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Plans for Several 12 Mark Aqa as History

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12 marker: Explain why Trotsky did not become Soviet leader in 1924

1. Personality and background (Most Significant)
Some colleagues were suspicious of Trotsky because of his relatively recent Menshevik past (1903-1917) – didn’t trust, he had already left Lenin once.
Trotsky had a reputation for arrogance- Didn’t show up to funeral (1924)
Some were wary of Trotsky because of his earlier role in commanding the Red Army- fear, still had some control over army therefore as a leader he would be too powerful.

2. Support (Major Reason)
Trotsky did not have a strong Party base of support- Stalin had acquired a number of seemingly unimportant party positions (Secretary, Lenin Enrolment- 1924) in his rise to power but when combined = insight into party and control. Other rivals, like Stalin would not easily accept him as Lenin’s successor - Z+K questioned T loyalty
Triumvirate (1924 Party Congress) was gaining support, while Trotsky attacked Party bureaucracy.
Link to personality– trusting of Stalin even though he had support (funeral and testament).

3. Uncertainty (Key Reason)
There was general uncertainty about the leadership, mainly because Lenin had not made a clear decision and there was no official ‘post’ or mechanism in place for electing a leader
Lenin’s Testament (1922) said “He is personally perhaps the most capable man in the present C.C., but he has displayed excessive self-assurance and shown excessive preoccupation with the purely administrative side of the work” this meant that he didn’t publish the testament and therefore there was no clear leader as Trotsky had been criticised too.
Link to personality– arrogance.

4. Own doubts (Minor Reason)
Trotsky himself expressed doubts about his suitability, feeling that his Jewish background might be a stumbling block to acceptance.
He also was indecisive, doubted own ability – after WW1 and Civil War and the poverty that followed the country wanted a strong decisive leader.
Link to support- Jewish background, Communism was anti-religion and Personality– indecisive.

5. Conclusion – Most Significant = personality and background
W/o this he would’ve had more support been more decisive and Lenin would not have called him arrogant.

12 marker: Explain why Stalin believed Kirov was a threat to his own position 1. Paranoid (Most Significant)
After finally rising to power, Stalin had created a lot of enemies- Members of the old Guard and their families – he killed them fearing that they would try to overthrow. His paranoia is best displayed in the later purges of the party and Red army.
,’, Kirov murder allowed S to bring in an emergency law to prevent any Successors.
After many members involved i.e. Yagoda and NKVD were killed or sent to Gulags- paranoid tell what happened.

2. Successor (Major Reason)
Popularity increasing – given position w/ Stalin as Secretary of equal rank- a Position held by Stalin since 1922 (General Secretary)
Widen party base as Stalin’s shrunk. In 1930’s
Link to Paranoid- Stalin paranoid that Kirov would over throw him and become leader due to his increased power.

3. Disagreed on policy (Minor Reason)
At the 17th Party Conference Stalin and Kirov disagreed on Industry and Collectivisation- Stalin’s flagship policies
From 1933 K + S Openly argued
Link to Paranoid- a dispute became an attempt to take power- S exaggerate

4. Conclusion – Most Significant = Paranoia
W/o this the dispute could’ve been resolved and the issue of successor would have been redundant

12 marker: Explain why in the years 1924 to 1929, the Right Opposition was unable to prevent Stalin’s rise to power.

1. Stalin’s positions in the party (Most Significant)
General Secretary since 1922- control admin (“Comrade Card- Index” Hosking)
Lenin Enrolment (1924) – Party size increased by one million = S Supporters and owe S a debt of loyalty.

2. Stalin’s Polices and Political skill (Major Reason)
S used Bukharin and the Right in order to defeat the Left
1928 turned against the Right and attacked the NEP and now favoured rapid industrialisation. (Left)
Triumvirate (1924) helped S to isolate Trotsky when Z + K joined T it was too late
Link to Positions- S use positions (LE) in order to defeat the Right and Left.

3. Defeat of the Left ( Minor Reason)
T, Z + K World Revolution & Rapid Industrialisation Stalin side w/ in 1924 ,’, he put his supporters in (LE) Link to Positions
1925 Moves to Socialism in one Country (Right) ,’, Left = Isolated
United Opposition 1926 - Expelled in 1927 Factions Ban (1921)

4. Conclusion – Most Significant = Stalin’s positions in the party
W/o these positions he would have been unable to defeat the Left as his supporters followed him to the Right and left Z, K and T isolated and his skill was founded upon his ability to use these positions to get a unique view of the party that he can use against any faction he wanted.

12 marker: Explain why by 1928 the soviet leader ship had decided on the collectivisation of agriculture

1. Links with industry (Most Significant)
Population in urban areas increasing due to industrialisation,’, need more food.
Guaranteed food supply for the city
Control and exchange surplus – Chairman of Collective
Peasants would hide food therefore Urals-Siberian Method (1928) Forced Requisition

2. Political and Ideological (Major Reason)
Ensured the survival of the revolution (Nove- only way out of impasse)
NEP in 1925 attempted to Collectivise but only 1 % collectivised
Propaganda against the Kulaks (not helping the workers) caused tension b/w K and other peasants in rural areas.
Link to Industry- ideology preserved (Brovkin- New war on society to preserve dictatorship)

3. Economic (Minor Reason)
Grouping = more money to buy machinery = effective
Peasants had small plots,’, only small amounts,’, small profit in Serfdom (Strip farming)
Reduce number of workers needed in rural and therefore could increase Proletariat (Link to Industry)

4. Conclusion – Most Significant = Links with Industry
The guaranteed food supply to the city would help to reach the political and ideological goals and help to ensure the economic output of the city.

12 marker: Explain why Stalin introduced a Five-Year Plan for industry in 1928

1. Fear of invasion (Most Significant)
Civil War (1918-21) Proved that other countries didn’t want Communism
!927- UK raid Soviet Trade mission in LND, Soviet diplomats assassinated in Poland, in CHN communist attacked ,’, anti-communist conspiracy
This meant to industrialise was patriotic ‘Socialism in one country’
Wall Street Crash 1929 = chaos and the subsequent rise of Hitler in GMY w/ his anti communist stance = threat to the USSR and an incentive for RI as the 30’s wore on

2. Political and Ideology (Major Reason)
Still a number of private industries = higher wages ,’, citizens more likely to work in private
Strikes due to complaints about machinery, wages, communism and bosses privileges = tension
FYP remove Bukharin as it is fast (Left)
Si1C = fits Industrialisation, which inc. Members of Proletariat, the backbone of the revolution ,’, also social engineering
FYP remove Nepmen, private businesses that profited under the NEP, Kulaks and bourgeois experts (Capitalist Elements)
Link to FI – fear of Capitalism

3. Economic (Minor Reason)
1926 Pre-war levels of production reached BUT still disappointing
Disruption of WW1 + Civil War had damaged essential services and production
Still far behind West
Little trade since 1917 ,’, rely on itself
W/FYP state can direct the economy and control distribution of food and materials so production and efficiency is maximised.
Link to FI- if increased production can fight better major reason why USSR won WW2

4. Conclusion – Most Significant = Fear of Foreign Invasion
Proved by WW2 and it justified the ideological and economic reasons…...

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