Premium Essay

Perinatal and Maternal Complications in Pregnant Due to Hypertension

In: Social Issues

Submitted By focusme
Words 1157
Pages 5
Chapter 1 Introduction
Disorders related to hypertension are one of the most common medical complications during the pregnancy. It is also an important cause of maternal and preinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide (Baha, 1996). The term hypertension in pregnancy describes a broad spectrum of medical conditions, for which the pressure in the blood vessels varies widely.
According to studies conducted by WHO (2004), hypertension causes complications in 5 to 7% pregnancies in the United Kingdom. The risks associated with hypertension are high for pregnant women and they are higher risk for complications such as organ failure, cerebrovascular accident, abruptio placentae and disseminated intravascular coagulation (Mark, 1998). Also hypertension creates complications for the featus and it is at the risk or intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and intrauterine death. Hypertension is also a major cause of maternal, fetal and neo natal morbidity and mortality, not only in developing but in developed countries also,(Pesola (2001).
The rate of eclampsia in the UK have fallen recently, hypertension during the pregnancy remains one of the main causes of maternal death. According to a study conducted by NICE one third of maternal morbidity was caused as a result of hypertensive conditions.
Hypertensive disorders also carry a risk for the baby. In the most recent UK perinatal mortality report, 1 in 20 (5%) stillbirths in infants without congenital abnormality occurred in women with pre-eclampsia. The contribution of pre- eclampsia to the overall preterm birth rate is substantial; 1 in 250 (0.4%) women in their first pregnancy will give birth before 34 weeks as a consequence of pre-eclampsia and 8–10% of all preterm births result from hypertensive disorders.
Hypertensive disorders caused during pregnancy are classified into four categories according to the…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Hypertension Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. Hypertension is the consistent elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure. It is also the most common primary diagnosis in the United States (Brashers, 2010). It is one of the most common worldwide diseases afflicting humans. Because of the associated morbidity and mortality and the cost to society, hypertension is an important public health challenge. Over the past several decades, extensive research, widespread patient education, and a concerted effort on the part of health care professionals have led to decreased mortality and morbidity rates from the multiple organ damage arising from years of untreated hypertension. I. Prevalence of disease (in US) and risk factors Hypertension is a major U.S. health problem affecting some 50 million individuals. Approximately 65% of Americans older than age 60 have hypertension. Of those diagnosed with hypertension, over 30% do not have their hypertension adequately treated and controlled. Ninety to ninety-five percent of hypertension is idiopathic and called primary hypertension. Five to ten percent of hypertension is the result of an identifiable etiologic cause and is called secondary hypertension. According to Center of Disease Control (CDC) the prevalence of hypertension, 45.3% had been......

Words: 4889 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...Hypertension Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it flows through them. Description As blood flows through arteries it pushes against the inside of the artery walls. The more pressure the blood exerts on the artery walls, the higher the blood pressure will be. The size of small arteries also affects the blood pressure. When the muscular walls of arteries are relaxed, or dilated, the pressure of the blood flowing through them is lower than when the artery walls narrow, or constrict. Blood pressure is highest when the heart beats to pump blood out into the arteries. Between beats, when the heart relaxes to refill with blood, the pressure drops to its lowest point. The blood pressure peak, when the heart pumps, is called systolic pressure. The blood pressure trough, when the heart is filling, is called diastolic pressure. When blood pressure is measured, the systolic pressure is stated first and the diastolic pressure second. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). For example, if a person's systolic pressure is 120 and diastolic pressure is 80, it is written as 120/80 mm Hg. The American Heart Association considers systolic blood pressure less than 140 and diastolic blood pressure less than 90 normal for adults. Hypertension is a significant public health problem. Since it has no symptoms, many people are unaware that they have hypertension. In the United......

Words: 546 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiative Newsletter

...Saving Women, Saving Babies A Joint GOB-UN Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiative Newsletter: Issue No. 03 August 2012 community. I am glad to learn that this year no mother died while giving birth in this village.” The clinic is one of 145 community clinics established in Moulvibazar district to provide proper healthcare to poor rural people, especially expecting mothers and children in the district. Ban visited expectant women at the clinic and planted a tree on its premises. Then he went to a nearby house where a group of mothers apprised the UNSG of the services that they are getting through the community clinics regarding safe delivery and safe motherhood. Joint Government of Bangladesh – United Nations (GOB-UN) Maternal & Neonatal Health Initiative attracts UN Secretary General (UNSG) UN Secretary General Mr. Ban Ki Moon praised government’s steps as he visited a village in Moulvibazar, where he comments that rural healthcare in Bangladesh is on the right track to meet the MDG targets of reducing mortality and morbidity of women and children. The UN chief flew to the village from Dhaka on a helicopter along with UNFPA Executive Director, Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin, Senior Secretary of Government of the Bangladesh Mr. Humayun Kabir, UNFPA Country Representative, Mr. Arthur Erken, and other high government officials, and dignitaries. He along with his wife came to Mobarakpur community clinic, while the Chief Whip of the National Parliament Mr. Abdus Shaheed M.P.......

Words: 4956 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Risk Perception of Gestational Diabetes Among Pregnant Women

...During pregnancy usually at around 28 weeks or later many women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes (Pepe, 2004). It is a serious condition with health implications for mother and baby. Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy (Sugaya, 2005). Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood glucose (sugar) levels during pregnancy are said to have gestational diabetes. Based on recently announced diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes, it is estimated that gestational diabetes affects 18% of pregnancies (National Diabetes Data Group, 2009). According to WHO (2011), GDM affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied, and is growing in prevalence. The World Health Organization criteria as a guide to the severity of hyperglycemia, mentioned that there is a significant increases in the incidences of the more severe grades of GDM in parturient born in the Mediterranean region, Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Egypt, and Arabic countries. Babies born to mothers with GDM are at increased risk of problems typically such as being large for gestational age, low blood sugar, and jaundice (Khan, 2004). Women with GDM are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus after pregnancy (Gabbe, 2010). Up to one-third of affected women have diabetes or impaired glucose metabolism at their......

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Complication of Hypertension

...Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevatedHypertension is a common disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority (90%) of patients have ‘primary’ or ‘essential’ hypertension where no identifiable underlying cause is found. The remaining minority (up to 10%) have ‘secondary’ hypertension where a cause is identified. Complete assessment of the hypertensive patient must include an assessment of overall cardiovascular risk and the identification of potential secondary causes of hypertension. Any decision to treat hypertension should be based on repeated blood pressure readings or the 24 h ambulatory BP measurements monitor. Treatment of hypertension is based on large international trials and extensive meta-analyses, which have now been condensed into established published guidelines. NICE/BHS proposes the ACD rule that recommends drug classes that can be used to control blood pressure depending on the age and race of the patient.Most patients will require two or more drugs and will need to be followed up for side effects and nonadherence. It is important to be vigilant for secondary causes of resistant hypertension. Epidemiology The prevalence of hypertension in the general population is about 20e30% and more frequent with increasing age and in certain ethnic groups. Isolated diastolic or systo-diastolic hypertension is......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Maternal and Child Health

...“the upstream doctors”, effective care for most illness requires understanding the social conditions of one’s patients, and this is true because patients are faced with various limitations that deter them from accessing good medical services. Fear, finance, cultural belief, distance to Health Centre or Hospitals, lack of awareness about treatment availability and benefits, and poor health outcome after treatment, are some of the major contributory factors that deter patients from accessing good medical services, thus, causing a decline in health status globally. Poverty is also a contributory factor especially in developing countries. This can be explained in patient’s inability to purchase drugs or hesitancy to seek proper medical attention due to lack of funds. These barriers can be tackled using the holistic response that includes both social and cultural approach. The means to achieve success is to involve local health care professionals, experienced health workers and local health workers. This is also essential for sustainability. In addition, for any change to occur there must be surveillance to ensure that patients adhere to their medications or treatment plan. However, limited resources can also be contributory factor for a poor outcome. Thus, a process evaluation of health services needs to be assessed in order for global health programs to be effective. Module 1: Unique Barriers to Health Care for Women Women in developing countries are not recognized as equal to......

Words: 5758 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Perinatal and Prenatal Environmental Influences

... Perinatal and Prenatal Environmental Influences Jeremy Donna Glover, CHFD 308 July 18th 2011 Most child development causation research has focused on genetic inheritance, and environmental contexts such as social cultural and community influences as dominant factors in physical and cognitive development. I believe that prenatal environmental influences have been overlooked in much research to date. By reviewing the journal “Perinatal exposure in later psychological development and behavioral disabilities” I will emphasis the importance of healthy living to later cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. During the late 1950’s and early 1960’s the devastating thalidomide tragedy brought awareness to the public the causation between birth defects and use of chemical’s during pregnancy. An estimated 10,000 birth defects and thousands of fetal deaths worldwide as a result from failed animal testing. Women were prescribed the sedative thalidomide to reduce morning sickness. As these children grew older, many scored below average in intelligence by possible direct damage to the central nervous system (Berk, L. 2008). Damage to the central nervous system could have correlated with a negative bi-directional influence between child and parent. Subsequently, this event influenced researchers to develop a new branch of study into the causation of birth defects called Teratology. At the time researchers speculated......

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

... Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, Preeclampsia, & Eclampsia Tessa K. Larsen Mercy College of Health Sciences Abstract Pregnancy induced hypertension or Gestational hypertension, is a condition of high blood pressure unique to human pregnancy. Hypertension during pregnancy affects about 5-10% of all pregnant women worldwide (Baker, 2004, P. 16). Hypertension can prevent the placenta from getting enough blood. If the placenta does not receive enough blood, the baby gets insufficient amounts of oxygen and nutrients. This can result in low birth weight and other severe complications (Simkin, Walley, Keppler, 2008, P. 75). Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) can lead to a serious condition called  preeclampsia or also known as toxemia (Baker, 2004, P.11). Women at most risk can be characterized by extremes of maternal age which are under the age of eighteen and over the age of thirty five, first-time mother’s, obesity, have a family history of this condition, or are carrying multiples (“Risk Factors”, 1995, P. 645). Preeclampsia happens between 20 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks postpartum (Baker, 2004, p.60). In the worst circumstances preeclampsia if left untreated can lead to eclampsia, a fatal condition (Simkin et al, 2008, P. 77). Most women still can deliver a healthy baby if preeclampsia is detected early and treated with regular prenatal care. If pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia is severe, much more serious affects can occur. Such as a......

Words: 1805 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Maternal Changes

...MATERNAL PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES A. Changes in Blood Volume Parturients undergo remarkable changes during pregnancy, labor, and the immediate postpartum period that can directly affect anesthetic techniques; hence a broad knowledge of these changes is essential for proper management of these women. Maternal blood volume increases during pregnancy, and this involves an increase in plasma volume as well as in red cell and white cell volumes. The plasma volume increases by 40% to 50%, whereas the red cell volume goes up by only 15% to 20%, which causes a situation that is described as “physiological anemia of pregnancy” (normal hemoglobin, 12 g/dL; hematocrit, 35). Because of this apparent hemodilution, blood viscosity decreases by approximately 20%. The exact mechanism of this increase in plasma volume is unknown. However, several hormones such as reninangiotensin-aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, estrogen, and progesterone may be involved in this interesting phenomenon. Two current hypothesis attribute the increase to (1) an underfill state caused by initial vasodilation, which stimulates hormones such as renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone or (2) an overfill state characterized by an early increase in sodium retention (due to an increase in mineralcorticoids) that retains fluid, causing an increase in blood volume. Levels of clotting factors I, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XII, and the fibrinogen count are elevated during pregnancy as well. At present the majority of......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Impacts of Using Day Care Facility on Children Due to Maternal Employment

...Impacts of using day care facility on children due to maternal employment Methods of Business Research Submitted by Sumbal Syed MBA 14 14-1220 Research Title: Impacts of using day care facility on children due to maternal employment. Introduction In the past few years there has been an increase in trend for women to be pursuing a career, and hence, working mothers are bound to use daycare facilities to assist them in managing their children along with other responsibilities. These children therefore get a divided share of family/home atmosphere as being part of bringing up. As part of this research project, I shall study the impact of day care facility on the children of working mothers. Keywords: Maternal employment, Working mothers, impacts of external child care, daycare facility, child care, career oriented mothers, physiological health factors, personality development. Problem statement Our problem statement shall primarily be “The effect of using day care facility on child care due to maternal employment.” In simpler words, we shall study the impact of the use of day care facilities by working mothers and its effects upon the upbringing of children. Objectives There is a need to identify if this increasing trend is beneficial for the children in the long run or not. Thus, basic objective of the research shall be to conduct a study and conclude the following: 1. Identify their mental and physiological health factors affecting the......

Words: 7775 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Awareness on Maternal Health

...these deaths could have been avoided in a properly functioning health care delivery system. Among the leading direct causes of maternal deaths in the country are: post partum hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, abortion related complications and obstructed labor. Beyond the glaring data of mortality lies a huge toll of ill health and disability due to pregnancy related complications and infant and child deaths and deepening poverty in families where a mother has died. It is estimated that for every maternal death there is at least twenty to thirty other women who suffer from serious complications, some of which are life long. Maternal health conditions are the leading causes of burden of disease among women. ( Tulali; Towards achieving MDG’s 4 and 5, 2010) Priority areas of maternal and child health interventions include antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn health services, infant and young child feeding which includes breastfeeding, milk code implementation, mother and baby friendly hospital initiatives and public health initiatives. Also a priority on maternal and child health program are the expanded program on immunization, micronutrient supplementation, food fortification, new born screening, integrated management of childhood illness, safe motherhood or maternal care. MCH assistance is aimed at accelerating the reduction in maternal and child deaths and promoting overall well being, especially among women and children. ( and......

Words: 2159 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Icts for Improving the Maternal Health

...Impact of ICTs on MDGs: Improve the Maternal Health Workgroup C|IE MiM – S2 Technology & Innovation Management Dr. Israr Qureshi Contents Introduction: 3 Maternal Health and ICT Usage in India 5 Maternal Health Initiatives with Mobile Components 5 Commonalities and Improvements of Current ICT Solutions 6 How to Leverage ICTs in Accomplishing the MDG 9 Proposed Feasible ICT-Based Solution 10 Conclusion 15 References 18 Introduction: Since the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of improving maternal health has unfortunately not made the progress it set out to (The United Nations, 2015, a). Many information & communications technology (ICT) improvements towards this initiative have been made since 2000, however there is still a large amount of maternal mortality before, during, and after pregnancy around the world. The maternal health MDG was divided into 2 targets. The first target was to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015, however only 43% has been achieved so far (The United Nations, 2015:40-43). This maternal mortality statistic also reflects the eight million babies that die every year between the prenatal stage and the first week of life. Moreover, there is a large yearly amount of children left motherless that are statistically more prone to die during the first years after their mother has died (, 2015). The second target was to reach universal......

Words: 4614 - Pages: 19

Free Essay


...neurodevelopmental delays (3,5). Recent evidence suggests that preterm birth and LBW are also linked to adverse health in adulthood (6), including insulin resistance (7), hypertension (8) and coronary heart disease (9). The potentially serious health consequences of these birth outcomes underscore the public health importance of preventing LBW and preterm birth by identifying and correcting modifiable risk factors. ● head circumference Maternal nutritional status is important to maternal and fetal well-being. BMI, weight (kg)/height squared (m2), is influenced by ethnicity and genetics but may also serve as a measure of adiposity and energy balance (10 –12). Although much recent research in developed countries has focused on the association between high maternal BMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes (13), in many developing countries, maternal underweight remains more common than overweight and therefore represents a more important risk factor for poor birth outcomes. Several studies have reported an association between low maternal prepregnancy BMI and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (11), LBW (12) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) (13). Other evidence indicates that the association between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and birth outcomes is influenced by maternal prepregnancy BMI (11,13–15). Available Chinese data also suggest that the risk of delivering a LBW (15,16) or SGA infant (17) is higher among......

Words: 6181 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Maternal Health

...Maternal mortality proves to be one of the greatest divisions between the developing and developed countries. A shocking 99% of all the maternal deaths are estimated to occur in the developing world (UNFPA 2012).It is estimated that 47% of global maternal mortalities occur in Africa with highest levels in sub-Saharan countries.85% are direct results of complications arising during pregnancy and delivery. In these countries home deliveries are over 60% taking place largely in rural areas with unskilled attendants. About 35% of women in developing countries receive no antenatal care during pregnancy; almost 50% give birth without skilled attendants and 70% receive no postpartum care. Kenya ranks among the top of the list in Sub-Saharan countries with the huge regional disparities and rates as high1, 300 per 100,000 in some areas (KDHS, 2013). What cannot be seen through mere statistics and the devastating effects on the Kenyan communities is that the death of a parent can lead to the breakdown of family units and the crucial loss of income for the already impoverished households. Of all the deliveries only 53% occur in health facilities, the rest are home deliveries without skilled attendants. Home delivery refers to the childbirth taking place outside health a facility, either at home or on the way to the health facility, without attendance of a skilled health service provider. Various factors such as social-economic conditions, delays in providing adequate obstetric care and......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ethics Maternal Right

...worst times, trepidation and despair. The clear, stirring image of a life in utero has changed the way health professionals comprehend the prenatal world. Besides making the fetus visible to practitioners, technology has heightened the range of diagnostic possibilities of fetal anomalies. The end result is the complex field of fetal intervention and surgery, and along with it, the corresponding complicated moral and ethical dilemmas. Consider the case of Maria (real name withheld), who, at 30 years old, became pregnant for the first time and underwent a routine prenatal ultrasound. The initial ultrasound at 14 weeks showed Maria was carrying twins, baby A and baby B. At 26 weeks gestation, baby A seemed normal, however, baby B showed evidence of congenital hydronephrosis secondary to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Harrison and Adzick (1991) described possible devastating and fatal consequences for the developing fetus with a severe bilateral obstruction due to renal failure from hydronephrosis, as well as pulmonary failure related to lung hypoplasia. Because Baby B has a unilateral obstruction, the physicians in the case recommended surgical treatment after delivery. Against her physicians’ recommendations, Maria requests fetal surgery be done immediately, after learning about fetal surgery on the internet. Brief history of fetal surgery Fetal surgery began in the United States over three decades ago after extensive animal experiments and innovative......

Words: 2225 - Pages: 9