navigasi sungguhan sehingga user merasakan kepuasan walaupun dalam berinteraksi navigasi secara virtual. Dalam tulisan ini mencoba memberikan penjelasan mengenai physio-pleasure, pentingnya physio-pleasure, interaksi dan keterkaitan interaksi smartphone touchscreen dengan Phsio-Pleasure. Keywords— Physio-Pleasure, Interaction, Touch screen, Virtual, Navigation. I. pendahuluan Belakangan ini begitu banyak perusahaan besar seperti Nokia, Samsung, Apple Company, dan perusahaan raksasa lainnya berlomba lomba dalam pembuatan smartphone. Perusahaan-perusahaan besar ini mempertahankan touch screen untuk navigasi, tampilan, dan berinteraksi dengan smartphone tersebut, padahal dalam berinteraksi menggunakan touch screen, segala sesuatu yang ada di tampilan hanyalah merupakan virtual seperti button, slide navigasi yang berbentuk virtual. Meskipun virtual, pengguna masih merasakan seakan akan sungguhan atau sedang berinteraksi dengan fisik. Dalam makalah ini terdapat...

Words: 1698 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Pleasure to Burn

...Tenille Splunge Professor Flynn English 102 11 February 2013 The Pleasure to Burn Imagine coming home from an enjoying night out on the town, slipping into your most comfortable/ elegant sleepwear, clicking on some good TV and enjoying the pleasure to burn. This ad for Camel cigarettes featuring a beautifully alluring woman seemingly enjoying her cigarette is appealing, but Why? And how do marketers know this will work? Camel cigarette advertisers are marketing through communication, using ethos to persuade their particular audience about products ideas and services that they are told that they need, without reguard to what the customer actually gets. Advertisers are keeping customers coming back by marketing through communications, keeping the ever burning flames of human desire ignited. Once an advertiser has a target market/audience the task is then to create appeal. The most popular communications used are, billboards, commercials, and magazine and newspaper ads. The advertisers use ethos to portray an image of themselves to their unassuming customers. By keeping in touch with their current customers, advertisers can create ads that stay in its customers minds which can lead to repeat loyalty to that particular brand. This is called brand association. In this ad marketers are trying to imply that smoking Camel cigarettes will promote a relationship with this alluring half naked woman. These sorts of ads are misleading. Advertisers of these types of ads appeal......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Children’s Literature Represents, According to Valerie Krips, an Act of ‘Returning to a Past in Which the Problems of Adulthood Are by and Large Unknown.’ Is This the Source of the Pleasure of Children’s Literature for Adults?

...who is reading the children’s literature can consider what they have done in their life that they can be proud of, and thus giving them a sense of achievement as well as an escape from the problems of adulthood. By returning to this ‘past in which the problems of adulthood are by and large unknown’, we have found the ‘source of pleasure’ in reading children’s literature that adults feel. However it is important to remember that “death is but the next great adventure” As you grow old, you seem to have less fun, or so it seems when I look at older people, so by returning to your childhood by reading something such as Peter and Wendy you can return to a world where fun is the only concern, “If you cannot teach me to fly, teach me to sing.” This shows how the characters are only concerned with having fun, something the adults will have forgotten due to the fact they are more than likely working nine to five, five days a week, leaving very little time for fun and thus showing another reason as to why Valerie Krips is correct with her statement that ‘returning to a past in which the problems of adulthood are by and large unknown’ is the source of the pleasure of children’s literature for adults. Alternatively, rather than the fun that is being had in Peter and Wendy, in Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the primary concern is Harry Potter’s safety, “But Harry happened to agree wholeheartedly with Mrs Weasley that the safest place on earth was wherever Albus......

Words: 2619 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

“I” Seek Pleasures and “We” Avoid Pains

...“I” Seek Pleasures and “We” Avoid Pains: The Role of Self-Regulatory Goals in Information Processing and Persuasion By Jennifer L. Aaker Angela Y. Lee I think the main objectives that authors in this article would like to determine is to illustrate a regulatory focus theory in which people approach pleasure and avoid pain. According to the theory, there are two types of distinct goals that people have. First, individuals with a promotion focus will regulate their behaviors toward positive outcomes. Second, individuals with a prevention focus will regulate their behaviors away from negative outcomes. For instance, the former is who can set a goal in order to have positive outcomes such as advancement, achievement, and aspirations. The latter is who set a goal in order to avoid negative outcomes such as responsibilities, obligations, and security. Both have different considerations in a decision-making process and arrive at a result that both have different types of final decision-making. In addition, in four experiments, we also have to evaluate ‘accessible self-view’ with behaviors which are taken in the experiments and match the behavior with the self-regulatory theory. Each experiments has each objectives. First experiment has an objective that how the promotion and prevention benefits were manipulated through websites to the collected sample of people. Second experiment has a objective to examine whether individuals whose independent self-view is more accessible......

Words: 1366 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pleasure of Reading

...Pleasure Of Reading Food is necessary for our body. Similarly, we also need food for our mind. The best food for the mind is the reading of books. It has a joy of its own, which perhaps nothing else can give the pleasure one derives from reading is procreative as well as ennobling. Reading gives us peculiar joy and we forget the cares and worries of life. Reading makes a man perfect. By reading we get information, facts and knowledge of the affairs of the world. The books prescribed for our formal education do not provide pleasure to us. This is an obligation on us to read those books as we have to continue with our education. We are to go through them even though we may not like them. The books that provide us pleasure are the books of our liking and interest. Therefore we should have a vast field of good books for our knowledge. Most of the people who read books as a part (pass) time, read them for pleasure only. But it is very much doubtful that all those who read get any real pleasure out of it. These days, reading has become a fashion too. We can see people reading books in buses, trains, even bus-stops and restaurants. The only purpose of these readers is to boast that they have also read that book. These people never get any pleasure out of reading. Some readers are really fond of reading. This is a passion for them. This category of readers wants something to read that is really romantic, thrilling and full of suspense. They generally like to read detective......

Words: 778 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

To Pleasure a Prince

...To Pleasure A Prince by Sabrina Jeffries is very close to being a wallbanger for me because the hero in this book is truly hard to tolerate and the heroine's "growing affection" for him comes off like increasing desperation on her part to emulate her martyr-prone romance heroine sisters. On one hand, I try to be patient with this book. I've read bad boy heroes who push the limits of acceptable behavior, enjoy these books, and there's that. But Marcus North isn't a bad boy as much as he comes off like a snarling caricature, the illegitimate son of the Tasmanian Devil and Wild E Coyote, with absolutely no redeeming feature whatsoever where I am concerned to commend him to anyone other than women who write love letters to men on the death row. Marcus isn't abusive, physically, but his actions are so offensive to me because he acts like a ten-year old boy denied his candies. His actions are completely self-absorbed. In fact, I don't remember encountering any hero as self-absorbed from start to finish like our Viscount Draker here. Regina Tremaine is our heroine and she has a secret. Maybe I shouldn't reveal the nature of this secret, so I'll just say that she has a valid excuse to hope that Marcus' sister Louisa be the wife to her brother. Marcus believes that her brother has shady reasons to court Louisa, so he opposes the relationship. Being a heroine, Regina naturally confronts Marcus in his place (with a chaperone that she leaves behind in the carriage, of course, because...

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

What Gives You Pleasure

...“What gives you pleasure?” and “What makes you feel good?” Those are questions I don’t really often ask myself. It’s not like they are hard questions but to me in actuality they are. I always wonder with these types of questions if I am giving the right answer or if there is even a right answer. I don’t think there is a right or wrong answer in general. The best answer is the one you give. We all have our own definition of pleasure and what makes us feel good. What brings me the most pleasure and makes me feel good first and foremost are my kids. I was told I would never be able to have kids, but God has blessed me with two beautiful girls. I enjoy all my time with them both. I guess you could also say that being a mom also brings me pleasure and makes me feel good. I couldn’t imagine doing anything else in the world. I never pictured myself the mother type but it suits me. Being a mom to my girls is something that brings me joy; makes my heart swell up with pride just knowing that I made those girls and they love me no matter what. Of course other things in this world bring me pleasure and make me feel good. Things such as friends and family, music, sweets like chocolate, and big bear hugs. I love having an intimate relationship with my best friend; it gives me no greater pleasure to know that I am sharing my life forever with him. I also enjoy jumping in my car and going for a ride with the windows down and music blasting, not a care in the world and nowhere to be. I......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Pleasure Scale

...Professor Habbestad English 104 2 December 2013 The Pleasure Scale As we go through life we will experience different events that will help shape the scales that we use in life. Biss talks about how pain is our own experience and no one else can feel the same intensity of pain that we feel at any given point in the day. I believe that it can also be turned around no one can feel the same type of pleasure that I feel. There is no way that I can write a scale of pleasure that fits every person that is on the earth; the only scale that I can make is one where I use the pleasure that have happened to me during my life time. As we age we tend to go through events that will change our outlook on life. Something that may have been a pleasure to us when we were younger may not be pleasure to use when we are older. Take for instance playing on the playground as a young child, that was to time of the day we all waited for we got to go outside and play on the jungle gym. That would not bring me pleasure it would make me depressed just for the fact that I can no longer play on the jungle gym because I am not small enough to enjoy to the level that I would want to. 0 Imagine a world where there is no such thing as pain. Now that you have done that do you think that there would be pleasure in that world? If there is no pain there can be no pleasure they go hand in hand. If you have never felt pain then how can you know what pleasure is? Biss talks about how there is not an absolute......

Words: 2804 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Intense Pleasure

... Being a lead Air Condition and Refrigeration technician in the engineering department means knowing your equipment inside and out. If some one is taking readings (keeping a log) and something is circled red your supposed to know before the Chief engineer and how to fix it. Being Head of anything is hard enough. Your not allowed to make mistakes but it happens The one thing about being an Air Condition Refrigeration technician is you will always have something to do. There are multiple things that go wrong or will eventually go wrong. I didn't like being the main subject of a conversation when someone fails to report to me on a piece of equipment or system. When I look back on those situations I see I let my confluence flow and should have done something different. When a small compressor starts to fail and its passed its prime and I let the upper chain of command know and they brush it off. I could have used more of my sequence and should have given more details on what my solution is. My favorite thing I dislike the most, is when another person that has been trained to be your back up (in absence) they don't pull the load. I should have used more of my sequence and precise than just leaving it to chance. I liked it when a hot water heater tank needs to be overhauled (recycled) and my boss lets me take the guys on the site to do on the job training. My technical reasoning steps in big time but it has to merge with my sequence and precise patterns. I like being......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sadistic Pleasure

...Cannon ENG-112-06W June 3, 2015 A Sadistic Pleasure “The Tattooer” Junichiro Tanizaki The Story of “The Tattooer” by Junichiro Tanizaki is a colorful story enriched with non-sexual sadistic pleasure and is brought to life with his choice of words and the story line makes it not only sadistic but also extremely erotic and somewhat of a love story by the way he portrays pleasure in the form of sadism. This is all done through emotional and internal sensual gratification instead of sexual. It is about passion, desire, control, and power all found within one’s self. This story takes place in Japan in a time where wealthy men would go to extensive lengths to impress and attract the young women such as geishas. It was a time where young delicate women could control any willing man by simply letting him indulge in her beauty. Men would decorate their bodies with ink to show their masculinity to these young women in hopes they would be so inclined to have the woman give them a glimpse of her sweet tenderness. There was an exquisite tattooer in the village named Seikichi. Seikichi was a unique painter and tattooer. However, Seikichi did not accept just anyone seeking a tattoo, nor did he accept payment, for Seikichi’s payment was giving the tattoo itself. Seikichi deems to be a form of a sadist. His pleasure came from the pain the people on the other end of the needle endured. The author declares “His pleasure lay in the agony men felt as he drove his needles......

Words: 1092 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

C.L. Barber Argued That Comedy Is All About Pleasure and Merrymaking. How Do You React to This Idea in Your Study of Much Ado About Nothing?

...C.L. Barber argued that comedy is all about pleasure and merrymaking. How do you react to this idea in your study of Much Ado About Nothing? Much Ado About Nothing is heavily influenced by the inclusion of C.L. Barber’s viewpoint on comedy, that pleasure and merrymaking should be a focal point in festive comedy. Shakespeare utilizes witty mockery, satirical conversations and the Saturnalian reversal of roles to emphasize festivity and merrymaking as a main theme in his comedy as this ensures the audience can make fun and laugh at the situations displayed. But, as the audience we cannot forget that Shakespeare used this idea of pleasurable entertainment to disguise the underlying Machevellian plots of Don John and Borachio to disrupt the fairy tale type of tenor the characters could have led. Therefore, further into Much Ado About Nothing, discussions about whether Shakespeares play conforms to C.L. Barber’s argument or to what extent is C.L. Barber’s perspective disputed are risen. Initially, from reading the script of Much Ado About Nothing, the reader can respond to C.L. Barber’s argument with firm disagreement as many other genres are used to heighten the effect of comedy in the play, although C.L. Barber’s argument was specifically aimed at comedies, whilst Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing is classed as a dramatic comedy, where tragedy is also hung in the balance in the climactic parts of the play. The purpose of Shakespeare’s plays in general and especially Much Ado...

Words: 2589 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Simple Pleasure

...Simple Pleasure Marketing Plan Keller Graduate School of Management –HM585 Instructor: Christopher Zombas Niomi Faison February 20, 2011 Final Draft Executive Summary Simple Pleasures is an establishment that will makes all dreams come true. Not only will it be a place to enjoy some of the best cuisine that anyone will die for on this side of the Mason Dixon line in addition to, some of the best movies of all times as well as, as entering paradise when you waltz into your guest room, which remembers the period of cultural enhancement, social grace, and general affluence in the last decades of the 18th and first decade of the 19th centuries.  The enthusiasm of the "Let the Good Time Roll" era will be reawakened as the model of this restaurant on the establishments of the Montmartre district of Savannah. The patrons that will visit this establishment will be lured in an ambience of one of a kind and no experience like any other. This business has taken three concepts and merges them together as one that will be very appealing to all of their customers. The decor will be comparable to that of the restaurant themes of 1860's to 1880's, and feature artwork of the Impressionists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Mary Cassat, and Berthe Morisot (McLaughlin). The thrilling and invigorating characteristics of this restaurant are that it surpass beyond decor and shift into a genuine existence, initial experience.  From the ambience and......

Words: 6093 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Aristotle’s Account of Pleasure

...Aristotle’s Account of Pleasure We are a pleasure driven society always waiting to be amused. Self indulgence is a very natural aspect of human life. Does pleasure affect our lives? Will it make us happy at the end? Well, Aristotle will let us know what it means to be happy and have a good life in the Nicomachean Ethics. In the process, he reveals his own account of pleasure as well as other philosophers opposing views on the subject. The author highlights the key them by telling us that pleasure is not the chief good. However, it is an end in itself, which makes it good. In addition, pleasure is also not a process because it doesn’t involve any movement from incompleteness to completeness. According to Aristotle, happiness is known as the Greek word Eudemonia. It is the chief good which makes it an end in itself and is what we should all aim for. In the Ethics Aristotle is trying to unfold the opposed views of other philosophers. The first view is based on the principle that pleasure is good, whereas the second view is believed by some that pleasure is a negative concept. Philosophers such as Eudoxus, agree with the first view and argues that we all try to avoid pain instead desire pleasure therefore, pleasure must be good. It may not be the final good, but it is an end in itself. He also argues that when pleasure is added to any good, it makes it better. For example, to just temperate actions makes it worthy of choice, and that it is only by itself that......

Words: 1288 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How Adequate Is Mill’s Conception of Happiness? How Good Are His Arguments to Show That “Higher” Pleasures Are Intrinsically More Desirable Than “Lower” Ones? Is This Distinction Consistent with the Thesis That Pleasure

...How adequate is Mill’s conception of happiness? How good are his arguments to show that “higher” pleasures are intrinsically more desirable than “lower” ones? Is this distinction consistent with the thesis that pleasure is the only thing of value? In “Utilitarianism” Mill argues that ‘higher’ pleasures are intrinsically more valuable than ‘lower’ pleasures, citing the invariable preference of men who have access to both available (pp.140). I am inclined to disagree, particularly with regards to his assertion that ‘higher’ pleasures have such a “superiority of quality”(pp.139), so as to render any quantity of ‘lower’ pleasures “in comparison, of small account”- this non-cardinal view of pleasure raises many discontinuities. This is particularly the case when we take Mill at his word: “actions are right in proportion as they tend to increase happiness… By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain”(pp.137), and view pleasure as the only good. It is the twin beliefs; of pleasure as the only good-making exercise and Mill’s non-cardinal conception of pleasure that form the core of my disagreement with Mill. I will begin by presenting Mill’s arguments for intrinsically more valuable ‘higher’ pleasures and evaluating them. To support his assertion that ‘higher’ pleasures are intrinsically more valuable, Mill asks the reader to consider a thought experiment. Would an “intelligent human being… consent to be changed into a fool”(p.139), if they could be persuaded that......

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9