Free Essay

Pigments

In: Other Topics

Submitted By pondrazigler
Words 1535
Pages 7
Pondra Zigler
HUMN-303
Professor Elliott
October 14, 2012
“Pigments”

Pigments are the foundation of all paints, and have been used for thousands of years dating back to prehistoric times. More than 15,000 years ago cavemen began to use colour to decorate cave walls. These colours were called earth pigments - yellow earth, red earth and white chalk. In addition they used carbon black by collecting the soot from burning animal fats. These colours were all that were needed to produce the sensitive and exquisite drawings and stencils which we are still able to see today (Winsor & Newton. 2003).
According to Douma, M. (2008), the first paintings ever found were cave paintings. Ancient peoples decorated walls of protected caves with paint made from dirt or charcoal mixed with spit or animal fat. In cave paintings, the pigments were able to stick to the walls because the pigments became trapped in the porous wall and also, because the spit of fat dried and adhered the pigment to the wall.
It is hypothesized that the way that the paint was applied was through brushing, smearing (using their fingertips), dabbing and using spraying techniques. Brushes were made from horsehair, and paint spraying (similar to air brushing) was accomplished by blowing paint through hollowed animal bones. Historians found the shoulders of animals, as well as other animal bones in caves stained with color presumed to have been used as mortars for pigment grinding. The pigment was made into a paste with various binders such as water, juice from vegetables, urine, blood, animal fat and etc. Common binders that were used historically by Native Americans include human spit, hide glue, bone marrow fat, and other animal fats such as bear grease, prickly pear cactus juice (may leave a green residue or tint), and soapy juice from yucca roots or leaves. California Indians also used a local plat called soaproot (Chlorogalum pomeridianum). Egg whites were used (bird eggs), milkweed (Asclepias sp.) sap and other plant saps, also urine (Harper, P., 2007).
Pigments have advanced through the many different time frames – prehistory, antiquity, medieval, renaissance & baroque, modern age, industrialization, and the contemporary age (Douma, M. 2008). By 4,000 BC the Egyptians showed evidence of serious colour manufacture. The earth colours had been cleaned by washing - increasing their strength and purity, and new pigments appear from the use of minerals. Perhaps the most famous is Egyptian Blue, first produced around 3,000 BC. This was a blue glass made from sand and copper which was then ground into a powder. It was replaced in the 16th century by Smalt which was itself finally superseded by Cobalt in the early 19th century. Not only did the Egyptians play a major role in the advancement of colours, but the Chinese, the Greeks, the Romans, the Italians, the Germans and the French did as well.
As previously stated, early pigments were simply ground earth or clay, and were made into paint with spit or animal fat. Modern pigments are often sophisticated masterpieces of chemical engineering (Douma, M.2008). We are certainly lucky in being constantly provided with pigments of better permanence and an ever widening choice of handling properties. In less than 200 years the finest quality ranges have gone from around 30% permanent to 99 - 100 %, as well as providing two or three times the number of colours to choose from (Paul Robinson, 2003 – 2011). The isolation of new elements in the late 18th century also played a part in providing new colours. Deposits of chrome in the USA in 1820 facilitated the easy manufacture of Chrome

Yellow - a highly opaque low cost colour available in a variety of hues. Similarly, the isolation of Zinc in 1721 eventually gave rise to Zinc Oxide by the end of the 18th century. This was utilized as an artists' white in preference to lead white as it was less hazardous and more permanent particularly in water colour. In 1817, the metal Cadmium was discovered by Stromeyer but it was not until 1846 that Cadmium Yellows were introduced to the artists' palette. And finally, this part of pigment history could not be complete without mentioning two famous colours in the artists' palette. The first, Indian Yellow was a beautiful, transparent colour with excellent light fastness. It was produced by feeding cows exclusively on mango leaves and using the resultant urine to manufacture the colour, wow…Using the cows in this way was unacceptable in India and by the early 20th century the practice had ceased. Indian Yellow has since then been made with a variety of pigments but it took until the 1990's to find pigments which provided the light fastness of the original (Robinson, Paul. 2003).
Nearly every industry uses colorants in one way or another. In fact, we consume and use colors every day. About 7,000 different dyes and pigments exist and new ones are being patented every year. Dyes are used extensively in the textile (fabric used in clothing) industry and paper industry. Other examples include leather and wood which are colored with dyes. Food that we consume on a daily basis is often colored with natural or with synthetic dyes that have been approved by a federal agency. Petroleum-based products such as waxes, lubricating oils, polishes, and gasoline are colored with dyes. Dyes are also used to stain biological samples, fur, and are used to color our hair. Special dyes are added to photographic emulsions for color

photographs. Plastics, resins, and rubber products are usually colored by pigments (Dyes and Pigments 2012).
From early, early times, man have left an imprint on their environment in the form of painted images (cave paintings), which made their world more beautiful and expressed their thoughts, and showed how they felt about certain events or situations in the time in which they were living in. Maybe the primitive man scratched trees or rocks with stones as a way of indicating a source of food and water, or maybe marking their territory. At some point though, man discovered that pigments worked more effectively when mixed with water or saliva - thus painting was born. After that recognition, there was no stopping man and the creativeness that he was born with. According to Patsy Harper (2007), color is the most basic form of human artistic expression, and pigments are the simplest forms of color-in essence, they are all reflections of light. Dr. Solveig A. Turpin, who is a recognized authority on the rock of the lower Pecos Region, with a P.H.D. in anthropology from the University of Texas, says that “The dominant color used in the paintings, no matter their age or subject material, is red. This is true in all the styles, from the earliest Pecos River shamans to the latest historic autobiography (The names given to two of the styles-Red Linear and Red Monochrome-attest to this overwhelming popularity). Some of the selectivity can be attributed to obvious factors-such as availability and durability; other factors are more esoteric and aesthetic...the first response that leaps to mind when asked about the color red is blood, the essential fluid that courses through the veins of all humans and animals. Of course, early people were aware that loss of blood meant loss of life, but they also knew that new life arrives in blood as well...Psychologist and linguists studying people who still live at a very elemental technological and social level have found that the first colors to be distinguished are black, white, and red. These we could call 'all color', 'no color', and red. The strongest impulse on the chromatic wavelength is red so we are in a sense hard-wired to react to red before any other color...To me, it is not merely a coincidence that the most sophisticated art-and the most clearly rooted in a ritual context-uses more than one color...we can envision the Pecos River and Bold Line Geometric styles as developing within a trance-oriented religion, where multi-colored visions since these ancient artists are long gone from this world, we may never know the true spiritual significance of the colors in their rock art.” According to this observation, we can see how deeply color affects our own mood, our self-esteem, and our sense of beauty; and how it touches our soul. And we can take care to learn these ancient methods and traditions and preserve them for generations to come, after we are long gone as well (Patsy Harper, 2007).

Bibliography

BBC on the internet. (2000). British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved September 15, 2012 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/733747.stm Douma, M., curator. (2008). Pigments through the Ages. Retrieved September 15, 2012 from, http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments. http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/September2010/p794-803.pdf

http://www.scienceclarified.com/Di-El/Dyes-and-Pigments.html#b

Harper, P., (2007). Natural Pigments. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from, http://www.womenofthefurtrade.com/wst_page18.html
Robinson, Paul. (2003). The History of Pigments. Retrieved September 23, 2012 from http://www.winsornewton.com/about-us/our-history/history-of-pigments/ http://www.womenofthefurtrade.com/wst_page18.html

.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ciba Case

...In 1993, Pigments division head Peter Schultz went before the CEC to seek their approval to make a major investment in the modernization of a manufacturing plant in Newport, Delaware. The plan would violate portfolio guidelines for investment, so the justification he presented hinged in large part on his vision for the plant’s future as a producer of high quality pigments. Inherited from a competitor by acquisition in 1984, the Newport plant utilized outdated equipment that initially had been plagued by frequent failures and high maintenance costs. This had resulted in revenue losses and market share in 1988. Improvements were made, but looking toward the future, Schultz felt that Ciba had three options:  Commit to a full investment in the Newport facility which for a cost of US $140 million would bring it up to state-of-the-art standards for productivity, safety, and environmental friendliness, and allow for the manufacture of an additional range of high quality pigments (DPP). Make a limited investment aimed at addressing the current situation by reorganizing and modernizing production. Estimated cost: US $ 100 million. Close the facility on the grounds that its existing condition made it an unacceptable risk, both ecologically and financially. Ciba could then relocate to an existing facility in Europe, or 2   move production to Ciba’s plant in Alabama or Louisiana (where the infrastructure was roughly suited to the needs of the Pigments division). Pigments.......

Words: 2123 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Biology

...Effects of Temperature on Membrane Permeability on Beta vulgaris Abstract In this experiment, we studied the effect of temperature on the cell membrane of a common garden beet Beta vulgaris. Beet roots were washed thoroughly, cut into six cylinders and then placed in separate test tubes. We placed each test tube in separate water baths at different temperatures for a specific period of time. The test tubes were then removed from the water baths and the absorbance of the solutions containing betalain pigments was recorded using a spectrophotometer . Maximum absorbance was recorded at -8°C (followed by the absorbance at 78.9 °C) indicating maximum release of pigments from the cell while minimum absorbance was recorded at 8°C. The results of the experiment were mostly consistent with the expectations and it was found that with increase in temperature the absorbance increases and so does the release of pigments from the cell. Introduction Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life . The word cell comes from the Latin word ‘cella’ , meaning small room. Cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke as a descriptive term for the smallest living biological creature. The cell theory, developed by Schleiden and Schwann states that all cells arise from pre- existing cells by cell division , each cell acts as an elementary organism and all organisms are composed of one or more cells. On the basis of number of cells organisms can be classified as unicellular...

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Acct 505 Chapter 2

...jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm [Type the document title] [Type the document subtitle] [Pick the date] | Merriam Webster defines pigment as a substance that imparts black or white or a color to other materials; especially: a powdery substance that is mixed with a liquid in which it is relatively insoluble and used especially to impart color to coating materials (as paints) or to inks, plastics and rubber. (Merriam Webster 2012) But long before Merriam Webster and manufactured inks, plastics or rubber were invented, pigments were extremely valuable to humanity. From the beginning of time, man has used pigments to leave his mark on the world. Even though no one person, civilization or era can be credited with the discovery of pigments, pigments are definitely one of mans greatest innovations. The oldest known man made pigment factory dates back 100,000 years at the Blombos cave in South Africa. (CNRS, 2011) In 2008 the first pigment tool kit was discovered. The kit consisted of a large abalone shell which was covered in a thick layer of red ochre and contained fragments of pigment and quartz flake. The kit also contained a quartz slab and quartz flakes exposing pigment residue, and traces of use as grinders and crushers. An elongated bone found was assumed to have been used to mix and apply the pigment completed the set. Researchers have been able to replicate the recipe developed by this civilization and have determined the recipe consist of rocks......

Words: 1286 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Paper

...Plant Pigments & Absorption Lab SBI4U Metabolic Processes Lab 1 Kevin Salwach P.1 Rm. 208 De Cat November 5 2013 Lab 1 Pigments & Absorption Introduction Autotrophs, a group of organisms to which plants belong, obtain their own food and energy through ways other than hunting and ingestion. Almost all plants use photosynthesis to obtain their energy. Using the CO2 in the air that surrounds them, plants can create the energy needed to survive. The process is split into two parts; the “light” reactions occur by using light from the sun to activate electrons in the photosystem to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the main requirement for metabolism. After this has occurred, the “dark” reactions occur where ATP is reduced to coenzymes in several complex cycles, and with the help of CO2, glucose is produced. This is a simplified explanation of course, as the entire photosynthetic process contains many different reactions and cycles. Overall, this is a very effective way of obtaining energy, and allows a whole manner of organisms to thrive almost anywhere on Earth. Purpose The purpose of this lab is conduct three experiments that answer the questions: - Where to plants conduct photosynthesis? - What photosynthetic pigments do they use? - What wavelength of light works best for photosynthesis? Materials -Microscope -Elodea -Microscope slide / cover slip -Spinach leaves -Mortar / pestle -Distilled water -80% acetone -Sand -Filter......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Bbjbj

...providing the CAD to the company. Screen is used in sampling over baby rotary machine. This particular machine is used for preparing samples. It takes around one hour to prepare one sample along with preparing the paste, which is put inside the screen within the rod that is inserted into it Firstly sampling is done in 4mt. fabric. Then after fabric is goes under several processes then send to quality checking and different testing. If the sample made is correct or color code given by customer is matched then it passes to printing department and then printing is done in bulk quantity. PRINTING Printing can be defined as the localized application of dye or pigment in a thickened form to a substance, to generate a pattern or design. PRINTING INGREDIENTS: Dye / Pigments, Thickeners, Binders (for pigment printing), Surface Active agents or Emulsifiers,Reducing agent, Discharging agent / Resist salt, Softener, Antifoaming agents, Hydroscopic agents. PREPARATION OF PRINTING PASTE: 1) At first we take required amount of dyestuffs in a bath.  2) Then little amount of water is added into the bath for mixing these dyes. 3) Then required amount of urea is added into the dye bath.  4) After then required amount of thickener is added.  5) Then continuous stirring is done for few minutes for mixing all the ingredients. 6) After mixing finally required amount of alkali is added to the dye bath. MACHINE AVAILABLE FOR PRINTING DEPARTMENT ARE: NAME OF......

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chromotography

...Science as Inquiry: 5–8 • Properties and Changes of Properties: 5–8 Suggested Prior Knowledge: concepts of solutions, mixtures, separation of mixtures, solubility Purpose: To give students an understanding of paper chromatography and to allow students to separate a mixture of pigments extracted from leaves. Key Vocabulary: absorbent—material used in chromatography that will attract and absorb the compounds being separated chlorophyll—one of many pigments used by plants to absorb energy from sunlight in the process of photosynthesis chromatography—method used to separate a mixture of compounds based on differing solubilities of the compounds in the solvent being used eluent (solvent)—material used in chromatography which carries the compounds to be separated through the absorbent photosynthesis—process by which plants convert energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide gas into sugar solute—substance dissolved in a solution solution—homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solvent—substance dissolving the solute in a solution Objectives: 1. Students will be able to design and carry out an investigation to separate the pigments from a leaf by paper chromatography. 2. Students will identify a mixture by separating it into different compounds. Materials: - safety goggles - chromatography paper or filter paper cut into strips - chromatography solvent (commercially available: 90% petroleum......

Words: 1387 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Photosynthesis

...Pigment Color | Pigment Type | Distance Traveled by Pigment / a (cm) | Distance Traveled by Solvent / b (cm) | Rf Value ab | Yellow | Carotene | 6.2 | | | Yellow-brown | Xanythophyll | 4.0 | | | Blue-green | Chloropyhll a | 2.9 | | | Green | Chloropyhll b | 1.3 | | | RESULT: Table 1: The result of the experiment is to determine the colour of the pigment on filter paper by paperchromatography. Besides, the a and b which represents the distance travelled by pigment and distance travelled by solvent were measured and recorded in the table. The Rf value was then calculated by using the formula ab. A= distance moved by the pigment from its original position B= distance moved by solvent from the same position. *Round Rf values to 2 decimal places CONCLUSION: We used paper chromatography to separate the pigments found in spinach. Since plants use several different pigments to capture light energy for the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis, we expected that we would see several different bands of pigments on our chromatography paper. As the data in Table 1 indicates, we obtained four bands of different pigments from the spinach leaf: yellow- brown, light green, green, and yellow. The bands moved different distances up the chromatography paper, and were of different widths. According to the data, our hypothesis was correct. Different types of pigments are present in plants. The distances traveled by the pigments can indicate how......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ciba-Geigy: Newport Investment

...Ciba-Geigy Agenda • • • • • • • Pigments Division within Ciba-Geigy‘s Portfolio Pigment Division Pigment Market Overview Newport Plant $140 m Newport investment Conclusion (Reflection about Portfolio Planning) 2 22.02.2015 Pigments Division within Ciba-Geigy‘s Portfolio • Founded in the mid 18th century • 14 divisions and 33 strategic business units Ciba-Geigy 5 Categories Pillar Growth Core Development Niche Texitle Dyestuffs Chemicals Pigments Polymers Mettler-Toledo • High margin product • Much in common with Pillar  Key source of profit and cash for the group HighPerformance Pigments (HPP) Classical Pigments Dispersions Quinacridone DPP 22.02.2015 3 Pigment Division • Market for Pigments: Colouring agents e.g. printing ink and automobile paint (HPP) • Ciba worldwide leader in organic pigments and clear no 1 in HPPs • According to Ciba‘s portfolio planning guidlines responsible for SFr. 50M p.a. cash flow, 10% RONA 22.02.2015 4 Pigment Market Overview • • • • • • Total market 6 bn – 20% marketshare 2-3% annual growth rate Relative market share of 1.0 Very profitable products (esp. DPP) Competitors: BASF, HOECHST, DAINIPPON Principal markets: – North America => US approx. 40% of Ciba‘s total HPP Sales (50% DPP) – Japan Long-term markets: – Europe – North America – Far East • 22.02.2015 5 Newport Plant • Importance of Newport Plant for Pigment business • • • • Only......

Words: 593 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ip Pbixa

... as a Source of Pigment in Making a Milk Base Paint A Research Proposal Submitted to: Mrs. Irene F. Delios Submitted by: Axel Xamniel Llorente VI - Pearl ABSTRACT Paints make houses and buildings beautiful and colorful which makes them attractive. This study was to determine the effectiveness of Bixa Orellana Linn seeds (Achuete) as a source of pigment in making a milk based paint. The achuete was chosen for the study because it is rich in tannin and can easily be found or bought in the market and found in high land areas. It contains tannin that composes in a pigment that is used in making paint. Achuete seeds contain 70-80% of tannin. Some of the sub-problems were to judge the color of the finish product made out of pigment from achuete seeds so 30 female respondents will be asked to observe the finish product and judege and qualify its color. The researchers gathered all the materials and assured all were cleaned. Achuete seeds were pounded and the powdered form is now the pigment. For the binder, the researchers used skim milk to produce casein which acts as the binder. The pigment were soaked and the skimmed milk was boiled to form a precipitate. Results show that Bixa Orellana Linn seeds can be used as a pigment in making milk based paint. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of...

Words: 4248 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Tata Pigment Shits to Bangladesh

...A STEP TO BANGLADESH Tata Steel is well known for Steel Production but we also serve Paint Industry. Due to global rise in demand of Paint and coating by 5.2% in which Asia is the fastest growing continent among others, hence we planned to put our legs in Bangladesh considering several factors like low manpower cost, less regulations and governance, manpower productivity. We come up with Idea of manufacturing Cement Based Paint considering economy of Bangladesh and the choice of customers. Major idea behind this project was to cater the increasing demands of customer from East Asia by reducing the price of product. But unfortunately, after setting up plant with investment of Rs. 25 Crore, we are not able to sustain in Bangladesh for more than six months. Although the demand was high we fall short in our expectations and we finally decided to shift back to India and continue to export these products as per demand. Reason behind failure was very simple. Initial one month we transferred our employees from India but later on we decided to hire the locals and continue the business. From second month itself we found productivity of plants started declining and the reason behind that was inadequate knowledgeable workforce. During expansion we focused to look on the price margin and only opportunity cost associated with the project like cheap labour, ease availability of resources, etc. But we never checked for the standard of the workforce. We never went for......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Lyka

...Kingdom: Chromalveolata Phylum: Dinoflagellata Vegetative structure: flagellate protist Habitat: marine, fresh water Chloroplastid: chloroplast Cell wall: cell covering (theca) Domain pigment: photosynthetic pigment Food resource: photosynthesis Mode of reproduction: binary fission Chlorophyta Kingdom: Viridiplantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Vegetative structure: green algae Habitat: marine, fresh water Chloroplastid: chloroplast Cell wall: glucosamine Domain pigment: photosynthetic pigment Food resource: photosynthesis Mode of reproduction: both sexual and asexual Volvox Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Chlorophyceae Order: Volvocales Family: Volvocaceae Genus: Volvox Species: Volvox sp. Vegetative structure: single-celled green algae Habitat: freshwater Chloroplastid: chloroplast Cell wall: cellulose Domain pigment: photosynthetic pigment Food resource: photosynthesis Mode of reproduction: both sexual and asexual Chlorella Kingdom: Viridiplantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Trebouxiophyceae Order: Chlorellales Family: Chlorellaceae Genus: Chlorella Species: Chlorella sp. Vegetative structure: single-celled green algae Habitat: underwater Chloroplastid: chloroplast Cell wall: lipipilysaccharides Domain pigment: photosynthetic pigment Food resource: photosynthesis Mode of reproduction: asexual Cosmarium Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Zygnemophyceae Order: Desmidiales Family:......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Problem Solving Investigation in Analytical Chemistry

...Chem 001: Problem Solving Investigation in Analytical Chemistry PROBLEM Are red flowers really red? Two students were having an argument about pigments in red flower. One said that red petals can only contain the red color, whereas the other students thought that the red color could actually be a mixture of color. Plan an experiment to investigate if the pigment in red flowers consists of one or more colors. In your investigation think about how you can extract the pigment and check whether it consists of one or more color. PLAN FOR INVESTIGATION A. Purpose of the Investigation The purpose of this investigation is to know whether the pigment in red flowers consist one or more colors. The goal of this experiment is to analyze the pigments found in flowers using paper chromatography. B. Materials/ Apparatus The materials used in this experiment include filter paper, scissors, pencil, ruler, clean jar or drinking glass, large- mouth glass jar, water (at least 60 mL, distilled water is preferable, but tap water is also suitable), 70% isopropyl alcohol, measuring cup, piece of scratch paper, coin, timer or clock, and of course red flower petals. You will need at least 2 flower petals from at least 3 different plants. Tip: Larger petals work better than smaller petals. C. Steps/ Procedure Cut the chromatography filter paper into strips that are about 2 cm wide and as long as the large-mouth glass is tall (the strips should all be the same size). You......

Words: 2026 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Hello

...Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because there are various pigments in a plant and this is because of each absorbing light more or less in different parts of the spectrum. Plants have the tendency to absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum. Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because there are various pigments in a plant and this is because of each absorbing light more or less in different parts of the spectrum. Plants have the tendency to absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum. Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because there are various pigments in a plant and this is because of each absorbing light more or less in different parts of the spectrum. Plants have the tendency to absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum. Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because there are various pigments in a plant and this is because of each absorbing light more or less in different parts of the spectrum. Plants have the tendency to absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum. Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because there are various pigments in a plant and this is because of each absorbing light more or less in different parts of the spectrum. Plants have the tendency to absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum. Plant pigments and the absorption spectrum relate to photosynthesis because......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paint Factory Workings

...A paint is composed of pigments, solvents, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint color; solvents make it easier to apply; resins help it dry; and additives serve as everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paint include iron oxide and cadmium sulfide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens. Solvents are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are lin-seed, coconut, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins. Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics in paint, such as the thixotropic agents that give paint its smooth texture, driers, anti-settling agents, anti-skinning agents, defoamers, and a host of others that enable paint to cover well and last long. Manufacturing process The manufacturing process involves five critical......

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Leaf Extraction

...cells absorb light. Chlorophyll, the most commonly known pigment in plants, absorbs red and blue light, while reflecting the color green. Because of this, many plants are found to be the color green. There are, however, a wide variety of plants that range in color from red to violet. This is due to the different number of plant pigments that compose a plant. One technique that separates and identifies these different pigments is paper chromatography. In paper chromatography, solvent moves up the paper, carrying with it plant pigments. Because plant pigments are not equally soluble in the solvent, they are carried along at different rates, taking up different parts of the visible light system. An interesting question to explore is what other pigments are found in plants besides the obvious, chlorophyll. Using paper chromatography, pigmentation for plant leaves can be determined. Chromatography works because some pigments have a higher affinity for the solvent than others and move at different rates up the filter paper, causing several color bands to be displayed if there is more than one pigment present in the leaves. Based on the bands formed on the filter paper, the retention factor, or Rf , value can be thereby calculated for each pigment. This is done by dividing the distance the pigment traveled by the distance the solvent traveled. In essence paper chromatography will be used to determine what other pigments are found in plant......

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5