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Planned Change

In: Business and Management

Submitted By supercat63
Words 1285
Pages 6
Ensayo # 3

Materia: Estrategias para la globalización

Fecha de entrega: 12 Febrero del 2013

Introducción

El comercio internacional ha evolucionado, comenzó con una economía ya doméstica o feudal, luego se transformó en una economía nacional con un solo mando político y económico, por último en una economía internacional. Feudalismo, mercantilismo y libre comercio.
David Hume, Establece que el banco central, que controla la oferta monetaria tiene el control último de la tasa de inflación. Si el banco central mantiene estable la oferta monetaria, el nivel de precios se mantiene estable. Un país con grandes reservas de metales preciosos necesariamente debería vender caras sus mercancías en el exterior, con lo cual dejarían de ser competitivas; además, el corto plazo, debido a sus elevadas reservas, tendería a importar más de lo que necesitara.
El mercantilismo consistió en una serie de medidas tendentes a unificar el mercado interno y tuvo como finalidad la formación de Estados-nación lo más fuertes posibles. Debido a que la plata y el oro circulaban como dinero, la cantidad de estos metales preciosos simbolizaba la riqueza y el poder de un país.
El Principio básico del mercantilismo, se consideraba que la riqueza de un país estaba en el oro que poseía.

Desarrollo

Se define como comercio internacional, al intercambio de bienes, productos y servicios entre dos países (uno exportador y otro importador). Por ejemplo, el intercambio de bienes y servicios entre la Unión Europea y América.

Para poder entender de una manera más clara lo que es el comercio internacional es necesario comenzar por plantear como surge y sobre todo cuáles son sus bases teóricas es decir, las diversas teorías que se han formado a través del propio desarrollo y evolución del comercio internacional.

El comercio internacional tiene diferentes teorías que en un momento determinado pueden explicar su comportamiento:

* Teoría Mercantilista * Teoría de la Ventaja Absoluta * Teoría de la Ventaja Comparativa * Teoría del Ciclo de Vida del Producto *
Mercantilismo
Es la primera teoría que se conoce del comercio exterior y surge en Inglaterra en el siglo XVI. Sostiene que el oro y la plata son los pilares fundamentales de la riqueza nacional y eran esenciales para un comercio vigoroso.
Supone Que un país debe mantener un excedente en sus exportaciones respecto a sus importaciones, para así poder acumular oro y plata, incrementando su riqueza y prestigio nacionales. Por tanto, tiene la visión de que mientras un país gana con el comercio exterior, otro debe perder.
De hecho la doctrina mercantilista defiende la intervención gubernamental para lograr excedentes en la balanza comercial.
La visión Neo mercantilista persiste hasta nuestros días.
El mercantilismo es una doctrina económica (política económica) que aparece en un periodo intervencionista y “Describe un credo económico que prevaleció en la época de nacimiento del capitalismo, antes de la Revolución Industrial”.

Se puede entender al mercantilismo como un conjunto de políticas o ideas económicas que se desarrollaron durante los siglos XVI, XVII y la primera mitad del XVIII en Europa. Se caracterizó por una fuerte injerencia del Estado en la economía. Consistió en una serie de medidas tendientes a unificar el mercado interno y tuvo como finalidad la formación de Estados-nación lo más fuertes posibles.

El concepto de “mercantilismo” se define a partir de los grandes descubrimientos geográficos, consecuencia de la apertura de las rutas comerciales marítimas por los portugueses entre el siglo XV y 1500 (fecha del descubrimiento de Brasil) y la consolidada corriente inagotable del metal precioso (oro y plata principalmente) llevado desde los territorios nuevos a Europa, en particular después del establecimiento de los virreinatos de Nueva España y de Perú, por los castellanos.
El término “mercantilismo” fue inventado en 1763 por Mirabeau., para describir el sistema de ideas económicas dominantes durante los siglos XVI, XVII e inicios del XVIII.
El mercantilismo es un conjunto de ideas económicas que considera que la prosperidad de una nación o estado depende del capital que pueda tener, y que el volumen global de comercio mundial es inalterable. El capital, que está representado por los metales preciosos que el estado tiene en su poder, se incrementa sobre todo mediante una balanza comercial positiva con otras naciones (o, lo que es lo mismo, que las exportaciones sean superiores a las importaciones). El mercantilismo sugiere que el gobierno dirigente de una nación debería buscar la consecución de esos objetivos mediante una política proteccionista sobre su economía, favoreciendo la exportación y desfavoreciendo la importación, sobre todo mediante la imposición de aranceles.
Teoría de la Ventaja Absoluta, Adam Smith en sulibro“La Riqueza de las Naciones” (1776), establece las bases del beneficio del comercio entre países. Define que un país tiene una ventaja absoluta sobre otro en la producción de un bien, cuando es más eficiente, es decir: requiere de menos recursos por unidad para su producción que el otro país. De acuerdo con Smith, los países deben especializarse en la producción de mercancías en la que tengan una ventaja absoluta, e intercambiar estos productos por bienes producidos en otros países. Asimismo, demuestra que especializándose en la producción de bienes en los que cada país tiene ventaja absoluta, ambos países se beneficiarán a través del comercio de dichos bienes.
Teoría de la Ventaja Comparativa, En 1817, David Ricardo en su libro “Principios de Política Económica” extiende la teoría de los beneficios del comercio a situaciones donde un país tiene ventaja absoluta en ambos bienes. De acuerdo con Smith dicho país probablemente no resulte beneficiado con el comercio exterior. Estos beneficios se obtienen cuando el país con ventaja absoluta en ambos bienes se especializa en producir aquel con mayor eficiencia relativa (menor costo de oportunidad), es decir el bien en el que tiene ventaja comparativa.
Los consumidores en todas las naciones pueden acceder a una mayor cantidad de productos en ausencia de restricciones comerciales.
La producción potencial del mundo es mayor con un libre comercio ilimitado que con un comercio limitado. Evidentemente los supuestos empleados son poco realistas, pero la teoría constituye una buena base de partida. A partir de ésta se establecen las denominadas “nuevas teorías del comercio”.

Teoria del equilibrio y Comercio internacional, Esta teoría se basa en el estudio del mercado y de los precios de las mercancías en declive, concentrando su mayor interés en la obtención de la ganancia sin importar mucho como se obtenga.
Dado que los teóricos del equilibrio concebían a la economía en estado estacionario, enfocaron su atención en los precios y en las cantidades que permitieran un movimiento estable de los productos desde el lugar en donde se producían hasta los centros comerciales sin que las condiciones establecidas fueran alteradas. En este proceso el dinero solo cumple la función de facilitar la medición económica sin importar el nivel de precios.

Teoria de la Localizacion , Esta teoría puede parecer un tanto ilógica si no se conocen las condiciones en cuanto a recursos naturales de cada país. La teoría de la localización arranca del hecho básico de que los recursos naturales son limitados y están distribuidos en forma desigual en el globo terrestre. Esta distribución desigual de los recursos naturales determina, en las primeras etapas del desarrollo económico, condiciones diferentes entre las regiones para la producción de ciertos artículos. La explotación de estos recursos naturales es lo que condujo a los individuos a la especialización en determinadas actividades. En la medida que la acumulación de capital y el conocimiento tecnológico se desarrollan, originan la tendencia a depender menos de dichos recursos naturales, y cuando la humanidad avanza considerablemente, surge la sustitución de estos por productos sintéticos.

Bibliografía

Nicolas Rombiola ,El mercantilismo 29 junio 2012 ,recuperado de :http://www.finanzzas.com/el-mercantilismo
Czinkota, M.R., Ronkainen, I.A. y Moffet, M.H. (2007) Negocios Internacionales. Séptima edición. México: Cengage Learning.…...

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