Free Essay

Physics - Astronomy Timeline

In: Science

Submitted By andrewpawiak
Words 327
Pages 2
Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)
Developed a theory that the universe was ‘geocentric’. With the Earth being the centre of the universe, with everything else orbiting it. Aristotle’s basic ideas survived for nearly 2000 years, this stood for so long due to the lack of technological advancements at such an early stage of the world’s existence.

Aristarchus (310-230 BC)
First astronomer to suggest that the Sun was the centre of the Universe, this known as the geocentric model. However his theory did not gain much support as there was insufficient detail to explain the observations. Thus, Aristotle’s model which allowed accurate predictions stayed in favour.
(Heliocentric – Measured or considered in relation to the centre of the sun.
Apollonius (265-190 BC)
Supported the geocentric model of the universe, he developed the concept of epicycles (diagram below) to account for the retrograde motion (backwards orbit) of the planets viewed from Earth. The planets followed their own circular paths as they moved around the Earth in his model.
Hipparchus (190-120 BC)
He suggested that the Sun is sometimes further away from the Earth at different times of the year, he acknowledged and put forward that the Earth was on a slight lean (on an axis) to account for this. Also established the system of stellar magnitudes (star brightness system).
BCE (0)
Ptolemy (100-170 AD)
The last of the ancient Greek Philosophers, modified Aristotles model. Based on concentric circles, due to it’s success and accuracy of predicting objects in their orbit around the Earth it was adopted by the Church of Rome (most power, authoritative with scientific discoveries) and made the generic model of the universe (lasted 1500 years).

Pythagoras (5700495 BC)
He was sure that the Earth and each of the other bodies in the Universe, was a sphere and that they all revolved about one central body. Pythagoras did not take the Sun as a central position, but he imagined an area of central fire.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...ASTRonomy 103 Examination #1 1. The meridian is an imaginary line passing through the A east and west points on the horizon B summer and winter solstices C vernal and autumnal equinoxes D zenith and North Celestial Pole E latitude of your geographic location 2. Compared to its period of revolution, the Moon's period of rotation is A longer B shorter C the same length D sometimes longer, sometimes shorter E the Moon does not rotate 3. The period of a planet revolving around the Sun can be found if we know its A average distance from the Sun B density C mass D period of rotation E more than one of the above are necessary 4. At what latitude on Earth is the North Celestial Pole on the horizon? A the Arctic Circle B the equator C the North Pole D the South Pole E there are many latitudes where this occurs 5. Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus helped convince him that A the Moon goes around the Earth B the Sun goes around the Earth C Venus goes around the Earth D Venus goes around the Sun E Ptolemy's model of the solar system was correct 6. The angular distance of an object in the sky, above the observer's horizon is called its A azimuth B altitude C declination D latitude E right ascension 7. The ecliptic is A the line passing from north to south directly overhead B the orbit of the Moon C the path of a star in the sky D the path of the Earth's north pole in the sky E the path of the Sun in the sky 8. Which of the......

Words: 2126 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Evolution of Astronomy

...experienced on his own[...] (Astronomy Today, Chap. 16, p 383) What we know today about the universe is a collective work of many generation of dedicated man and woman who continue to add new insight of astronomy great spectrum of universe. Some scholars may add a little, some may add a lot, yet some may change our understanding of a matter in question. Such man were Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton. Those man are credited with revolutionizing the study of astronomy. The heliocentric theory formulated by Copernicus caused strong turmoil within astronomy, physics and cosmology. Many man of science considered it as contrary to Aristotle’s physics and the Bible. However, some astronomers were engaged in disputes concerning the importance of the discovery of this new system. The interest in astronomical observations caused by the presentation of Copernicus’s theory resulted in astronomical phenomena which became regarded as inconsistent with the scientific paradigm of perfection of celestial bodies, which had existed since ancient times. This debate would cause man of science to look toward the heavens. This in turn, would create more empirical data, such as one gathered by Brahe which had a crucial influence on Kepler, who in his four works formulated a new heliocentric theory. He based it on Copernicus’s basic hypotheses , on Brahe’s observations, and on the magnetic ideas of Gilbert. Due to scientific debate concerning Copernicus theory a modern physics was......

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Physics

...mass. It is precisely this power — to overturn wrong ideas, even if though they have been believed true for centuries, and to suggest a more complete understanding — that makes experimentation so central to all of the sciences. This experimental focus was not the last development in the physics that we’ll be looking at, though it did help pave the way for it. This next and final (for our purposes) leap was due to Newton — using mathematics to describe physics. After that, classical mechanics was essentially complete, with “only” quite a few decades of improvements and polishing before the introduction of relativity and quantum mechanics. It is physics at this level, the state of the art of classical mechanics circa the mid 19th century, that we’ll be studying in this course. . Physics Timeline Dates | Characters | Theories and discoveries | 500 – 1 BC | Archimedes, Aristotle | Heliocentric theory, geometry | 1 – 1300 AD | Al-hazen, Ptolemy in Egypt | Optics, geocentric theory | 1301 – 1499 | Leonardo de Vinci, Nicolas Cusanus | Earth is in motion,Occam’s Razor | 1500 – 1599 | Nicolaus Copernicus,Tycho Brahe | Heliocentric theory revived, astronomy | 1600 – 1650 | Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler | Telescope,laws of planetary motion | 1651 – 1699 | Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle | Newtons Laws, optics, Gas Laws | 1700 – 1750 | Daniel Bernoulli, Edmund Halley | Thermodynamics, corpuscular theory | 1751 – 1799 | Coulomb...

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Astronomy

...Astronomy is a natural science that is the study of celestial objects (such as moons, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies), thephysics, chemistry, mathematics, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic background radiation. A related but distinct subject, cosmology, is concerned with studying the universe as a whole.[1]Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Prehistoric cultures left behind astronomical artifacts such as the Egyptian monuments andNubian monuments, and early civilizations such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, Iranians and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.[2]During the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two......

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Astronomy

...Astronomy is a natural science that is the study of celestial objects (such as moons, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic background radiation. A related but distinct subject, cosmology, is concerned with studying the universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Prehistoric cultures have left astronomical artifacts such as the Egyptian monuments and Nubian monuments, and early civilizations such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, Iranians and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. During the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Astronomy

...we are not alone is one that drives scientists to reach for methods to see other planets. Probes have been sent from Earth in search of microbes elsewhere. So far, alien life has not been discovered but transmissions from space are still trying to be detected. Mathematically speaking the odds are not in our favor to discover intelligent life. We could find a planet similar to Earth with the ability to support life due to the atmosphere and distance from its sun and type of sun. This search is taking place and probably will continue as space is still very unknown to us. References: Oglethorpe EDU (2013) Extraterrestrial Life in Our Solar System. Retrieved from website: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~m_rulison/Astronomy/Group/Summer%2000/Extrate rr/extrat~1.htm Fox News (2014) Life Will Be Discovered on Other Planets by 2040. Retrieved from website: http://www.foxnews.com/science/2014/02/10/humanity-will-detect-aliens-by-2040- researcher-says/ Science20.com (2008) The Probability of Life on Other Earth Like Planets. Retrieved from website: http://www.science20.com/news_releases/the_mathematical_probability_of_life_on_othe r_earth_like_planets...

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Physics

...Assignment in Physics... 1. Definition of Science, Major branches of science 2. Scientific Method 3. Definition of Physics and its major branches 4. Notable Physicist and their contribution 5. Importance of Physics in our everyday life and in our society. (Write the references) Short bond paper, written or computerized (font: Times New Roman/font size: 12) Reading assign. Measurement Diff. system of measurement fundamentals and derive quantities scientific notation rules in significant figures conversion of units http://www.hep.man.ac.uk/babarph/babarphysics/physicists.html ) I.1 Science The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. I.2 The Branches of Science The Physical Sciences * Physics: The study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Physicists study such subjects as gravity, light, and time. Albert Einstein, a famous physicist, developed the Theory of Relativity. * Chemistry: The science that deals with the composition, properties, reactions, and the structure of matter. The chemist Louis Pasteur, for example, discovered pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids such as milk and orange juice to kill harmful germs. * Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere. The Earth Sciences * Geology: The science of the origin, history, and structure...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Astronomy

...star will collapse to a high enough density that the escape velocity from it is greater than the speed of light, so no radiation can escape from it, giving it the name black hole. The density inside these black holes is considered to be infinite. Because of the tendency of massive black holes to never lose mass but rather absorb everything, one can say the true end phase of a star’s life has occurred when it is pulled into a black hole. Resources: Books: Meadows, A .J. Stellar Evolution. London: Pergamon Press, 1967. Shklovskii, Iosif S. Stars: Their Birth, Life, and Death. Moscow: Central Press for Literature in Physics and Mathematics, 1975. Livio, Mario. Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, 2000. Websites: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomy_and_astrophysics Encyclopedia of Astronomy Terms http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/how_l1/spectral_what.html NASA’s Introduction to Spectral Analysis http://zebu.uoregon.edu/textbook/se.html Hypertext Book on Stellar Evolution @ The University of Oregon http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/starlog/staspe.html#c1 Star Spectral Classifications @ Georgia State University http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/PR/96/22/pulsars.html How Pulsars Are Formed @ The Space Telescope Science Institute...

Words: 2358 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Astronomy

...Stephanie Sanchez Instructor: Vincent Tobin Astronomy 100 November 29, 2014 My Astronomy Interview Astronomy is the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole. The topics that I learned in my astronomy class include the sun and other stars, solar system, stellar evolution, galaxies, and the universe itself. Most of the topics were very interesting to me, because I learned a lot about the universe I live in. Although, I now have some knowledge about the universe, there are a lot of people who know a little to nothing about the universe. The three people I decided to interview to report their knowledge and reaction about the universe were my brother who’s 18, my mom, and my boyfriend. I decided to ask them what they knew about Saturn, which are the four terrestrial planets? How did our galaxy form? And what is a black hole? To begin, I interviewed my brother first. He has never been a fan of astronomy, so I didn’t expect him to know anything. When I asked him what he knew about Saturn he said “Oh that’s the planet with the rings” that’s pretty much all he knew about it. When I told him that the rings were not solid, but that they were made up of chunks of ice and rock, he was very surprised. He had no idea what the terrestrial planets were. When I asked him how did our galaxy form? He seemed a little confused and said, “I don’t know, the Big Bang?” he was very confused. So I explained to him how Halo......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Astronomy

...considers naming a feature on another world an extremely important process and they only assign something a name if it is considered sufficiently scientifically interesting to require one. After all, the IAU represents dedicated researchers and scientists who actually rely on these regulations to use these names in papers, meetings, and to discuss astronomical and geological processes with one another. So although this might explain why they get so enraged when someone else seems to take it into their own hands to name geological features in the astronomical world, I believe I have done a good job in following their regulations set forth and naming ten craters on Mercury. Bibliography Schneider, Stephen E., and Thomas Arny. Pathways to Astronomy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012. Print. Buchholz, Elke Linda. Art: A World History. New York: Abrams, 2007. Print....

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...the Sun is called the ecliptic, relative to the stars on the celestial sphere over the course of a year. This path is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees in accordance with the celestial equator. The zodiac signs are the twelve constellations that lie along the ecliptic on the celestial sphereThe tilt in the Earth's axis causes the variations in the seasons. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon enters the Earth’s shadow and a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun. Summary 4: The Birth of Astronomy The Universe was first scientifically identified by Aristotle. He saw the cosmos as a series of spheres with Earth in the centre. Later on Ptolemy, the last Greek philosophers, also adapted Aristotle’s idea. Ptolemy created Geocentric models of the Universe, such as the Ptolemaic model have the Sun, planets and Moon orbiting Earth. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was one amongst the most important figures in Renaissance astronomy. Nicolaus Copernicus in his posthumous publication revealed that the Sun, was at the centre of the Solar System and not the Earth. The heliocentric model explains retrograde motion and observed brightness variations of the planets. Galileo Galilei, the first experimental scientist. Galileo made observations of the Sun, planets and Moon through his telescope. He gave experimental evidence against the heliocentric theory and supporting Copernicus’s heliocentric model. Kepler gave the three laws of planetary motion. His......

Words: 1073 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...Astronomy 2B03: Lecture 2: What’s Out There? * Objects in the universe come in a hierarchy of scales and sizes: * Planets * Stars * Galaxies * The universe as a whole * These scales are so different from one step to the next that they are incredibly hard to comprehend all at once – no “everyday” experience to refer them to * If the Earth were a basketball how big would the moon be? Tennis ball * How many Earths would fit into the Sun? ~ 1 million * How many Jupiter’s would fit inside the Sun? 900 * How many Moons would fit inside the Earth? 50 * If we say the distance from here to Toronto (71 km) represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far are we from Pluto? From Hamilton to Mexico, or from Hamilton to Calgary * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far is the Earth from the Moon? From here to the edge of campus (Sterling and Forsyth) * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how big is the Earth? 3 meters * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far is the Sun from the next nearest Star? 1/10th the distance from the Sun to Earth Lecture 3: The Earth: * Our starting point and only home * Both land and water * The only planet to have liquid water at its surface * Atmosphere:......

Words: 18912 - Pages: 76

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...Astronomy SPACE EXPLORATION: FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE Ever since the beginning of time, mankind has been fascinated with wonders of space. Before the mid-1900s, all mankind could do was gaze at the stars from Earth and wonder what it would be like to go into space. Man would look through telescopes and make theories on how the universe worked. During the mid-1900s, mankind finally was able to send a man into space and explore the wonders of space first hand. So why do humans explore space? Well, it is our fascination with the unknown. At first, all mankind did was look up and wonder how things became what they are now. We started to think that all celestial bodies revolved around the Earth, and the Earth was the center of the entire universe. Galileo Galelie later disproved this theory. Even with growing knowledge in the field, it was not until 1957 when the first Earth orbiter, the Soviet’s Sputnik 1, was sent into space and placed in orbit at an altitude of 1,370 miles and weighed ! 184 pounds. Later in that year, the Soviets sent Sputnik 2 into space with a dog named Laika. Laika was the first animal to venture into space. Then in 1985, the United States successfully sent their very own satellite into space. In 1960, the Soviets launched to dogs into space and successfully returned them to Earth. From this point started the space race. The space race was a challenge between the USSR and the United States to see who could land a man on the moon first. In 1961,......

Words: 1819 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...ASTRONOMY | The earth solar system was form by the disturbed, or maybe by an explosion of close by star called the supernova. The explosion or the disturbed of stars causes wave in space which caused the squeezing of gas and dust clouds. The squeezing of the clouds stared to collapse, as gravity act force dust and gas clouds together which forms the solar nebula. Soon the dust and gas become hotter and dense in the middle; later a disc of gas and dust was surrounding the explosion in the middle. As the disc became thinner, dust particles stared sticking together form clumps. Most clumps was big, other were small. Those began forming planets and moons. Near the middle also were Earth form, some particles could stand that heat. Cold particles move to the outer area of the disc, where Jupiter formed. As particles still began to form, the middle had got very hot that it became a star (sun). The Earth’s orbit is not a complete circle. The Earth orbit is elliptical, that’s causing the distance from Earth to the sun changes throughout the year. When the Earth closet to the sun on its orbit it’s about 91,445,000 miles away. But when Earth is far from the sun on its orbit it’s about 95,555,000 miles away. But the average distance from the sun to the Earth is about 92,955,807 miles away. Since the Earth’s orbit is not circle but it’s elliptical it affects us on how much of solar energy we will be getting. The planet we live on is called Earth; Earth is the third planet from...

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Astronomy

...Ancient Astronomy • The regularity of the motions of stars and constellations across the heavens made them useful to ancient societies for such things as timekeeping and navigation, and led to the need for a practical means of tracking their movements • Many ancient cultures built large structures to track the movement of objects in the heavens, which functioned as primitive calendars • The best known of these ancient structures is Stonehenge, a stone circle built in England during the Stone Age, which is believed to have allowed its builders to keep track of dates through observation of celestial events • The alignment of the stones corresponds to events such as the rising of the Sun at the summer solstice, and the rising and setting of the Sun and Moon at other times of the year • Many other cultures built monuments with similar alignments and purposes, such as the Big Horn Medicine Wheel in Wyoming and the Caracol temple in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula, though the association of these structures with astronomy is more controversial • A more certain candidate for a North American calendar is the Sun Dagger in New Mexico, a rock formation structured such that a sliver of light passes through a carved stone spiral at noon on the summer solstice • There are several sites similar to the Sun Dagger found throughout the American southwest • The ancient Chinese also kept detailed records of astronomical events for astrological purposes; modern astronomers still refer to......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2